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Rey Steve P.

Chapter 6: Architectural Design
1. When describing a system, explain why you may have to design the system
architecture before the requirements specification is complete.
The system architecture is to be designed first before describing the
system itself simply because the architectural design serves as basis
for the description. Since it involves identifying major system
components, sub-systems, and their communications, it will be easier
in the description to specify which one goes to which sub-systems. And
when subsystems are already made, it will be easier to determine what
architectural design provides a model for system costing.
2. You have been asked to prepare and deliver a presentation to a non-technical
manager to justify the hiring of a system architect for a new project. Write a list of
bullet points setting out the key points in your presentation. Naturally, you have to







Information Storage System and Information Evaluation System provides
the registry function of the all system. In that, Administrator can
manipulate the information about the employee. For example, store,
delete, and add. Therefore, we have Control System. The Decisionmaking System used to decide whether a certain employee would be hired
or not.
3. Explain why design conflicts might arise when designing an architecture for
which both availability and security requirements are the most important nonfunctional requirements.
For a system that prioritizes security, design would include layered
structure wherein there is a high level of security in every layer
until the innermost one. We can say then say that there is limited
access to the layers of the system as a preventive measure. On the
other hand, if availability is to be prioritized, there should me
multiple and redundant components which shall serve as back up for the
system that can also be updated without stopping the whole system.
Therefore, for a system which seeks both availability and security at
the same time, there will be design conflicts.
4. Draw diagrams showing a conceptual view and a process view of the
architectures of the following systems:

An automated ticket-issuing system used by passengers at a railway station.

A computer-controlled video conferencing system that allows video, audio,

and computer data to be visible to several participants at the same time.

A robot floor cleaner that is intended to clean relatively clear spaces such as
corridors. The cleaner must be able to sense walls and other obstructions.

5. Explain why you normally use several architectural patterns when designing the
architecture of a large system. Apart from the information about patterns that I
have discussed in this chapter, what additional information might be useful when
designing large systems?
Sometimes, large systems are like relationships. They can get
complicated. This is why we need to use several architectural patterns
in the design of such large systems. When we look into it, there may
be parts of a system that prioritizes (for instance) security while
some other components prioritize something else. Then, we could see

what appropriate pattern should be followed. One subcomponent could

make use of client-server while another requires repository. In
addition, it is useful to know how to communicate or connect these
subcomponents very well even they different patterns. This is needed
so that the whole large system will maximize the benefits and minimize
6. Suggest an architecture for a system (such as iTunes) that is used to sell and
distribute music on the Internet. What architectural patterns are the basis for this
Client-server model is the appropriate architectural pattern for such
kind of system. iTunes stores all the music they sell in a database
where the client can search these tracks by artist name, genre, etc.
all via web based interface. Also, tracks can be downloaded and paid
accordingly. Then, the server manages the music ordering also via web
based interface.
7. Explain how you would use the reference model of CASE environments (available
on the books web pages) to compare the IDEs offered by different vendors of a
programming language such as Java.
8. Using the generic model of a language processing system presented here, design
the architecture of a system that accepts natural language commands and
translates these into database queries in a language such as SQL.
9. Using the basic model of an information system, as presented in Figure 6.16,
suggest the components that might be part of an information system that allows
users to view information about flights arriving and departing from a particular
At the top layer is the web browser the user uses to access the airport website. The second layer
would be comprised of web forms that collect information of the flight the user wants to look up or
search for general time ranges. The next layer is the server at which the flight time request is sent,
will receive the flight information collected and process it into query. The last layer is the actual
database server which will query the database for the specified flights or time range of flights, and if
something goes wrong during the transaction any updates will be rolled back.

10. Should there be a separate profession of software architect whose role is to

work independently with a customer to design the software system architecture? A
separate software company would then implement the system. What might be the
difficulties of establishing such a profession?