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INTRODUTION TO COMPUTER

C
O
M
P
T
E
R

COMMANLY
OPERATED
MACHINE
PORPOSLY USED FOR
TRAINING
EDUCATION &
RESEARCH

PARTS OF THE COMPUTERS


Speake
r
(Output
)

Printer
(Output
)

Central
Processing
Unit
C.P.U.
(Processor,
Memory)

Monitor
(Output
)

Keyboard
(Input)

Mouse
(Input
)
Storage devices :

Scanne
r
(Input)

(CD-RW, Floppy, Hard disk,


zip,)

Accessories :
(Web cam, Camera, Head phone,
)

DEFINATION
ANY SYSTEM DEFINED AS A GROUP OF INTEGRATED
PARTS WHICH ARE DESING TO ACHIEVE A COMMON
OBJECTIVE
A COMPUTER IS MADE UP OF INTEGRATED ELEMENTS
LIKE C.P.U., INPUT & OUTPUT DEVICES AND STORAGE
DEVICES. EACH OF THIS UNIT PERFORM A SPECIFIC
TASK. THEY ARE LOGICALLY RELATED AND
CONTROLLED TO ACHIEVE A SPECIFIC GOAL. WHEN
THEY ARE INTEGRATED, THEY PERFORM A FULL
FLEDGE COMPUTER SYSTEM.

HISTORY OF COMPUTERS
YEAR

NAME OF
INVENTOR

NATIONALITY

DEVICE / MACHINE

1. 5000 ABACUS
B.C

CHINESE

ABACUS

2. 1642 BLAISE PASCAL

FRENCH

MECHANICAL,
CALCULATING &
MACHINE.

3. 1830 CHARLES
BABBAGE

ENGLISH
MATHEMATICIAN
(U.S.)

MECHANICAL, DIGITAL
COMPUTER,
ANALYITICAL ENGINE.

CHARACTERISTICS
S.A.V.E.S.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

S
A
V
E
S

Speed
Accuracy
Versality
Efficiency
Storage (primary & secondary)

HARDWARE & SOFTWARE


HARDWARE is
component which
we can see and
touch. It is a physical
component is known
as HARDWARE.
E.g.: Monitor, Mouse
etc.

SOFTWARE is a
programmed which
can not be touched
but can be seen is
known as
SOFTWARE.
E.g.: A Windows ,
M.S. office etc.

ORGANIZATION OF COMPUTER

GENRATION OF COMPUTER
GENRATON ELETRONIC ADVANTAGE
DIS
COMMENTS
COMPANENT
-ADVANTAGE
1. 1940-1952

VACCUME
TUBES.

ONLY VACCUME LARGE


TUBES ARE
SIZE,HEAT, A/C,
AVAILABLE.
UNRELIABLE,
HIGH
MAINTANCE.

MANUAL
ASSEMBLY,
INDS.
COMPONANT
INTO A UNIT.

2. 1952-1964

TRANSISTORS.

SMALL SIZE,
LESS HEAT,
RELIABLE
FASTER.

AS ABOVE

A/C, HIGH
MAINTANCE.

GENRATON ELETRONIC ADVANTAGE


DIS
COMPANENT
ADVANTAGE
3. 1964-1971

LARGE SCALE
INTEGRATED
CIRCUITS.

SMALLER SIZE,
LOWER HEAT,
LESS POWER
REQUIRED,
MORE
RELIABLE,
FASTER.

4. 1971 -1990

VERY LARGE
SCALE
INTEGRATED
CIRCUITS.

NO A/C
REQUIRED,
MINIMUM
MAINTAINANCE,
CHEAPEST.
HIGH SPEED,
NO A/C
REQUIRED,
CHEAPEST.

5. (RISK
GENERATION)

MICRO
PROCESSOR,
HIGER
STORAGE
CAPACITY,
MULTI MEDIA.

COMMENTS

PROBLEMS WITH LESS HUMAN


MANUFACTURER. LABOUR AT
ASSEMBLY
STAGE

AS ABOVE

AS ABOVE

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTER
1. ANALOG COMPUTER
2. DIGITAL COMPUTER
3. HYBRID COMPUTERS
4. SMALL COMPUTER (PC)
5. NOTE BOOKS / LAPTOP COMPUTERS
6. PALMTOP / HAND HELD COMPUTERS
7. MINI COMPUTERS
8. MAINFRAME COMPUTERS
9. SUPER COMPUTERS

APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTERS
MAJOR USE OF COMPUTERS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

SCIENTIFIC, ENGGINEERING AND RESEARCH


BUSINESS
MEDICINE
INFORMATION
EDUCATION
GAMES AND INTERTAINMENT

LIMITATIONS OF COMPUTERS
COMPUTERS ARE HIGHLY INTELLIGENT AND
SOFESTICATED. THEY HAVE THEIR OWN
LIMITATION. THE COMPUTERS CANNOT THINK ON
ITS OWN. SINCE IT DOES NOT HAVE ITS OWN
BRAIN. IT CAN ONLY DO WHAT HAS BEEN
PROGRAMMED TO DO. IT CAN EXICUTE ONLY
THOSE JOB THAT CAN BE EXPRESSES AS A SET
OF INSTRUCTIONS TO ACHIEVE A SPECIFIC GOAL.
THE COMPUTER DO NOT LEARN FORM PREVIOUS
EXPERIENCE.

INPUT & OUTPUT DEVICES


INPUT DEVICES :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

PUNCHED CARDS
KEYBOARD
MOUSE
LIGHT PEN
JOY STICK
TRACK BALL
TOUCH SCREEN
DIGITIZER
SCANNER

OUTPUT DEVICES
OUTPUT DEVICE :

DISPLAY SCREEN
PRINTER
SPEAKERS
HEADPHONE

PERIPHERALS DEVICES
THE DEVICE WHICH ARE COMMUNICATION
BETWEEN THE COMPUTER AND THE OUTSIDE
WORLD, ARE CALLED AS PERIPHERAL DEVICES.

THE PROCESSORS WHICH ARE REQUIRED


TO CONVERT THE INPUT DATA INTO MACHINE
LANGUAGE AND TO CONVERT THE OUTPUT
GENARATED BY THE COMPUTER INTO HUMAN
READABLE FORM, ARE KNOWN AS INPUT AND
OUTPUT INTERPHACES.

ONLINE & OFFLINE DATA


THE DATA WHICH IS
DIRECTLY
TRANSFERED TO
THE COMPUTER IS
KNOWN AS ONLINE
DATA.

THE DATA WHICH IS

NOT IMMIDIATELY
TRANSFERED TO THE
COMPUTER IS KNOWN
AS OFFLINE DATA.

TYPES OF PRINTERS
THEY ARE TWO TYPES
1. IMPACT PRINTERS
OR
2. NON IMPACT PRINTERS

IMPACT PRINTERS
THESE ARE SIMILAR TO TYPE
WRITERS THEY USE A HAMMER TO
STRIKE A CHARACTER AGAINST AN
INKED RIBBION THIS CAUSE THE
IMAGE OF CHARACTER TO BE
PRINTED ON THE PAPER

TYPES IMPACT PRINTERS


1. DOT MATRIX
2. LINE PRINTERS
3. DIASY WHEEL PRITERS
4. DRUM PRINTERS
5. CHAIN PRINTERS

TYPES OF NON-IMPACT PRITERS


1. INK JET PRINTERS
2. LASER PRINTER
3. PLOTTERS PRINTERS
4. DRUM PLOTTERS PRINTERS