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The Age of Imperialism

Chapter 25


In what areas of
the world did
Europe have
influence in

Definition: The process of one people
ruling or controlling another. A stronger
nation controlling the political, economic,
and social systems of a weaker nation.
1800s-1920 known as the Age of
Imperialism because this is when Europe really
started taking control of foreign lands
European countries create empires by taking over
parts of Africa, Asia, and South America

Why it is good to be a
colonial power...
More raw materials, markets for goods
More power
Better trade routes, control trade
Can spread your beliefs, culture

Why it is not always fun

to be a colony
No control over politics, government
No control over economy
Natural resources are taken for use by mother country

Education, good jobs not available to natives

Treated as an inferior people, race

Imperialism in India
British East India Company- trading company that
initially carried out imperialism
Used army to take over Indian states

Made great changes to Indian society- strained relations

Sepoy mutiny- Indian soldiers who refused to use
ammunition greased with pork and beef fat
Sepoys punished, rebellion begins
Very violent
British government ends rule of East India Company

Indian National Congress and Muslim Leaguenationalist organizations


Impact of the Raj on India

British denied
government jobs to
Indians and
segregated the Indian
people from the British

The era of British control in

India brought many changes.
The British introduced their own
governmental, legal, and
educational systems, the
English language, and new
forms of technology and
industry. These changes to
Indias economy and society,
combined with unhappiness
over foreign control, led to the
growth of nationalism in India.

Execution of Sepoys, 1858

To the steady beat of drums, the captured rebels were

first stripped of their uniforms and then tied to cannons,
their bellies pushed hard against the gaping mouths of
the big guns. The order to fire was given. With an
enormous roar, all the cannons burst into life at once,
generating a cloud of black smoke that snaked into the
summer sky. When the smoke cleared, there was nothing
left of the rebels' bodies except their arms, still tied to
the cannons, and their blackened heads, which landed
with a soft thud on the baking parade ground. It was a

Imperialism in China
Opium Wars
China restricted European trade because they believed
European products were inferior to Chinese products
British imported opium illegally to balance trade
Chinese destroyed the opium so the British captured
Chinese lost and were forced to sign Treaty of
Unequal treaty and Extraterritoriality

Qing dynasty slowly loses control over China to

Western powers
Spheres of Influence- European powers and America take over parts of China
Rebellions throughout China- people angry over foreign
influence in China
Taiping Rebellion- 20 million died
Boxer Rebellion- Foreign troops defeat Boxers and fine China
Revolution of 1911- China becomes a REPUBLIC


Which countries had spheres of influence in China between

1842 and 1900? What do you think the Chinese people thought
about the foreign influence in their country?

Imperialism in Japan
Initially resisted contact with West
Treaty of Kanagawa opened ports to U.S. and eventually the rest of

Meiji Restoration and Reforms

Emperor Mutsuhito (Meiji) ends Tokugawa Shogunate
Wanted to modernize and reform to compete with Europe

Mandatory schooling
Adopted military practices of Europe & America
Defeat Russia in Russo-Japanese War
Annexed Korea, gained land in Manchuria

Most powerful state in Asia

Telegraph, postal service

How did the

Meiji reforms
help Japan
compete with

Why did Europeans want to

colonize Africa?
Economic Interests
Raw materials and
markets for goods

Political Competition

Competition with other

European colonial problems

Cultural Motives

Believed they were

superior; needed to
teach good government,
morals, and Christian
Scientific Beliefs
Social Darwinism- application of
natural selection to races

I contend that we are

the finest race in the
world and that the more
of the world we inhabit
the better it is for the
human race What an
alteration there would be
if they [Africans] were
brought under AngloSaxon influence. Cecil
Rhodes, Confessions of Faith, 1877

Helping Europe
Imperialize Africa
Quinine- drug that protects against malaria
Automatic machine gun
Telegraphs, Steamships, Railroads- easier
communication and transportation
Suez Canal- quicker transportation
Berlin Conference 1884-1885European countries meet to discuss the division
of Africa (no Africans present)
Created order and prevent conflict
Notification of territorial claims and ability to control
Did not consider Africans traditional ethnic
boundaries = future conflict

Imperialism in

The Berlin
allowed for the
easy division of
Africa by the
powers. What
do you think
was unfair

Conflicts in Africa
Boer War 1899
Dutch settlers vs. British
Guerilla tactics
British burn farms, imprison women and children
-20,000 die
1902- British win- Union of South Africa

Belgian Congo
King Leopold II claimed Belgian Congo for himself
Forced Congolese people to work extracting rubber
10 million Congolese people died
Belgium government takes control in 1908

Quotes about the Congo

ordered us to cut off the heads of the men and hang them on the
village palisadesto hang the women and the children on the
palisade in the form of a cross."
The collection of hands became an end in itself. Force Publique
soldiers brought them to the stations in place of rubber; they
even went out to harvest them instead of rubber... They became a
sort of currency. They came to be used to make up for shortfalls
in rubber quotas, to replace... the people who were demanded for
the forced labour gangs; and the Force Publique soldiers were
paid their bonuses on the basis of how many hands they

"True, with a population loss estimated at 10 million people, what

happened in the Congo could reasonably be called the most murderous
part of the European Scramble for Africa.
Hochschild King Leopold's Ghost

African Resistance
Zulu people resisted for 50 years
1879- British invade defeat in 6 months

Menelik II modernized the army in 1889
Defeated Italians and remained independent!

French West Africa

Malinke ruler captured and his army defeated
Ended all resistance in West Africa

German East Africa

Maji Maji rebellion
Tens of thousands killed by Germans

Imperialism in Asia and Africa

Desire for resources and
Political competition
among western nations
Western belief in cultural

Colonization of Asia and
Native people lose control
of government and
Rise of nationalism
War, death
Exploitation of people under
colonial rule
Japan industrializes
China becomes a republic
Future ethnic conflict in

The World Court

Read your assigned card
Come up with arguments to support your position

Students with the same roles will work together and present their case to the
World Court
Choose a person to introduce you to the World Court- We are ______ and we are here to
ask the World Court _______
Will work around the group, each person presenting one argument, until neither side can
come up with an argument or time runs out (about 5 minutes)
Pay attention, you should refute the argument before yours, not just read off a piece of
Your grade will be based on whether you can argue your case effectively from the correct
perspective- show that you clearly understand imperialism and its effects

World Court
Members will take notes on both sides of each case
Vote based on most well-though answer- not personal opinion