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Afnan Shahid

The Ideology of Pakistan: Two-Nation Theory


With the growth of the Muslim nationalism in the Hindu dominated India the Two
Nations Theory had evolved and persisted throughout the period; both the communities
lived together under the same rulers. Their integration was inconceivable and, even the
Mughal emperor Akbars effort to unify both the Hindus and Muslims into a single nation
had miserably failed.
As early as in the beginning of the 11th century, Al-Biruni observed that Hindus differed
from the Muslims in all matters and habits. He further elaborated his argument by writing
that the Hindus considered Muslims Mlachha, or impure. And they forbid having any
connection with them, be it intermarriage or any other bond of relationship. They even
avoid sitting, eating and drinking with them, because they feel polluted.
The speech made by Quaid-i-Azam at Minto Park, Lahore on March 22, 1940 was very
similar to Al-Birunis thesis in theme and tone.
In this speech, he stated that Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious
philosophies, with different social customs and literature. They neither intermarry, nor eat
together, and indeed belong to two different civilizations whose very foundations are
based on conflicting ideas and concepts. Their outlook on life and of life is different. He
emphasized that in spite of the passage of about 1,000 years the relations between the
Hindus and Muslims could not attain the level of cordiality.

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The only difference between the writing of Al-Biruni and the speech of Quaid-i-Azam
was that Al-Biruni made calculated predictions, while Quaid-i-Azam had history behind
him to support his argument.
The Ideology of Pakistan has its roots deep in history. The history of South Asia is largely
a history of rivalry and conflict between the Hindus and Muslims of the region. Both
communities have been living together in the same area since the early 8th century, since
the advent of Islam in India. Yet, the two have failed to develop harmonious relations. In
the beginning, one could find the Muslims and Hindus struggling for supremacy in the
battlefield. Starting with the war between Muhammad bin Qasim and Raja Dahir in 712,
armed conflicts between Hindus and Muslims run in thousands. Clashes between
Mahmud of Ghazni and Jaypal, Muhammad Ghuri and Prithvi Raj, Babur and Rana
Sanga and Aurangzeb and Shivaji are cases in point.
When the Hindus of South Asia failed to establish Hindu Padshahi through force, they
opted for back door conspiracies. Bhakti Movement with the desire to merge Islam and
Hinduism was one of the biggest attacks on the ideology of the Muslims of the region.
Akbars diversion from the main stream Islamic ideology was one of the Hindus greatest
success stories. However, due to the immediate counterattack by Mujaddid Alf Sani and
his pupils, this era proved to be a short one.
Muslims once again proved their separate identity during the regimes of Jehangir, Shah
Jehan and particularly Aurangzeb. The attempts to bring the two communities close could
not succeed because the differences between the two are fundamental and have no
meeting point. At the root of the problem lies the difference between the two religions. So

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long as the two people want to lead their lives according to their respective faith, they
cannot be one.
With the advent of the British rule in India in 1858, Hindu-Muslim relations entered a
new phase. The British brought with them a new political philosophy commonly known
as territorial nationalism. Before the coming of the British, there was no concept of a
nation in South Asia and the region had never been a single political unit. The British
attempt to weld the two communities in to a nation failed. The British concept of a
nation did not fit the religious-social system of South Asia. Similarly, the British political
system did not suite the political culture of South Asia. The British political system,
commonly known as democracy, gave majority the right to rule. But unlike Britain, the
basis of majority and minority in South Asia was not political but religious and ethnic.
The attempt to enforce the British political model in South Asia, instead of solving the
political problems, only served to make the situation more complex. The Hindus
supported the idea while it was strongly opposed by the Muslims. The Muslims knew that
implementation of the new order would mean the end of their separate identity and
endless rule of the Hindu majority in the name of nationalism and democracy. The
Muslims refused to go the British way. They claimed that they were a separate nation and
the basis of their nation was the common religion Islam. They refused to accept a
political system that would reduce them to a permanent minority. They first demanded
separate electorates and later a separate state. Religious and cultural differences between
Hindus and Muslims increased due to political rivalry under the British rule.

