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EGM 5653

CHAPTER 2
TheoriesofStressandStrain

EGM 5653
Advanced Mechanics of Materials
Namas Chandra
Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-1

EGM 5653

Objectives
Definition of stress/strain as tensor
Stress/strain on arbitrary planes
Principal quantities, Mohrs circle in 2-D and 3-D
Small displacement theories
Strain rosettes

Sections
2.1,2.2 Stress Definition
2.3 Stress tranformation, 2.4 Principal quanities
2.5 Equilibrium equation, 2.6 strain in any direction
2.7 strain transformation, 2.8 strain theory
2.9 Strain measurment
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Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-2

EGM 5653

2.1 Stress at a point

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Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Lt
A 0

F
t
A

Lt
A 0

FN
tN
A

Lt
A 0

FS
tS
A
Chapter 2-3

P
A

EGM 5653

2.2 Stress Notation (Tensor)

xx

T xy
xz

xy xz

yy yz
yz zz

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Body force vector is

Bx , By , Bz
Chapter 2-4

P
A

EGM 5653

2.2 Alternate Stress Notation

xx

T xy
xz

xy xz

yy yz
yz zz

11 12 13

T 12 22 23
23 23 33
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xx

T xy
xz

xy xz

yy yz
yz zz

Diagonal Normal
Off-diagonal-Shear
Eng. Shear= 2*Tensor Shear

Chapter 2-5

P
A

EGM 5653

2.2 Stress on arbitrary planes

xx

T xy
xz

xy xz

yy yz
yz zz

N cos i cos j cos k


li mj nk
N x i NY j N Z k

Stress on arbitrary plane is t T N


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Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-6

EGM 5653

2.4 Stress Transformation (3-D to another 3-D)


e2

Consider two systems

X e1 , e2 , e3 and X e1, e2 , e3

e2

ei

is obtained from

ei

using a rigid body rotation.


We are interested to relate the unit vectors

e3
e3

1
e
e1

ei

in

from that of

We can see that,

e1 Q11e1 Q21e2 Q31e3


e2 Q12e1 Q22e1 Q32e3
.

e3 Q13e1 Q23e1 Q33e3


Qij cos(ei , ej )

Transformation matrix component

cos(old , new)
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Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-7

EGM 5653

2.4 Stress Transformation (Vector)


Vector from old to new system,

e2

ai' Qmi am

e2

e3
e3

[a]' [Q]T [a ]

1
e
e1

Q11Q21Q31
a1
a Q Q Q
12 22 32
2
Q13Q23Q33
a3
Given, a 2e1

a Q a
'

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Advanced Mechanics of Materials

a1

a 2
a
3

Find in terms of

'
$
{ei }

0 1
Q 1 0
0 0

0 1 0 2

1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0

0
0

0
2
0
Chapter 2-8

EGM 5653

2.4 Stress Transformation (Tensor)


e2

Tensor from old to new system,

e2

e$n
Tij' Qmi e$m .TQ
nj
QmiQnj (e$m .T e$n )

e3

1
e

e3

e1

Thus

Tij' Qmi QnjTmn

T11' T12' T13'


Q11 Q12
'
Q Q
'
'
T
T
T

22
21 22 23
12
T31' T32' T33'
Q13 Q23

13 Q11 Q12
Q13 T11 T12 T

Q32 . T21 T22 T 23 . Q12 Q22


Q33 T31 T32 T 33 Q13 Q23

Q 13
Q 32
Q 33

T Q T Q
'

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Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-9

EGM 5653

2.4 Stress Transformation (Tensor)


0 1 0
T 1 2 0
0 0 1

T Q T Q
'

2 1
1 0
0 0
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0 1
1 0
Q


0 0

0
0

0
0
1
Chapter 2-10

EGM 5653

2.4 Stress Transformation (All tensors)

0 1
1 0
Q


0 0

0
0

'
ai' Qmi am
Tij' QmiQnjTmn

Scalar
Vector
Second Order Tensor
Tijk' QmiQnj QrkTmnr
Third Order Tensor
th
Tijk ... QmiQnj Qok .....QspTmno
...
n
Order Tensor
{
{
n

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Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-11

EGM 5653

2.4.2 Principal Stresses

% I% n 0

%
n n In
11
12
13
21
22
23 0
31
32
33

( 11 )1 12 2 13 3 0

211 ( 22 ) 2 23 3 0
311 32 2 ( 33 ) 3 0
1 , 2 , 3 are the direction cosines
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Advanced Mechanics of Materials

is the one of the principal values

This is a cubic equation in


Solution to this equation gives the
three principal stress values.

