You are on page 1of 22

Running Head: DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID GRADUATE CERTIFICATE

Development of a Hybrid Graduate Certificate Program: A Case Study


EDUC 5205 Spring 2014
Virginia E. Harwood (100116826)
Prepared for: Dr. Laura Pinto
University of Ontario Institute of Technology

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM


Development of a Hybrid Graduate Certificate Program: A Case Study
Introduction
Traditionally, all Durham College full-time programming was delivered in a face-to-face
format. The Legal Research Information Management (LRIM) hybrid delivery graduate
certificate program, initially presented as a vision, broke the trend of traditional programming.
Fast forwarding over the past years, the college now uses the LRIM program delivery model as it
continues to develop and renew programming. The LRIM program vision became reality and is
that is the central phenomenon of this case study how did official Durham College leadership
contribute to the successful development and implementation of this hybrid delivery graduate
certificate program? To explore the phenomenon, this case study includes relevant background,
summary of data sources, a chronicle of the development and implementation of the LRIM
program, analytical discussion through the transformational leadership paradigm, and concluding
remarks.
Background
This case study is about the contributions of official leadership at Durham College in the
development and implementation of a hybrid graduate certificate. Accordingly, it is important
for the reader to have some background about the governance and operations of Durham
College, as well as specifics about the LRIM program.
Durham College
Durham College is a publically funded Ontario community college and is regulated by
the Ontario, Ministry of Training Colleges and Universities (MTCU) and governed by a Board of
Governors made up of the college President, four internal members, and fourteen external
members. The key role of the board is to set the college vision, strategic directions and overall

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM


goals and outcomes by following appropriate laws and other government policies, and the
Strategic Plan (Durham College - Governance).
The college hosts approximately 10,000 students in 140 full-time (MTCU) approved
programs across its two campuses and one learning site, all located in the Regional Municipality
of Durham. Programming is taught by 310 full-time faculty and over 500 part-time contract
faculty and delivered through the academic schools of Business, IT & Management; Centre for
Food; Continuing Education; Health & Community Services; Interdisciplinary Studies &
Employment Services; Justice & Emergency Services; Media, Art & Design; Science &
Engineering Technology; and Skilled Trades, Apprenticeship & Renewable Technology (DC Factsheet).
The Vice-President, Academic (VPA) is responsible for the high-level leadership of the
academic area of the college including all academic schools and reports to the college President.
Most importantly, the VPA leads the development and implementation of the colleges academic
direction together with supporting a wide range of academic matters related to the colleges
strategic plan, and academic issues that cross school boundaries and/or other external educational
institutions (DC - VPA Role). Each academic school provides leadership support to the VPA via
a dean who is responsible for both leadership and operations within their subject area academic
school. Each program within an academic school is assigned a program coordinator. Typically,
program coordinators are faculty members; however, do not have supervisory authority over
program teams but provide operational coordination of the program and report directly to the
Dean (DC - Program Coordinator Role).

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM


Post-Secondary Programs of Instruction - Ontario Graduate Certificate Credential
Full-time programs delivered by Ontario community colleges are defined as programs of
instructions and lead to a particular credential as prescribed by the Credentials Framework within
the Ministers Binding Policy Directive on Framework for Programs of Instruction (MTCU
Framework). In this case study the program of instruction is the LRIM program of instruction
which leads to an Ontario Graduate Certificate credential. The Credentials Framework provides
that the program of instruction will occur over two academic semesters and include
approximately 600 700 hours of instruction (MTCU Framework). The scope of curriculum
outcomes shall be of Breadth, depth, and complexity of knowledge would enhance the ability of
graduates to perform a more specialized range of activities, most of which would be complex or
non-routine (MTCU Framework, p. 8). Admission to a graduate certificate program is granted
if the applicant possesses a degree, diploma, or equivalent (MTCU Framework).
Durham College Strategic Plan
In 2010 the college rolled out a new Strategic Plan, created by the Board of Governors,
with a clearly articulated vision statement that the student experience comes first at Durham
College (DC Strategic Plan, p. 1). Through the lenses of our students, our people, our
business, and our community the plan had a focus on strategic enrolment growth, new academic
programming, and a variety of delivery models to meet the needs of many different learners (DC
- Strategic Plan).
Durham College Academic Plan
In conjunction with the colleges Strategic Plan, a new Academic Direction document
was published which was directly aligned to the colleges overall strategic vision. For purposes
of this case study, it is important to note that the Academic Direction of the college focused on