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On March 24, 1940, the Muslims finally abandoned the idea of federalism and defined a
separate homeland as their target. Quaid-i-Azam considered the creation of Pakistan a
means to an end and not the end in itself. He wanted Pakistan to be an Islamic and
democratic state. According to his wishes and in accordance with the inspirations of the
people of Pakistan, the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan passed the Objectives
Resolution. The adoption of Objectives Resolution removed all doubts, if there were any,
about the ideology of Pakistan. The Muslims of Pakistan decided once and for all to make
Pakistan a state wherein the Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in their
individual and collective spheres, in accordance to the teachings and requirements of
Islam as set out in the Holy Quran and Sunnah.
The Muslims were in a state of agony at the hands of Hindus and the British as well.
Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah refused to accept the Nehrus notion that there are
only two forces in India, British imperialism and Indian nationalism as represented by the
Congress. He sharply reminded Nehru that: there was another party. The Muslim
League which alone had the right to represent the Muslims of India. It has always been
taken for granted mistakenly that Muslims are a minority. He said, Muslims are a nation
by any definition of a nation. Hindu and Muslims belong to two religions, philosophies,
social customs and literature. They neither inter-marry nor inter-dine and indeed belong
to different civilizations which are based on conflicting ideas and conceptions; their
concepts of life are different. As such they must have their homeland, their territory and
their state. Life is a sacred gift of God. Individually and collectively Genesis of Two
Nation Theory and Quaid-e-Azam 181 human beings must submit to certain codes, laws

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and ideals the bases of ideology. The ideology may take the form of philosophy,
religion or some form of socio-economic creed practiced by the societies. When we talk
about Pakistan ideology, we have to go to the root the Islamic ideology that defines both
spiritual and material aspects of life. It is the philosophy behind the two-nation theory.
Pakistan is a state founded on ideological basis and not on territorial grounds. The
Muslims of the subcontinent are a nation. The two nation theory became a reality with
distinct ideology called Pakistan ideology. Pakistan is purely an ideological state whose
foundations have been laid on Islamic ideology based on the Quranic teachings and
Sunnah. The Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different religions, philosophies,
social customs and literatures they belong to two different cultures which are based
mainly on conflicting ideas and concepts. Their concepts on life and of life were
different. The Hindus and the Muslims derived inspirations from two different sources of
history. They have different epics, different heroes and different episodes. The freedom
movement in Indo-Pakistan subcontinent can be properly understand in its proper
historical perspective. The Muslims entered India as brave conquerors and victors from
west and north west. Muhammad Bin Qasim marched with the crescent in 712 A.D over
Sind and established Muslim rule stretching up to Multan. In fact the establishment of
Muslim rule by Mohammad Bin Qasim was the embryo of Pakistan. 1 The second inroad
on India was made in the 11th century by Mahmud of Ghazni who flew the banner of
Islam over upper Indus valley and also conquered Multan and Sindh. Thus the lands now
constituting Pakistan, were integrated under Muslim rule that also marked the genesis of
Pakistan. Islamic culture and learning flourished; and rule of justice, tolerance and

