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Original Title: Theory of Stress and Strain

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CHAPTER 2

TheoriesofStressandStrain

EGM 5653

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-1

EGM 5653

Objectives

Definition of stress/strain as tensor

Stress/strain on arbitrary planes

Principal quantities, Mohrs circle in 2-D and 3-D

Small displacement theories

Strain rosettes

Sections

2.1,2.2 Stress Definition

2.3 Stress tranformation, 2.4 Principal quanities

2.5 Equilibrium equation, 2.6 strain in any direction

2.7 strain transformation, 2.8 strain theory

2.9 Strain measurment

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-2

EGM 5653

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Lt

A 0

F

t

A

Lt

A 0

FN

tN

A

Lt

A 0

FS

tS

A

Chapter 2-3

P

A

EGM 5653

xx

T xy

xz

xy xz

yy yz

yz zz

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Bx , By , Bz

Chapter 2-4

P

A

EGM 5653

xx

T xy

xz

xy xz

yy yz

yz zz

11 12 13

T 12 22 23

23 23 33

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

xx

T xy

xz

xy xz

yy yz

yz zz

Diagonal Normal

Off-diagonal-Shear

Eng. Shear= 2*Tensor Shear

Chapter 2-5

P

A

EGM 5653

xx

T xy

xz

xy xz

yy yz

yz zz

li mj nk

N x i NY j N Z k

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-6

EGM 5653

e2

X e1 , e2 , e3 and X e1, e2 , e3

e2

ei

is obtained from

ei

We are interested to relate the unit vectors

e3

e3

1

e

e1

ei

in

from that of

e2 Q12e1 Q22e1 Q32e3

.

Qij cos(ei , ej )

cos(old , new)

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-7

EGM 5653

Vector from old to new system,

e2

ai' Qmi am

e2

e3

e3

[a]' [Q]T [a ]

1

e

e1

Q11Q21Q31

a1

a Q Q Q

12 22 32

2

Q13Q23Q33

a3

Given, a 2e1

a Q a

'

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

a1

a 2

a

3

Find in terms of

'

$

{ei }

0 1

Q 1 0

0 0

0 1 0 2

1 0 0 0

0 0 1 0

0

0

0

2

0

Chapter 2-8

EGM 5653

e2

e2

e$n

Tij' Qmi e$m .TQ

nj

QmiQnj (e$m .T e$n )

e3

1

e

e3

e1

Thus

Q11 Q12

'

Q Q

'

'

T

T

T

22

21 22 23

12

T31' T32' T33'

Q13 Q23

13 Q11 Q12

Q13 T11 T12 T

Q33 T31 T32 T 33 Q13 Q23

Q 13

Q 32

Q 33

T Q T Q

'

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-9

EGM 5653

0 1 0

T 1 2 0

0 0 1

T Q T Q

'

2 1

1 0

0 0

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

0 1

1 0

Q

0 0

0

0

0

0

1

Chapter 2-10

EGM 5653

0 1

1 0

Q

0 0

0

0

'

ai' Qmi am

Tij' QmiQnjTmn

Scalar

Vector

Second Order Tensor

Tijk' QmiQnj QrkTmnr

Third Order Tensor

th

Tijk ... QmiQnj Qok .....QspTmno

...

n

Order Tensor

{

{

n

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-11

EGM 5653

% I% n 0

%

n n In

11

12

13

21

22

23 0

31

32

33

( 11 )1 12 2 13 3 0

211 ( 22 ) 2 23 3 0

311 32 2 ( 33 ) 3 0

1 , 2 , 3 are the direction cosines

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Solution to this equation gives the

three principal stress values.

1 2 3

For each of the values, find the

direction corresponding to that

principal value,

1 2 3 1

2

Chapter 2-12

EGM 5653

2 0 0

T 0 3 4

0 4 3

Given:

T I

For 1 5

1 5

2 2

3 5

0

4 (2 )( 2 25) 0

3

2 1 n1 0n2 0n3 0

0 (3 1 ) n2 4n3 0

0 4n2 (3 1 ) n3 0

3n1 0 n1 0

n 2 e1

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

2n2 4n3 0

4n2 8n3 0

1

2

2

2

2

n1 n2 n3 1 n3

and n2

5

5

1

n 1

2e2 e3

5

1

n 3

e2 2e3

5

Chapter 2-13

EGM 5653

I1 xx yy zz

xx xy yy yz xx zx

I2

xy yy yz zz zx zz

xx yy yy zz zz xx 2 xy 2 yz 2 zx

xx xy zx

I 3 xy yy yz

zx yz zz

In terms of principal

Stresses,

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

I1 1 2 3

I 2 1 2 2 3 3 1

I 3 1 2 3

Chapter 2-14

EGM 5653

cos 2 cos 2 cos 2 1

1

3

(i j k)

oct 13 I1 13 1 2 3

oct 13

1 2

1 2 1 2

2

oct 13 I1 13 xx yy zz

oct

1

3

yy zz xx yy xx 6( 2 xy yz2 zx2 )

2

xx

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-15

EGM 5653

I1 xx yy zz 1 2 3

m

3

3

3

% T% T

T% T%

T

m

d

m

Tij 13 Tkk ij Tij

0

m 0

Tm 0 m 0

0

0 m

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

xx m

xy

xz

Td xy

yy m

yz

xz

yz

zz

m

Chapter 2-16

P

A

EGM 5653

T Q T Q

T

yy xx sin 2 yy cos 2 2 xy sin cos

xx 12 xx yy 12 xx yy cos 2 xy sin 2

yy 12 xx yy 12 xx yy cos 2 xy sin 2

xy 12 xx yy sin 2 xy cos 2

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-17

EGM 5653

Center

Radius

1

2

xx

1

4

yy , 0

xx

yy

xy

2

1

2

1

2

max

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

xx yy

1

4

xx

yy

xy

xx yy

1

4

xx

yy

xy

1

4

xx

yy

xy

2

Chapter 2-18

EGM 5653

circle in 3-D is first to find

the principal stresses.