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM


the key areas of strategic program growth and enhancing the use of technology to support quality
teaching and learning experiences for students (DC Academic Direction).
Durham College New Program Development
Through detailed policy and procedure document, Durham College supports the
development of new academic programming in accordance with the Ministers Binding Policy
Directive. Durham College supports the development of new and innovative academic
programs that advance its strategic priorities, assure teaching and learning quality and respond to
industry and student needs. Demographic shifts, new technologies, changes in employment
trends, global competition and the development of new student markets necessitate ongoing
consideration of new post-secondary program opportunities (DC - New Program Development
and Approval Policy and Procedure, p. 1).
The college has expressed through the New Program Development and Approval Policy
that ideas and concepts for new programming are welcome from any source, internal or external;
however, sponsorship for the idea to move forward through the development and approval
process must be from the Dean of the academic school where the ultimate program would reside
(DC - New Program Development and Approval Policy and Procedure).
The office of the VPA, to enable to the New Program Development Policy and
Procedure, has a dedicated staff member responsible for managing program development.
Further, the college, through its New Program Development and Approval Policy and Procedure,
has enlisted specialty college departments to further support the development of new program
development: the Office of Institutional Research provides program sector and market research,
the Office of Planning and Reporting provide support in budget forecasting and development,
and the Centre for Academic and Faculty Enrichment provides curriculum development,

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM


teaching and learning, and technology support for program and course development (DC -New
Program Development and Approval Policy and Procedure).
Learning Management System
The college has a robust Learning Management System (LMS) and through a policy
document has stated, inter alia, that the LMS is intended to support student engagement, increase
flexible learning opportunities, and enable quality learning experiences (DC LMS Policy).
School of Justice and Emergency Services and LRIM Program
Under the leadership of Stephanie Ball, Dean, the School of Justice and Emergency
Services (SOJES) provides full-time academic programming to over one thousand students
through eighteen post-secondary programs in the broad categories of: public law, private law,
social advocacy and justice, and a suite of emergency services (DC SOJES Overview).
In 2012, the SOJES launched a new concept of programming in the hybrid delivery
model of the LRIM graduate certificate program. The vision for the program was created by
Nicole Doyle, faculty, and is now the program coordinator of the LRIM program. Prior to
joining the SOJES, Nicole was an educational librarian in the post-secondary system in Ontario
(N. Doyle - Interview).
The LRIM program is delivered in a hybrid format. The LRIM program defines hybrid
as students receiving face-to-face course delivery two days per week, on campus, and the balance
of the delivery as asynchronous on-line. Some courses are delivered fully face-to-face while
others are a combination of face-to-face and on-line. All courses utilize the Durham College
LMS to facilitate communication and online delivery of the program (DC LRIM Program
Guide and LRIM video).

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM


Data Sources
A number of data sources were used in order to provide context to the case study, explore
the lived experience of developing and implementing a new program at Durham College, and
in analyzing the conditions and official Durham College leadership factors that lead to the
development and implementation of the unique hybrid LRIM graduate certificate program. This
following table details the type of data, the source and/or methodology and a briefing about the
data.

Data

Source and/or Methodology

Comments

Durham College
factsheet

Durham College Website


http://www.durhamcollege.ca/aboutus/corporate-links/governance/fact-sheet

Provides overview of
Durham College:
student population,
campuses, academic
schools, and
programming.

Durham College
governance

Durham College Website


http://www.durhamcollege.ca/aboutus/corporate-links/governance/board-ofgovernors

High level overview of


governance at Durham
College.

