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PHLOGISTON

Journal of the History of Science

Belgrade
2014



22 - 2014
UDC 001(091)

ISSN 0354-6640

-
- 51
: 30 37 962; : 32 81 479
-:Phlogiston@MuzejNT.rs

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, 1888, De Jongh
Frres Belgrade en 1888

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.
ON ARCHITECTURE
CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS

279





IV

scientific review

UDK: 519.177

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Accepted for Publication June 26th 2014

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2

Jerry Workman and Art W. Springsteen, eds., Applied Spectroscopy: A Compact


Reference for Practitioners (Boston: Academic Press, 1998).

64

1861. (Thomas Graham)3


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3

Alexander S. Stern and Richard W. Baker, Membrane Pioneers: Thomas


Graham, Membrane Quarterly, 25 (2010): 1719.
4

Slavko Mentus, lektrohemija (Beograd: Univerzitet u Beogradu, Fakultet za


fiziku hemiju, 2008), 176.
5

Goran Bokovi, Heterogena kataliza u teoriji i praksi ( Novi Sad: Univerzitet u


Novom Sadu, Tehnoloki fakultet, 2007).

65


,
.

( 1)
, ,
( 2). , 1981.
, ,
- ,
.6


( 2).

2.

.
2
nm,
Pt
.

1.
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, < 0.1 nm

20. ,

,
.
(Feynman), 1959.

6

Gerd Binnig and Rohrer Heinrich, Scanning tunneling microscopy, IBM Journal
of Research and Development , 30 (1986): 4.

66

.7
(Drexler)8 1981.
,
.

1991. ,
.9

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0), ( 1),
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, Li4Ti5O12
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1985. . ,
(Kroto) 10

60 (C60)
12 20 ,
, 1 ,
. C60
,
7

Richard P. Feynman, Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom, Caltech ngineering


and Science Journal, 23, 5 (1960): 2236. http://calteches.library.caltech.
edu/47/2/1960Bottom.pdf
8

ric K. Drexler, An approach to the development of general capabilities for


molecular manipulation, Proceedings of the National Academy Sciences of the United
States of America, 78, 9 (1981): 52755278.
9 ric K. Drexler, Molecular Machinery and Manufacturing with Applications
to Computation (doktorska teza, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1991).
http://e-drexler.com/d/09/00/Drexler_MIT_dissertation.pdf
10

Harold W. Kroto et al., C60: Buckminsterfullerene, Nature, 318, 6042 (1985):


162163.

67

(R. Buckminster Fuller),


.11
1991. (Iijima)12
,
C60,

,
C60.
210 , 540 , 35
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. 1996, (Smalley)13


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14 1959,
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,
.
2000.

11

Ibid.

12

Sumio Iijima, Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon, Nature, 354, 6348


(1991): 5658.
13

Ting Guo et al., Catalytic growth of single-walled nanotubes by laser


vaporization , Chemical physics letter, 243 (1995): 4954.
14

7.

68


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.16

15

Milica Vujkovi et al., Hydrothermal synthesis of Li4Ti5O12/C nanostructured


composite: morphology and electrochemical performance, Materials Research
Bulletin, 48 (2013): 218223.
16

Jasna Grbovi-Novakovi et al., xperimental and Theoretical Investigation of


Hydrogen Storage in Magnesium Based Composites, Materials Science Forum, 555
(2007): 343.

69

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18

Sug Hyung Lee et al., The growth of carbon nanotubes at the channel ends of
the SAPO4-5 zeolite structures, Diamond & Related Materials, 14 (2005): 1876
1881.
19

Dragana Jugovi et al.,Structural and magnetic characterization of


LiMn1.825Cr0.175O4 spinel obtained by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, Materials
Research Bulletin, 42 (2007): 515522.
20

Subbanna Ayyappan et al., Nanoparticles of nickel and silver produced by the


polyol reduction of the metal salts intercalated in montmorillonite, Solid State
Ionics, 84 (1966): 271281.
21

Nemanja Gavrilov et al., Carbonized polyaniline nanotubes/nanosheetssupported Pt nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization and electrocatalysis,
Materials Letters, 65 (2011): 962965.

71


22:
4Fe3+ + 3BH4+ + 9H2O

4Fe0 + 3H2BO3 + 12H+ + 6H2

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.23
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.
,

.
22

Wei-Xian Zhang, Cao Jiasheng and lliot Daniel, Iron nanoparticles for site
remediation, in Nanotechnology and the nvironment: Applications and Implications,
ed. Barbara Karn, Tina Masciangioli, Wei-xian Zhang, Vicki Colvin, Paul Alivisatos
(Washington: Oxford University Press, 2005), 248261.
23

Slavko Mentus, Gel Combustion synthesis, in Combustion Synthesis, ed.


Maximilian Lackner (: Bentham Science, Bentham E-Books, eISBN: 978-1-60805155-7, 2010), 5571.

72

,

.
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3.24


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3

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a
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24

Ibid.

25

Slavko Mentus, Oxygen reduction on anodically formed TiO2, lectrochimica


Acta, 50 (2004): 2732.
26

Ono Sachiko, Saito Makiko and Asoh Hidetaka, Self-ordering of anodic porous
alumina formed in organic acid electrolytes, lectrochimica Acta, 51 (2005): 827
833.
27

Andrs G. Muoz, Semiconducting properties of self-organized TiO2


nanotubes, lectrochimica Acta, 52 (2007): 41674176.

73

S = ns =

6
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10-4 m ( ,
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.28

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28

Kenneth J. Klabunde, ed., Nanoscale Materials in Chemistry (New York: WileyInterscience, 2001), 24.

75

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(1064 oC).28


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1350 C 6,01 5,71 g cm-3,
(90 nm) 1450 C
6,01 g cm-3.

29

Li Jiang et al., ffects of sintering temperature and particle size on the


translucency of ziconium dioxide dental ceramic, Journal of Materials Science:
Materials in Medicine, 22 (2011): 24292435.

76

5.



.
.
, . -,
, e
e .

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,
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TiO2

30

Paul G. Tratnyek and Richard L. Johnson, Nanotechnologies for environmental


cleanup, NanoToday, 1, 2 (2006): 4448.
31

Daniel P. Hashim et al., Covalently bonded three-dimensional carbon nanotube


solids via boron induced nanojunctions, Scientific Reports, 2 (2012): Article No 363.

77


. (Narr) .32
Brilliant X-3B
( ).
UV ,
) TiO2 ) TiO2 ,
.
TiO2. TiO2

, , ,
TiO2
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. ,

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.
.33


,


.34
,
32

Narr Jaspret, Viraraghavan Thiruvenkatachari and Jin Yee-Chung, Applications


of nanotechnology in water/wastewater treatment: a review, Fresenius
nvironmental Bulletin, 16 (2007): 320329.
33

Nie Shuming et al., Nanotechnology Applications in Cancer, Annual Review of


Biomedical ngineering, 9 (2007): 257288.
34

Nazario Martin, The Revival of Fullerenes?, Electrochemical Society Interface, 22


(2013): 5160.

