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OB

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04/22/2011

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR

MOTIVATION PROCESS 1. DIFFERENT TYPES OF MOTIVES 2. PERSONAL CONFLICT 3. FRUSTRATION 7 DEFENSE MECHANISM 4. ACHIEVEMENT RELATIONSHIP OF MORALE, PRODUCTIVITY & MOTIVATION STRESS MANAGEMENT: 1. WORK CURVE MONOTONY / BOREDOM / FATIGUE GROUP 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. DYNAMICS: FORMAL & INFORMAL GROUPS TYPES OF GROUPS THEORIES GROUP FORMATION TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS

ORGANIZATION DESIGN: 1. VARIOUS ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE & THEIR EFFECTS ON HUMAN BEHAVIOUR 2. ORGANIZATION CLIMATE 3. ORGANIZATION CULTURE LEADERSHIP: 1. DEFINITION 2. ITS IMPORTANCE TO ORGANIZATION 3. LEADERSHIP STYLES 4. APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF LEADERSHIP TRAITS 5. BEHAVIOURAL & SITUATIONAL APPROACHES 6. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP MANAGEMENT CHANGE 1. FORCES RESPONSIBLE FOR CHANGE 2. RESISTANCE TO CHANGE 3. OVERCOMING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE 4. INTRODUCING CHANGE IN ORGANIZATION 5. ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT: ORGANIZATION EFFECTIVENESS

MOTIVATION PROCESS • DIFFERENT TYPES OF MOTIVES • PERSONAL CONFLICT • FRUSTRATION & DEFENSE MECHANISM • ACHIEVEMENT RELATIONSHIP OF MORALE, PRODUCTIVITY & MOTIVATION MOTIVATION: • IT IS A PROCESS • DEALS WITH INDIVIDUAL’S INTENSITY, & PERSISTENCE • EFFORTS IS DIRECTED TOWARDS ATTAINMENT A GOAL TYPES OF MOTIVES: [DIFFERENT TYPE OF MOTIVATION THEORIES] • NEED THEORIES: o MASLOW’S HIERARCHY  THERE IS HIERARCHY OF FIVE NEEDS:  PHYSIOLOGICAL  SECURITY  SOCIAL

o o o o

 ESTEEM  SELF-ACTUALIZATION PHYSIOLOGICAL & SAFETY NEEDS ARE LOWER ORDER NEEDS THEY ARE SATISFIED EXTERNALLY SOCIAL, ESTEEM & SELF-ACTUALIZATION NEEDS ARE HIGHER NEEDS THEY ARE SATISFIED INTERNALLY

o TWO FACTORS  INTRINSIC FACTORS ARE RELATED TO JOB SATISFACTION [MOTIVATION FACTORS]  EXTRINSIC FACTORS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH DISSATISFACTION [HYGIENE FACTORS]  HYGIENE FACTORS INCLUDES COMPANY POLICY, SUPERVISION, AND SALARY ETC.  IF THESE ARE ADEQUATE, PEOPLE WILL NOT BE DISSATISFIED  MOTIVATION FACTORS INCLUDES ACHIEVEMENT, RECOGNITION, WORK ITSELF, GROWTH, ETC o ERG  THERE ARE THREE GROUPS OF CORE NEEDS: EXISTENCE, RELATEDNESS, & GROWTH. o McCLELLAND’S  THREE IMPORTANT NEEDS • ACHIEVEMENT o DRIVE TO EXCEL • POWER o CONTROLLING THE BEHAVIOUR OF OTHERS • AFFILIATION o DESIRE TO BE FRIENDLY • GOAL SETTING THEORY o FOR HIGHER PERFORMANCE SET:  SPECIFIC & DIFFICULT GOALS  AND PROVIDE FEEDBACK REINFORCEMENT THEORY o BEHAVIOUR IS A FUNCTION OF ITS CONSEQUENCES EQUITY THEORY o INDIVIDUAL’S COMPARE THEIR JOB INPUTS & OUTCOMES WITH THOSE OF OTHERS o AND THEN RESPOND TO REMOVE ANY INEQUITIES EXPECTANCY THEORY