Durham College,
Vice-President,
Academic role and
organizational chart of
academic schools
Durham College
Strategic Plan
2010-2013

Durham College Intranet


VPA, team page
(site not available for public viewing
internal document)

Role and responsibility


of VPA, Academic and
organizational structure
of academic schools.

Durham College Website


http://www.durhamcollege.ca/wpcontent/uploads/strategic_plan.pdf

The published strategic


mission of Durham
College for the years
2010-2013 (the time
period during which the
LRIM program was
developed and
implemented).

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM

Data

Source and/or Methodology

Comments

Durham College,
Academic Direction

Durham College Intranet


VPA portal
(site not available for public viewing
internal document)

An internal document
published by the Vice
President, Academic
defining the academic
direction of the college
aligned to the colleges
strategic plan.

Durham College,
School of Justice &
Emergency Services
overview

Durham College Website and authors own


knowledge
http://www.durhamcollege.ca/academicschools/school-of-justice-emergencyservices

Overview of
programming and Dean
in School of Justice and
Emergency Services.

Ministers Binding
Policy Directive on
Framework for
Programs of
Instruction

http://www.accc.ca/wpcontent/uploads/archive/esce/MTCUCollegeFramework.pdf

Ontario MTCU
document that defines
make-up of college
credentials.

Durham College New


Program Development
and Approval Policy
and Procedure

Durham College Intranet


VPA, academic policy/procedures portal
(site not available for public viewing
internal document)

Provides overarching
statements and values in
new program
development and full
internal procedure for
new program
development.

Durham College
Learning Management
System Policy and
Procedure

Durham College Intranet


VPA, academic policy/procedures portal
(site not available for public viewing
internal document)

Provides overview of
benefits of LMS and
articulates usage policy
and detailed usage
procedure mandates.

Durham College,
Legal Research
Information
Management Program
Guide

Durham College Website


http://www.durhamcollege.ca/wpcontent/uploads/LRIM-Program-Guide.pdf

Details program
description and full
program of instruction
details.

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM

Data

Source and/or Methodology

Comments

Durham College,
Legal Research
Information
Management
informational video

Durham College Website


http://www.durhamcollege.ca/programs/lega
l-research-and-information-managementgraduate-certificate

Video interviews faculty


and students and
explains the hybrid
format of the program.

Interview with Nicole Recorded interview available with Adobe


Doyle May 20, 2014 Connect UOIT login required
http://uoit.adobeconnect.com/p9igukg9l67/

Interview follow-up
with Nicole Doyle
June 2, 2014

E-mail communication between Virginia


Harwood and Nicole Doyle

Nicole Doyle, lead


developer of the LRIM
program and now
program coordinator
was interviewed by
Virginia Harwood.
The interview was
conducted on May 20,
2014 for 30 minutes
using Adobe Connect.
Virginia asked Nicole a
series of questions to
assist in the
understanding of the
leadership that took
place to full develop and
implement the LRIM
program from the
perspective of Nicole
Doyle as a faculty
member and now
coordinator of the LRIM
program.
A follow-up e-mail
interview was conducted
by Virginia Harwood
with Nicole Doyle on
June 2, 2014 for the
purposes of obtaining
Nicoles perspectives on
gaps, her Deans
involvement in the
process, and any
recommendation
regarding new program
development.

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM

Data

Source and/or Methodology

Comments

Interview with
Stephanie Ball, Dean,
School of Justice and
Emergency Services
June 2, 2014

Handwritten interview notes taken by


Virginia Harwood on June 2, 2014

Virginia Harwood
conducted a 15 minute,
face to face, interview
with Stephanie Ball,
Dean, School of Justice
and Emergency Services
to ask questions about
leadership and the
development of the
LRIM program.

Personal experiences
and observations
Virginia Harwood

Personal experiences and observations internalized

Durham College
program coordinator
role document

Durham College Intranet


VPA portal
(site not available for public viewing
internal document)

Virginia Harwood has


been employed at
Durham College in a
full-time faculty role for
10 years. During this
time I have been
involved in many
college policy focus
groups, new program
development, and
college operations. I
also participated on the
focus group and
provided subject matter
expertise support in the
development of the
LRIM program.
This document describes
the formal role of a
program coordinator at
Durham College.

