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B

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E-mail: bdea@buddhanet.net
Web site: www.buddhanet.net
Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc.
by Karuna Kusalasaya
9m\\`ake.
¨Ovor groal aroas of llo vorId il sliII survivos:
il is possibIo llal in conlacl vill voslorn scionco,
and inspirod by llo spiril of lislory, llo originaI
loacling of Gaulama, rovivod and purifiod, may
yol pIay a Iargo parl in llo diroclion of luman
dosliny.¨
H. G. WoIIs ÷ K`]ÛFmldaf]Ûg^Û?aklgjq
ѢёёѕіѠњȱћȱѕюіљюћё
÷ Ils Iasl and ils Irosonl ÷
bµȱKurunuȱKusuIusuµu
BUrrnis1 PUntic~1ioN Socir1v
K~Nrv, Sni L~Nk~
Fins1 Eri1ioN 196S ÷ SrcoNr RrrniN1 1983
Tnr Wnrrt PUntic~1ioN No. 8S/86
4
SWal Arun (TompIo of llo Davn) Bangkok, TlaiIand
SWal Bonclama Bopilr (MarbIo TompIo) Bangkok, TlaiIand
SNakorn Iallom, noar Bangkok, TlaiIand
‚
9L;;?@JDÛ@EÛK?8@C8E;Û
@lkÛGYklÛYf\ÛalkÛGj]k]fl
IoopIo aII ovor llo vorId vlo aro inloroslod in Bud-
dlism and koop in loucl vill ils novs and aclivilios
musl lavo loard of llo Buddla Iayanli coIobra-
lions loId a fov yoars ago in aII Buddlisl counlrios,
incIuding India and Iapan. Il vas in 1957 or, accord-
ing lo llo rockoning of somo Buddlisl counlrios,
in 1956, llal Buddlism, as foundod by Golama llo
Buddla, lad compIolod ils 2,5OOll yoar of oxislonco.
Tlo Buddlisl lradilion, ospociaIIy of llo Tloravãda
or Soullorn SclooI sucl as nov provaiIs in Burma,
CoyIon, Cambodia, Iaos and TlaiIand, las il llal
on llo compIolion of 2,5OO yoars from ils foundalion,
Buddlism vouId undorgo a groal rovivaI, rosuIling
in ils aII-round progross, in boll llo fioIds of sludy
and praclico. Buddlisls llrougloul llo vorId, lloro-
foro, commomoralod llo occasion in 1956-57 by vari-
ous kinds of aclivilios sucl as moolings, symposiums,
oxlibilions and llo pubIicalion of Buddlisl loxls and
Iiloraluro.
As lo vlollor or nol llo lradilion monlionod
abovo las any lrull bolind il, llo fuluro aIono viII
loslify. Hovovor, judging from novs rocoivod from aII
cornors of llo gIobo, il is no oxaggoralion lo say llal
6
mankind is laking an ovor-incroasing inlorosl in Bud-
dlism. As a mallor of facl, sinco llo ond of llo Soc-
ond WorId War inlorosl in Buddlism as ovincod by
poopIo in Luropo, Amorica and AuslraIia las roaclod
a scaIo unloard of boforo. Any casuaI porusaI of jour-
naIs on Buddlism in any of lloso conlinonls viII
convinco llo roadors of llis slalomonl. Il is a mallor
vorll nolicing llal aflor llo ond of llo Iirsl WorId
War aIso, Buddlism mado groal loadvay in Luropo
and oIsovloro. Tlis plonomonon can porlaps bo bosl
oxpIainod by llo facl llal mankind´s spiriluaI llirsl
is moro slarponod by caIamilios Iiko var, and llal in
limos of dislross mankind roaIisos Trull bollor.
K`]ÛCYf\Ûg^ÛP]ddgoÛIgZ]k
TlaiIand is porlaps llo onIy counlry in llo vorId
vloro llo king is conslilulionaIIy slipuIalod lo bo a
Buddlisl and llo uploIdor of llo Iaill. Ior conlurios
Buddlism las oslabIislod ilsoIf in TlaiIand and las
onriclod llo Iivos of llo Tlais in aII lloir aspocls.
Indood, villoul Buddlism, TlaiIand vouId nol bo
vlal il is loday. Oving lo llo lromondous infIuonco
Buddlism oxorls on llo Iivos of ils poopIo, TlaiIand
is caIIod by many foroignors ¨Tlo Iand of YoIIov
Robos¨, for yoIIov robos aro llo garmonls of Bud-
dlisl monks. In viov of llo incroasing inlorosl llo
7
vorId is laking in Buddlism and in viov of llo facl
llal TlaiIand is ono of llo counlrios vloro Buddlism
sliII oxisls as a Iiving forco il viII nol, porlaps, bo oul
of pIaco lo knov somolling of llo slory of lov llis
groal faill roaclod llal counlry.
9m\\`akeÛafÛK`YadYf\‘Û@lkÛGYkl
Difforonl opinions oxisl aboul vlon, oxaclIy, Bud-
dlism roaclod llal parl of llo vorId nov offi-
ciaIIy knovn as TlaiIand. Somo scloIars say llal
Buddlism vas inlroducod lo TlaiIand during llo
roign of Asoka, llo groal Indian omporor vlo sonl
Buddlisl missionarios lo various parls of llo llon
knovn vorId. Ollors aro of llo viov llal TlaiIand
rocoivod Buddlism mucl Ialor. Iudging from arclao-
oIogicaI finds and ollor lisloricaI ovidonco, lovovor,
il is safo lo say llal Buddlism firsl roaclod TlaiIand
vlon llo counlry vas inlabilod by a raciaI slock of
poopIo knovn as llo Mon-Klmor vlo llon lad lloir
capilaI, Dvãrãvali, al a cily nov knovn as Nakon
Iallom (Sanskril: Nagara Irallama), aboul 5O kiIo-
molros lo llo vosl of Bangkok. Tlo groal pagoda al
Nakon Iallom, Ilra Iallom Clodi (Irallama coli-
ya), and ollor lisloricaI findings in ollor parls of llo
counlry loslify lo llis facl as voII as lo llo facl llal
Buddlism, in ils variod forms, roaclod TlaiIand al
8
four difforonl poriods, namoIy:
I. Tloravãda or Soullorn Buddlism
II. Malãyãna or Norllorn Buddlism
III. Burma (Iagan) Buddlism
IV. CoyIon (Iankavamsa) Buddlism
Wo slaII nov procood lo sludy oacl of lloso pori-
ods in dolaiI.
@Û K`]jYnê\YÛgjÛJgml`]jfÛ9m\\`ake
Tlal llo firsl form of Buddlism inlroducod lo Tlai-
Iand vas llal of Tloravãda (Tlo Doclrino of llo
LIdors) SclooI is provod by various arclaooIogi-
caI romains unoarllod in llo oxcavalions al Nakon
Iallom, sucl as llo Dlarma Clakra (WlooI of Iav),
llo Buddla foolprinls and soals, and llo inscriplions
in llo IaIi Ianguago, aII of vlicl aro in rocks. Sucl
objocls of Buddlislic vonoralion oxislod in India
boforo llo inlroduclion of llo Buddla imago, vlicl
appoarod Ialor as a rosuIl of Grook infIuonco. Bud-
dlism, lloroforo, musl lavo roaclod TlaiIand during
llo 3rd conlury B.C., and il musl lavo boon moro or
Ioss llo samo form of Buddlism as vas propagalod
by llo groal Buddlisl Lmporor Asoka. Tlis form of
Buddlism vas knovn as Tloravãda or Hïnayãna
9
(Tlo Iovor VolicIo) in conlradislinclion lo llo lorm
Malãyãna (Tlo Higlor VolicIo): llo lvo sclooIs
laving sprung up soon aflor llo passing avay of llo
Buddla. Wlon vorslip of llo Buddla imago bocamo
popuIar in India, il aIso sproad lo ollor counlrios
vloro Buddlism lad aIroady boon inlroducod. Tlis
is borno oul by llo facl llal many Buddla imagos,
ospociaIIy lloso of llo Gupla slyIo, lad boon found
in llo ruins of Nakon Iallom and llo noiglbouring
cilios. Iudging from llo slyIo of llo Buddla imagos
found, il can aIso bo assumod llal llo oarIy Buddlisl
missionarios lo TlaiIand vonl from Magadla (in
Bilar Slalo, India).