Using the three principal

stresses, the three circles can

then be drawn.

The horizontal direction then

indicates the principal

direction.

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-19

EGM 5653

Given: Stress components xx 80 Mpa; yy 60 Mpa; zz 20 Mpa

xy 20 Mpa; xz 40 Mpa; yz 10 Mpa

1

n

(1, 2,1)

6

Stress vector

i 2 j k

80 20 40

T% 20 60 10

40 10 20

%

65.32i 61.24 j 32.66k

Tn

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-20

EGM 5653

Given: Stress components xx 80 Mpa; yy 60 Mpa; zz 20 Mpa

xy 20 Mpa; xz 40 Mpa; yz 10 Mpa

Find: Invariants

I1 xx yy zz 160 Mpa

First Invariant

I2

Second Invariant

Third Invariant

2

2

2

xx yy

yy zz

zz xx

xy

yz

zx 5500

xx xy zx

I 3 xy yy yz 0

zx yz zz

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-21

EGM 5653

Given: Stress components xx 80 Mpa; yy 60 Mpa; zz 20 Mpa

xy 20 Mpa; xz 40 Mpa; yz 10 Mpa

Characteristic Equation

3 160 2 5500 0 0

max 12 1 3 55 Mpa

2

1

oct

1

2

2

3

3

1

9

( 2 160 5500) 0

44.97Mpa

1 110 Mpa

2

2 50 Mpa

1 0

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-22

EGM 5653

xx yx zx

Bx 0

x

y

z

xy yy zy

By 0

x

y

z

xz yz zz

Bz 0

x

y

z

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-23

EGM 5653

x * x * (x, y, z)

y y (x, y, z)

*

z z (x, y, z)

*

x x(x , y , z )

*

y y(x * , y* , z* )

z z(x , y , z )

*

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-24

EGM 5653

Engineering strain: Definition

ds* ds

E

ds

Finite or Green Strain

xx

u 1 u v

w

x 2 x x

x

yy

2

2

2

w

v 1 u v

y 2 y y

y

2

2

2

w 1 u

v

w

zz

z 2 z z

z

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-25

EGM 5653

PA : (l1 , m1 , n1 )

PB : (l 2 , m 2 , n 2 )

cos

2

cos * l1*l*2 m1*m*2 n1*n *2

Let PA & PB be along x and y axes

12 xy 2 xy

23 yz 2 yz

31 zx 2 xz

12 (1 E1 )(1 E 2 ) cos *

;

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

*

2

Chapter 2-26

EGM 5653

This theory is analogous to stress theory

xx M

xy

xy

xz

yy M

yz

xz

yz

zz M

where,

I 1 xx yy zz

or

M I 1M I 2 M I 3 0 I 2

3

1 2

M E E

2

xx xy

xy yy

xx xz

xz zz

yy yz

yz zz

xx xy xz

I 3 xy yy yz

xz yz zz

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-27

EGM 5653

Here the strains are infinitesimal and rigid body motion is negligible.

Then,

u

v

w

xx , yy , zz

x

y

z

1 w v

1 v u

1 w u

xy

, xz

, yz

2 x y

2 x z

2 y z

and the Magnification factor is,

M E

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-28

EGM 5653

The extensional strains are

a xx

b xx (cos 2 ) yy (sin 2 ) 2 xy (cos )(sin )

c xx (cos 2 2) yy (sin 2 2) 2 xy (cos 2)(sin 2)

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-29

EGM 5653

Therefore,

xx a

( a 2b ) sin 4 2 c sin 2

4sin 2 sin 2

2 a (sin 2 cos 2 2 sin 2 2 cos 2 ) 2(b sin 2 2 c sin 2 )

xy

4sin 2 sin 2

When 60o

yy

2(b c ) a

b c

xx a , yy

, xy

3

3

When 45o

1

xx a , yy c , xy b ( a c )

2

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-30

EGM 5653

2.55 A Square panel in the side of a ship is loaded so that the panel is in a

zz ofzx plane

zy 0strain (

state

)

a. Determine the displacements for the panel given that the

deformations shown and the strain components for the (x,y)

coordinate axes.

b. Determine the strain components for the (X,Y) axes.

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-31

EGM 5653

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-32

EGM 5653

Problem 2.74

2.74 Show that for Ex 2.12 when =600 the principal strains are given by

1

1

( a b c ) R; 2 ( a b c ) R

3

3

1/ 2

1

R (2 a b c )2 3( b c )2

3

tan 2

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

3( b c )

2( a b c )

Chapter 2-33

EGM 5653

No

Homework

(due date)

Suggested Problems

2.54, 2.57, 2.58, 2.67

2.42, 2.56, 2.59, 2.64, 2.71,

2,77, 2.73,2.76

(9 Feb 2006)

Namas Chandra

Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-34

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