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prosperity was established wherever the standard of Islam fluttered. 2 The flag of Islam
was kept up by the Muslim sages and saints 182 Pakistan Vision Vol. 15 No.1 who ruled
the souls of men. The traditions were followed by Ghoris, Khiljis and the great Mughals.
The Muslims of the subcontinent have a history and heritage of their own. The Muslim
empire that stretched over the entire land ultimately tottered and tumbled down. During
the 18th century the crises deepened. The militant Marhattas raised their heads and
fanned the fire of Hinduism. Cracks began to appear in the Mughal Empire; as it lost its
glory and the gleam. The story of rise and fall of the empires is very moving, but the
living nations always derive their inspiration from their past and traditions that last long.
3 The Muslim as the inheritors of the imperial past could hardly reconcile and submit to
the rule and the yoke of the foreign masters, the Britishers who came to India as traders
and ultimately became the rulers. The Hindus with their bitter memories of past traditions
and jealous past easily came under the sway of the British and joined hands with them.
The Muslim were the worst sufferers. Being conscious of history they could not remain
passive like dumb driven cattle and soon tried to revive their past glory and recapture
their freedom. The 19th century was a period of trial and tribulations, backwardness,
gloom and distrust for the Muslims. The British and their Hindu compatriots were happy
over the scene. The rainbow smiled on the faded storm the advent of the 20th century
brought a new ray of hope and meager of revival for the suffering Muslims. They rose
like the phoenix out of the fire. 4 One is never defeated unless one loses hope. The torch
that was lit by the brave freedom fighters was kept burning by the spirited ulamas,
mashaiks and the torch bearers of freedom like Shah WaliUllah, Shah Ismail Shaheed,

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Syed Ahmed Shaheed through jihad movement against the Sikhs equally important had
been the contribution of Mujadad-Alf-Sani, Jamal Din Afghani, Syed Ahmad Barilvi, Sir
Syed Ahmad Khan and the great Ali brothers and others including a large number of
unknown sons and daughters of Islam.Genesis of Two Nation Theory and Quaid-e-Azam
183 Two Nations Theory With the growth of the Muslim nationalism in the Hindu
dominated area, the "Two Nations Theory" had evolved and persisted throughout the
period; both the communities lived together under the same ruler. Their integration was
inconceivable and, even, the Mughal emperor Akbar's efforts to unify both the Hindus
and Muslims into a single nation had miserably failed. 5 The downfall of the Mughal
Empire was in fact, the end of the Muslims rule over India that had come into existence
with Sultan Muhammad Ghauri's invasion of India and defeating a Hindu Raja Prithvi
Raj in 1192. With the passage of time the political and economic power of the Muslims
began to suffer. The Marhattas, who had gained momentum under the leadership of
"Sivaji" were knocking at the door of Delhi. It appeared that they would succeed in
establishing a "Hindu Raj" over India. At this stage in 1760 Shah WaliUllah invited
Ahmad Shah Abdali to come to the rescue the Muslims from Hindu domination. "The
blow from the unexpected quarter was struck by Ahmad Shah Abadali on the plains of
Panipat. It was memorable event that removed the Marhatta peril for ever, but at the same
time a way was cleared for growth of the British power as Abdali did not pursue his
victory to logical conclusions" 6 Somehow, in 1958 there existed nominal Muslim rule in
India. The British after disposing of their European rivals, the Portuguese, French and
others embarked on absorbing Indian states one by one. Nevertheless, NawabSiraj-ud-

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Dawla of Bengal and Haider Ali of Mysore resisted the English, they however, couldn't
preserve their independence. Haider Ali and his son Tipu Sultan gave a tough fight to the
English. But due to the betrayal of Mir Sadiq at the nick of time, Tipu Sultan suffered a
defeat and fell as a martyr at Saringaptam in 1799 at the altar of preserving independence.
Siraj-ud-Dawla was martyred in the Battle of 184 Pakistan Vision Vol. 15 No.1 Plassey in
1757 due to treachery of his kinsman Mir Jaffar.7 Consequent to the fall of Mysore,
Delhi, too, was occupied in 1803 and English became the de facto rulers of almost the
entire India. For Hindus, the Britisher's coming to power was mere change of masters. So
they accepted and welcomed their rule. However, since the Muslims had lost rule over
India, the English saw them as their political rivals and the only community posing a
threat to their despotic rule. They were recalling the battles of Plassey and Saringaptam,
and to them, every Muslim was Siraj-udDawla and Tipu Sultan. So they began to
suppress them in what so-ever manner they could. The war of independence in 1857
which the British called the "Mutiny", further undermined the situation for the Muslims.
Subsequently the British massacre the Muslims in retaliation. This situation was
exploited by the fanatic and cunning Hindus for their own benefits. Being in majority,
had also acquired modern education and, as such, occupied key posts in public service
and commerce and industry vis-a-vis the Muslims. Now Hindu began to dream of "Hindu
Raj" when, the British would quit it. These sentiments had produced the revivalist
movements like "BrahmuSamaj" and "AryaSamaj". Their objective was to incite the
religious sentiments of Hindus against the Muslims with a view to reviving a "Sivaji's
Cult" 8 The Muslims were in a state of agony at the hands of Hindus and the British as

