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# EGM 5653

CHAPTER 2
TheoriesofStressandStrain

EGM 5653
Namas Chandra

Chapter 2-1

EGM 5653

Objectives
Definition of stress/strain as tensor
Stress/strain on arbitrary planes
Principal quantities, Mohrs circle in 2-D and 3-D
Small displacement theories
Strain rosettes

Sections
2.1,2.2 Stress Definition
2.3 Stress tranformation, 2.4 Principal quanities
2.5 Equilibrium equation, 2.6 strain in any direction
2.7 strain transformation, 2.8 strain theory
2.9 Strain measurment
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Chapter 2-2

EGM 5653

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Lt
A 0

F
t
A

Lt
A 0

FN
tN
A

Lt
A 0

FS
tS
A
Chapter 2-3

P
A

EGM 5653

xx

T xy
xz

xy xz

yy yz
yz zz

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Bx , By , Bz
Chapter 2-4

P
A

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## 2.2 Alternate Stress Notation

xx

T xy
xz

xy xz

yy yz
yz zz

11 12 13

T 12 22 23
23 23 33
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xx

T xy
xz

xy xz

yy yz
yz zz

Diagonal Normal
Off-diagonal-Shear
Eng. Shear= 2*Tensor Shear

Chapter 2-5

P
A

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xx

T xy
xz

xy xz

yy yz
yz zz

li mj nk
N x i NY j N Z k

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Chapter 2-6

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e2

## Consider two systems

X e1 , e2 , e3 and X e1, e2 , e3

e2

ei

is obtained from

ei

## using a rigid body rotation.

We are interested to relate the unit vectors

e3
e3

1
e
e1

ei

in

from that of

## e1 Q11e1 Q21e2 Q31e3

e2 Q12e1 Q22e1 Q32e3
.

## e3 Q13e1 Q23e1 Q33e3

Qij cos(ei , ej )

cos(old , new)
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Chapter 2-7

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## 2.4 Stress Transformation (Vector)

Vector from old to new system,

e2

ai' Qmi am

e2

e3
e3

[a]' [Q]T [a ]

1
e
e1

Q11Q21Q31
a1
a Q Q Q
12 22 32
2
Q13Q23Q33
a3
Given, a 2e1

a Q a
'

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a1

a 2
a
3

Find in terms of

'
\$
{ei }

0 1
Q 1 0
0 0

0 1 0 2

1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0

0
0

0
2
0
Chapter 2-8

EGM 5653

e2

## Tensor from old to new system,

e2

e\$n
Tij' Qmi e\$m .TQ
nj
QmiQnj (e\$m .T e\$n )

e3

1
e

e3

e1

Thus

Q11 Q12
'
Q Q
'
'
T
T
T

22
21 22 23
12
T31' T32' T33'
Q13 Q23

13 Q11 Q12
Q13 T11 T12 T

## Q32 . T21 T22 T 23 . Q12 Q22

Q33 T31 T32 T 33 Q13 Q23

Q 13
Q 32
Q 33

T Q T Q
'

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Chapter 2-9

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0 1 0
T 1 2 0
0 0 1

T Q T Q
'

2 1
1 0
0 0
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0 1
1 0
Q

0 0

0
0

0
0
1
Chapter 2-10

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## 2.4 Stress Transformation (All tensors)

0 1
1 0
Q

0 0

0
0

'
ai' Qmi am
Tij' QmiQnjTmn

Scalar
Vector
Second Order Tensor
Tijk' QmiQnj QrkTmnr
Third Order Tensor
th
Tijk ... QmiQnj Qok .....QspTmno
...
n
Order Tensor
{
{
n

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Chapter 2-11

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## 2.4.2 Principal Stresses

% I% n 0

%
n n In
11
12
13
21
22
23 0
31
32
33

( 11 )1 12 2 13 3 0

211 ( 22 ) 2 23 3 0
311 32 2 ( 33 ) 3 0
1 , 2 , 3 are the direction cosines
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## This is a cubic equation in

Solution to this equation gives the
three principal stress values.