78


. ,
,

.
, .
,

().
,
(Fe3O4) (-Fe2O3), ,

a.35
7.

- ,

.
,

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,
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,
, LiC6.
,
, :
LiC6 = 6C + Li+ + e
. , ,
Li1-xCoO2 (x ~ 0),

: Li1-xCoO2 + xLi+ + xe- = LiCoO2,
4 V .
4 V.

.
35

Paul Gould, Nanomagnetism shows in vivo potential, Nano Today, 1 (2006):


3539.

79


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), .

, -. ,
5
.

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, ,
,
, ,
.36

9. - .
,
.36


.


.37
36

Slavko Mentus, Savremena ispitivanja litijumskih baterija, Glasnik hemiara,


tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, 6 (2013): 19; MilicaVujkovi et al., Gelcombustion synthesis of LiFePO4/C composite with improved capacity retention in
aerated aqueous electrolyte solution, lectrochimica Acta , 92 (2013): 248256.
37

Vojislav R. Stamenkovic et al., Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with UltraLow Platinum Loading, Science, 315 (2007): 493; Milln W. Martnez, Tanit
Toledano Thompson and Mascha A. Smit, Characterization and lectrocatalytic
Activity of Carbon-supported Polypyrrole-Cobalt-Platinum Compounds,
International Journal of lectrochemical Science, 5 (2010): 931943; Alexei L. N.

80

-
. ,
,
, .
H+ ,
,
OH- .
, ,

.38
.
,
.
,
,
, 30
50 nm.39
- ,
,
,

.

1.Ayyappan, Subbanna, Gonur Nagarajarao Subbanna, Gopalan


R Srinivasa and Chintamani Nagesa Ramachandra Rao.
Nanoparticles of nickel and silver produced by the polyol
reduction of the metal salts intercalated in montmorillonite.
Solid State Ionics, 84 (1966): 271281.

Pinheiro et al., Electrocatalysis on noble metal and noble metal alloys dispersed
over high surface area carbon , Journal of New Materials for Electrochemical Systems,
6 (2003) 18; Kwong-Yu Chan et al., Supported mixed metal nanoparticles as
electrocatalysts in low temperature fuel cells, Journal of Materilas Chemistry, 14
(2004): 505.
38

Nemanja Gavrilov et al., Nanodispersed platinum on chemically treated


nanostructured carbonized polyaniline as a new PMFC catalysts, International
Journal of lectrochemical Science, 7, 8 (2012): 66666676.
39

20.

81

2.Bokovi, Goran. Heterogena kataliza u teoriji i praksi. Novi Sad:


Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Tehnoloki fakultet, 2007.
3.Binnig, Gerd and Rohrer Heinrich. Scanning tunneling
microscopy. IBM Journal of Research and Development, 30
(1986): 4.
4.Chan, Kwong-Yu, Jie Ding, Jiawen Ren, Shaoan Cheng and
Kwok Ying Tsang. Supported mixed metal nanoparticles
as electrocatalysts in low temperature fuel cells. Journal of
Materilas Chemistry, 14 (2004): 505.
5.Drexler, ric K. An approach to the development of general
capabilities for molecular manipulation. Proceedings of the
National Academy Sciences of the United States of America, 78, 9
(1981): 52755278.
6.Drexler, ric K. Molecular Machinery and Manufacturing with
Applications to Computation. Doktorska teza, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, 1991.
http://e-drexler.com/d/09/00/Drexler_MIT_dissertation.pdf
7.Feynman Richard P. Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom.
Caltech ngineering and Science Journal, 23:5 (1960): 2236.
http://calteches.library.caltech.edu/47/2/1960Bottom.pdf
8.Gavrilov, Nemanja M., Igor A. Pati, Gordana iri-Marjanovi,
Vladimir M. Nikoli, Milica P. Mareta Kaninski, epan S.
Miljanic, Slavko V. Mentus. Nanodispersed platinum on
chemically treated nanostructured carbonized polyaniline as a
new PMFC catalysts. International Journal of lectrochemical
Science, 7, 8 (2012): 66666676.
9.Gavrilov, Nemanja, Marina Dai-Tomi, Igor Pati, Gordana
iri-Marjanovi and Slavko Mentus. Carbonized
polyaniline nanotubes/nanosheets-supported Pt nanoparticles:
Synthesis, characterization and electrocatalysis. Materials
Letters, 65 (2011): 962965.
10.Guo, Ting, Pavel Nikolaev, Andreas Thess, Daniel Colbert
and Richard E. Smalley. Catalytic growth of single-walled
nanotubes by laser vaporization. Chemical physics letter, 243
(1995): 4954.

82

11.Grbovi-Novakovi, Jasna, Tanja Brdari, Nikola Novakovi,


Ljiljana Matovi, Amelia Montone and Slavko Mentus.
xperimental and Theoretical Investigation of Hydrogen
Storage in Magnesium Based
Composites. Materials
Science Forum, 555 (2007): 343.
12.Gould, Paula. Nanomagnetism shows in vivo potential.
Nanotoday, 1 (2006): 3539.
13.Hashim, Daniel P., Narayanan T. Narayanan, Jose M. RomoHerrera, David A. Cullen, Myung Gwan Hahm, Peter Lezzi,
Joseph R. Sutlle, Doug Kelkoff, Emilio Muoz-Sandoval,
Sabyasachi Ganguli, Ajit K. Roy, David J. Smith, Robert Vajtai,
Babby G. Sumpter, Vincent Meunier, Humberto Terrones,
Mauricio Terrones and Pulickel M. Ajayan. Covalently bonded
three-dimensional carbon nanotube solids via boron induced
nanojunctions. Scientific Reports, 2 (2012): Article No 363.
14.Iijima, Sumio. Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon.
Nature, 354, 6348 (1991): 5658.
15.Jaspreet, Narr, Viraraghavan Thiruvenkatachari and Jin YeeChung. Applications of nanotechnology in water/wastewater
treatment: a review. Fresenius nvironmental Bulletin, 16
(2007): 320329.
16.Jugovi, Dragana, Nikola Cvjetianin, Vladan Kusigerski,
Miodrag Mitri, Momilo Miljkovi, Darko Makovec and
Dragan Uskokovi. Structural and magnetic characterization
of LiMn1.825Cr0.175O4 spinel obtained by ultrasonic spray
pyrolysis. Materials Research Bulletin, 42 (2007): 515522.
17.Jiang, Li, Yunmao Liao, Qianbing Wan and Wei Li. ffects of
sintering temperature and particle size on the translucency of
yiconium dioxide dental ceramic. Journal of Materials Science:
Materials in Medicine, 22 (2011): 24292435.
18.Kroto, Harold W., Richard . Smalley, Robert F. Curl and John
Richard Heath. C60: Buckminsterfullerene. Nature, 318, 6042
(1985): 162163.
19.Klabunde, Kenneth J., ed. Nanoscale Materials in Chemistry. New
York: Wiley-Interscience, 2001.
20.Martnez, Milln W.,Tanit Toledano Thompson and Mascha