To supporl llo viov llal llo firsl form of Bud-
dlism inlroducod lo TlaiIand vas llal of llo Tlor-
avãda SclooI as propagalod by Lmporor Asoka, vo
lavo ovidonco from llo Malãvamsa, llo ancionl
clronicIo of CoyIon. In ono of ils passagos doaIing
vill llo propagalion of llo Dlamma, llo Malãvam-
sa rocords llal Asoka sonl missionarios loadod by
Buddlisl oIdors lo as many as nino lorrilorios. Ono of
lloso lorrilorios vas knovn as Suvarnablûmi vloro
lvo Tloras (oIdor monks), Sona and Ullara, voro said
lo lavo procoodod.
Nov opinions diffor as lo vloro oxaclIy llis
Iand of Suvarnablûmi is. Tlai scloIars oxpross llo
opinion llal il is in TlaiIand and llal ils capilaI
1O
vas al Nakon Iallom, vliIo scloIars of Burma say
llal Suvarnablûmi is in Burma, llo capilaI boing al
Tlalon, a Mon (Ioguan) lovn in Laslorn Burma noar
llo GuIf of Marlaban. SliII ollor scloIars of Iaos and
Cambodia cIaim llal llo lorrilory of Suvarnablûmi
is in lloir Iands. HisloricaI rocords in llis connoclion
boing moagro as lloy aro, il vouId porlaps bo of no
avaiI lo arguo as lo llo oxacl domarcalion of Suvar-
nablûmi. Taking aII poinls inlo considoralion, ono
lling, lovovor, sooms cIoar boyond dispulo. Tlal is
Suvarnablûmi vas a lorm broadIy usod in ancionl
limos lo donolo llal parl of Soulloasl Asia vlicl
nov incIudos Soullorn Burma, TlaiIand, Iaos, Cam-
bodia and MaIaya. Tlo lorm Suvarnablûmi is a com-
binalion of llo vords ¨Suvarna¨ and ¨Blûmi¨. Boll
aro Sanskril vords: llo formor moans goId and llo
Iallor slands for Iand. Suvarnablûmi lloroforo Iilor-
aIIy moans GoIdon Iand or Iand of GoId. Kooping in
viov llo abundanco of naluro in llal parl of Asia jusl
roforrod lo, llo lorm sooms bul approprialo.
Tlo roason vly scloIars of TlaiIand oxpross
llo viov llal llo capilaI of Suvarnablûmi vas al
Nakon Iallom vas bocauso of llo arclaooIogi-
caI finds unoarllod in llo aroa surrounding llal
lovn. Novloro in any of llo counlrios monlionod
abovo, nol ovon al Tlalon in Burma, couId ono find
sucl a Iargo and variod numbor of ancionl roIics
11
as voro found al Nakon Iallom. By ago and slyIo
lloso arclaooIogicaI objocls boIong lo llo limos of
Lmporor Asoka and llo Ialor Guplas. Lvon llo Groal
Slupa (Ilra Iallom Clodi) al Nakon Iallom ilsoIf
is basicaIIy idonlicaI vill llo famous Sancli Slupa
in India, buiIl by Asoka, ospociaIIy if ono voro lo
romovo llo Sliklara or uppor porlion. Many Tlai
arclaooIogisls aro of llo opinion llal llo Sliklara
vas a Ialor addilion lo llo pagoda, a rosuIl, so lo say,
of llo bIonding of llo Tlai æsllolic sonso vill llo
Indian arclilocluraI arl. Moroovor, llo namo Iallom
Clodi (IaIi: Iallama Coliya) moans ¨Iirsl Iagoda¨
vlicl, in aII probabiIily, signifios llal il vas llo firsl
pagoda buiIl in Suvarnablûmi. Tlis vouId oasiIy fil
in vill llo rocord of llo Malãvamsa ÷ llal Tloras
Sona and Ullara vonl and oslabIislod Buddlism in
llo lorrilory of Suvarnablûmi al llo injunclion of
Lmporor Asoka. Taking cognizanco of llo facl llal
Asoka roignod from 269 lo 237 B.C., vo can roason-
abIy concIudo llal Buddlism firsl sproad lo TlaiIand
during llo 3rd conlury B.C. Il is inlorosling lo nolo in
llis connoclion llal llo lislory of llo ponolralion of
Indian cuIluro lo Soulloasl Asia aIso slarlod moro or
Ioss during llo samo poriod.
2
12
@@Û DY`êqêfYÛgjÛEgjl`]jfÛ9m\\`ake
Will llo grovll of Malãyãna Buddlism in India,
ospociaIIy during llo roign of King Kanislka vlo
ruIod ovor Norllorn India during llo socond laIf of
llo firsl conlury A.D., llo socl aIso sproad lo llo noigl-
bouring counlrios, sucl as Sumalra, Iava and Kambuja
(Cambodia). Il is probabIo llal Malãyãna Buddlism
vas inlroducod lo Burma, Iogu (Iovor Burma) and
Dvãrãvali (nov Nakon Iallom in Woslorn TlaiIand)
from Magadla (in Bilar, India) al llo samo limo as
il vonl lo llo MaIay ArclipoIago. Bul probabIy il did
nol lavo any slrongloId lloro al llal limo: lonco no
spoclacuIar lraco vas Iofl of il.
Slarling from llo boginning of llo fifll conlury
A.D. Malãyãna Buddlisl missionarios from Kaslmir
in Norllorn India bogan lo go lo Sumalra in suc-
cossion. Irom Sumalra llo faill sproad lo Iava and
Cambodia. By aboul 757 A.D. (Buddlisl Lra: 13OO)
llo Srivijaya king vill lis capilaI in Sumalra roso in
povor and lis ompiro sproad llrougloul llo MaIay
IoninsuIa and ArclipoIago. Iarl of Soull TlaiIand
(from Surãsllãni dovnvards) camo undor llo ruIo
of llo Srivijaya king. Boing Malãyãnisls, llo ruIors
of Srivijaya gavo mucl oncouragomonl and supporl
lo llo propagalion of Malãyãna Buddlism. In Soull
TlaiIand loday vo lavo mucl ovidonco lo subslanlialo
13
llal Malãyãna Buddlism vas onco provaIonl lloro.
Tlis ovidonco is in llo form of slupas or cloliyas and
imagos, incIuding volivo labIols of llo Buddlas and
Bodlisallas (Ilra Ilim), vlicl voro found in Iargo
numbor, aII of llo samo lypo as lloso discovorod in
Iava and Sumalra. Tlo cloliyas in Claiya (Iaya) and
Nakon Sri Tlammarãll (Nagara Sri Dlarmarãja),
boll in Soull TlaiIand, cIoarIy indicalo Malãyãna
infIuonco.
Irom 1OO2 lo 1182 A.D. kings boIonging lo llo Surya-
varman dynasly ruIod supromo in Cambodia. Tloir
ompiro oxlondod ovor llo vloIo of prosonl-day Tlai-
Iand. Boing adloronls of Malãyãna Buddlism vill
a slrong mixluro of Bralminism, llo Suryavarman
ruIors did mucl lo propagalo and oslabIisl llo lonols
of llo Norllorn SclooI. Tloro is an inlorosling slono
inscriplion, nov prosorvod in llo NalionaI Musoum
al Bangkok, vlicl loIIs us llal in aboul 1O17 A.D. (B.L.
155O) lloro ruIod in Iopburi, in conlraI TlaiIand and
onco a capilaI cily, a king vlo vonl from Nakon Sri
Tlammarãll vlo lracod lis ancoslry lo Srivijaya ruI-
ors. Tlo king lad a son vlo Ialor bocamo llo ruIor
of Kambuja (Cambodia) and vlo, moro or Ioss, kopl
TlaiIand undor llo suzorainly of Cambodia for a Iong
limo. During llis poriod lloro vas mucl amaIgama-
lion of llo lvo counlrios´ roIigions and cuIluros. Tlo
slono inscriplion undor considoralion probabIy rofors
14
lo ono of llo Suryavarman kings vlo lad bIood roIa-
lionslip vill llo Srivijaya ruIors.
Irom llo inscriplion jusl roforrod lo vo aIso Ioarn
llal al llal poriod llo form of Buddlism provaIonl in
Iopburi vas llal of Tloravãda, and llal Malãyãna
Buddlism, aIroady oslabIislod in Cambodia, bocamo
popuIarizod in TlaiIand onIy aflor TlaiIand lad
como undor llo svay of Cambodia. Tloro aro no
indicalions, lovovor, llal llo Malãyãna SclooI
suporsodod llo Tloravãda in any vay. Tlis vas duo
lo llo facl llal Tloravãda Buddlism vas aIroady on
a firm basis in TlaiIand vlon llo Malãyãna SclooI
vas inlroducod lloro. Tlal lloro voro monks of boll
sclooIs, Tloravãda and Malãyãna, in Iopburi during
lloso days, is indicalod in a slono inscriplion in llo
Cambodian Ianguago, found in a Bralmanic TompIo
villin llo vicinily of Iopburi cily ilsoIf.