1 2 3
For each of the values, find the
direction corresponding to that
principal value,
1 2 3 1
2

Chapter 2-12

EGM 5653

2.4.2 Principal Stresses-example


2 0 0
T 0 3 4
0 4 3

Given:

T I

For 1 5

Find principal values and directions.

1 5
2 2
3 5

0
4 (2 )( 2 25) 0
3

2 1 n1 0n2 0n3 0
0 (3 1 ) n2 4n3 0
0 4n2 (3 1 ) n3 0

3n1 0 n1 0
n 2 e1
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2n2 4n3 0

4n2 8n3 0
1
2
2
2
2
n1 n2 n3 1 n3
and n2
5
5
1
n 1
2e2 e3
5
1
n 3
e2 2e3
5
Chapter 2-13

EGM 5653

2.4.2 Stress Invariants

I1 xx yy zz

xx xy yy yz xx zx
I2

xy yy yz zz zx zz
xx yy yy zz zz xx 2 xy 2 yz 2 zx

xx xy zx
I 3 xy yy yz
zx yz zz

In terms of principal
Stresses,
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Advanced Mechanics of Materials

I1 1 2 3
I 2 1 2 2 3 3 1
I 3 1 2 3
Chapter 2-14

EGM 5653

2.4.4 Octohedral Stresses


cos 2 cos 2 cos 2 1

1
3

(i j k)

oct 13 I1 13 1 2 3
oct 13

1 2

1 2 1 2
2

oct 13 I1 13 xx yy zz

oct

1
3

yy zz xx yy xx 6( 2 xy yz2 zx2 )
2

xx

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Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-15

EGM 5653

2.4.5 Mean and Deviatoric Stresses


I1 xx yy zz 1 2 3
m

3
3
3

% T% T
T% T%

T
m
d
m
Tij 13 Tkk ij Tij
0
m 0
Tm 0 m 0
0
0 m

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Advanced Mechanics of Materials

xx m
xy
xz

Td xy
yy m
yz
xz

yz
zz
m

Chapter 2-16

P
A

EGM 5653

2.4.6 Coordinate Transformation in 2-D

T Q T Q
T

xx xx cos 2 yy sin 2 2 xy sin cos


yy xx sin 2 yy cos 2 2 xy sin cos

xy xx yy sin cos xy (cos 2 sin 2 )


xx 12 xx yy 12 xx yy cos 2 xy sin 2

yy 12 xx yy 12 xx yy cos 2 xy sin 2
xy 12 xx yy sin 2 xy cos 2
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Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-17

EGM 5653

2.4.7 Mohrs Circle in 2-D

Center
Radius

1
2

xx
1
4

yy , 0

xx
yy
xy
2

1
2

1
2

max
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Advanced Mechanics of Materials

xx yy

1
4

xx
yy
xy

xx yy

1
4

xx
yy
xy

1
4

xx
yy
xy
2

Chapter 2-18

EGM 5653

2.4.7 Mohrs Circle in 3-D

The best way to draw Mohrs


circle in 3-D is first to find
the principal stresses.
Using the three principal
stresses, the three circles can
then be drawn.
The horizontal direction then
indicates the principal
direction.

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Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-19

EGM 5653

Problem 2.5 (page72)


Given: Stress components xx 80 Mpa; yy 60 Mpa; zz 20 Mpa
xy 20 Mpa; xz 40 Mpa; yz 10 Mpa

Find: Stress vector on a plane normal to

1
n
(1, 2,1)
6

Stress vector

i 2 j k

80 20 40
T% 20 60 10
40 10 20

%
65.32i 61.24 j 32.66k
Tn

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Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-20

EGM 5653

Problem 2.5 (page72)


Given: Stress components xx 80 Mpa; yy 60 Mpa; zz 20 Mpa
xy 20 Mpa; xz 40 Mpa; yz 10 Mpa

Find: Invariants

I1 xx yy zz 160 Mpa

First Invariant

I2

Second Invariant

Third Invariant

2
2
2

xx yy
yy zz
zz xx
xy
yz
zx 5500

xx xy zx
I 3 xy yy yz 0
zx yz zz

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Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-21

EGM 5653

Problem 2.5 (page72)


Given: Stress components xx 80 Mpa; yy 60 Mpa; zz 20 Mpa
xy 20 Mpa; xz 40 Mpa; yz 10 Mpa