83

A. Smit. Characterization and lectrocatalytic Activity of


Carbon-supported Polypyrrole-Cobalt-Platinum Compounds.
International Journal of lectrochemical Science, 5 (2010): 931943.
21.Martin, Nazario. The Revival of Fullerenes? Electrochemical
Society Interface, 22 (2013): 5160.
22.Mentus, Slavko. Savremena ispitivanja litijumskih baterija.
Glasnik hemiara, tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, 6 (2013):
19.
23.Mentus, Slavko. Oxygen reduction on anodically formed TiO2.
lectrochimica Acta, 50 (2004): 2732.
24.Mentus, Slavko. lektrohemija. Beograd: Univerzitet u Beogradu,
Fakultet za fiziku hemiju, 2008, 176.
25. Mentus, Slavko. Gel Combustion synthesis. In Combustion
Synthesis, edited by Maximilian Lackner, 5571. Bentham
Science, 2010. (Bentham, E-Books, eISBN: 978-1-60805-1557).
26.Muoz, Andrs G. Semiconducting properties of self-organized
TiO2 nanotubes. lectrochimica Acta, 52 (2007): 41674176.
27.Okamoto Atsuto and Hisanori Shinohara. Control of diameter
distribution of singlewalled carbon nanotubes using zeolite
CCVD method at atmospheric pressure. Carbon, 43 (2005):
431436.
28.Pinheiro Alexei L. N., Almir Oliviera-Neto, Elki C. De Souza,
Joelma Perez, Valdecir A. Paganin, Edison A.Ticianeli and
Ernesto R. Gonzalez. Electrocatalysis on noble metal and
noble metal alloys dispersed over high surface area carbon.
Journal of New Materials for Electrochemical Systems, 6 (2003): 18
29.Sachiko, Ono, Saito Makiko and Asoh Hidetaka. Self-ordering
of anodic porous alumina formed in organic acid electrolytes.
lectrochimica Acta, 51 (2005): 827833.
30.Shuming, Nie, Yun Xing, Gloria J. Kim, and Jonathan W. Simons.
Nanotechnology Applications in Cancer. Annual Review of
Biomedical ngineering, 9 (2007): 257288.

84

31.Stamenkovic, Vojislav R., Ben Fowler, Bongjin Simon Mun,


GuofengWang, PhilipN. Ross, Christopher A.Lucas and Nenad
M. Markovic. Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with UltraLow Platinum Loading. Science, 315 (2007): 493.
32.Stern, Alexander S. and Richard W. Baker. Membrane Pioneers:
Thomas Graham. Membrane Quarterly, 25 (2010): 1719.
33.Tratnyek, Paul G. and Richard L. Johnson. Nanotechnologies
for environmental cleanup. NanoToday, 1, 2 (2006): 4448.
34.Vujkovi, Milica, Ivana Stojkovi, Miodrag Mitri, Slavko Mentus
and Nikola Cvjetianin. Hydrothermal synthesis of Li4Ti5O12/C
nanostructured composite: morphology and electrochemical
performance. Materials Research Bulletin, 48 (2013): 218223.
35.Vujkovi, Milica, Ivana Stojkovic, Nikola Cvjeticanin and Slavko
Mentus. Gel-combustion synthesis of LiFePO4/C composite
with improved capacity retention in aerated aqueous electrolyte
solution. lectrochimica Acta, 92 (2013): 248256.
36.Workman, Jerry and Art W. Springsteen, ed. Applied Spectroscopy:
A Compact Reference for Practitioners. Boston: Academic Press,
1998.
37.Wei-Xian Zhang, Cao Jiasheng and lliot Daniel. Iron
nanoparticles for site remediation. In Nanotechnology and the
nvironment: Applications and Implications, edited by Barbara
Karn, Tina Masciangioli, Wei-xian Zhang, Vicki Colvin and Paul
Alivisatos, 248261. Washington: Oxford University Press,
2005.

85

Slavko V. Mentus
The University in Belgrade, Faculty for Physical Chemistry and
Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Belgrade
NANOMATERIALS: STATE IN WHICH PHYSICOCHEMICAL
PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS DEPEND ON PARTICLE
DIMENSIONS

The terms: nanoparticles, nanomaterials and nanoengineering,


came into literature in the early 1990s. Their appearance was
connected to the names of Nobel Prize winner, physicist Feynman,
and its follower Drexler. Initially, these terms were related primarily
to the synthesis and manipulations with ball-like carbon molecules
fullerenes, and carbon tubes of nanometric radii. However, the
researchers working with finely dispersed matter, primarily through
colloid chemistry and heterogeneous catalysis, recognized that
their research area fitted easily with the terms nanomaterials and
nanosciences. Some discrepancies related to particle dimensions
emphasized in the literature by the term nanoparticles, was resolved
in 2011by authorized European Commission, which accepted
the convention that nanomaterials are generally either natural
or artificial, atomic or molecular aggregates, with at least one
dimension within the limits 1-100 nm, assuming that within these
limits one may observe the transition from the atomic/molecular
properties to the properties of macroscopic matter.
A rapid development of different types of modern electron
microscopes from 1980s, which made possible the direct observation
of single atoms and their arrays within the nanoparticles, enabled a
fast development of various areas of nanosciences.
The nanomaterials may be synthesized in different ways. The widest
group of synthesis methods starts from the sampling of atoms
or molecules, from either gas or liquid phase, into nanoparticle
aggregates, under a careful control of particle growth. Another
way is the dispersing of the coarse particles by special mills to
nanodimesnions. In the synthesis, long experience of chemists
and physicochemists working traditionally in catalysis and colloid
chemistry was very useful.
The application of nanoparticles is based on the dependence of its

86

many physicochemical characteristics on the particle dimensions.


Their very developed specific surface area enables high adsorption
characteristics, which is useful in detergents and in both soil and
marine surface remediation. Thanks to a high percentage of very
mobile surface atoms relative to the total number of atoms, the
sintering of nanoparticles is feasible at relatively low temperatures,
which simplifies the production of compact refractory materials
from nanodispersed powders.
Thanks to their easy transport in living tissues, the use of
nanoparticles for targeted delivery of drugs to ill organs is an
important research area in modern medicine. An alternative way of
the application in medicine is to shadow the ill tissues by suitable
nanoparticles to make them more visible in imaging by NMR
spectroscopy.
In Li-ion batteries, small particle radius was very useful in shortening
the time of lithium insertion and deinsertion, enabling a desirable
level of battery power to become applicable in electromobiles.
The possibility to obtain high surface area of platinum by its
nanodispersion, enabled its high electrocatalytic effectiveness in
fuel cells aimed also to run modern electric cars. The application of
nanoparticulate matter is not limited to the cited examples, which
are used only to illustrate the significance of nanosciences and
nanotechnologies in modern life.
Key words: nanomaterials, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, colloid
chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis, synthesis


26.06.2014.

87

88

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31

Sima Lozanitsch, Anslysen der serbischen Mineralwasser, Berichte der deutschen


chemischen Gesellschaft, 20 (1887): 114.
32

, ,
( : -
, 1886), 160.
33

, ,
, 35 (1900): 104157.
34

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, 11. 1889,
, 14. 1890, 26. 4. 1890, 2930.

