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Chapter 3: Thermochemistry & Thermodynamics

1. Internal energy change


= =
< ;

2. Forms of energy transfer


q = +ve : system gains heat

= + ;

q = -ve: system loses energy

w = +ve: work done on system

w = -ve: work done by system

3. Law of energy conservation (First Law of Thermodynamics)


= + =
4. = + ;

= + ;
, = + ; at constant pressure, work done, =

= + + ; =
5.
6. = =
7. Specific heat capacity, =
= ;

8. Hess Law ;

(unit = J/g.K)

where m = mass of substance in g, q = heat in J, = change in T (K or C)


= () ()

9. = = ; unit =J/K
= () ()
10. At equilibrium conditions where phase change occurs at constant T;
11. =

= ,

12. = () ()