1 2 3
For each of the values, find the
direction corresponding to that
principal value,
1 2 3 1
2

Chapter 2-12

EGM 5653

2 0 0
T 0 3 4
0 4 3

Given:

T I

For 1 5

## Find principal values and directions.

1 5
2 2
3 5

0
4 (2 )( 2 25) 0
3

2 1 n1 0n2 0n3 0
0 (3 1 ) n2 4n3 0
0 4n2 (3 1 ) n3 0

3n1 0 n1 0
n 2 e1
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2n2 4n3 0

4n2 8n3 0
1
2
2
2
2
n1 n2 n3 1 n3
and n2
5
5
1
n 1
2e2 e3
5
1
n 3
e2 2e3
5
Chapter 2-13

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## 2.4.2 Stress Invariants

I1 xx yy zz

xx xy yy yz xx zx
I2

xy yy yz zz zx zz
xx yy yy zz zz xx 2 xy 2 yz 2 zx

xx xy zx
I 3 xy yy yz
zx yz zz

In terms of principal
Stresses,
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I1 1 2 3
I 2 1 2 2 3 3 1
I 3 1 2 3
Chapter 2-14

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## 2.4.4 Octohedral Stresses

cos 2 cos 2 cos 2 1

1
3

(i j k)

oct 13 I1 13 1 2 3
oct 13

1 2

1 2 1 2
2

oct 13 I1 13 xx yy zz

oct

1
3

yy zz xx yy xx 6( 2 xy yz2 zx2 )
2

xx

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Chapter 2-15

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## 2.4.5 Mean and Deviatoric Stresses

I1 xx yy zz 1 2 3
m

3
3
3

% T% T
T% T%

T
m
d
m
Tij 13 Tkk ij Tij
0
m 0
Tm 0 m 0
0
0 m

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xx m
xy
xz

Td xy
yy m
yz
xz

yz
zz
m

Chapter 2-16

P
A

EGM 5653

T Q T Q
T

## xx xx cos 2 yy sin 2 2 xy sin cos

yy xx sin 2 yy cos 2 2 xy sin cos

## xy xx yy sin cos xy (cos 2 sin 2 )

xx 12 xx yy 12 xx yy cos 2 xy sin 2

yy 12 xx yy 12 xx yy cos 2 xy sin 2
xy 12 xx yy sin 2 xy cos 2
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Chapter 2-17

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Center

1
2

xx
1
4

yy , 0

xx
yy
xy
2

1
2

1
2

max
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xx yy

1
4

xx
yy
xy

xx yy

1
4

xx
yy
xy

1
4

xx
yy
xy
2

Chapter 2-18

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## The best way to draw Mohrs

circle in 3-D is first to find
the principal stresses.
Using the three principal
stresses, the three circles can
then be drawn.
The horizontal direction then
indicates the principal
direction.

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Chapter 2-19

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## Problem 2.5 (page72)

Given: Stress components xx 80 Mpa; yy 60 Mpa; zz 20 Mpa
xy 20 Mpa; xz 40 Mpa; yz 10 Mpa

## Find: Stress vector on a plane normal to

1
n
(1, 2,1)
6

Stress vector

i 2 j k

80 20 40
T% 20 60 10
40 10 20

%
65.32i 61.24 j 32.66k
Tn

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Chapter 2-20

EGM 5653

## Problem 2.5 (page72)

Given: Stress components xx 80 Mpa; yy 60 Mpa; zz 20 Mpa
xy 20 Mpa; xz 40 Mpa; yz 10 Mpa

Find: Invariants

I1 xx yy zz 160 Mpa

First Invariant

I2

Second Invariant

Third Invariant

2
2
2

xx yy
yy zz
zz xx
xy
yz
zx 5500

xx xy zx
I 3 xy yy yz 0
zx yz zz

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Chapter 2-21

EGM 5653

## Problem 2.5 (page72)

Given: Stress components xx 80 Mpa; yy 60 Mpa; zz 20 Mpa
xy 20 Mpa; xz 40 Mpa; yz 10 Mpa