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. 7. 1893 (:
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(: . , 1894), 152.
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567.

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,
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. 151
1861. 1872. .48
,
, ,
.49 19.
.

45

, , , 83
(1911): 5571.
46

Marco Lecco, Ueber das Vorkommen von Jod im Wasser, Zeitschrift fr


Analytische Chemie, 35 (1896): 318.
47

arco Lecco, Bestimmung des Lithiums im Wasser, Zeitschrift fr Analytische


Chemie, 49 (1909): 286.
48

, , 80; . , .

49

, , 231; , .

111

18.
19.

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, ,
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45
50

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113

, , a , .
,
.
1892.
.51

.52

21.

19. ,
.53
51

, , ,
4 (1892): 125; , , 230232.
52

, ,
, 50 (1881): 589600; Sima M. Lozanitsch, Analysen der serbischen
fossilen Kohlen, Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft, 20 (1887): 2716
2718.
53

Sima M. Lozanitsch, Die radioaktiven Cinnabaryte, Berichte der deutschen


chemischen Gesellschaft, 37 (1904): 29042906; ,
, , 69 (1905): 120.

114

1881. , ,
37 .54

22.


,
.
2.5.
, 1877.
,
.55 ,

,
, ,
,
.56
,
, .

54

, , 53.

55

Sima M. Lozanitsch , Das Metheor Sokol-Banja in Serbien, Berichte der


deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft, 11 (1878): 9698.
56

, -. ,
, 48 (1892): 102.

115

57 .58
2.6. (, )
,
,
: , .59
1835. , ,
,
. 1838.
1839.
.
,
( , ),
.
,
.

: ,
, ,
.
, -
, -.
, :
5 (Al2O32SiO22H2O)
CrO2SiO22HO
: 46,37% SiO2, 30,18% Al2O3, 9,75% Cr2O3,
0,91% Fe2O3, MgO, K2O, 13,76% H2O.
57

, ,
, 4 (1892): 119125.
58

Sima M. Lozanitsch, Analyse des Metheoriten Jelica, Berichte der deutschen


chemischen Gesellschaft, 25 (1892): 876880.
59

, ,
, 7 (1884): 249; , ,
, , 41 (1894): 1; Sima M. Lozanitsch, Ueber
Miloschin, Alexandrolit and Avalit, Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft, 28
(1895): 2631; Sima M. Lozanitsch, Miloshin, Alexandrolit and Avalit, Chem. News,
69 (1894).

116

, :
2 (AlO3SiO2HO)
CrO3SiO2HO
: 52,07% SiO2, 20,76% Al2O3, 13,74% Cr2O3,
2,22% Fe2O3, MgO, K2O, 10,88% H2O.
.
.

. 1884. ,
, 1893. ,
.
:
(H2AlSi3O10)H2K4MgSi3O10
: 54,66% SiO2, 20,46% Al2O3, 10,88% Cr2O3, 1,8%
Fe2O3, 2,06% MgO, 4,61% K2O, 5,66% H2O.
.
2.7.
,

.
. , 1877.
, - ,

.
,
.

.
.
, ,

117

.60
,
. .


.61
.62

,
19. ,
,

.63

23


60

, , , 23 (1880): 251252.

61

, , 232233.

62

, , 234236.

63

118

2.8.
19. ,

.
,
.

, .64

24


,
, .

. 23 .
- , ,
.
. 1890,
,65
. 22
,

64

, 1914. , , 13
(2005): 10.
65

, I,
, 27 (1890): 127; Sima M. Lozanitsch, Ueber die aromatische
Dithiokarbamate, Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft, 24 (1891): 3021
3028.

119

. I66
()
, II67

.

.

25

19. .

20. .
13 , .68

, .

.
,69
( I, II, III, IV i VI),
.

66

, - (I),
, 95 (1921): 7988; Sima M. Lozanitsch , Note on Dithiocarbazinic Acid,
Journal of the Chemical Society, 119 (1921): 763765.
67

, II, ,
103 (1922): 311; Sima M. Lozanitsch , Note on the decomposition of the
Dithiocarbazinates, Journal of the Chemical Society, 121 (1922): 763765.
68

, , 215219.

69

Aleksandar Oparin, The Origin of Life (Moscow: Moscow Worker publisher, 1924,
1936, 1956; 1947).

120

1897.
- ,
, .

. 20. ,
,

.
1955. (S. Miller),70
, e
-.
- ,
I, IV VI.
, 19. 20.
,
, -,
.

26
70

Sneana Bojovi, The contributions of Sima Lozani to science, Journal of


the Serbian Chemical Society, 57 (1992): 225264; Stanley Miller, Production of
some organic compounds under possible primitive Earth conditions, Journal of the
American chemical Society, 77 (1955): 2351.

121

19. 20. ,
.
2.9. -
.
, 1859.
1871. ,
1852.
. ,
,
.
1864. 1866. e.71
-, ,
.

27 (1866)


.
.
71

, -, 1864, IV-30; , -, 1866, V-82.

122

28

29

123



. 72
-, 73
.
.74
2.10.

.
,
:
, , ,
, ,
, , ,
,
- , ,
;
,
,
.75
72

,
, , 910 (1897):
460463, 499502; Marco Lecco, Ueber die mikrochemische Erkennung der
Spermaflecken in gerichtlichen Fllen, Chemische Zeitung, 1 (1898): 5455.
73

Marco Lecco, Ueber die Nachweisung der Quecksilbers und des Sublimats
bei toxicologischer Untersuchung organischer Substanzen, Berichte der deutschen
chemischen Gesellschaft, 19 (1886): 11751176; ,
,
, 68 (1889): 214217; Marco Lecco, Zur Kenntnis der
Quecksilbernachweisung bei toxicologischen Untersuchungen, Berichte der
deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft , 24 (1891): 928929; Marco Lecco, The detection
of mercury by toxicological analysis of volatile poisons, Reprented of the Seventh
International Congress of Applied Chemistry (London: 1909); Marco Lecco, Ueber
den Nachweis von Quecksilber und Quecksilberverbindungen in toxikologischen
Fllen, Zeitschrift fr analytische Chemie, 49 (1910): 283284.
74

, , 53; Rudolf Kobert, Anleitung zur Ausstellung der Gifte


(Braunschweig: 1896), 221; Rudolf Kobert, Lehrbuch der Intoxikationen (Stuttgart:
1893), 275276; Georg Dragendorff, Die gerichtlich chemische Ermittelung von Giften
(in Nahrungsmitteln, Luftgemischen, Speiseresten, Krpertheilen etc.) (Getingen:1888),
391.
75

,
(: ,
1891); ,
(: , 1892), 145; ,

124

30.


.


, ,
, 1 (1891): 105116; Marco Lecco, Falsifications
observe en Serbie. Extrait du rapport annuel prsent au Conseil munisipal de
Belgrade, Revue internationale des falsifications, 5 (1891): 115116; Marco Lecco,
Falschungen in Serbien, Revue internationale des falsifications, 5 (1892): 115116;
Marco Lecco, Falsifications observe en Serbie. Extrait du rapport annuel prsent
au Conseil munisipal de Belgrade, Revue internationale des falsifications, 6 (1893):
7778.