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well. At this critical time Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, emerged as the only ray of hope for the
depressed Muslims. He rendered tremendous services for the uplift the Muslims of India.
Similarly Allama Muhammad Iqbal, through his enchanting poetry recalled to the
Muslims, the glory of Islam, and urged them to follow the foot prints of their ancestors by
virtue of which they could regain the glory they had lost. He raised morale of Genesis of
Two Nation Theory and Quaid-e-Azam 185 Muslims and created in them the spirit of
fighting for freedom. The revival movements launched by both these leader brought the
Muslims to a position from which they could voice their grievances and fight for their
rights. With the passage of time, the Indian Muslims realized that they could not co-exist
with the Hindus who were poles apart from them in beliefs cultures, traditions and outlook on life. In the words of Quaid-i-Azam, Muslims are nation according to any
definition of a nation. 9 It was the poet Iqbal who for the first time put forward the idea
of a separate Muslim state, Pakistan constituting the Muslim majority provinces in the
west and north west at the historical meeting of All India Muslim League in 1930 at
Allahabad. The path shown by the great personalities was followed by Quaid-i-Azam
Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Iqbal, with his great spiritual insight saw the right leader in Mr.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah to lead and guide the Muslims to their cherished goal a free and
sovereign state of their own. Mr. Muhammad Ali Jinnah A Staunch Believer of the
Two Nations Theory Hindus tried to find out a Muslim for Hindu Muslims unity and at
the same time succeed in influencing Muslim leaders like Allama Iqbal and the Quaid-eAzam. But this situation did no last long and soon under the influence of the Muslim
league, majority of the Muslim leaders who had been lured by the Indian Nationalism,

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became the upholders of the Two Nations Theory. 10 Muhammad Ali Jinnah refused to
accept the Nehrus notion that there are only two forces in India, British imperialism and
Indian nationalism as represented by the Congress. Muhammad Ali Jinnah refused to
accept this and sharply reminded Nehru that: There was another party, the Muslim
League which alone had the right to represent the Muslims of India. 11186 Pakistan
Vision Vol. 15 No.1 In his speech at Lucknow on 15 Oct, 1937 Mr. Muhammad Ali
Jinnah said that: The majority community have clearly shown that Hindustan is for the
Hindus 12 The congress rule according to the 1935 Act proved a great eye-opener for
the Muslims, particularly in Muslim minority provinces. The dream of congress leaders
to establish Hindu Raj had come true. The Muslim all over India had to suffer untold
pains and miseries. The fears of the Indian Muslims about Hindu majority rule turned
true. The Shuddi campaign, the Vidhya Mandar Scheme and Bande Matram (Hindu
Anthem) were the worst examples of Hindu vindictiveness. The Muslim under the
dynamic and spirited leadership of Quaid-i-Azam stood like a rock under the Muslim
League flag. Urdu our national language proved a bettering ram for rousing the Muslim
nationalism and Pakistans spirit among the Muslim masses. Muhammad Ali Jinnah had
no confusion about the Hindu tactics. He was finally convinced that the Hindu majority
wanted to coerce and dominate the Muslims, and had no desire to give them a fair
treatment. 13 At this, Allama Iqbals declared at the historic annual session of the All
India Muslim League at Allahabad in 1930: I would like to see the Punjab, N.W.F.P,
Sindh and Baluchistan amalgamate into a single state. Self government within or without
the British empire, and the formation of consolidated North West Indian Muslim state