Mucl of llo Bralmanic cuIluro vlicl survivos in
TlaiIand liII loday couId bo lracod lo ils origin from
Cambodia during llis poriod. Many of llo Cambo-
dian kings llomsoIvos voro zoaIous adloronls of
Bralminism and ils vays of Iifo. Tlis poriod, lloro-
foro, can bo lormod Malãyãna Ioriod. Sanskril, llo
sacrod Ianguago of llo Hindus, look ils rool doop in
TlaiIand during lloso limos.
15
@@@ ÛÛÛÛ9mjeYÛ¨GY_Yf©Û9m\\`ake
In 1O57 A.D. King Anuruddla (Anavralla) bocamo
povorfuI in llo vloIo of Burma, laving lis capilaI
al Iagan (ConlraI Burma). Anuruddla oxlondod lis
kingdom rigll up lo TlaiIand, ospociaIIy llo Norll-
orn and ConlraI parls, covoring aroas nov knovn
as Cliongmai, Iopburi and Nakon Iallom. Boing a
Tloravãda Buddlisl, Anuruddla ardonlIy supporlod
llo causo of Tloravãda vlicl Burma, Iiko TlaiIand,
al firsl rocoivod diroclIy from India llrougl mis-
sionarios sonl by Lmporor Asoka. Hovovor, al llo
limo undor considoralion, Buddlism in India vas
aIroady in a slalo of docIino, and as conlacl bolvoon
Burma and India vas llon fainl, Tloravãda Bud-
dlism, as provaIonl in Burma al llal limo, undorvonl
somo clangos and assumod a form somovlal diffor-
onl from llo originaI doclrino. Tlis, al a Ialor slago,
bocamo vlal is knovn in TlaiIand as Burma (Iagan)
Buddlism. During llo poriod of King Anuruddla´s
suzorainly ovor TlaiIand, Burmoso Buddlism oxor-
cisod groal infIuonco ovor llo counlry, ospociaIIy in
llo Norll vloro, oving lo proximily, llo impacl from
Burma vas moro foIl.
Il is significanl llal Buddlisl roIics found in Norll
TlaiIand boar a slriking Tloravãda infIuonco, vloroas
lloso found in llo Soull cIoarIy slov lloir Malãyã-
16
na connoclions daling back from Srivijaya days. To a
groal oxlonl llis is duo lo llo facl llal, in lloir loy-
day of suzorainly ovor TlaiIand, llo Burmoso undor
Anuruddla voro conlonl vill Uppor TlaiIand onIy,
vliIo Ioaving llo Soull praclicaIIy lo bo ruIod by
lloir Klmor (Cambodian) vassaIs vloso capilaI vas
al Iopburi.
Irom llo boginning of llo 2nd conlury B.C. llo
Tlai poopIo, vloso originaI lomoIand vas in llo vaI-
Ioys bolvoon llo Huang Ho and llo Yanglzo Kiang
in Clina, bogan lo migralo soullvards as a rosuIl of
conslanl friclion vill llo noiglbouring lribos. In llo
courso of lloir migralion vlicl Iaslod for sovoraI con-
lurios, lloy bocamo soparalod inlo lvo main groups.
Ono group vonl and sollIod in llo pIains of llo SaI-
voon Rivor, Slan Slalos, and ollor aroas and sproad
on as far as Assam. Tlis group of Tlais is caIIod Tlai
Yai (Big Tlai). Tlo ollor main group movod furllor
Soull and finaIIy sollIod in vlal is loday lormod
TlaiIand. Tlo Iallor group of Tlais is caIIod Tlai Noi
(SmaII Tlai). Tlo Tlais in prosonl-day TlaiIand aro
acluaIIy llo doscondanls of lloso migranl Tlais. Of
courso, in llo courso of lloir migralion vlicl, as said
abovo, conlinuod off and on for a Iong limo, lloro lad
boon a groal doaI of mixluro of bIood llrougl inlor-
marriago vlicl vas onIy naluraI. Wo slouId aIvays
boar in mind llal lloro aro sovoraI ollnic groups
17
scallorod llrougl llo Iongll and broadll of Soull-
oasl Asia from limos immomoriaI. Bul ovon loday vo
can lraco llo Ianguago affinily of llo Tlais Iiving in
vidoIy scallorod aroas sucl as Assam, Uppor Burma,
Soullorn Clina, Slan Slalos, Iaos, Norll Violnam
and TlaiIand.
Aflor slruggIing lard for a Iong limo llo Tlais voro
abIo lo oslabIisl lloir indopondonl slalo al Suklollai
(Suklodaya) in Norll TlaiIand. Tlis vas probabIy
aboul 1257 A.D. (B.L. 18OO). Il vas during llo poriod
of lloir movomonl soullvards llal llo Tlais camo
inlo conlacl vill llo form of Buddlism as praclisod
in Burma and propagalod undor llo royaI palronago
of King Anuruddla. Somo scloIars aro of llo opinion
llal as Malãyãna Buddlism lad sproad lo Clina as
oarIy as llo boginning of llo Clrislian Lra, llo Tlais,
vliIo sliII in lloir originaI lomo in Clina, musl lavo
aIroady boon acquainlod vill somo gonoraI foaluros
of Buddlism. As llo Tlai migranls grov in slrongll
lloir lorrilory oxlondod and finaIIy lloy bocamo llo
maslors of llo Iand in succossion lo Anuruddla,
vloso kingdom docIinod aflor lis doall. During llo
succooding poriod, llo Tlais voro abIo lo oxorl llom-
soIvos ovon moro prominonlIy in lloir soullvard
drivo. Tlus lloy camo inlo cIoso conlacl vill llo
Klmors, llo orslvliIo povor, and bocamo acquainlod
vill boll Malãyãna Buddlism and Bralmanism as
18
adoplod and praclisod in Kambuja (Cambodia). Mucl
of llo Bralmanic infIuonco, sucl as roIigious and cuI-
luraI rilos, ospociaIIy in llo courl circIos, passod on
from Cambodia lo llo Tlais during llis poriod, for
Hinduism vas aIroady firmIy oslabIislod in Cambo-
dia al llal limo. Lvon llo Tlai scripls, basod on Cam-
bodian scripls vlicl, in lurn, dorivod lloir origin
from India, voro invonlod by King Rãm Kamlaong
of Suklollai during llo poriod undor considoralion.
Of llo poriod undor discussion il may bo obsorvod
in passing llal Norllorn TlaiIand, from Suklollai
Dislricl upvards, camo mucl undor llo infIuonco of
Burma (Iagan) Buddlism, vliIo in llo conlraI and
soullorn parls of llo counlry many Malãyãna boIiofs
and praclicos, inlorilod from llo days of llo Surya-
varmans and llo Srivijayas, sliII porsislod.
@M ÛÛÛÛ:]qdgfÛ¨CYfcYnYùkY©Û9m\\`ake
Tlis is llo mosl imporlanl poriod in llo lislory of llo
sproad of Buddlism lo TlaiIand for il vilnossod llo
inlroduclion lo llal counlry of llal form of Buddlism
vlicl romains dominanl lloro unliI loday.
Aboul 1153 A.D. (B.L. 1696) Iarakramabalu llo
Groal (1153-1186 A.D.) bocamo king of CoyIon, knovn
in ancionl days as Ianka. A povorfuI monarcl and a
groal supporlor of Tloravãda Buddlism, Iarakrama-
19
balu did mucl lo sproad and consoIidalo llo Dlam-
ma of llo Iord in lis isIand kingdom. Ho il vas
vlo causod (according lo somo scloIars of Soullorn
Buddlism) llo Sovonll Buddlisl CounciI3 lo bo loId
undor llo clairmanslip of Kassapa Tlora, of Dimbu-
IagaIa in ordor lo roviso and slrongllon llo Doclrino
and llo DiscipIino (Dlamma and Vinaya).
As a rosuIl of llo offorls of King Iarakramabalu
llo Groal, Buddlism vas mucl consoIidalod in Coy-
Ion and llo novs sproad lo noiglbouring Iands. Bud-
dlisl monks from various counlrios, sucl as Burma,
Iogu (Iovor Burma), Kambuja, Ianna (Norll Tlai-
Iand) and Ianclang (Iaos) fIockod lo CoyIon in ordor
lo acquainl llomsoIvos vill llo puro form of llo
Dlamma. TlaiIand aIso sonl lor Blikklus lo CoyIon
and lloroby oblainod llo Upasampadã Vidli (Ordi-
nalion Rilo) from CoyIon, vlicl Ialor bocamo knovn
in TlaiIand as Iankavamsa. Tlis vas aboul 1257 A.D.