125

,
1892. ,
, , , ,
.

, 1906.
.

, ,
,

. Chemiker
Zeitung-. ,
, , , , , ,

.
.76

19.
, ,
, , ,
,
,
.
,
,
.
19.
.
,
,
,
,
19. ,
, ,


.

76

, , 177188.

126


1. ,
.

2. , 18901897.
3. , . (18531932).
4. : , 1998.
4. , . .
1, . . :
,
, 1995.
5. , . :
, .
, 48, 3 (1983): 79105.
6. , . XIX . :
, 1989.
7. , . (18271872).
1. : , 1896.
8. , . , 18471935. :
, 1996.
9. , . (18471935).
1. : , 1996.
10. , . (18601928).
3. : , 1998.
11. , . 1914.
. , 13 (2005): 10.
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science. Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, 57 (1992): 225
264.
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1992.
14. , , .
, . : ,
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127

15. , .
. : ,
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16. Dragendorff, Georg. Die gerichtlich chemische Ermittelung
von Giften in Nahrungsmitteln, Luftgemischen, Speiseresten,
Krpertheilen etc.. Getingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht,1888.
17. , .
1834 . , 2 (1955): 39.
18. , , .
. :
. , 1893.
19. Kobert, Rudolf . Anleitung zur Ausstellung der Gifte. Braunschweig:
1896.
20. Kobert, Rudolf. Lehrbuch der Intoxikationen. Stuttgart: 1893.
21. , . .
. 7. 1893.
: , 1894.
22. , . .
. . .
. : . ,
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23. , , . . . .
,
. :
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24. , .
. :
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. , 23 (1956): 66.
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128

29. , . . .
, 3, 3 (1932): 128140.
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.
1904. : 1904.
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. , 17.
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129

Sneana D. Bojovi
The University in Belgrade, Faculty of Chemistry, Belgrade
THE FIRST CHEMICAL LABS IN SERBIA

The first chemical labs in Serbia, in which chemistry is rooted,


developed simultaneously with the development of the Serbian
state in the 19th century. After a few centuries of slavery under the
Turks, in 1830 Serbia gained limited independence and a possibility
to establish schools and certain state institutions, among others
institutions in which chemistry was developing.
Until the last decade of the 19th century, only two chemical labs
existed in Serbia: the State Chemical Lab, which developed from
the State Pharmacy, and Lyceum, i.e. Great School Laboratory.
Development of chemistry in both labs was taking place continuously,
almost simultaneously: in the State Chemical Lab from the first
simple analyses by Pavle Ili in the State Pharmacy in the 1830s
and 1840s, to sophisticated and accurate analytical methods of
Marko Lek, some of which entered professional German literature
and textbook; in the Lyceum and Great School Laboratory from
the first analyses of minerals and forged money by Mihail Rakovi
in the 1850s and 1860s, to complex analyses of natural wealth
of the soil, organic syntheses and electro-chemical reactions of his
successor Sima Lozani, who was publishing his works in the best
known European magazines.
Until the 1870s, in Serbia there was one pharmacist-chemist and
one professor of chemistry who were working in the Lyceum and
Great School. Extensive and diverse work of the first pharmacist
and first chemist contributed to fast development of chemistry and
education of young people. In the last years of the 19th century,
there were about thirty chemists working in Serbia (in laboratories
and schools). All chemists would go through one of these two
laboratories, and most of them would later continue advanced
education in the best European schools. Educated young chemists
would return to Serbia and develop chemical science there.
Keywords: State chemical laboratory, Lyceum laboratory,
Great School laboratory, analytical chemistry, chemical analyses,
sanitary-chemical analyses, hygiene analyses, analyses of mineral
waters, analyses of minerals, analyses of money.

26.06.2014.

130

UDK: 615.212.01:004

-1
, , ,


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QSAR ( )
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lmicovic@chem.bg.ac.rs

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( 172032).

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.
,
: ,
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2.

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) ,
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2.
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hyperalgesia in chronic pain patients after one month of oral morphine therapy: a
preliminary prospective study, Journal of Pain, 7 (2006): 4348.
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B V. Sorochinskii, A I. Prokhnevskii and Dmitri Mikhalovich Grodzinskii, Method


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598.
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, :
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7

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Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 46, 13 (2001): 326.

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5.
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, ,
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QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship).8 3D-QSAR

.

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.,
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6.
8

Alan Hinchliffe, Molecular Modeling for Beginners 2nd ed. (Chichester: UK, Wiley,
2008); Chanin Nantasenamat, Chartchalerm Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya and Virapong
Prachayasittikul, Advances in computational methods to predict the biological
activity of compounds, Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery, 5 (2010): 633654.

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,
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139

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, ,
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120 3R4S 6
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10

Ljiljana Doen-Miovi, Milovan Ivanovi and Vuk Miovi, Steric interactions


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Milan Senanski and Ljiljana Doen-Miovi, In Silico Study of the Structurally


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:
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),
,
, .,

. ,

.
,

.


, .
,
12
Bartosz Trzaskowski et al., Action of molecular switches in GPCRs, Current
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144

Ljiljana Doen-Miovi
The University in Belgrade, Center for Chemistry, IHTM, Belgrade
USING COMPUTERS TO DEVELOP NEW PAINKILLERS

This article gives an overview of some of the computational


methods that are used in discovery of new drugs. Starting from
isolation of pharmacologically active compounds from plants
and from synthetic modifications of known drugs, it is described
how computational methods can help in drug discovery. The main
principle of QSAR methods ( type of ligand-based methods) is
explained, where medications are searched for on the basis of
similarity, in structure and properties, with the existing drugs.
Also described is docking method, which belongs into the group of
structure-based methods and which requires knowledge of structure
of biological receptors. These structures are either determined
experimentally, for example by means of crystallography, or were
modeled by computational methods. Docking method is often used
in combination with the method of molecular dynamics, which is
also described. Molecular dynamics is a computational method that
enables monitoring of a drug-receptor interaction and a change in
the receptor structure that may result in the desired medical effect.
The use of these computational methods is illustrated with examples
from the chemistry of analgesics, the effect of which is connected
to the interaction with their natural receptors, proteins of the
G-protein coupled family. It is shown how, by using computational
methods, the process of drug discovery is made easier and faster.
Keywords: molecular modeling, drug design, ligand-receptor
interactions, docking method, molecular dynamics, G-protein
coupled receptors, activation of receptors


26.06.2014.

145

146

UDK: 54

1
, ,


20.


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, ,
.


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.
,

19471952. ,
,
, , ,
, ,
20. .
,
,

.
,
,
.
1

mecanov@gmail.com

147


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, ,

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148

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.


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.
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.
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, 19191979
(: , 1979).
5

,
,
( : , 1960), I-2; (
, , , 19-20.10.1960).
6

,
, , , ,
, 27. 2012,
20. 2014, http://mecanov-dragana.blogspot.com/2012/05/postkolonijalnaarhitektura-i-urbanizam.html.
7

, (: XX , 1999).