• •

o IT FOCUSES ON THREE RELATIONSHIP:  EFFORT-PERFORMANCE  PERFORMANCE –REWARD  REWARDS-PERSONAL GOALS EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT PROGRAMS • IT IS A PARTICIPATIVE PROCESS THAT USES THE ENTIRE CAPACITY OF EMPLOYEES & IS DESIGNED TO ENCOURAGE INCREASED COMMITMENT TO THE ORGANIZATION’S SUCCESS • EXAMPLES: • PARTICIPATION ,MANAGEMENT • WORK-COUNCILS • BOARD REPRESENTATIVES • QUALITY CIRCLES • EMPLOYEE STOCK OPTION • EMPLOYEE RECOGNITION PROGRAMS • INCLUDES o SUGGESTION SYSTEMS o EMPLOYEE OF THE MONTH o PRAISING THE EMPLOYEE IN A SOCIAL GATHERING o PROMOTION • THE ABOVE LIST IS ONLY ILLUSTRATIVE IN NATURE VARIABLE PAY PROGRAM: • MEANS A PORTION OF AN EMPLOYEE’S PAY IS BASED ON HIS PERFORMANCE • EXAMPLES: o GAIN-SHARING o INCENTIVES o PROFIT SHARING PLANS o SKILL BASE PAY o FLEXIBLE BENEFITS SPECIAL ISSUES IN MOTIVATION: • MOTIVATING o PROFESSIONALS  PROVIDE CHALLENGING JOBS  PROVIDE SUPPORT  WORK ITSELF  AUTONOMY  REWARD THROUGH EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY o CONTINGENT WORKERS  AN OPPORTUNITY FOR PERMANENT STATUS  PROVIDE SKILL BASE TRAINING  PROVIDE SKILL-BASE PAY OR VARIABLE PAY o DIVERSIFIED WORKERS

BE FLEXIBLE IN TERMS OF YOUR POLICY IN MEETING THE NEEDS OF DIVERSIFIED PEOPLE o UNSKILLED WORKER  PAY MARKET RATE o DOING REPETITIVE NATURE OF JOB.  CREATE PLEASANT WORK CLIMATE  OPPORTUNITY TO SOCIALIZE  EMPATHETIC SUPERVISORS  BREAKS AT REGULAR INTERVALS  STRESS MANAGEMENT: 1. WORK CURVE MONOTONY / BOREDOM / FATIGUE STRESS: • CAUSE IS OUTSIDE & EFFECT IS INSIDE • INCLUDES • CONSTRAINTS o FORCES THAT PREVENT INDIVIDUALS FROM DOING WHAT THEY DESIRE • DEMANDS o THE LOSS OF SOMETHING DESIRED • STRESS IS NOT ALWAYS BAD • A LITTLE AMOUNT OF STRESS MAKES A PERSON TO STRETCH TO ACCOMPLISH THE GOAL SOURCES OF STRESS: • ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS o INCLUDES  ECONOMIC UNCERTAINTY • FEAR OF LOOSING JOBS  POLITICAL UNCERTAINTY • EXAMPLE: STAND OF MNS / AMARNATH ISSUE  TECHNOLOGICAL UNCERTAINTY • NEW INNOVATIONS MAKES AN EMPLOYEE’S SKILL & EXPERIENCE OBSOLETE • ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS o INCLUDES  TASK DEMANDS INCLUDES o DESIGN OF JOBS  ROLE DEMANDS • INABILITY TO MEET THE DEMANDS OF THE ROLE  INTERPERSONAL DEMANDS • LACK OF SOCIAL SUPPORT  ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE • RULES & REGULATIONS • NO INVOLVEMENT  ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP

• STYLE OF LEADERS INDIVIDUAL FACTORS o INCLUDES: o MARITAL DIFFICULTIES o ECONOMIC PROBLEMS

CONSEQUENCE OF STRESS: • PHYSIOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS o BLOOD PRESSURE o HEART ATTACK o HEADACHES • PSYCHOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS o TENSION o ANXIETY o IRRITABILITY o BOREDOM o PROCRASTINATION • BEHAVIOURAL SYMPTOMS • REFLECTED IN o PRODUCTIVITY o ABSENTEEISM o TURNOVER o CHANGES IN EATING HABITS o INCREASED SMOKING OR CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL o SLEEP DISORDERS MANAGING STRESS: • TWO APPROACHES: o INDIVIDUAL  EFFECTIVE TIME MANAGEMENT  INCREASING PHYSICAL EXERCISE  RELAXATION TRAINING  SOCIAL SUPPORT o ORGANIZATIONAL  IMPROVED PERSONNEL SELECTION  JOB PLACEMENT  IMPROVED ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION  ESTABLISHMENT OF CORPORATE WELLNESS PROGRAMS [PHYSICAL & MENTAL CONDITIONS]
GROUP DYNAMICS: 6. FORMAL & INFORMAL GROUPS 7. TYPES OF GROUPS 8. THEORIES 9. GROUP FORMATION 10. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS

FORMAL & INFORMAL GROUPS

GROUP: • CONSISTS OF MORE THAN ONE PERSON • INTERACT TO ACCOMPLISH A PARTICULAR OBJECTIVE • CREATES INTERDEPENDENCE • CLASSIFIED: o FORMAL  IS DEFINED BY ORGANIZATION o INFORMAL  NOT DEFINED BY ORGANIZATION  FORMED TO MEET SOCIAL NEEDS • TYPES: o COMMAND GROUP  A MANAGER & HIS IMMEDIATE SUBORDINATES o TASK GROUP  THOSE WORKING TOGETHER TO COMPLETE A JOB TASK o INTEREST GROUP  THOSE WORKING TOGETHER TO ATTAIN A SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE WITH EACH IS CONCERNED o FRIENDSHIP GROUP  THOSE BROUGHT TOGETHER BECAUSE THEY SHARE ONE MORE COMMON CHARACTERISTICS GROUP FORMATION: • GOES THROUGH FIVE STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT • FORMING o UNCERTAINTY ABOUT PURPOSE, STRUCTURE & LEADERSHIP o DETERMINING TYPES OF BEHAVIOUR o THIS STAGE IS COMPLETE WHEN MEMBERS BEGIN TO THINK OF THEMSELVES AS PART OF A GROUP • STORMING o ACCEPTANCE OF EXISTENCE OF THE GROUP o CONFLICT AS TO WHO WILL CONTROL THE GROUP o RESISTANCE TO THE CONSTRAINTS THAT THE GROUP IMPOSES ON INDIVIDUALITY o WHEN THIS STAGE IS COMPLETE THERE WILL BE RELATIVELY CLEAR HIERARCHY OF LEADERSHIP WITHIN THE GROUP • NORMING o RELATIONSHIP & COHESIVENESS IS DEVELOPED o THIS STAGE IS COMPLETE WHEN THE GROUP STRUCTURE SOLIDIFIES & THE GROUP HAS ACCEPTED A COMMON SET OF EXPECTATIONS OF CORRECT BEHAVIOUR OF THE MEMBERS • PERFORMING o THE GROUP IS FULLY FUNCTIONAL o FOCUS IS ON PERFORMANCE • ADJOURNING o PREPARING FOR DISBANDMENT

o RESPONSES OF GROUP MEMBERS VARY IN THIS STAGE. SOME ARE UPBEAT, BASKING IN THE GLORY; & SOME ARE DEPRESSED ALTERNATIVE MODEL: FOR TEMPORARY GROUPS • TEMPORARY GROUPS WITH DEADLINES DO NOT FOLLOW THE ABOVE PATTERN. THEY HAVE THEIR OWN SEQUENCING OF ACTIONS [INACTIONS] LIKE: o THEIR FIRST MEETING SETS THE GROUP’S DIRECTION o THE FIRST PHASE OF GROUP ACTIVITY IS INERTIA o FOLLOWED BY TRANSITION, WHICH OCCURS WHEN THE GROUP HAS USED UP HALF ITS ALLOTTED TIME. o A TRANSITION INITIATES MAJOR CHANGES o A SECOND PHASE OF INERTIA FOLLOWS THE TRANSITION. o THE GROUP’S LAST MEETING IS CHARACTERIZED BY A MARKEDLY ACCELERATED ACTIVITY. BEHAVIOUR OF WORK GROUP: • THE FOLLOWING FACTORS INFLUENCE THE WORKING OF GROUP: • ORGANIZATION’S AUTHORITY STRUCTURE o WHERE THE WORK GROUP IS PLACED IN THE HIERARCHY LEVEL. • FORMAL REGULATIONS o IT STANDARDIZES EMPLOYEE’S BEHAVIOUR • RESOURCES: o PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF RESOURCES INFLUENCES THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE EMPLOYEES • PERFORMANCE EVALUATION & REWARD SYSTEM: o DOES THE ORGANIZATION PROVIDE SPECIFIC / CHALLENGING PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES o DOES THE ORGANIZATION REWARD INDIVIDUAL OR GROUP OBJECTIVES • ORGANIZATION’S CULTURE o DEFINES STANDARD OF ACCEPTABLE BEHAVIOUR • PHYSICAL WORK SETTING o THE LAYOUT / SIZE / ILLUMINATION / ETC. GROUP STRUCTURE • INCLUDES o FORMAL LEADERSHIP  EVERY GROUP HAS A FORMAL LEADER, IDENTIFIED BY TITLE o ROLES  A SET OF EXPECTED BEHAVIOUR o NORMS  ACCEPTABLE STANDARDS OF BEHAVIOUR o GROUP STATUS