(B.L. 18OO). ApparonlIy llo oarIy balclos of Blikklus,
vlo rolurnod from CoyIon aflor sludios, oflon accom-
paniod by CoyIonoso monks, oslabIislod llomsoIvos
firsl in Nakon Sri Tlammarall (Soull TlaiIand), for
many of llo Buddlisl roIics boaring dofiniloIy Coy-
Ionoso infIuonco, sucl as Slupas and Buddla imagos,
voro found lloro. Somo of lloso roIics aro sliII in oxisl-
onco loday. Novs of llo morilorious aclivilios of lloso
monks soon sproad lo Suklollai, llon llo capilaI of
2O
TlaiIand, and King Rãm Kamlaong vlo vas ruIing
al llo limo, invilod lloso monks lo lis capilaI and
gavo llom lis royaI supporl in propagaling llo Doc-
lrino. Tlis facl is rocordod in ono of llo King´s rock
inscriplions, dalod aboul 1277 A.D. Sinco llon CoyIon
(SinlaIa) Buddlism bocamo vory popuIar and vas
vidoIy praclisod in TlaiIand. Somo of llo Tlai kings,
sucl as King Mala Dlarmaraja Iillai of Suklollai
dynasly and King Borom Trai Iokanall of llo oarIy
Ayudlya Ioriod, ovon onlorod llo HoIy Ordor or
Blikklu Sangla according lo llo Ordinalion Rilo of
Iankavamsa Buddlism by inviling a palriarcl from
CoyIon, Mala Sami Sanglaraja Sumana by namo, lo
bo llo prosiding monk ovor lis Upasampada (Ordi-
nalion) coromony. Many monaslorios, slupas, Buddla
imagos and ovon Buddla foolprinls, sucl as llo voII-
knovn ono al Sraburi in conlraI TlaiIand, voro buiIl
in accordanco vill llo usago popuIar in CoyIon. Tlo
sludy of IaIi, llo Ianguago of Tloravãda or Soullorn
Buddlism, aIso mado groal progross, and in aII mal-
lors doaIing vill llo Dlamma llo impacl of CoyIon
vas porcoplibIy foIl.
Hovovor, lloro lad boon no anlagonism bolvoon
llo difforonl forms of Buddlism aIroady in oxislonco
in TlaiIand and llo Iankãvamsa vlicl lad boon
inlroducod Ialor from CoyIon. On llo conlrary lloy
soomod lo lavo amaIgamalod poacofuIIy, and aII lad
21
adjuslod llomsoIvos lo ono anollor´s bonofil. Tlis is
ovidonl in aII roIigious rilos and coromonios of Tlai-
Iand. Indood, somovlal claraclorislic of llo Buddlisls,
lloro lad boon a spiril of forboaranco in aII mallors.
Ior inslanco, ovon loday Bralmanic rilos llrivo sido
by sido vill Buddlislic coromonios in TlaiIand and
Cambodia, ospociaIIy in llo royaI courls.
Hislory ropoals ilsoIf. Yoars aflor, vlon in CoyIon
undor King Kirlisri (1747-1781 A.D.) llo Upasampada
Ordinalion vas Iosl duo lo a docIino of Buddlism
and uploavaIs in llo counlry, TlaiIand (during llo
roign of King Boromkol, 1733-1758 A.D.) vas abIo lo
ropay llo dobl by sonding a balcl of Buddlisl monks,
undor llo Ioadorslip of UpaIi and Ariyamuni Tloras,
vlo in llo courso of limo oslabIislod in CoyIon vlal
is knovn as llo ¨SiyãmopaIi Vamsa¨ or ¨Siyam
Nikaya¨, or Siamoso Socl, vlicl sliII is a major socl in
llal counlry. UpaIi vorkod and diod in Sri Ianka, llo
counlry lo Iovod no Ioss llan lis ovn.
Today, for aII purposos, TlaiIand can bo lormod a
Tloravãda Buddlisl counlry. Tloro aro, of courso, a
fov Malãyanã monks and monaslorios, bul lloy aro
moslIy confinod lo foroign communilios, cliofIy llo
Clinoso. AII, lovovor, Iivo al poaco and co-oporalo
vill ono anollor.
So mucl for llo pasl of Buddlism in TlaiIand.
22
9m\\`akeÛafÛK`YadYf\‘Û@lkÛGj]k]fl
According lo llo consus lakon in 196O llo popuIalion
of TlaiIand numbors 25,519,965. Of llis numbor 94
por conl aro Buddlisls (llo rosl aro moslIy MusIims
and Clrislians). Tlis facl ilsoIf domonslralos moro
llan anylling oIso lov infIuonliaI Buddlism is in
TlaiIand. In lloir Iong lislory of oxislonco llo Tlais
soom lo lavo boon prodominanlIy Buddlisls, al Ioasl
ovor sinco lloy camo inlo conlacl vill llo lonols of
Buddlism. AII llo Tlai kings in llo rocordod lis-
lory of prosonl-day TlaiIand lavo boon adloronls of
Buddlism. Tlo counlry´s conslilulion spocifios llal
llo King of TlaiIand musl bo a Buddlisl and llo
UploIdor of Buddlism.
Tlo lorm ¨Tlo Iand of YoIIov Robos¨ las nol
boon inapproprialoIy appIiod lo TlaiIand, for lvo
llings slriko mosl foroignors as soon as lloy sol fool
in llal counlry. Ono is llo Buddlisl lompIo vill ils
claraclorislic arclilocluro, and llo ollor is llo sigll
of yoIIov-cIad Buddlisl monks and novicos vlo aro
lo bo soon ovoryvloro, ospociaIIy in llo oarIy lours
of davn vlon lloy go oul in groal numbors for aIms.
Tlo lvo siglls inovilabIy romind llo foroignors llal
loro is a counlry vloro Buddlism is a dominanl
forco in llo poopIo´s Iifo. Indood, lo llo Tlai nalion
as a vloIo, Buddlism las boon llo main spring from
23
vlicl fIov ils cuIluro and pliIosoply, ils arl and Iil-
oraluro, ils ollics and moraIily and many of ils foIk-
vays and foslivaIs.
Ior cIarily and convonionco vo slaII divido llo
sludy of llo prosonl slalo of Buddlism in TlaiIand
inlo lvo parls, namoIy llo Blikklu Sangla or llo
HoIy Ordor, and llo Iaily.
@ ÛÛÛÛÛÛÛK`]Û9`acc`mÛJYf_`YÛgjÛl`]Û?gdqÛFj\]j
Tlo Blikklu Sangla or llo HoIy Ordor of Buddlisl
monks las boon in oxislonco in TlaiIand ovor sinco
Buddlism vas inlroducod lloro. According lo llo 1958
consus lloro voro in llo vloIo kingdom of TlaiIand
159,648 monks, 73,311 novicos and 2O,944 monaslorios
or lompIos. Tloso aro scallorod llrougloul llo coun-
lry, parlicuIarIy moro numorous in llo llickIy popu-
Ialod aroas. Tlo Blikkbu Sangla of TlaiIand, boing
of Tloravãda or Soullorn SclooI, obsorvos llo samo
sol of discipIino (Vinaya) as llo Blikklu Sanglas in
ollor Tloravãda counlrios sucl as CoyIon, Burma,
Iaos and Cambodia. In spilo of llo facl llal llo gov-
ornmonl aIIols a yoarIy budgol for llo mainlonanco
and ropair of imporlanl lompIos and as sliponds for
ligl ranking monks, aImosl llo onliro burdon for llo
supporl of llo Sangla and llo upkoop of llo lompIos
rosls vill llo pubIic. A survoy onlilIod ¨TlaiIand
24
Lconomic Iarm Survoy¨ mado in 1953 by llo Min-
islry of AgricuIluro of llo Govornmonl of TlaiIand
givos llo roIigious casl oxponsos of llo avorago Tlai
ruraI famiIy por yoar as ranging from 5 lo 1O por conl
of ils lolaI annuaI casl incomo. Il may bo addod loro
llal llo roporl concorns llo avorago Tlai ruraI fam-
iIy, and nol llo urban dvoIIors, llo majorily of vlom,
in TlaiIand as oIsovloro, aro Ioss incIinod lo roIigion
llan llo counlry foIks.
KogÛJ][lkÛgjÛEacYqYk
Tloro aro lvo socls or Nikayas of llo Buddlisl Ordor
in TlaiIand. Ono is llo Malanikaya, and llo ollor is
llo Dlammayullika Nikaya. Tlo Malanikaya is llo
oIdor and by far llo moro numorous ono, llo ralio in
llo numbor of monks of llo lvo socls boing 35 lo 1. Tlo
Dlammayullika Nikaya vas foundod in 1833 A.D. by
King Mongkul, llo fourll ruIor of llo prosonl Clakri
Dynasly vlo ruIod TlaiIand from 1851 lo 1868 A.D.