Phenomenon
In this portion of the case study, I endeavor to tell the story of the development and
implementation of the LRIM program. This story is being told through the information obtained
from my interviews with Nicole Doyle, Stephanie Ball, my own participation and observations

10

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM


during the development of the LRIM program, together with my own knowledge of both the
Ontario College system, Durham College, and a review of the various data sources noted earlier.
Vision to Action
In 2010, Nicole Doyle, a faculty member in the School of Justice and Emergency
Services, had a vision for a new one year graduate certificate program that would provide
specialized education in legal research and information management to many recent college and
university graduates and individuals working in industry. However, her vision was different than
traditional graduate certificate programs. She envisioned the entire program being delivered in a
hybrid format, a combination of face-to-face and on-line delivery, or elements thereof, in the
individual courses. Her rationale was twofold: the nature of the topic seemed like a natural fit
for the use of technology; secondly, students attracted to this program would likely be employed
and/or have family obligations; so, providing flexible delivery could provide an opportunity to a
diverse population of learners (N. Doyle - Interview). Nicoles vision would eventually become
reality in 2012 when the first cohort of the LRIM program was welcomed to Durham College
and the SOJES (V. Harwood Experience).
Planning the Program
Nicole shared her vision with Stephanie Ball, Dean, SOJES. At that point, with the full
support of the Dean, Nicole developed an action plan to explore the possibilities of developing
and implementing a LRIM program. Nicole, together with Stephanie Ball and a small group of
faculty, including me, from the School of Justice and Emergency Services reached out to our
own network of subject matter experts to assemble an expert focus group. Under Nicoles lead,
we discussed the idea and over the course of many meetings drafted program outcomes, content,

11

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM


and a framework for the delivery patterns of the courses that would become the eventual
program of instruction (S. Ball Interview, V. Harwood Experience/Observation).
Official Program Approval
Although Nicole took the lead on program planning, the Durham College New Program
Policy and Procedure guided the actual process in terms of timelines, deliverables and requisite
documentation. Further, the new program development manager acted as the liaison between
Nicole and the Ministry Training Colleges and Universities (MTCU) throughout the formal
submission and approval process (N. Doyle; S. Ball - Interview).
Development and Delivery
Once the program was officially approved by MTCU, Nicole again assumed the lead in
the actual curriculum development phase of the program. This included recruiting experts to
write curriculum and eventually teach in the program. Again, this wasnt the typical curriculum
development process as the program was to be delivered in a hybrid format; so, this involved a
different and creative approach in implementing technology appropriately to enhance the
learning experience for students. Nicole, in her interview with me, explained that she supported
her faculty team in the development and delivery phase on an individual needs basis and also
relied upon the expertise of the curriculum specialists and educational technologists in the Centre
for Academic and Faculty Enrichment to provide assistance when required (N. Doyle Interview).
Given that hybrid delivery of the program was a new and unfamiliar concept at the
college, several administrative and operational challenges arose. For example, the colleges
scheduling department was not equipped to handle a hybrid timetable, the college bookstore
was not prepared for the procurement and sale of e-books, the IT department was not familiar

12

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM


with distributing specific software to students laptops, and the campus library was somewhat
hesitant to have an entire class being conducted in library space. In each of these instances,
Stephanie Ball, Dean, intervened so that these challenges would not present as terminal barriers
in the full implementation of the program. She often had to enlist the assistance of the VPA to
negotiate with the various service areas of the college to ensure all essentials were in place so
that the student and program team would be fully supported (S. Ball; N. Doyle Interview; V.
Harwood - Experience/Observation).
Impact on Durham College Programming
Through my own involvement with new program development at Durham College and
my interview with Stephanie Ball, the successful development and implementation of the LRIM
program has not gone unnoticed at Durham College. In the SOJES, all graduate certificate
programs now how a hybrid delivery component modeled after the LRIM program. Recently,
this has been extended to many other academic schools at Durham College. Further, Nicole
Doyle is often called upon at the college level and provincially to speak to the unique delivery
model of the LRIM program and its success in the college system (N. Doyle interview, S. Ball
interview, V. Harwood - Experience/Observation).
Discussion
In the portion of the case study I will endeavor to examine, through the lens of Bass
(1985) Model of Transformational leadership paradigm, what official Durham College
leadership factors and/or conditions lead to the successful development and implementation of
the hybrid LRIM program at Durham College. Prior to this case study, I analyzed how Nicole
Doyles informal and unofficial leadership contributed to the successful development and
implementation of the LRIM program; however, this case study focuses on the formal and