 A SOCIALLY DEFINED POSITION GIVEN TO A GROUP o GROUP SIZE  SIZE OF THE GROUP AFFECTS THE GROUP’S OVERALL BEHAVIOUR  THERE IS A TENDENCY FOR INDIVIDUAL’S TO EXPEND LESS EFFORT WHEN WORKING COLLECTIVELY THAN WORKING INDIVIDUAL. [SOCIAL LOAFING] o COMPOSITION  THE DEGREE TO WHICH MEMBERS OF A GROUP SHARE A COMMON DEMOGRAPHIC ATTRIBUTE LIKE AGE / SEX / RACE / EDUCATION / LENGTH OF SERVICE  INDIVIDUALS WHO AS PART OF A GROUP HOLD A COMMON ATTRIBUTE o COHESIVENESS  DEGREE TO WHICH GROUP MEMBERS ARE ATTRACTED TO EACH OTHER & ARE MOTIVATED TO STAY IN THE GROUP GROUP DECISION MAKING • FOLLOWING ARE THE STRENGTHS OF GROUP DECISION MAKING o GENERATE MORE COMPLETE INFORMATION 7 KNOWLEDGE o DIVERSITY IN VIEWS o HIGHER QUALITY DECISIONS o INCREASED ACCEPTANCE OF DECISION • FOLLOWING ARE THE WEAKNESS OF GROUP DECISION MAKING o TIME CONSUMING o CONFORMITY PRESSURE o DOMINATED BY FEW OR ONE MEMBER o AMBIGUOUS RESPONSIBILITY GROUPTHINK • PHENOMENON IN WHICH THE NORM FOR CONSENSUS. OVERRIDES THE REALISTIC APPRAISAL OF ALTERNATIVE COURSES OF ACTION GROUPSHIFT: • A CHANGE IN DECISION RISK BETWEEN THE GROUP’S DECISION & THE INDIVIDUAL DECISION THAT MEMBERS WITHIN THE GROUP WOULD MAKE, CAN BE EITHER TOWARD CONSERVATISM OR GREATER RISK GROUP DECISION MAKING TECHNIQUES: • INTERACTING GROUPS o MEMBERS INTERACT WITH EACH OTHER FACE TO FACE o BEFORE DISCUSSIONS BEGIN, EACH MEMBER WRITES HIS OWN IDEA. EACH IDEA IS DISCUSSED. THE IDEA IS ACCEPTED • BRAINSTORMING o IDEAS ARE GENERATED.

o CRITICISM IS DISCOURAGED ELECTRONIC MEETING o A MEETING IN WHICH MEMBERS INTERACT ON COMPUTERS WORK-TEAM COLLECTIVE PERFORMANCE POSITIVE

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WORK GROUP & WORK TEAM CRITERIA WORK-GROUP GOAL SHARE INFORMATION SYNERGY ACCOUNTABILITY SKILLS NEUTRAL [SOMETIMES NEGATIVE] INDIVIDUAL SUPPLEMENTARY

INDIVIDUAL & MUTUAL COMPLEMENTARY

TYPES OF TEAMS • PROBLEM-SOLVING TEAMS o PERTAINS TO DEPARTMENTAL ISSUES o MEMBERS ARE FROM THE SAME DEPARTMENT • SELF-MANAGED TEAMS o OPERATE AS PROFIT CENTRES • CROSS-FUNCTIONAL TEAMS • PERTAINS ORGANIZATIONAL PROBLEMS • MEMBERS ARE FROM DIFFERENT FUNCTION BUT OF THE SAME HIERARCHY • VIRTUAL TEAMS o MEMBERS LINKED THROUGH COMPUTERS o MEMBERS ARE DISPERSED. HENCE NO FACE TO FACE CONTACT CREATING AN EFFECTIVE TEAM • FOR CREATING AN EFFECTIVE TEAM DO THE FOLLOWING • WORK DESIGN o INCLUDES  AUTONOMY  SKILL VARIETY  TASK IDENTITY  TASK SIGNIFICANCE • COMPOSITION o INCLUDES:  ABILITY  PERSONALITY  ROLES & DIVERSITY  SIZE  FLEXIBILITY  PREFERENCE FOR TEAM WORK • CONTEXT o INCLUDES:  ADEQUATE RESOURCES

 LEADERSHIP  PERFORMANCE EVALUATION & REWARD PROCESS o COMMON PURPOSE o SPECIFIC GOALS o TEAM EFFICACY o CONFLICT o SOCIAL LOAFING

ORGANIZATION DESIGN: 4. VARIOUS ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE & THEIR EFFECTS ON HUMAN BEHAVIOUR 5. ORGANIZATION CLIMATE 6. ORGANIZATION CULTURE