## Find: Principal Values, max. shear and oct. shear stress

Characteristic Equation

3 160 2 5500 0 0

max 12 1 3 55 Mpa

2
1

oct
1
2
2
3
3
1
9

( 2 160 5500) 0
44.97Mpa
1 110 Mpa
2

2 50 Mpa
1 0
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Chapter 2-22

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xx yx zx

Bx 0
x
y
z
xy yy zy

By 0
x
y
z
xz yz zz

Bz 0
x
y
z
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Chapter 2-23

EGM 5653

## 2.2 Equation of Motion (deformation)

x * x * (x, y, z)
y y (x, y, z)
*

z z (x, y, z)
*

x x(x , y , z )
*

y y(x * , y* , z* )
z z(x , y , z )
*

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Chapter 2-24

EGM 5653

## 2.2 Strain of a Line Element

Engineering strain: Definition

ds* ds
E
ds
Finite or Green Strain
xx

u 1 u v
w

x 2 x x
x

yy

2
2
2

w
v 1 u v

y 2 y y
y

2
2
2

w 1 u
v
w
zz

z 2 z z
z

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Chapter 2-25

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## 2.7.3 Shear Strain (Angle Change between elements)

PA : (l1 , m1 , n1 )

PB : (l 2 , m 2 , n 2 )

## P*A* : (l1* , m1* , n1* ) P*B* : (l*2 , m*2 , n *2 )

cos
2
cos * l1*l*2 m1*m*2 n1*n *2
Let PA & PB be along x and y axes
12 xy 2 xy
23 yz 2 yz
31 zx 2 xz

12 (1 E1 )(1 E 2 ) cos *
;
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*
2
Chapter 2-26

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## 2.7.4 Principal Strains

This theory is analogous to stress theory

xx M
xy

xy

xz

yy M

yz

xz

yz

zz M

where,
I 1 xx yy zz

or

M I 1M I 2 M I 3 0 I 2
3

1 2
M E E
2

xx xy
xy yy

xx xz
xz zz

yy yz
yz zz

xx xy xz
I 3 xy yy yz
xz yz zz

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Chapter 2-27

EGM 5653

## 2.8 Small Displacement Theory

Here the strains are infinitesimal and rigid body motion is negligible.
Then,

u
v
w
xx , yy , zz
x
y
z

1 w v
1 v u
1 w u
xy
, xz
, yz

2 x y
2 x z
2 y z
and the Magnification factor is,

M E

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Chapter 2-28

EGM 5653

## (la , ma , na ) (1,0,0), (lb , mb , nb ) (cos ,sin , 0), (lc , mc , nc ) (cos 2,sin 2, 0)

The extensional strains are
a xx
b xx (cos 2 ) yy (sin 2 ) 2 xy (cos )(sin )
c xx (cos 2 2) yy (sin 2 2) 2 xy (cos 2)(sin 2)

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Chapter 2-29

EGM 5653

## 2.9 Strain Measurements contd.

Therefore,

xx a
( a 2b ) sin 4 2 c sin 2
4sin 2 sin 2
2 a (sin 2 cos 2 2 sin 2 2 cos 2 ) 2(b sin 2 2 c sin 2 )
xy
4sin 2 sin 2
When 60o
yy

2(b c ) a
b c
xx a , yy
, xy
3
3
When 45o
1
xx a , yy c , xy b ( a c )
2
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Chapter 2-30

EGM 5653

## Solved Problem 2.55

2.55 A Square panel in the side of a ship is loaded so that the panel is in a
zz ofzx plane
zy 0strain (
state
)
a. Determine the displacements for the panel given that the
deformations shown and the strain components for the (x,y)
coordinate axes.
b. Determine the strain components for the (X,Y) axes.

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Chapter 2-31

EGM 5653

## Problem 2.55 (contd)

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Chapter 2-32

EGM 5653

Problem 2.74
2.74 Show that for Ex 2.12 when =600 the principal strains are given by
1
1
( a b c ) R; 2 ( a b c ) R
3
3
1/ 2
1
R (2 a b c )2 3( b c )2
3

tan 2

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3( b c )
2( a b c )

Chapter 2-33

EGM 5653

## Problem set in chapter 2 (HW2)

No

Homework
(due date)

Suggested Problems

## 2.2, 2.6, 2.7, 2.21,2.25, 2.45, 2.4, 2.10,2.13, 2.18, 2.26,

2.54, 2.57, 2.58, 2.67
2.42, 2.56, 2.59, 2.64, 2.71,
2,77, 2.73,2.76
(9 Feb 2006)

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