149

2.
20.
,

.

(), , , ,
()
() .
,
1929.


.8
8

, 43, .
,
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, ,
. 1947.
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. 1965.

150

1950. , ,
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, 12


. 13
, .
,
, ,
.
, ,
2014, http://www.institutims.rs/ims/istorijat.html, .
9

Ibid.

10

, (19701986),
, 2014,
http://stanovanje.yolasite.com/osnivanje.php, .
11
12
13

Ibid.
Ibid.
,

151

3. ,

,

. ,

, ,
, .
, , : ...
,
, ...
.

,14 :
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).16
,
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.
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, 32/IV/83 5/88.
,
1975. 1990.
.
14

,
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, 83, , , , 1213. 5.
1983. ), .
15

Ibid.

16

Ibid..

152


.17 ,
,
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, ,
,
.
:


,
,18 ...
,

.19


,
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.20
17

Ibid.

18

Ibid.

19

Ibid.

20

Ibid..

153

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)

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21

Ibid.

22

., :
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, 1977).
23

Ibid.

154

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25

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155

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26

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27

Ibid.

28

Ibid..

156

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.
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.30
,
.
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,

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.31

,
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29

Ibid.

30

, (

, 83, , , , 1213. 5.
1983), .
31

Ibid.

157

.32
,
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,
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.
.33

.
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.
32

Ibid.

33

, ,
(:
, 1960), IId-1IId-22.

158

,
,
,
.34

.
,
,
.
, ,
,
.


-.
,
.

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,
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,
.35 :



.36
,
.

.
34

Ibid.

35

14.

36

Ibid.

159


.37


,
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. ...

60
.
150 450
.38
,
-
,

.
.


,
.



.
3, ,
.39
3

,40
,
,
.
,
, ,
37

Ibid.

38

Ibid.

39

III
, .
Vinja Kuko, Razvoj Splita III od 1968. do 2009. godine, Prostor 18 (2010):
167177.
40

III ,
.

160

, . : ,

, ,
() ,
.

1971. .
,
, ,

.
, , ,
.41

,
,
, , .
. ,42
,
, . (A.Musso),
, . (S. Thyberg),
,

. (B.Fromes)
, .
(Erich Panzhauser)
.43


, .
,
.
,
41


,
.

.
, ,
(: , 2003).
42

, 1/1978,
, 32 (1978), .
43

14.

161

,

.44
, : ,
.


.45
:
...

.
,
, ,
.46
5.

20. ,
,


.47
,




.48

,
,
j
.

, ,
44

Ibid.

45

Ibid.

46

Ibid.

2.

47
48

Ibid.

162

, ,
,
, ,
.
,


.49

, -,

,
.

, ,
.
- ()
()

,
,
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.

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,
.50
49

Ibid.

50

Ibid..

163



, 1976. (
),51 ,
,52



.
. ,

-,
, .

,
, ,53 .
1977. ,
,
.54


, ,

, , 1978.
,

.55
.
, ,


,
(),
.
51

Ibid.

52

, 19762009 (
: , 2010).

Dragana Mecanov and Milo Djikic, Sofware for Review and Combinatorics of
Spatial Organization of Apartmens Built in Prefabricated Industrialized Systems
(on INDIS 2012, 12th International scientific conference on planning, design,
construction and building renewal, University of Novi Sad, Faculty of technical
Sciences, Novi Sad, Serbia, 28th30th, november, 2012).
53

54

2.

55

Ibid.

164

, 1978. 1979.
.56
, :
, ,
-

.57
, ,
, ,

.

,
,
.58

, -



,
.59

, ,
, ,


, .60



,
.61

56

Ibid.

57

Ibid.

58

Ibid.

59

Ibid.

60

Ibid.

61

Ibid.

165

6.
,
,
, ,
, . 21.
, ,

.
?
,

,
.
. ,
,

. ,
,

. ,
-

, .
:


? ,

, , ,
, o
,
,
.

,
,
. ,


,
,
.

166


1. , . . :
, 1956.
2. , . .
, IV, 2, , 2629. :
, 1950.
3. , .
.
, IId-1IId-22. :
, 1960.
4. , .
19762009. :
, 2010.
5. , .
.

, 83, , ,
, 1213. 5. 1983.
6. , .
.
, ,
, 125132.
: , 2010.
7. , .
.
, IIg-3. :
, 1960.
8. . .
, 43, .
2014. http://www.institutims.rs/ims/istorijat.html
9. , , .
. : ,
2003.
10. Kuko, Vinja. Razvoj Splita III od 1968. do 2009. godine.
Prostor 18 (2010): 167177.
11. , .
- .
, ,
, 6976. :
, 2010.

167

12. , . 1947
1967. : , 2008.
13. , . ()

( 1947. 1967.
). VIII,
, 151170. :
, 2007.
14. , .
XX . IX,
, 129154.
:
, 2008.
15. , .
1947. 1970. . XII,
, 113140. :
, 2009.
16. , .
. XI,
, 79101. :
, 2010.
17. Mecanov, Dragana i Milo Djikic. Sofware for Review and
Combinatorics of Spatial Organization of Apartmens Built
in Prefabricated Industrialized Systems. On INDIS 2012,
12th International scientific conference on planning, design,
construction and building renewal, University of Novi Sad,
Faculty of technical Sciences, Novi Sad, Serbia, 28th30th,
november, 2012.
18. Mecanov, Dragana. The Installations in Residential Buildings
Built in Precast Systems The Approach f The Solution f the
Problems f Renovation. On Fourth International Symposium
Installation and Architecture, Architecture Faculty, Belgrade
University, Belgrade, Serbia, November 7th, 2013.
19. Mecanov, Dragana. Typology of architectural complexes
and housing units built using prefabricated systems. In
III International Symposium for students of doctoral studies in
the fields of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Environmental
Protection, PHIDAC 2011, edited by Vlastimir Radonjanin and
Nadja Kurtovic-Folic, 157164. Novi Sad: University of Novi
Sad, Faculty of technical Sciences, 2011.
20. Mecanov, Dragana, The typology of architectural structures
and flats bilt using the IMS system. ,

168

,
, 195200. :
, 2010.
21. , .
1/1978. , 32 (1978),
.
22. , .
19191979. : , 1979.
23. Navarro Campos, Nelson. Implementation and developement
of IMS building technology in Cuba.
, ,
, 215220.
: , 2010.
24. , .
.

, 83, , ,
, 1213. 5. 1983.
25. , .
. ,
,
, 3. : , 2010.
26. , , , ,
.
. ,
, -
. :
, 1977.
27. , . . :
XX , 1999.
28. .

.
,
I-2. : , 1960;
,
, , 19-20.10.1960.
29. , ,
,
. http://mecanovdragana.
blogspot.com/2012/05/postkolonijalna-arhitektura-iurbanizam.html

169

30. / Serbian architects. , ., 2012.


.
: . : 1. O
. . 15. 2014. http://
serbianarchitects.yolasite.com/
31. . (1970
1986).
. 2014. http://stanovanje.yolasite.
com/osnivanje.php
32., .
.

, 83, , ,
, 1213. 5. 1983.