13

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM


official leadership at Durham College and the SOJES. Bass (1985) declared that
transformational leaders inspire their followers to go above and beyond their own self-interests
for the sake of the organization as a whole (Givens, 2008, p. 11). The premise of Bass
transformational model provides four factors that contribute to the underpinnings of
transformational leadership: idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual
stimulation, and individualized consideration (Antonakis, 2012). In this case study discussion, I
will apply Bass (1985) model to the formal leadership at Durham College and within the
SOJES.
Durham College Leadership
According to Givens (2008), transformational leaders inspire followers to accomplish
more by concentrating on the followers values and helping the follower align these values with
the values of the organization (p. 4). Durham College, in 2010, through its Strategic Plan and
Academic Direction, publically shared its high value on the student experience with a focus on
new and creative academic programming and delivery. Nicole and Stephanie, in their
interviews, stated that obtaining support for the LRIM vision and development of the LRIM
program was easy as it was aligned to the colleges vision and their own vision that the
student experience comes first (DC Strategic Plan). The endorsement of the VPA to explore
innovative programming showcases the inspirational motivation factor of Bass (1985)
transformational model of inspiring followers through motivation to commitment and
engagement in shared vision of the organization (Northouse, 2013).
Historically, the use the use of technology in college programming was what Bigum
(2012) would term domestication; essentially, fitting new technology into the existing way of
program delivery. Moreover, the result was generally negative student feedback (V. Harwood

14

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM


Observation). Recognizing the pitfalls of domestication and the fact that the potential LRIM
students would be somewhat non-traditional full-time students, it was very important to figure
out how to implement technology into the programming to ensure a positive and meaningful
student experience.
The VPAs Academic Direction document paved the way for thinking about and doing
school differently (Bigum, 2012, p. 26). Brief statements in the Strategic Plan and Academic
Direction such as the innovative use technology allowed Nicole and her focus group to explore
programming outside of the traditional delivery box. Bass (1985) in his discussion of
intellectual stimulation suggests that transformational leaders encourage constituents to be
creative and look for new approaches in their work (Givens, 2008; Northouse, 2013). At the
official college leadership level, through the various overarching college direction documents,
there was license for creativity and a view to making a shift in the way college students could
obtain their credentials.
Through my own experiences and interviews with Nicole and Stephanie, the actual
development process of a new program for MTCU approval is very detailed and specific. Nicole
indicated that she enjoyed the creative process of working with her focus group; furthermore,
was very grateful for the support of both the new program development manager who guided her
through the actual MTCU approval process. Corrigan (2012) argues that standards reduce the
professional status, discretion and creativity of education leadership through the exercise of a
homogenizing and hegemonic power (p. 143). The LRIM program had to comply with the
MTCU Framework. Had Nicole faced the daunting approval process alone it could have stifled
her discretionary and creative approach noted by Corrigan (2012). Bass (1985) argues that
transformational leaders encourage self-actualization among their constituents and do so through