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE: • HOW JOB TASKS ARE FORMALLY DIVIDED , GROUPED & COORDINATED • THERE ARE SIX KEY ELEMENTS THAT MANAGERS NEED TO ADDRESS WHEN THEY DESIGN THEIR OS: o WORK SPECIALIZATION o CHAIN OF COMMAND o SPAN OF CONTROL o CENTRALIZATION o DECENTRALIZATION o FORMALIZATION • WORK SPECIALIZATION: o THE DEGREE TO WHICH TASKS IN THE ORGANIZATION ARE SUBDIVIDED INTO SEPARATE JOBS o THE BASIS BY WHICH JOBS ARE GROUPED TOGETHER IS CALLED AS DEPARTMENTALIZATION • CHAIN OF COMMAND: o THE UNBROKEN LINE OF AUTHORITY THAT EXTENDS FROM THE TOP OF THE ORGANIZATION TO THE LOWEST ECHELON & CLARIFIES WHO REPORTS TO WHOM o CHAIN OF COMMAND HAS TWO COMPLIMENTARY CONCEPTS:  AUTHORITY • THE RIGHTS INHERENT IN A MANAGERIAL POSITION TO GIVE ORDERS & TO EXPECT THE ORDERS TO BE OBEYED  UNITY OF COMMAND • A SUBORDINATE SHOULD HAVE ONLY ONE SUPERIOR TO WHOM HE OR SHE IS DIRECTLY RESPONSIBLE • SPAN OF CONTROL o THE NUMBER OF SUBORDINATES A MANAGER CAN EFFICIENTLY & EFFECTIVELY DIRECT • CENTRALIZATION:

• • •

o THE DEGREE TO WHICH DECISION MAKING IS CONCENTRATED AT A SINGLE POINT IN THE ORGANIZATION DECENTRALIZATION o DECISION DISCRETION IS PUSHED DOWN TO LOWER LEVEL EMPLOYEES FORMALIZATION: THE DEGREE TO WHICH JOBS WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION IS STANDARDIZED

TYPES OF OS • SIMPLE STRUCTURE: o A STRUCTURE CHARACTERIZED BY  A LOW DEGREE OF DEPARTMENTALIZATION,  WIDE SPANS OF CONTROL  AUTHORITY CENTRALIZED IN A SINGLE PERSON • BUREAUCRACY o A STRUCTURE WITH HIGHLY ROUTINE OPERATING TASKS  ACHIEVED THROUGH SPECIALIZATION  VERY FORMALIZED RULES & REGULATIONS  TASKS THAT ARE GROUPED INTO A FUNCTIONAL DEPARTMENTS  CENTRALIZED AUTHORITY  NARROW SPAN OF CONTROL & DECISION MAKING o THAT FOLLOWS THE CHAIN OF COMMAND • MATRIX STRUCTURE o A STRUCTURE THAT CREATES DUAL LINES OF AUTHORITY o COMBINES FUNCTIONAL & PRODUCT DEPARTMENTALIZATION • TEAM STRUCTURE: o THE USE OF TEAMS AS THE CENTRAL DEVICE TO COORDINATE WORK ACTIVITIES • VIRTUAL ORGANIZATION: o A SMALL CORE ORGANIZATION THAT OUTSOURCE MAJOR BUSINESS FUNCTIONS • BOUNDARYLESS ORGANIZATION: • AN ORGANIZATION THAT SEEKS o TO ELIMINATE THE CHAIN OF COMMAND o HAVE LIMITLESS SPAN OF CONTROL o REPLACE DEPARTMENTS WITH EMPOWERED TEAMS WHY DOES STRUCTURE DIFFER? • THERE ARE TWO MODELS OF OS: o MECHANISTIC  HAS FOLLOWING CHARACTERISTICS: • EXTENSIVE DEPARTMENTALIZATION • HIGH FORMALIZATION • LIMITED INFORMATION NETWORK • CENTRALIZATION