Find: Principal Values, max. shear and oct. shear stress


Characteristic Equation

3 160 2 5500 0 0

max 12 1 3 55 Mpa

2
1

oct
1
2
2
3
3
1
9

( 2 160 5500) 0
44.97Mpa
1 110 Mpa
2

2 50 Mpa
1 0
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Chapter 2-22

EGM 5653

2.5 Equation of Motion

xx yx zx

Bx 0
x
y
z
xy yy zy

By 0
x
y
z
xz yz zz

Bz 0
x
y
z
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Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-23

EGM 5653

2.2 Equation of Motion (deformation)

x * x * (x, y, z)
y y (x, y, z)
*

z z (x, y, z)
*

x x(x , y , z )
*

y y(x * , y* , z* )
z z(x , y , z )
*

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Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-24

EGM 5653

2.2 Strain of a Line Element


Engineering strain: Definition

ds* ds
E
ds
Finite or Green Strain
xx

u 1 u v
w

x 2 x x
x

yy

2
2
2

w
v 1 u v




y 2 y y
y

2
2
2

w 1 u
v
w
zz



z 2 z z
z

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Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-25

EGM 5653

2.7.3 Shear Strain (Angle Change between elements)


PA : (l1 , m1 , n1 )

PB : (l 2 , m 2 , n 2 )

P*A* : (l1* , m1* , n1* ) P*B* : (l*2 , m*2 , n *2 )

cos
2
cos * l1*l*2 m1*m*2 n1*n *2
Let PA & PB be along x and y axes
12 xy 2 xy
23 yz 2 yz
31 zx 2 xz

12 (1 E1 )(1 E 2 ) cos *
;
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Advanced Mechanics of Materials

*
2
Chapter 2-26

EGM 5653

2.7.4 Principal Strains


This theory is analogous to stress theory

xx M
xy

xy

xz

yy M

yz

xz

yz

zz M

where,
I 1 xx yy zz

or

M I 1M I 2 M I 3 0 I 2
3

1 2
M E E
2

xx xy
xy yy

xx xz
xz zz

yy yz
yz zz

xx yy xx zz yy zz 2xy 2xz 2yz


xx xy xz
I 3 xy yy yz
xz yz zz

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Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-27

EGM 5653

2.8 Small Displacement Theory


Here the strains are infinitesimal and rigid body motion is negligible.
Then,

u
v
w
xx , yy , zz
x
y
z

1 w v
1 v u
1 w u
xy
, xz
, yz

2 x y
2 x z
2 y z
and the Magnification factor is,

M E

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Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-28

EGM 5653

2.9 Strain Measurements

The direction cosines or arms a,b,and c are

(la , ma , na ) (1,0,0), (lb , mb , nb ) (cos ,sin , 0), (lc , mc , nc ) (cos 2,sin 2, 0)


The extensional strains are
a xx
b xx (cos 2 ) yy (sin 2 ) 2 xy (cos )(sin )
c xx (cos 2 2) yy (sin 2 2) 2 xy (cos 2)(sin 2)

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Chapter 2-29

EGM 5653

2.9 Strain Measurements contd.


Therefore,

xx a
( a 2b ) sin 4 2 c sin 2
4sin 2 sin 2
2 a (sin 2 cos 2 2 sin 2 2 cos 2 ) 2(b sin 2 2 c sin 2 )
xy
4sin 2 sin 2
When 60o
yy

2(b c ) a
b c
xx a , yy
, xy
3
3
When 45o
1
xx a , yy c , xy b ( a c )
2
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Chapter 2-30

EGM 5653

Solved Problem 2.55


2.55 A Square panel in the side of a ship is loaded so that the panel is in a
zz ofzx plane
zy 0strain (
state
)
a. Determine the displacements for the panel given that the
deformations shown and the strain components for the (x,y)
coordinate axes.
b. Determine the strain components for the (X,Y) axes.

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Chapter 2-31

EGM 5653

Problem 2.55 (contd)

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Chapter 2-32

EGM 5653

Problem 2.74
2.74 Show that for Ex 2.12 when =600 the principal strains are given by
1
1
( a b c ) R; 2 ( a b c ) R
3
3
1/ 2
1
R (2 a b c )2 3( b c )2
3

and the maximum strain is located at angle ccw from x axis


tan 2

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3( b c )
2( a b c )

Chapter 2-33

EGM 5653

Problem set in chapter 2 (HW2)

No

Homework
(due date)

Suggested Problems

In-class and others

2.2, 2.6, 2.7, 2.21,2.25, 2.45, 2.4, 2.10,2.13, 2.18, 2.26,


2.54, 2.57, 2.58, 2.67
2.42, 2.56, 2.59, 2.64, 2.71,
2,77, 2.73,2.76
(9 Feb 2006)

Namas Chandra
Advanced Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2-34