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appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslim at least of North West of India, got his
attention. 14Genesis of Two Nation Theory and Quaid-e-Azam 187 Muhammad Ali
Jinnah was also influenced by the letter of Allama Muhammad Iqbal written to him June
21, 1937. In which he wrote: Why should not the Muslims of North-West India and
Bengal be considered as nation entitled to self-determination just as other nations in India
and outside India are. 15 These words gave new meanings to Muhammad Ali Jinnah. He
was convinced that the Muslim of India could never live with Hindus. He knew that
Hindu would not tolerate the Muslims when the British would leave. Congress reign had
amply demonstrated this, Mr. Muhammad Ali Jinnah wrote an article published in the
England Time and Tide on March 9, 1940 saying that: The British people being
Christian sometime forget the religious wars of their own history and today consider
religion as a private and personal matter between man and God. This can never be the
case in Hinduism and Islam. Both these religions have definite social codes and aspect of
their social life. 16 Addressing a historic public meeting at Lahore on March 23, 1940
Quaid-e-Azam said: We have our past experience of the last two and half year. We have
learnt many lessons. We are now apprehensive and can trust no body it has always
been taken for granted mistakenly that the Muslim are a minority. He said, Muslims are a
nation by any definition of a nation. Hindu and Muslims belong to two religion,
philosophies, social customs, and literatures. They neither inter-marry nor inter-dine and
indeed belong to different civilizations which are based on conflicting ideas and 188
Pakistan Vision Vol. 15 No.1 conceptions. Their concepts of life are different. They have
different epics, different heroes and different episodes. Very often the hero of one is the

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foe of the other and like wise their victories and defeat, overlap. He also added that, to
take together state, one as a numerical majority other as a minority must lead to growing
discontent. Muslims are nation according to any definition of a nation and they must have
their homeland, their territory and their state. 17 The Muslims of the subcontinent
responded very well to the Lahore Resolution of 1940. The demand of Pakistan not only
meant freedom from the oppressive Hindus, but it presented the concept of a separate and
completely independent Islamic state where in the Muslims were absolutely free to live
according to the dictate of their religion. In an interview to the representative of London
News Chronicle published on Oct 4, 1944 Mr. Muhammad Ali Jinnah said: There is
only one practical realistic way of resolving Hindu-Muslim differences. This is to divide
India into two sovereign parts of Pakistan and Hindustan . and for each of us to trust
the other to give equitable treatment to Hindu minorities in Pakistan and Muslim
minorities in India the fact is that the Hindu will not reconcile themselves to our
complete independence.18 The achievement of Pakistan was undeniably the result of the
Quaid-i-Azams most capable leadership. The way he confronted with the British and the
Hindu forces was most admirable. He was the only one who never made a secret of his
intensions and not for once resorted to understand means. His later experience,
particularly after the publication of the Nehru report and round Genesis of Two Nation
Theory and Quaid-e-Azam 189 table conferences abut Hindu mentality, led him to revise
him views. In the Hindu activities of the Hindu dominated Congress he saw that they
were working in the establishment of the Hindu Raj. This realization was further
confirmed in 1937 when Congress ministries came to power and started undermining to