170

Dragana Mecanov
Projmetal ad, Bureau for Architectural Design, Belgrade
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN THE CONTEXT OF APARTMENT
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 20TH
CENTURY

A few years after the end of World War Two and for Yugoslavia in
the upcoming period of economic recovery, industrialization and
economic growth, the realization of a very noble idea begins the
idea to uproot social inequalities.
These ideas originate in revolutionary cries from the eighteenth
century, in the French ideal of freedom, equality and brotherhood.
The abstract ideas are gaining their material contours only in the
early twentieth century, with the appearance of modernistic theories
of art and architecture and increasingly frequently published
works on architecture and urbanism of the new age. After World
War Two, we can say that modernism is becoming an acceptable
movement in accordance with the dominant and powerful ideology,
trend of reconstruction of the country, industrialization, struggle
for the working class and its social rights. Although the actors of
the post-War period, and the second half of the twentieth century,
had before them an ambitious political and social objective that
was difficult to achieve, housing needs and housing policies bile
were essential elements of the dominant ideology, which sought to
reduce the shortage of apartments in the cities.
The first five-year plan of industrialization of the country (1947
1952) in Yugoslavia was adopted for the purpose of industrialization
of the economy and other areas, as well as solving major economic
problems. In the available literature, we find serious and intensive
development of related scientific fields, as well as application of
the ideas primenu of prefabricated building, only from the mid
1950s, and later increasingly more often during 1960s, 1970s and
the first half of 1980s 80-ih.
Some of the best known and most commonly used technologies
in residential architecture, but also in architecture of public and
industrial buildings, resulted from research institutes, as well as
construction companies that were investing in scientific research.
Unfortunately, such affirmative relationship between economy and
scientific research, which were supporting and understanding each
other, was never repeated after that period.
In order to understand the problem and providing a more realistic

171

picture of the importance of scientific research in the field of


technologies, prefabricated construction, design and materials, the
article explores the relationship between the key actors in this process
during several decades. In order to create an objective picture, it
is important to demystify the mutual relations of researchers and
other actors in the system of residential construction researchers
and designers, researchers and investors, public authorities, users,
etc..
It has been confirmed through analysis that the technologies were
not affirmative or negating in themselves. They were (like internet
and social networks) generally neutral, not determined in terms
of ideological, class, politics or ethnicity. It is through physical
forms of residential architecture, as well as public buildings, that
prefabrication technologies revealed those ideas that had already
existed in the society already, i.e. had been adopted dominant.
In addition, the paper also touched on a number of important
questions: How did the technologies function in the service of
political ideas on housing and social equality? Can the genesis of
ideas in technology and scientific disciplines be connected with the
parallel development of architecture of a specific movement and
with its stylistic features?
The ambitious, and somewhat utopian goal the eradication
of social inequalities, ensuring healthy living for all citizens, the
exercise of occupancy rights was getting closer, but was still
elusive. Achieving this goal was largely supported by housing
policies, which were changed over time, but one can not say that
there was continuity in their implementation. Technologies into
the development of which the most resources were invested, with
the cause-and-effect relationships, were technologies in which the
largest number of housing units were implemented. Observed from
the perspective of time, the development of the first technologies
produced artifacts of reduced forms and modest formal potential.
The increasing development of technologies of industrialized
prefabricated construction in the skeletal system opened a space
to more creativity and possibilities for realization of more diverse
forms.
There is a question of whether today, when the information is
more accessible and technologies insufficiently developed, i.e. less
present in practice as dominant, we have the right, or if there is any
point in giving the assessment of achievements in technological
development and scientific research of the previous era? The
answer is certainly yes, because today there is sufficient historical

172

distance more than 30 years have passed from the observed


period, the realization of the last analyzed examples and scientific
conferences held. In addition, the exploitation of these residential
buildings showed certain experience, value in use and problems
that have possibly occurred. Current estimates are that further
study, research and practice related to residential architecture in
prefabricated systems will be focused on finding solutions for their
reconstruction, revival and the increasingly needed energy remedy
of post-war residential buildings.
What is missing in the modern construction industry are primarily
large investments, i.e. realization. Potential scientific research
could be applied or reviewed on them. They currently exist in other,
more developed parts of the world and more populated countries,
but not in our country.
Keywords: history of technologies, prefabrication, institutes,
construction
industry,
mass
residential
construction,
industrialization


26.06.2014.

173

174

175

176

. 1
,


.

,

.
.

,

.
19. ,
. ,

.
, ,

.
, , ,


.

snezana.toseva@muzejnt.rs

177

: , , ,


,
.
,
, ,
.
,


.
.
,
,
.2 ,
,
-
,
.3


,
. ,

,
.

. (Tony
Garnier), (Peter Behrens), (Walter
Gropius), (Le Corbusier) (Alvar Aalto)
.
,
,

.4
2

, (:
, 1972), 6.
3

Ibid., 6, 7.

Ibid., 10.

178

,
,

.

, .5

, .6
,
-
.



.7
,
.8
,
.

,

.

19. 20.
.
19. ,
,
.
19. ,
. . ,
, , , ,
(Jan Dubov), (
), , , ,
, , ,
, , ,
,
19. 20. .
5

-, , , 41 (2003): 12.

Ibid.

, , I ,
(: , 1950), 15.
8

Ibid.

179




.9


.

,
.

,

. ,

. ,

.

, ,
.
,
,
,
20. .


.
10, ,

9

, , 12 (1971): 63.

10

(18971967) 1923.
. ,
,

. ,
, .
: , 7:
, 1 (1981): 4551; ,
, XXVIIXXVIII (1995
96): 237251; , , ,
(: , ,
1998); -,
19451967 (: , 2002); , ,
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,
. (1961)
1961. 1962.
. ,

.
,

.

1. . , , 1961,

2. . , , 1963,


(1963)
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,
11

, ., ,
, - , 2 (:
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181

- .

,
,
.
(1964)
.
,

. ,

.12

3. . ,
, 1964,


,
13 .

1931.
-,
,
12

. :
, 19541956, ;
, 1955, ; , 1960, .
13

(18991973) 1924.
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,
. ,
, .
: , 13:
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,
. ,
,
.

4. . , -,
, 1931,

1933.

( ).15

,
.

,
.
14


-
.
-, , 25. 6. 1931, 9;
, , 18. 8. 1931,
7.
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. ,
, , 9. 5. 1933, 4;
, , 13. 5. 1933,
3; , , 12. 8. 1933, 5;
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6. . ,
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,
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.
1953. , ,
-.

. ,
.

7. . , , 1953, ,

(1957)

. ,

,

.
16

. : ,
1931, ; ( . ),
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, 1938, ;
, 1939, ; , 1941, ;
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9. . , ,
1958, ,

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18

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(19222012) 1952.
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(19581959)

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(19211992) 1950.
. 1949.
.

190


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1. Gombo, Stjepan. Industrijska arhitektura (referat odran na


prvom savetovanju studenata arhitekture FNRJ). Arhitektura
12 (1950): 1319.
2. Gombo, Stjepan. O specifinosti industrijske arhitekture.
Arhitektura i urbanizam 26 (1964): 21.
3. , . .
: , 1972.
4. , .
. 7 (1961): 23.
5.
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191

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12 (1971): 6368.