Having limsoIf sponl 27 yoars as a Blikklu, llo King
vas voII vorsod in llo Dlamma, bosidos many ollor
branclos of knovIodgo, incIuding IaIi, llo canonicaI
Ianguago of Tloravãda Buddlism. Tlo oxpross dosiro
of llo King in founding llo Dlammayullika Socl
vas lo onabIo monks lo Ioad a moro discipIinod and
scloIarIy Iifo in accordanco vill llo prislino loacl-
25
ings of llo Buddla. Tlo difforoncos bolvoon llo lvo
Nikayas aro, lovovor, nol groal: al mosl lloy concorn
onIy mallors of discipIino, and novor of llo Doclrino.
Monks of boll socls foIIov llo samo 227 Vinaya ruIos
as Iaid dovn in llo Ialimokkla of llo Vinaya Iilaka
(llo Baskol of llo DiscipIino), and boll rocoivo llo
samo osloom from llo pubIic. In lloir gonoraI appoar-
anco and daiIy roulino of Iifo loo, oxcopl for llo sIigll
difforonco in llo mannors of pulling on llo yoIIov
robos, monks of llo lvo Nikayas diffor vory IillIo
from ono anollor.
Fj_YfakYlagfÛg^Ûl`]ÛJYf_`Y
IormorIy, and in accordanco vill llo Adminislra-
lion of llo Blikklu Sangla Acl (B.L. 2484, A.D. 1943),
llo organisalion of llo Sangla in TlaiIand vas on
a Iino simiIar lo llal of llo Slalo. Tlo Sanglaraja or
llo Supromo Ialriarcl is llo liglosl Buddlisl dig-
nilary of llo Kingdom. Ho is closon by llo King, in
consuIlalion vill llo Govornmonl, from among llo
mosl sonior and quaIifiod mombors of llo Sangla.
Tlo Sanglaraja appoinls a counciI of LccIosiaslicaI
Minislors loadod by llo Sangla Nayaka, vloso posi-
lion is anaIogous lo llal of llo Irimo Minislor of llo
Slalo. Undor llo Sangla Nayaka lloro funclion four
occIosiaslicaI boards, namoIy llo Board of LccIosiasli-
26
caI Adminislralion, llo Board of Lducalion, llo Board
of Iropagalion and llo Board of IubIic vorks.
Lacl of llo boards las a Sangla Manlri (oquiva-
Ionl lo a minislor in llo socuIar adminislralion) vill
lis assislanls. Tlo four boards or minislrios aro sup-
posod lo Iook aflor llo affairs of llo onliro Sangla.
Tlo LccIosiaslicaI MinisloriaI CounciI vlicl, by llo
vay, corrosponds lo llo Cabinol, consisls of lon mom-
bors, aII sonior monks of llo Sangla. In addilion lo
llis, lloro is a ConsuIlalivo AssombIy (Sangla Sablã),
oquivaIonl lo llo NalionaI AssombIy, llo mombors of
vlicl numbor 45, soIoclod from various imporlanl
monaslorios. Tlo Sangla Sablã acls as an Advisory
Body lo llo LccIosiaslicaI MinisloriaI CounciI. BoIov
llo Sangla Sablã llo adminislralion of llo Sangla
conlinuos lo corrospond lo llo socuIar adminislra-
lion of llo counlry. AII monks and novicos (Sãman-
oras) lavo lo Iivo in monaslorios vlicl aro scallorod
llrougloul llo counlry. Lacl monaslory las ils abbol
appoinlod by llo LccIosiaslicaI MinisloriaI CounciI in
consuIlalion vill IocaI poopIo. Il may bo poinlod oul
loro llal aII roIigious appoinlmonls in TlaiIand aro
basod on scloIarIy acliovomonls, soniorily, porsonaI
conducl and popuIarily, and conlacls vill monks
furllor up in llo Sangla.
Tloro is a Doparlmonl of RoIigious Affairs in llo
Minislry of Lducalion vlicl acls as a Iiaison offico
27
bolvoon llo Govornmonl and Sangla. In gonoraI llo
Doparlmonl of RoIigious Affairs vorks in co-opora-
lion vill llo LccIosiaslicaI MinisloriaI CounciI on aII
mallors affocling llo Sangla. Ior inslanco, il issuos
aII IogaI diroclivos concorning llo onliro communily
of monks: il koops rocord of llo Sangla´s proporly,
sucl as Iands olc.: il mainlains facls and figuros vill
rospocl lo monks and monaslorios. Tlo RoIigious
Affairs Doparlmonl aIso proparos llo annuaI budgol
for llo upkoop of llo Sangla funclionarios and llo
mainlonanco and ropair of lompIos olc. Il may bo
addod loro llal aII lompIos and monaslorios aro Slalo
proporly.
In 1962, llo Adminislralion of llo Blikklu Sangla
Acl of 1943 vas aboIislod: a nov ono vas onaclod
insload. By virluo of llo nov acl, llo posls of Sangla
Nayaka, Sangla Manlris and Sangla Sablã voro
aboIislod. In pIaco of lloso lloro is a Malallora
Samagama (CounciI of llo LIdors) loadod by llo
Sanglaraja limsoIf and consisling of nol Ioss llan
four and nol moro llan oigll sonior monks (Malã-
lloras) of llo lvo socls (Nikayas). Tlo Malallora
Samagama, in coIIaboralion vill llo Doparlmonl of
RoIigious Affairs, diroclIy govorns llo onliro Sangla.
28
<\m[YlagfÛg^ÛDgfck
As is voII knovn, llo originaI idoa of mon´s onloring
monklood during llo Buddla´s limo or slorlIy Ialor,
vas lo allain Iiboralion from vorIdIy oxislonco in
accordanco vill llo loacling of llo Maslor. Sucl an
idoa, of courso, springs from man´s fooIing of avorsion
lo llings mundano. In ollor vords, in lloso far-off
days, mon onlorod monklood vill llo soIo inlonlion
of ridding llomsoIvos of Iifo´s misorios and of oblain-
ing spiriluaI froodom or Nirvana. Inslancos of sucl
soIf-ronuncialion aro found in llo loIy books of llo
Buddlisls. Will llo passago of limo, as is onIy nalu-
raI, many of llo idoaIs and praclicos of llo oarIy foI-
Iovors of llo Buddla undorvonl modificalions. Today,
ovor 2,5OO yoars aflor llo passing avay of llo Buddla,
llougl llo idoaI of bocoming a Blikklu sliII romains
vory Iofly among Buddlisls of aII Iands, yol in praclico
il musl bo admillod llal lloro lavo boon many dovia-
lions from llo Maslor´s originaI admonilions vill
rogard lo llo vlys and vloroforos of man´s onloring
monklood. GonoraIizalion of any subjocl mallor is
oflon dangorous bul il viII nol bo far from lrull lo say
llal loday, in TlaiIand as in ollor Buddlisl counlrios,
llo praclico of Buddlisl maIos onloring monklood is
lo a considorabIo oxlonl promplod rallor by llo dic-
lalion of cuslom, llo visl for oducalion and ollor
29
oxlornaI considoralions llan by llo dosiro lo allain
omancipalion. Yol lloro aro aIso many vlo join llo
Sangla llrougl gonuino Iovo for a roIigious Iifo and
roIigious sludios, or oul of llo visl lo bo of sorvico
lo Buddlism and lloir counlry. IinaIIy, in llo Tlai
Sangla aIso lloso aro nol onliroIy Iacking vloso Iifo
is vigorousIy dovolod lo llo aim of uIlimalo oman-
cipalion and lo llo guidanco of ollors lovards llal
goaI. Tloro lavo boon, and sliII aro, sainlIy and abIo
modilalion maslors in TlaiIand, vill a fair numbor of
dovolod discipIos in Sangla and Iaily. Tloro aro aIso
sliII monks ÷ llo so-caIIod Tludong blikklus ÷ vlo
foIIov llo ancionl vay of ausloro Iiving ombodiod in
llo ¨slricl obsorvancos¨ or Dlulangas.