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the Muslims interests. Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the only one who, by
the sheer force of determination and singleness of purpose, made a name for himself in
the history of Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. Undoubtedly, his task was more arduous than
that of any other freedom fighter. In any part of the world, which had been enslaved by a
colonial power for long, and where in the Muslims had lost their fighting spirit, it was
nothing short of a miracle that a leader almost single-handedly succeeded in motivating a
spiritless mass of people. The Quaid galvanized a demoralized, dispirited and otherwise
scattered mass of people in a well-knit, unified and determined whole within a short span
of time. The Muslim nation under the Quaid-i-Azam's leadership had to fight on three
fronts-the British, the Congress, and "quisling" Muslims. The parallels of such a
remarkable and fruitful struggle are rare in the history of the world. This struggle of the
Muslims for independence might will have come to nothing, had they been led by a
person of a lesser vision. Quaid-e-Azam fought for the division of India into Pakistan and
Hindustan, which means freedom for both the Hindus and the Muslims nations, he won"
19 "Pakistan is a state which has been deliberately created not on an economic, linguistic
or racial basis; but on religious unity" 20 He founded a new country on the basis of an
idea, that British India's Muslim needed a country of their own in which they could 190
Pakistan Vision Vol. 15 No.1 not only practise their religion but develop their culture and
their society without having to worry about the social and cultural weight of the Hindu
majority. For him, the Muslims, inspite of having lived in close proximity with the
Hindus, never lost their separate identity. That was possible because most of the time
after the arrival of Islam into South Asia, India was ruled by the Muslims. History is

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record of all important events that take place anywhere in the world. And the eventful
history of South Asia too is replete with eminent events, of which the emergence of
Pakistan is of paramount importance. After tremendous sacrifices the quest of hundreds
of million Muslims of the Indian subcontinent was realized under the unique and
unprecedented leadership of Quaid-e-Azim Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the Muslim state of
Pakistan had come into being on August 14, 1947. Conclusions Islamic ideology is the
philosophy underlying the Two Nations theory. Pakistan is a state founded on ideological
basis and not on the territorial grounds. The Two Nations theory became a reality with
distinct ideology called Pakistan ideology. Pakistan ideology is the cause of creation of
the country, the driving force of her existence and also the destiny of the people. Those
who repudiate two-nation theory and oppose Islamization are not friend and well-wishers
of the country. A champion of the Muslim cause, we are greatly indebted to Allama
Iqbal?. His interpretation of Islam in its true perspective, his message back to the Quran
his correct diagnosis of ill of Muslim India and suggestions for their remedy, completed
the political revival of Muslim India. The banner of Pakistan ideology handed over by
Allama Iqbal was kept up and carried to its destination by Muhammad Ali Jinnah who
was not only a staunch believer and supporter of the Two Nations theory, but also the
founder of the Genesis of Two Nation Theory and Quaid-e-Azam 191 ideological state of
Pakistan. He fought single handed against the foreign rulers and Indian Congress and
stood like a rock with whole hearted support of his co-workers and Indian Muslims. The
great Quaid told the world in unequivocal terms: by a separate homeland I mean a
country where the Muslims of Indo-Pakistan sub-continent would be able to fashion their

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lives according to the dictates of the Holy Quran and Sunnah. If we want to promote
Pakistan ideology and wish to make if they real citadel of Islam let us work united and
act whole heartedly on the Quaids clarion call: Faith, unity and discipline. Let us vow to
live by deeds and not words. Let us strive seriously for Islamic way of life both in
personal and national life. Let us fight against the forces of evil, social injustice, bribery,
corruption in public life, poverty and ignorance. If we want to preserve our hard won
freedom we must hold fast to Allahs rope. Our only hope of survival lies in
implementing Pakistan ideology in true spirit. When the people preserve their ideology,
the ideology can save and preserve the people.
The ideology of Pakistan stems from the instinct of the Muslim community of South Asia
to maintain their individuality by resisting all attempts by the Hindu society to absorb it.
Muslims of South Asia believe that Islam and Hinduism are not only two religions, but
also two social orders that have given birth to two distinct cultures with no similarities. A
deep study of the history of this land proves that the differences between Hindus and
Muslims were not confined to the struggle for political supremacy, but were also
manifested in the clash of two social orders. Despite living together for more than a
thousand years, they continued to develop different cultures and traditions. Their eating
habits, music, architecture and script, are all poles apart. Even the language they speak
and the dresses they wear are entirely different.
The ideology of Pakistan took shape through an evolutionary process. Historical
experience provided the base; with Sir Syed Ahmad Khan began the period of Muslim
self-awakening; Allama Iqbal provided the philosophical explanation; Quaid-i-Azam