192

Sneana D. Toeva
The Museum of Science and Technology, Belgrade
INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE IN PLANS, CONCEPTUAL
SOLUTIONS AND PUBLICATIONS FROM THE COLLECTION
OF THE MUSEUM OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

In discovering the rich history of industrial heritage, its forming


and construction have a prominent place. Although at the beginning
no attention was paid to architectural qualities of industrial
buildings and complexes, the role of architects in designing of
industrial buildings was becoming bigger and more significant with
the development of industry and society. Many big names of world
architecture have given immeasurable contribution to industrial
construction. By using new materials and structural systems on
industrial buildings, the limits of contemporary architecture were
being shifted, so that many solutions can be credited for the
development of construction science and technology. Presence of
Serbian architects industrial construction began in the late 19th
century, when many important architects were engaged. The goal
of the work was to research, analyze and publish the previously
unknown material that reveals rich activity in the area of industrial
construction. By presenting the materials from collections of
the Museum of Science and Technology, we reveal a part of the
industrial construction, less known area that some of the most
important personalities of Serbian architecture of modern times
were involved in. Designs of railway stations, factories, post
offices, printing offices and institutes bear witness to the creative
challenge that the architects were solving in a particular manner
and to the equal place of industrial architecture with other fields
of construction.
Designs from the collections of the Museum of Science and
Technology, in terms of quality and inventiveness, have equal value
as other achievements. Although initially neglected and beyond
reach of the designers, architecture of industrial buildings was
becoming increasingly equal with other types of buildings.
Works we have presented bear witness to the fact that complex
construction programs, functional requirements, different
structural systems and use of different materials were true
challenge for creative solutions. Architectural expressions colored
with a personal stamp were evidence that industrial architecture

193

was not only on equal footing with other areas of construction,


but was often the carrier of all those changes that characterized
contemporary architecture. Works of Nikola Dobrovi, Miladin
Prljevi, Ratomir Bogojevi and Boidar Petrovi only confirm
that industrial architecture deserves all the attention of future
researchers who, by revealing and valuing this important segment
of our civil construction, should evaluate true contribution of many
creators who gave an important contribution to its development.
Keywords: architecture, industry, industrial objects, industrial
projects


26.06.2014.

194

. 1
,
,

-2
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(Arthur
Honegger, 18921955). 5
,6
7
(Ambroise-Paul-Toussaint-Jules Valry, 18711945).
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Hommage Arthur Honegger, , ,


1. o 2005.
6

Amphion, 1931.

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Hamphrey Davey Findley Kitto (18971982),


. ,
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14

Hamphrey Davey Findley Kitto, Grci (Novi Sad: Matica srpska, 1963), 7.
Ibid., 8.

15
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Ibid., 188.
Ibid.

26
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31

Ibid., 87.

208


1. Kito, Hamphrey Davey Findley. Grci. Novi Sad:
Matica Srpska, 1963.
2. Valeri, Pol. Pozorita. Sarajevo: Svjetlost, 1989.
3. Zamarovsky, Vojtech. Junaci antikih mitova. Zagreb:
kolska knjiga, 1973.

209

Aleksandra V. Mokranjac
Association of Applied Arts and Design Artists, Architectural
Section, Belgrade
ANTI-BABYLON
HUMANENESS BETWEEN MYTH AND REALITY
ric et delaine

Composition Amphion, a melodrama based on the verses of Paul


Valery, was selected by the Association of Friends of Centre Ferdinand
Gonseth to be the focus of the celebration of fiftieth anniversary of
the death of Swiss composer Arthur Honegger. On this occasion, as
announced, a symposium was organized in Lausanne on October
1, 2005. Upon invitation of the reorganizers, I have proposed an
abstract in which I presented my point of view of the indicated
theme. With their great respect for the world of Architecture,
where I professionally come from, I elaborated for several months
my assumptions, and finally completed the text ANTI-BABYLONE/
LHUMANIT ENTRE LE MYTH ET LA RALIT, which I read at the
Conservatorium in Lausanne in French language32.
By the nature of things, my involvement in the given topic33 was
at least dual. As an architect, I intended to emphasize the links
between Architecture (with capital A) and Music (with capital M).
And as a writer-researcher, who believes that selection of a topic
is a rational manifestation of the deepest subconscious impulses, I
was intrigued to reach the core of the inspiration/issue, therefore
to the basic, starting point motif Amphion.
This ancient hero of Greek mythology, Amphion, according to the

Reception of the integral writing in French language read at the amphitheater


of the Conservatory in Lausanne, was such that in addition to numerous experts in
the audience and Symposium participants, authors, with greetings, the then leading
Swiss composer of art music, Jean Balissat (19362007), also requested a copy of
32

the work.
33
Several discussions and specific correspondence with renowned Eric Emery
contributed to additional elaboration of the topic for which, on this occasion, I
would like to again extend my sincere and lasting gratitude.

210

original narrative is inseparable from his brother Zethus. Zethus,


however, does not appear in Valrys poem, nor is mentioned there...
He is completely omitted. Thus, the text-homage to Honeggers
work becomes a unique STATEMENT OF OMISSION. Given that
after this first annihilated hero, Zethus... civilizations appeared
in sequence fell into oblivion too easily from the perspective of
a modern man. Therefore in Anti-Babylon so much importance is
given to aspects of collective past of Eurasian continent, to those
precious traces of persistent millennia of (all)human pursuit of
more civilized-more humane-more cultured life.
If the building of the Babylon Tower is not just a symbolism of
the experience of inability of long-term communication (in the
meaning of compassion too) between a man and (another) man yet
the paradigm of human beings, amazingly sublime Anti-Babylon
is at least an attempt to draw the attention to better, actually the
best aspects of a human being and, beyond that human need to
actually become such, truly better being, which would only then,
under such conditions, be able to, in cooperation with other, also
awakened individuals resist the syndrome of Babylonization and
overcome it.
Indeed, the successes of our time, providing they are (at all) true
achievements are repayment of several millennium long debt
of a number of predecessors our indirect ancestors, scattered
across the old continent. Primarily the anonymous, they were still
steadfast with their exclusive contribution... With live personal
example they maintained continuity an notion of a man also as
the being of SPIRIT. And every authentic artistic creation builds
upon this most precious weft of the Past. With his entire opus,
composer Arthur Honegger also testified to that deepest and most
noble human trait of his, which like the myth about Amphion and
Zethus also manifests DUAL. Both as a grateful linkage with all the
achievements and values of times only apparently forgotten, and
as a beneficial loyalty-affiliation with the Beauty of the SPIRIT.
Keywords: Architecture, Art, Culture/Civilization,
myth(ology), Crete, Ancient Greece, Egypt, Mesopotamia

Music,


26.06.2014.

211

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Series Berolinensis 38, ed. Gnter Prinzing (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co, 2002).
3

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Pseudo-Kodinos and the Constantinopolitan court: Offices and
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Birmingham, 2013

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