o ORGANIC  HAS FOLLOWING CHARACTERISTICS: • FLAT OS • USES CROSS-HIERARCHICAL & CROSSFUNCTIONAL TEAMS • HAS LOW FORMALIZATION • COMPREHENSIVE INFORMATION NETWORK • RELIES PARTICIPATIVE DECISION-MAKING o THE ABOVE TWO MODELS ADDRESSES THE BASIS OF THE ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE FORMATION o THE FOLLOWING ARE THE FORCES THAT DETERMINES THE OS  STRATEGY  ORGANIZATION SIZE  TECHNOLOGY  ENVIRONMENT ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE & EMPLOYEE BEHAVIOUR • WORK SPECIALIZATION: o CONTRIBUTES TO HIGHER EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY BUT REDUCED JOB SATISFACTION o AFTER SOMETIME JOB BECOMES BORING • SPAN OF CONTROL o LARGE SPAN OF CONTROL MAY LEAD TO HIGHER EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE & MORE OPPORTUNITY FOR PERSONAL INITIATIVE o INCREASES JOB SATISFACTION OF MANAGER • CENTRALIZATION o LESS CENTRALIZED, GREATER AMOUNT OF PARTICIPATIVE DECISION MAKING o RESULTING GREATER JOB SATISFACTION • • TO MAXIMIZE EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE & SATISFACTION, INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, SUCH AS EXPERIENCE, PERSONALITY & THE WORK TASK SHOULD BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT NATIONAL CULTURE ALSO INFLUENCES STRUCTURE. ORGANIZATIONS OPERATING WITH PEOPLE FROM HIGH POWER DISTANCE CULTURES, WILL FIND EMPLOYEES ACCEPTING MECHANISTIC STRUCTURES ORGANIZATION STAY WITH ORGANIZATIONS THAT SUIT THEIR PERSONALITY. CANDIDATES WHO PREFER PREDICTABILITY TAKE OUT EMPLOYMENT IN MECHANISTIC STRUCTURES

ORGANIZATION CULTURE • IS THE SOCIAL GLUE THAT HELPS HOLDS THE ORGANIZATION TOGETHER • IT CONSISTS OF o BELIEFS

IT IS A PROPOSITION ABOUT HOW THE WORLD WORKS THAT INDIVIDUAL ACCEPTS AS TRUE IT IS COGNITIVE FACT

o ASSUMPTIONS  ARE BELIEFS THAT ARE REGARDED AS SO VALUABLE & OBVIOUSLY CORRECT THAT THEY ARE TAKEN FOR GRANTED & RARELY QUESTIONED OR EXAMINED.  IT IS ALSO COGNITIVE FACT. o VALUES  ARE ALSO BELIEFS? BELIEFS ABOUT WHAT ARE DESIRABLE OR GOOD, & WHAT IS UNDESIRABLE OR BAD. •  IT IS ALSO COGNITIVE FACT THE FOLLOWING ARE THE PRIMARY CHARACTERISTICS OF OC: o INNOVATION & RISK TAKING o ATTENTION TO DETAIL o OUTCOME ORIENTATION o PEOPLE ORIENTATION o TEAM ORIENTATION o AGGRESSIVENESS [GO GETTERS] o STABILITY ORGANIZATIONS HAVE DOMINANT & NUMEROUS SETS OF SHARED SUB-CULTURE DOMINANT CULTURE o EXPRESSES THE CORE VALUES THAT ARE SHARED BY A MAJORITY OF THE ORGANIZATION’S MEMBERS

• •

HOW EMPLOYEES LEARN CULTURE • STORIES • RITUALS • MATERIAL SYMBOLS • LANGUAGE MATCHING PEOPLE WITH CULTURE • ORGANIZATIONS ATTEMPT TO SELECT NEW MEMBERS WHO FIT WELL WITH ORGANIZATION’S CULTURE • AND EVEN JOB CANDIDATES TRY TO FIND ORGANIZATIONS WHERE THEIR VALUES & PERSONALITY WILL FIT IN • OC HAS FOLLOWING DIMENSIONS: o SOCIALIBILITY  MEANS FRIENDLINESS o SOLIDARITY  MEANS TASK ORIENTATION

o MATRIX OF THE SE TWO DIMENSIONS CREATE FOUR DISTINCT CULTURE:  NETWORKED CULTURE • HIGH ON SOCIALABILITY • LOW ON SOLIDARITY  MERCENARY CULTURE • LOW ON SOCIALABILITY • HIGH ON SOLIDARITY  FRAGMENTED CULTURE • LOW ON SOCIABILITY • LOW ON SOLIDARITY  COMMUNAL CULTURE  HIGH ON SOCIALABILITY  HIGH ON SOLIDARITY ORGANIZATION CLIMATE • PERCEIVED ATTRIBUTES OF AN ORGANIZATION & ITS SUB-SYSTEM • AS REFLECTED IN THE WAY AN ORGANIZATION DEALS WITH MEMBERS, GROUPS & ISSUES • THERE IS A LINK BETWEEN CLIMATE MOTIVATION AS STATED BELOW: o ACHIEVEMENT  CONCERN FOR EXCELLENCE o EXPERT INFLUENCE  CONCERN FOR MAKING AN IMPACT ON OTHERS o CONTROL  CONCERN FOR ORDERLINESS  DESIRE TO BE & STAY & INFORMED o EXTENSION  CONCERN FOR OTHERS o DEPENDENCY  DESIRE FOR ASSISTANCE OF OTHERS o AFFILIATION  CONCERNING FOR ESTABLISHING & MAINTAINING RELATIONSHIP o ORIENTATION  CONCERN FOR ORGANIZATION o INTER-PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP  CREATING INTER-DEPENDENCY o SUPERVISION  SUPPORTIVE o PROBLEM MANAGEMENT  HOW ARE PROBLEMS PERCEIVED BY THE ORGANIZATION o MANAGEMENT OF MISTAKES  HOW DOES MANAGEMENT VIEWS MISTAKES