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translated it into a political reality; and the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, by passing
Objectives Resolution in March 1949, gave it legal sanction. It was due to the realization
of Muslims of South Asia that they are different from the Hindus that they demanded
separate electorates. When they realized that their future in a Democratic India
dominated by Hindu majority was not safe; they put forward their demand for a separate
state.
The Muslims of South Asia believe that they are a nation in the modern sense of the
word. The basis of their nationhood is neither territorial & racial& linguistic nor ethnic;
rather they are a nation because they belong to the same faith, Islam. On this basis they
consider it their fundamental right to be entitled to self-determination. They demanded
that areas where they were in majority should be constituted into a sovereign state,
wherein they would be enabled to order their lives in individual and collective spheres in
accordance with the teachings of Holy Quran and Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (S. A. W.).
They further want their state to strengthen the bonds of unity among Muslim countries.
Answer the following questions in the light of given brief;
1. What is meant by ideology?
Its a system of ideas and ideals, especially one that forms the basis of economic or
political theory and policy.
2. How Ideology Emerges?
The ideology may take the form of philosophy, religion or some form of socioeconomic creed practiced by the societies. It then spreads.
3. What was Quaid-e-Azams belief reading Nationalism and Ideology of
Pakistan?

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Mr. Muhammad Ali Jinnah A Staunch Believer of the Two Nations Theory
Hindus tried to find out a Muslim for Hindu Muslims unity and at the same time
succeed in influencing Muslim leaders like Allama Iqbal and the Quaid-e-Azam.
4. What was Allama Iqbals Ideology of Pakistan?
Allama Iqbal believed in the two nation theory. His interpretation of Islam in its
true perspective, his message back to the Quran his correct diagnosis of ill of
Muslim India and suggestions for their remedy, completed the political revival of
Muslim India. ; Allama Iqbal provided the philosophical explanation; Quaid-iAzam translated it into a political reality; and the Constituent Assembly of
Pakistan, by passing Objectives Resolution in March 1949, gave it legal sanction.
5. Describe Ideology of Pakistan and its importance in your own words?
The Ideology has deep roots in South Asia. Ideology of Pakistan means that Pakistan
should be a state where the Muslims should have an opportunity to live according to the
faith and belief based on the Islamic principles. Its also important because the leaders like
Jinnah and Allama Iqbal fought for this ideology and believed that Muslims could live in
a separate state.

6. Describe four main causes of separation of India & Pakistan.


One of the main causes was the distinction between the Muslims and Hindus. They
could not live with each other. The Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different
religions, philosophies, social customs and literatures they belong to two different
cultures, which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and concepts. Their concepts on
life and of life were different. The Hindus and the Muslims derived inspirations from
two different sources of history. They have different epics, different heroes and
different episodes. The freedom movements in Indo-Pakistan subcontinent can be

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properly understand in its proper historical perspective. The activities of the Muslim
league were also a cause of the partition. The congresss policy of appeasement was
also a cause.
7. Draw an in-depth analysis & important events of Pakistan movement from
1940 to 1947.
1940- Lahore Resolution, British offer of August, Civil Disobedience movement,
World War II
1941- Liberal Party Proposal
1942- Cripps mission, Quit India movement
1944- Gandhi-Jinnah talks, Sapru Proposals
1945- Desai Liaquat pact, provincial and General elections, Wavell plan and Simla
conference
1946- Cabinet Mission plan, Muslim League legislators convention
1947- June 3rd plan, Birth of Pakistan, Interim government, Constituent assembly