15

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM


ensuring a supportive climate and listening to the needs of their constituents (Northouse, 2013).
Significantly, both Nicole and Stephanie indicated that the colleges new program development
policy and process document put in place the necessary supports so they could move forward and
focus on the actual development of the LRIM program. In fact, Nicole stated in our follow-up
interview that he [new program development manager] was a buffer between me and MTCU
and that allowed me to focus on the curriculum and not worry about the hoops that needed to be
jumped through (N. Doyle - Interview).
Nicole expressed that the crucial role of the LRIM team was to harness their industry
expertise and knowledge to develop relevant and quality curriculum and deliver it appropriately
in a hybrid format. College leadership demonstrated transformational leadership through the
inspirational motivation factor of Bass (1985) model by recognizing and valuing the expertise of
faculty to create a unique curriculum.
College leadership had put in place, through policy, that programming would be
delivered through the LMS platform. Indeed, one could suggest that such standards impede
creativity and innovation (Corrigan, 2012). Nevertheless, both Nicole and Stephanie indicated
that, again, through the new program development policy and procedure, the LRIM development
team was able to access the expertise of instructional designers, curriculum consultants, and
educational technologists to provide guidance in ensuring the LRIM program curriculum was
pedagogically sound and technology implementation would support student learning and
success. In this circumstance, it is argued that the existence of policy and standards put in place
a starting point for innovation and ensured appropriate supports where in place to encourage
creativity.

16

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM


Dexter (2008) notes that for teachers to achieve a schools IT vision the school must
create an effective learning and support environment (i.e. technical, instructional, and social
support) p. 541. Consequently, by providing appropriate curriculum and technology supports,
college leadership demonstrated the factors of intellectual stimulation by allowing faculty to be
creative in their own development of curriculum and put in place coaches and advisors to reach
the shared goal of quality student-centred programming.
The School of Justice and Emergency Services Leadership
Stephanie Ball, Dean, in her interview, shared, that together with her faculty, the
fundamental value and vision of her academic school is student success and the student
experience. She indicated that her faculty are very committed to working toward improving the
student success. Through my own personal experiences in working with Stephanie, she exudes
Bass (1985) factor of idealized influence. Stephanie is a highly respected Dean throughout the
campus, college system, and most importantly by her constituents in the SOJES. She provides
inspirational motivation (Bass, 1985) by openly role-modeling, aligning, communicating and
sharing the colleges vision of the student experience comes first at Durham College.
Stephanie, in her discussion about her leadership role in the LRIM project, noted that she
provided whatever support the team required but recognized she knew little about the specialized
LRIM discipline. She shared how much she valued the expertise of the development team and
had full confidence in their abilities to develop the program (S. Ball - Interview). Bass (1985)
suggests that transformational leaders display intellectual stimulation toward their constituents
when they show respect and confidence in their constituents (Northouse, 2013). Nicole Doyle
(2014), in her interview, said I found Stephanie was very supportive and open to discussing

17

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM


ideas. I appreciated her openness to our ideas since it really is a specialized area where she had
little personal experience.
Stephanie, during her interview, emphasized that the LRIM team actually defined the
level of support she provided. Nicole stated that Stephanies approach was not to micromanage,
she let us do our thing, but we always knew she was there if we had questions/concerns or
wanted to bounce an idea (N. Doyle - Interview). Stephanie demonstrated transformational
leadership of Bass (1985) individualized consideration factor by acting as a coach and advisor
and providing a supportive climate by listening carefully to the needs (Northouse, 2013) of her
LRIM program team. She indicated that one of her core functions was to ensure the team did not
encounter any barriers that prevented them from acting on the vision, either individually or as a
team. Nicole said Stephanie was in tune with college processes and helped me through those
hurdles as they came up so I could focus on actual curriculum development with the team rather
than having to worry about the logistics of starting the program (N. Doyle - Interview).
Conclusion
Official leadership at Durham College demonstrated transformational leadership in the
development and implementation of the LRIM program. Through the statements in both the
Strategic Plan and Academic Direction supporting new programming, a variety of delivery
methods, and the use of technology to meet the colleges vision, the stage was set for college
employees to challenge and ultimately shift the status quo in college programming
The official college leadership created policies and procedures and put in place
appropriate departmental supports to empower the LRIM program team to move forward with
their vision. In addition, at the academic school level there was clear alignment and support of
the overall college vision of the student experience comes first. The academic school leader

18

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM


fostered a relationship of respect and confidence in her team, and created a participative climate
to explore new approaches and innovations in college programming.
The transformational leadership actions by official leaders at Durham College crafted a
road map to allow an everyday leader, Nicole Doyle, to action on a vision and contribute to the
overarching vision of Durham College the student experience comes first.