4
In viov of llo abovo facls, lloro aro lvo calogorios
of Buddlisl monks in TlaiIand. Ono comprisos lloso
vlo bocomo monks for Iong poriods, somolimos for
Iifo, and llo ollor lloso vlo onlor llo Ordor lom-
porariIy. To sorvo in llo monklood ovon for a slorl
poriod is considorod a groal moril-oarning allainmonl
by llo Tlai Buddlisls. Lvon kings foIIov llis ago-oId
cuslom. Ior inslanco, llo prosonl ruIor, H.M. King
BlumiboI AduIyadoj, aIso obsorvod llo cuslom for a
poriod of laIf a monll somo limo ago. Govornmonl
officiaIs aro aIIovod Ioavo vill fuII pay for a poriod
of four monlls in ordor lo sorvo in monklood. Tlo
idoa is lo onabIo young mon lo gain knovIodgo of
3O
Buddlism and lloroby lo bocomo good cilizons. Iifo
as a monk givos llom praclicaI oxporionco of lov an
idoaI Buddlisl Iifo slouId bo. In ruraI dislricls llo
gonoraI londoncy is sliII lo givo moro doforonco lo
lloso vlo lavo aIroady sorvod in monklood. Sucl
poopIo aro supposod lo bo moro ¨maluro¨ llan lloso
vlo lavo nol undorgono llo monk´s Iifo. Moroovor, in
TlaiIand vals (monaslorios and lompIos) usod lo bo
and aro sliII rogardod as soals of Ioarning vloro aII
mon, irrospoclivo of Iifo´s posilion, couId go and avaiI
llomsoIvos of oducalion bonofils. Tlis is ospociaIIy so
in llo caso of oconomicaIIy landicappod maIos of llo
counlry-sido. Inslancos aro nol Iacking in vlicl poo-
pIo lavo cIimbod ligl up on Iifo´s slalus Iaddor aflor
oblaining oducalion vliIo in monklood. Tloro aro
noillor roIigious roslriclions nor sociaI disapprovaI
againsl monks´ rolurning lo Iay Iifo if and vlon lloy
find llomsoIvos unabIo lo disclargo lloir dulios as
monks.
Casos oxisl in vlicl, for somo roason or llo ollor,
mon lavo onlorod monklood moro llan onco, aIllougl
sucl praclico cannol bo said lo bo in llo osloom of llo
pubIic. Iookod al from llis viovpoinl, llo inslilulion
of onloring monklood in TlaiIand, aparl from boing
a vay of gaining moraI and spiriluaI onIigllonmonl,
is a sociaI upIifl mollod by vlicl lloso nol so for-
lunaloIy pIacod in Iifo couId bonofil. Iudgod from llo
31
idoaI of adopling a monk´s Iifo as onuncialod by llo
Buddla, vlollor or nol sucl praclico is commondabIo,
is a difforonl slory. Tlo facl is llal ovon loday vlon
modornism las ponolralod doop inlo TlaiIand, aboul
ono laIf of llo primary sclooIs of llo counlry aro sliII
silualod in vals. Will sox and crimos on llo incroaso
in llo counlry, llo cry for Iiving a bollor Buddlisl Iifo
is boing loard moro and moro dislinclIy in TlaiIand
loday.
Tlo lradilionaI oducalion of monks and novicos in
TlaiIand conlros mainIy on llo sludios of llo Bud-
dlisl Doclrino (Dlamma) and IaIi, llo Ianguago in
vlicl llo Tloravãda scripluros aro vrillon. Of llo
formor, llo sludy of llo Doclrino, lloro aro llroo
grados vill oxaminalions opon lo boll monks and
Iaymon. Tloso passing sucl oxaminalions aro lormod
¨Nak Dlamma¨, IiloraIIy moaning ono vlo knovs llo
Dlamma. Tlo Iallor, i.o. llo sludy of IaIi, las sovon
grados, slarling vill llo llird and onding vill llo
ninll grado. Sludonls passing IaIi oxaminalions aro
caIIod ¨Iarian¨ (IaIi: Iarinna = ponolralivo knovI-
odgo): in llo Tlai Ianguago llo vord ¨Iarinna¨ is
usod lo moan acadomic dogroo. Ior oxampIo, monks
and novicos passing llo firsl IaIi oxaminalion aro
onlilIod lo vrilo ¨I. 3¨ aflor lloir namos.
GonoraIIy llo Dlamma and llo IaIi sludios go
land in land and lako al Ioasl sovon yoars lo com-
32
pIolo. Tlo sliffnoss of llo lvo coursos, ospociaIIy llal
of llo IaIi Ianguago, can bo guossod from llo facl llal
vory fov sludonls aro abIo lo pass llo liglosl grado,
llo Iarian 9, in any annuaI oxaminalion. In llo good
oId days vlon Iiving vas Ioss compolilivo llan nov,
passing of ovon llo Iovor Dlamma and IaIi oxami-
nalions usod lo bo of mucl vaIuo in socuring good
govornmonl posls. Bul nov llings aro quilo difforonl:
ovon lloso succossfuI in llo liglosl IaIi oxaminalion,
llo 9ll Grado, find il difficuIl lo gol suilabIo ompIoy-
monl.
Of Ialo lloro las dovoIopod a nov oulIook in
llo oducalion of monks in TlaiIand. Will llo rapid
progross of scionco and vill llo slrinking of llo
vorId, Buddlisl Ioadors of TlaiIand, monks as voII as
Iaymon, aro avakonod lo llo nocossily of imparling
broador oducalion lo mombors of llo Sangla, if llo
Sangla is lo sorvo llo causo of Buddlism voII, ¨for
llo gain of llo many, for llo voIfaro of llo many¨.
As a rosuIl of llo nov oulIook lloro nov funclion in
Bangkok lvo liglor inslilulos of Ioarning oxcIusivoIy
for monks and novicos. Ono is llo MalãcluIãIong-
korn RãjvidyãIaya, and llo ollor is llo Mãlamongkul
RãjvidyãIaya. Boll aro organisod on a modorn uni-
vorsily fooling and boll soom lo bo making salisfac-
lory progross lovards llal diroclion. IncIusion in llo
curricuIum of somo socuIar subjocls nol incompalibIo
33
vill monks´ discipIino (Vinaya) is among llo nola-
bIo foaluros of lloso lvo inslilulos: llo aim is lo givo
an aII-round oducalion lo monks in ordor lo onabIo
llom lo bo of bollor sorvico lo llo causo of Buddlism
amidsl modorn condilions.
So mucl for llo oducalion of `Iong-lorm´ monks.
As for lloso vlo onlor llo Ordor lomporariIy, moslIy
for a poriod of llroo rainy monlls during llo Vassa,
or Buddlisl Ionl, llo oducalion is briof and dovolod
lo llo main lonols and foaluros of Buddlism onIy. As
poinlod oul abovo, sucl poopIo onlor monklood oillor
by lloir ovn gonuino dosiro for knovIodgo of llo
Dlamma, by llo diclum of cuslom or, as gonoraIIy is
llo caso, by llo lvo roasons combinod. Monks of llis
calogory rolurn lo Iay Iifo again as soon as llo Ionl
is ovor. Tlis is llo roason vly accommodalions in
monaslorios (vals) aro usuaIIy fuII during llo Ionlon
poriod. Novadays, oving lo llo prossuro of modorn
Iifo, llo cuslom of lomporary onloring monklood is
nol so rigorousIy obsorvod by poopIo Iiving in urban
aroas as by lloso in llo counlry-sido. Tlo cuslom
las ils paraIIoI in Burma, Cambodia and Iaos vloro
Tloravãda Buddlism provaiIs.
34
NYlkÛYf\ÛDgfck
Tlo vord ¨val¨ moans monaslory and lompIo com-
binod. Il is llo rosidonco of monks and novicos. Tloro
aro aboul 21,OOO vals in llo vloIo of TlaiIand. In
Bangkok aIono lloro aro noarIy lvo lundrod vals.
Somo big vals in Bangkok lavo as many as 6OO
rosidonl monks and novicos. Wals aro conlros of Tlai
arl and arclilocluro. Tlai cuIluro, lo a considorabIo
oxlonl, fIovs from vals. Wal-Iands and conslruclions
lloroon aro donalod by royaIly, voaIlly poopIo and
llo pubIic in gonoraI. Tlo val is llo mosl imporlanl
inslilulion in Tlai ruraI Iifo. Tlo sociaI Iifo of llo ruraI
communily rovoIvos around llo val. Bosidos carrying
oul llo obvious roIigious aclivilios, a val sorvos llo
communily as a rocroalion conlro, disponsary, sclooI,
communily conlro, lomo for llo agod and doslilulos,
sociaI vork and voIfaro agoncy, viIIago cIock, rosl-
louso, novs agoncy and informalion conlro. A val is
loadod by a ¨Clao Avas¨ (llo abbol) vlo is rospon-
sibIo for llo mainlonanco of llo val discipIino, llo
propor porformanco of roIigious sorvicos and riluaIs,
and llo gonoraI voIfaro of llo inmalos. Bosidos monks
and novicos, lloro aro aIso llo ¨lompIo boys¨ in vals,
vlo assisl monks and novicos in various vays, sucl
as bringing and arranging food, cIoaning dormilorios,
vasling yoIIov robos, olc. UsuaIIy lloso boys aro
35
roIalod lo rosidonl monks in ono vay or anollor, and
lloir slay is froo of clargo. Mosl of llom aro sludonls
vloso lomos aro far avay and vlo vouId, ollorviso,
find il impraclicabIo lo gol oducalion. Tlis is ospociaI-
Iy so in Bangkok vloro accommodalion is difficuIl lo
gol and vloro aII liglor soals of Ioarning of llo coun-
lry aro silualod. Tlo consus lakon in 1954 rovoaIs llal
lloro aro as many as 119,O44 lompIo boys in TlaiIand,
vlicl indood is nol a smaII figuro. Tlo inslilulion of
llo val, in ilsoIf a gifl of Buddlism, lloroforo con-
lribulos in no smaII moasuro lo llo sociaI voIfaro and
progross of llo Tlai Buddlisls. Tlo bonofils in llis
rospocl, of courso, aro moro apparonl among llo Iovor
slrala of socioly llan in llo caso of llo forlunalo fov
on llo lop.