o CONFLICT MANAGEMENT  THE WAY CONFLICTS ARE RESOLVED o COMMUNICATION  CONCERNED WITH FLOW OF INFORMATION o DECISION MAKING  WHETHER PARTICIPATIVE o TRUST  BASIS OF RELATIONSHIP o MANAGEMENT REWARDS  WHAT IS REWARDED IN AN ORGANIZATION INFLUENCES ORGANIZATION CLIMATE o RISK-TAKING  HOW DOES ORGANIZATION RESPONDS TO RISK o INNOVATION & CHANGE  HOW CHANGE & INNOVATIONS ARE PERCEIVED
LEADERSHIP: 7. DEFINITION 8. ITS IMPORTANCE TO ORGANIZATION 9. LEADERSHIP STYLES 10. APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF LEADERSHIP TRAITS

11. BEHAVIORAL & SITUATIONAL APPROACHES
12. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP

LEADER • THE ABILITY OF A PERSON TO INFLUENCE OTHERS TO WARD THE ACHIEVEMENT OF A COMMON GOAL LEADERSHIP: • IT IS THE STYLE OF THE LEADER THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP • TRAIT o THE QUALITIES OF A LEADER THAT DIFFERENTIATES A LEADER FROM A NON-LEADER • BEHAVIORAL o THE SPECIFIC BEHAVIORS THAT DIFFERENTIATES LEADERS FROM NON-LEADERS. EXAMPLE: PEOPLE FOCUSED OR TASK FOCUSED, OR ONE WHO SEEKS EXPERIMENTATION • CONTINGENCY o IT IS BASED ON SITUATIONS o THE FOLLOWING ARE THE MODELS  FIEDLER CONTINGENCY • MATCH BETWEEN A LEADER’S STYLE OF INTERACTING WITH SUBORDINATES, & THE DEGREE TO WHICH THE SITUATION GIVES CONTROL & INFLUENCE TO THE LEADER  HERSEY & BLANCHARD • A CONTINGENCY THEORY THAT FOCUSES ON FOLLOWER’S READINESS  LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY

LEADER CREATES IN-GROUPS& OUT-GROUPS & SUBORDINATES WITH IN-GROUP STATUS WILL HAVE HIGHER PERFORMANCE RATINGS, LESS TURNOVER, & GREATER SATISFACTION WITH THEIR SUPERIOR PATH-GOAL • A LEADER’S BEHAVIOR IS ACCEPTABLE TO SUBORDINATES IN SO FAR AS THEY VIEW IT AS SOURCE OF EITHER IMMEDIATE OR FUTURE SATISFACTION

• •

• •

LEADER PARTICIPATION • PROVIDES A SET OF RULES TO DETERMINE THE FORM & AMOUNT OF PARTICIPATIVE DECISION MAKING IN DIFFERENT SITUATIONS NEO-CHARISMATIC THEORIES o EMPHASIS SYMBOLISM, EMOTIONAL APPEAL & EXTRAORDINARY FOLLOWER COMMITMENT CHARISMATIC LEADER o FOLLOWERS MAKE ATTRIBUTIONS OF HEROIC OR EXTRAORDINARY LEADERSHIP ABILITIES WHEN THEY OBSERVE CERTAIN BEHAVIORS TRANSACTIONAL LEADER o GUIDE OR MOTIVATE THEIR FOLLOWERS IN THE DIRECTIONAL OF ESTABLISHED GOALS BY CLARIFYING ROLE & TASK REQUIREMENTS TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS o PROVIDE INDIVIDUALIZED CONSIDERATION & INTELLECTUAL SIMULATION, & WHO POSSESS CHARISMA VISIONARY LEADERSHIP o ABILITY TO CREATE & ARTICULATE A REALISTIC, CREDIBLE, ATTRACTIVE VISION OF THE FUTURE FOR AN ORGANIZATION 