19

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM

References
Antonakis, J. (2012). Transformational and Charismatic Leadership. In D.V. Day and J.
Antonakis (eds.), The nature of leadership (2nd ed.) (pp. 256-288). Thousand Oaks, CA:
SAGE Publications, Inc. Retrieved from https://uoit.blackboard.com/bbcswebdav/pid435215-dt-content-rid1571388_1/courses/20130942368.201309/week_4_Antonakis_Transformational_and_Ch
arismatic_Leadership_in_the_nature_of_leadership2.pdf
Ball, S. (2014, June 4). Interview by V.E. Harwood. Handwritten interview notes in
possession of Virginia Harwood.
Bass, B.M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bigum, C. (2012). Schools and computers: tales of a digital romance. In L. Rowand and C.
Bigum (eds.), Transformative Approaches to New Technologies and Student Diversity in
Futures Oriented Classrooms: Future Proofing Education (pp. 15-28). doi:
10.1007/978-94-007-2642_2
Corrigan, J. (2012). Leadership standards: marginalizing diversity. International Journal of
Education. 4(2) 138-146 retrieved from
http://www.macrothink.org/journal/index.php/ije/article/view/1578
Dexter, S. (2008). IT In Schools. In J. Voogt and G. Knezek (eds.), International handbook of
information technology in primary and secondary education (pp. 541-554). Springer
Science + Business Media: US. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-73315-9
Doyle, N. (2014, May 20). Interviewed by V.E. Harwood [Adobe Connect recording].
Interview available with UOIT Adobe Connect login at
http://uoit.adobeconnect.com/p9igukg9l67/

20

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM


Doyle, N. (2014, June 2). Follow-up Interview by V.E. Harwood. E-mail communication in
possession of Virginia Harwood
Durham College (2010). Academic direction 2010-2013. Retrieved from Durham College
Intranet (internal login required).
Durham College (n.d.). Factsheet. Retrieved from
http://www.durhamcollege.ca/about-us/corporate-links/governance/fact-sheet
Durham College (n.d.). Governance Board of Governors. Retrieved from
http://www.durhamcollege.ca/about-us/corporate-links/governance/board-of-governors
Durham College (2011). Learning management system policy and procedure. Retrieved from
Durham College Intranet (internal login required).
Durham College (2013). Legal research and information management program guide.
Retrieved from http://www.durhamcollege.ca/wp-content/uploads/LRIM-ProgramGuide.pdf
Durham College (n.d.). Legal research and information management [Video]. Retrieved from
http://www.durhamcollege.ca/programs/legal-research-and-information-managementgraduate-certificate
Durham College (2011). New program development approval policy and procedure. Retrieved
from Durham College Intranet (internal login required).
Durham College (n.d.). Program coordinator role. Retrieved from Durham College Intranet
(internal login required).
Durham College (n.d.). School of justice & emergency services overview. Retrieved from
http://www.durhamcollege.ca/academic-schools/school-of-justice-emergency-services

21

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM


Durham College (2010). Strategic plan 2010-2013. Retrieved from
http://www.durhamcollege.ca/wp-content/uploads/strategic_plan.pdf
Durham College (n.d.). Vice-President, Academic role and organizational chart. Retrieved
from Durham College Intranet (internal login required).
Givens, R.J. (2008). Transformational leadership: The impact on organizational and personal
outcomes. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1(1), 4-24.
Northouse, P.G. (2013). Leadership: theory and practice (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE
Publications, Inc.
Ontario, Ministry Training, Colleges and Universities (2005). Ministers binding policy directive
on framework for programs of instruction. Retrieved from
http://www.accc.ca/wp-content/uploads/archive/es-ce/MTCUCollegeFramework.pdf

22