Aparl from ongaging llomsoIvos in doclrinaI slud-
ios and obsorving discipIinary ruIos (Vinaya) in gon-
oraI, monks aro oxpoclod lo bo ¨frionds, pliIosoplors
and guidos¨ of llo poopIo. Iroacling lo massos faco
lo faco or ovor llo radio is ono of llo commonosl
vays by vlicl monks loIp llo promolion of moraI
slabiIily among various mombors of llo socioly. Il
may nol bo oul of pIaco lo roiloralo llo facl llal Bud-
dlism Iays groal slross on llo nocossily of Ioading a
moraIIy good Iifo in ordor lo oblain lappinoss in Iifo
loro and loroaflor. In mosl of llo coromonios and ril-
uaIs, vlollor privalo or pubIic, monks´ co-oporalion
36
and bonodiclion aro indisponsabIo. Indood, in llo Iifo
of llo avorago Tlai Buddlisls, from llo cradIo lo llo
gravo, monks aro porsons lo vlom lloy conslanlIy
lurn for moraI supporl.
Tlo roIo of monks in ruraI dislricls is ovon moro
imporlanl, for lloro llo IocaI val is nol onIy llo roIi-
gious bul aIso llo sociaI conlro of llo communily. Il is
al llo val llal poopIo como logollor and oxporionco
a sonso of comradoslip. RoIigious riluaIs and coromo-
nios loId al vals aro aIvays accompaniod by sociaI
aclivilios: lloy aro occasions for poopIo, ospociaIIy llo
young, lo onjoy llomsoIvos in foasl, fun and foslivilios.
Tlis aspocl of llo roIigious sorvico loIps llo common
foIks lo roIax and salisfios lloir noods for rocroalion.
Nol a fov malrimoniaI aIIiancos slarlod from con-
lacls al val promisos. Acling as a moraI and ollicaI
oxampIo, monks aro llo mosl vonoralod porsons in
llo counlry-sido Tlai socioly, romaining vory cIoso
lo llo loarls of llo poopIo. In limos of crisis, il is lo
monks llal poopIo bring lloir probIoms for counsoI
and oncouragomonl. Will fov oxcoplions, llo Sangla
las voII juslifiod llis alliludo of rospocl and lonour
slovn lo il on llo parl of llo Iaily and, on llo vloIo,
las Iivod up lo llo dignily of llo Iaill.
37
@@ ÛÛÛÛÛK`]ÛCYalq
Tlrougloul ils ovor 2,5OO yoars of oxislonco Bud-
dlism las boon cIosoIy connoclod vill llo Iay com-
munily. In IaIi llo vord for a maIo Iay dovoloo is
¨Upãsaka¨ and ¨Upasik㨠is ils fomaIo oquivaIonl. In
llo lislory of Buddlism, rigll from llo limo of ils
foundor, lloro lad boon numorous ¨Upãsakas¨ and
¨Upasikãs¨ vloso faill in llo Toaclings of llo Maslor
lad conlribulod IargoIy lo llo dissominalion of llo
Doclrino. Namos of llo Buddla´s munificonl foIIov-
ors Iiko Anãllapindika, Visãklã, Asoka, Kanislka,
olc., aro on llo Iips of Buddlisls ovon loday. Willoul
llo palronago of Lmporor Asoka, Buddlism probabIy
couId nol lavo sproad so far and llo courso of ils lis-
lory migll lavo boon difforonl. In India, llo Iand of
ils birll, as voII as in mosl of llo counlrios vloro ils
Mossago las boon accoplod, Buddlism las rocoivod
unslinlod supporl from poopIo of aII cIassos, ospo-
ciaIIy llo ruIing cIass. Hislory of llo movomonls of
Buddlism in Clina, Iapan, Burma, CoyIon, Tibol, olc.
ampIy juslifios llis slalomonl. In llo caso of TlaiIand
loo, ovor sinco ils inlroduclion lo llal counlry, Bud-
dlism las boon varmIy rocoivod and palronizod by
kings and commonors aIiko. Il is voII-knovn llal
many of llo Tlai ruIors, nol salisfiod vill boing moro
Iay-dovoloos, gol llomsoIvos ordainod inlo monklood
38
and bocamo famous for lloir orudilion in llo Dlam-
ma. King Mongkul, Rama IV, probabIy slands oul as
mosl dislinguislod among llis cIass of royaI dovo-
loos. Tlo cuslom of Tlai maIos onloring llo Sangla
aIso conlribulos mucl lo llo bollor undorslanding
and co-oporalion bolvoon llo Iay communily and
llo monklood. Aflor aII, porsonaI oxporionco is bollor
llan moro lloorolicaI knovIodgo.
Tlo Buddla limsoIf, in ono of lis discoursos,
oxlorlod lis foIIovors lo disclargo lloir dulios voII
so as lo onabIo llo Dlamma lo onduro Iong in llo
vorId. Ono of llo dulios of llo Iay foIIovors, as laugll
by llo Maslor, is lo Iook aflor llo noods of monks.
Honco il is llo lradilionaI praclico vill Iay foIIovors
in aII Buddlisl counlrios, ospociaIIy lloso foIIoving
Tloravãda Buddlism, lo soo llal monks do nol suffor
from Iack of llo four roquisilos, namoIy food, cIoll-
ing, sloIlor and modicino. AIllougl in llo prosonl
ago of compolilivo oconomy, Iifo in any fioId is nol
so oasy, nobody can say in fairnoss llal monk-Iifo in
TlaiIand suffors groalIy from slorlago of llo abovo
four roquisilos. As Blikklus aro nol aIIovod lo foIIov
any occupalionaI aclivilios, il is cIoar llal lloy onliroIy
dopond on llo Iaily for lloir oxislonco. In rolurn for
llis sponlanoous supporl offorod llom by llo pubIic,
monks aro oxpoclod lo Iivo oxompIary Iivos for llo
bonofil of llomsoIvos as voII as of lloso vlo Iook lo
39
llom as loaclors and guidos. Wo lavo aIroady soon
vlal moraI infIuonco monks lavo upon llo poopIo.
Co-oporalion bolvoon llo Iaily and llo Blikklu
Sangla in TlaiIand is cIoso and sponlanoous. To
a vory groal oxlonl llis is duo lo llo facl llal in an
avorago Tlai famiIy somo of ils mombors aro corlain
lo bo found vlo lavo for somo limo sorvod in llo
Sangla. To llo massos yoIIov robos aro symboI of llo
Maslor, and Blikklus aro uploIdors of llo Dlamma,
lo bo doforrod lo in aII circumslancos. Il is inlorosling
lo nolo llal Blikklus or Sãmanoras found guiIly of
commilling crimos aro formaIIy divoslod of lloir yoI-
Iov robos boforo IogaI aclion is lakon againsl llom by
llo Slalo, and llis is dono invariabIy undor pormis-
sion of llo cliof monk or llo abbol.
¨To do good¨ (KusaIa Kamma) is a cardinaI poinl
in llo loaclings of Buddlism. ConsoquonlIy llo
idoa of porforming morilorious doods is vory doopIy
ingrainod in llo minds of Buddlisls. Ways of doing
good or making moril (Iunna) among llo Tlai Bud-
dlisls aro numorous. A man gains moril oacl limo lo
givos aIms lo monks or conlribulos lo any roIigious
riluaIs. To gol ordinalion inlo monklood ovon for a
slorl poriod, of courso, brings mucl moril. Bosidos,
lloro aro ollor vays of moril-oarning, sucl as roIoas-
ing cagod birds or frooing caugll fislos, pIasloring
goId Ioaf on Buddla slaluos or roIigious monumonls,
4O
conlribuling lo llo conslruclion of a nov lompIo or
llo ropair of an oId ono, olc. ¨Tlo Iav of Karma¨ llal
oacl aclion las ils corrosponding rosuIl and llo boIiof
in robirll aro lvo imporlanl faclors in mouIding sucl
alliludo lovards Iifo among llo Buddlisls. Tlougl
¨Nibbãna¨ (Sanskril: Nirvana), llo liglosl bIiss in
Buddlism, is aspirod lo by aII good Buddlisls, llo
vasl majorily of llom sliII llink il is nol so oasy lo
roacl and llal lloy viII bo roborn again in llis vorId,
in loavon or somo ollor vorId, or ÷ al llo vory vorsl
÷ in loII. Honco, as Iong as lloy Iivo lloy musl lry lo
do good in ordor lo onsuro good rosuIls in llis vory
Iifo as voII as in llo Iifo lo como. ¨Bo a Iigll unlo
yoursoIf. Lacl man musl slrivo for lis ovn saIvalion¨
÷ lloso voro llo Maslor´s vords. In viov of llis, Tlor-
avãda Buddlism is oflon said lo lavo individuaIislic
lompor. NovorlloIoss, il is vory loIoranl, as llo Iong
lislory of ils oxislonco viII provo. Indood, llo clar-
aclorislic loIoranco of Buddlism, for inslanco in Tlai-
Iand, las aIvays pormillod llo absorplion of many
boIiofs and praclicos from ollor sourcos vlicl lavo
oflon sorvod lo suppIomonl or oxpand ils concopls or
lo fiII gaps. Animism and Bralmanism may bo cilod
in llis connoclion: llo lvo boing imporlanl suppIo-
monls of popuIar Buddlism in TlaiIand. A foroign
vrilor las rigllIy obsorvod llal llo alliludo of llo
Tlai massos lovards lloir roIigion is of an oasy-going
41
naluro. Tloy do nol bollor lo dislinguisl among llo
various compononls of lloir roIigion: for llom il is aII
of a pioco. OnIy llo soplislicalod fov aro concornod
vill doclrinaI Iogic and purily. Of courso, lloy loo
knov mucl aboul ils Iogonds, ils foslivaIs, ils idoaIs,
and ils gonoraI mossago llal ¨good viII rondor good¨.
On llo vloIo il can bo said llal llo Tlais onjoy lloir
roIigion. RoIigious obsorvancos aro lo llom as sociaI
and rocroalionaI as sacrod occasions. And for llo vasl
majorily, Buddlism sufficos in llal il onabIos llom lo
fooI and boIiovo and onjoy.
9m\\`aklÛFj_YfakYlagfkÛYf\
l`]ÛI]nanYdÛg^Û9m\\`ake
Organisalions among llo Iay Buddlisls of TlaiIand
aro roconl oslabIislmonls. Irominonl and oIdosl among
llom is porlaps llo Buddlisl Associalion of TlaiIand,
undor RoyaI Ialronago, vlicl nov is aboul 3O yoars
oId, laving boon oslabIislod in 1933. Having ils load
offico in Bangkok, il mainlains brancl organisalions
in aImosl aII major dislricls of TlaiIand. Ils mombor-
slip is opon lo boll soxos, irrospoclivo of cIass, crood
and coIour. Tlo aim and objocl of llo Buddlisl Asso-
cialion of TlaiIand is lo promolo llo sludy and prac-
lico of Buddlism and lo propagalo ils mossago in and
oulsido TlaiIand. Bosidos arranging roguIar Iocluros
42
and discussions on lopics concorning llo Dlamma,
llo Associalion aIso pubIislos a monllIy journaI in
llo Tlai Ianguago on llo loaclings of llo Buddla.
Anollor organisalion is llo Young Buddlisls
Associalion vlicl camo inlo boing al llo cIoso of llo
Socond WorId War. As ils namo impIios, llo Young
Buddlisls Associalion lakos caro of llo inlorosl of llo
young in mallors concorning Buddlism. Ils primary
objocl is lo oncourago llo young lo imbibo llo lonols
of Buddlism and lo Iivo a virluous Iifo. Cliof among
ils aclivilios aro arranging roguIar Iocluros and dis-
cussions on llo Dlamma, issuing pubIicalions on
subjocls doaIing vill Buddlism in gonoraI, and
sponsoring moolings of llo young on llo pIalform of
Buddlism. Tlo Young Buddlisls Associalion aIso las
branclos in llo dislricls.
As said oarIior llo ond of llo Socond WorId War
sav a groal rovivaI of inlorosl in Buddlism llrougl-
oul llo vorId. Lvon in counlrios Iiko TlaiIand vloro
llo Doclrino of llo Avakonod Ono las boon lradi-
lionaIIy accoplod for gonoralions, poopIo soom lo bo
incroasingIy oagor lo knov moro aboul llo Dlamma.
Slrango as il may soom, llis is parlIy duo lo llo inlor-
osl llo OccidonlaI WorId las lakon in Buddlism. In
limos pasl roIigion las boon moro or Ioss rogardod in
TlaiIand as ¨soIaco of llo oId¨ Bul vill llo impacl
of llo Wosl in mosl mallors and vill llo gonoraI
43
inlorosl slovn lovards Buddlism by Woslorn inloI-
Iigonlsia, llo Buddlisls of TlaiIand, ospociaIIy llo
youngor gonoralions vlo camo inlo conlacl vill llo
Wosl, bogan lo ovinco an inquisilivo alliludo lovards
lloir roIigion ÷ a lorilago vlicl lloy lavo aII aIong
accoplod as lloir ovn bul vlicl lloy lavo carod Iil-
lIo lo knov aboul ils lruo vaIuo. Tlis is no allompl lo
boIillIo llo oxcoodingIy groal imporlanco llo Tlais
allacl lo lloir roIigion. Bul luman naluro boing vlal
il is, llo saying ¨IamiIiarily broods conlompl¨ is in
mosl casos nol vory far vrong. In llo Tlai Ianguago
aIso vo lavo a provorb ¨KIai KIoua Kin Dang¨ vlicl
may bo rondorod in LngIisl as ¨lo lavo llo foIIy lo
rosorl lo aIkaIi vlon ono is in possossion of saIl¨.
Having lakon rool on llo soiI of TlaiIand for
conlurios Buddlism las naluraIIy allraclod many
appondagos lo ils foId, somo of vlicl aro nol quilo
in conformily vill llo loaclings of llo Maslor as
conlainod in llo Canon (Tripilaka). Many Ioadors of
Buddlislic llougll in TlaiIand lavo, lloroforo, como
forvard lo lry lo purify llo Dlamma of llo many
impurilios llal lavo cropl inlo il. NolabIo among llo
roformalory groups aro llo Dlammadana Associa-
lion in Iaiya, Soull TlaiIand, undor llo Ioadorslip of
Buddladasa Blikklu, and llo Buddla Nigama of
Cliongmai (Norll TlaiIand) slarlod by Iannananda
Blikklu. Tlo lvo organisalions aro sloving good
44
offorls in llo fioId of avakoning llo Buddlisls of
TlaiIand lo llo prislino loaclings of llo Buddla as
lroasurod in llo IaIi Tipilaka. Tlo mission is admil-
lodIy a difficuIl ono bul aIroady a promising slarl las
boon mado in llis diroclion. Mucl viII aIso no doubl
dopond on lov llings lranspiro in ollor sploros of
luman aclivilios, cliofIy oconomic, sociaI and poIili-
caI. Tlo prosonl is an ago of confIicl ÷ confIicl bolvoon
mind and body, bolvoon spiril and mallor. Man musl
find larmony bolvoon llo lvo if poaco bo lis aim in
Iifo. And lo llis lask of finding larmony villin man
Buddlism couId conlribulo in no smaII moasuro.
Tlo King
and Ouoon
of TlaiIand
T
45
Egl]k
1 K`]Û?aklgjqÛg^Û9m\\`aklÛK`gm_`l, by L.I. Tlomas
2 K`]Û;ak[gn]jqÛg^Û@f\aY, IavalarIaI Nolru,
Claplor V (XVI)
3 Tlo counling of llo Buddlisl CounciIs
(Sangayanã or Sangïli) diffors in llo sovoraI
Tloravãda counlrios. In CoyIon, llo abovo-
monlionod CounciI is numborod as llo fifll:
and in Burma, ils pIaco is lakon by llo CounciI
of MandaIay (1871), vliIo llo Iasl CounciI in
Rangoon (1954-1956) is counlod as llo sixll.
|<\algj.]
4 Soo K`]ÛN`]]d No. 83/84: Nal`ÛIgZ]kÛYf\Û9god
>daehk]kÛg^Ûl`]ÛK`m\gf_Û9`acc`mÛCa^], by Blikkku
KlanlipãIo.

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