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE & LEADERSHIP: • GREAT LEADERS EXHIBIT THE FOLLOWING COMPONENTS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE o SELF-AWARENESS  EXHIBITED BY CONFIDENCE, REALISTIC SELFASSESSMENT & A SELF-DEPRECIATING SENSE OF HUMOUR o SELF-MANAGEMENT  EXHIBITED BY TRUSTWORTHINESS & INTEGRITY, COMFORT WITH AMBIGUITY & OPENNESS TO CHANGE o SELF-MOTIVATION  EXHIBITED BY A STRONG DRIVE TO ACHIEVE, OPTIMISM & HIGH ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT o EMPATHY

EXHIBITED BY EXPERTISE IN BUILDING & RETAINING TALENT, CROSS-CULTURAL SENSITIVITY & SERVICE TO CLIENTS & CUSTOMERS o SOCIAL SKILLS  ABILITY TO LEAD CHANGE EFFORTS, PERSUASIVENESS & EXPERTISE IN BUILDING & LEADING TEAMS  TRUST & LEADERSHIP • TRUST o A POSITIVE EXPECTATION THAT ANOTHER WILL NOT ACT OPPORTUNISTICALLY o IT IS THE FOUNDATION OF LEADERSHIP o BASIS ON WHICH RELATIONSHIP IS BUILT • THE FOLLOWING ARE THE DIMENSIONS OF TRUST: o INTEGRITY  REFERS TO HONESTY & TRUTHFULNESS o COMPETENCE  INCLUDES KNOWLEDGE & ATTITUDE o CONSISTENCY  RELATES TO RELIABILITY, PREDICTABILITY & GOOD JUDGMENT IN HANDLING SITUATIONS o LOYALTY  WILLINGNESS TO PROTECT & SAVE FACE FOR ANOTHER PERSON • FOLLOWING ARE THE TYPES OF TRUST: o DETERRENCE-BASED TRUST  TRUST BASED ON FEAR OF REPRISAL o KNOWLEDGE-BASED TRUST  BASED ON PREDICTABILITY o IDENTIFICATION-BASED TRUST  BASED ON MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING OF EACH OTHER’S INTENTIONS & APPRECIATION OF OTHER’S WANTS & DESIRES
MANAGEMENT CHANGE 6. FORCES RESPONSIBLE FOR CHANGE 7. RESISTANCE TO CHANGE 8. OVERCOMING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE 9. INTRODUCING CHANGE IN ORGANIZATION 10. ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT: ORGANIZATION EFFECTIVENESS

MANAGEMENT CHANGE CHANGE: • MAKING THINGS DIFFERENT PLANNED CHANGE • CHANGE ACTIVITIES THAT ARE INTENTIONAL & GOAL ORIENTED TYPES OF CHANGE

• •

FIRST ORDER o MARGINAL CHANGE SECOND ORDER o BREAKTHROUGH CHANGE

FORCES FOR CHANGE: • NATURE OF THE WORKFORCE o EXAMPLES ARE:  MORE CULTURAL DIVERSITY  INCREASE IN PROFESSIONAL • TECHNOLOGY o EXAMPLES:  FLATTER ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE  TQM PROGRAMS  REENGINEERING PROGRAMS • ECONOMIC SHOCKS o EXAMPLE:  CHANGE IN OIL PRICE • COMPETITION o EXAMPLES:  GLOBAL COMPETITION  MERGERS & CONSOLIDATIONS  GROWTH OF E-COMMERCE • SOCIAL TENDS o EXAMPLES:  ATTITUDE TOWARDS SMOKING  DELAYED MARRIAGES  STAND AGAINST POLLUTION  • WORLD POLITICS o EXAMPLES:  UNIFICATION OF GERMANY  BREAKUP OF SOVIET UNION  OPENING OF MARKETS IN CHINA CHANGE AGENTS: • PERSONS WHO ACT AS CATALYSTS & ASSUMES THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR MANAGING CHANGE WHAT CAN CHANGE AGENTS CHANGE? • STRUCTURE o AN OS DEFINES HOW TASKS ARE FORMALLY DIVIDED, GROUPED & COORDINATED o CHANGE AGENTS CAN ALTER CAN ALTER ONE OR MORE OF THE KEY ELEMENTS IN THE ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE o EXAMPLE:

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 DEPARTMENTAL RESPONSIBILITIES CAN BE COMBINED  SPAN OF CONTROLS WIDENED  INCREASE STANDARDIZATION  DECENTRALIZE DECISION MAKING TECHNOLOGY o INTRODUCTION OF NEW EQUIPMENT, TOOLS, OR OPERATING PROCEDURE PHYSICAL SETTING o DOING AWAY WITH STATUS SYMBOLS  EXAMPLES: • NO CABINS • COMMON CANTEEN PEOPLE o CHANGE IN PEOPLE ARE BROUGHT ABOUT IN TERMS OF KNOWLEDGE & ATTITUDE o IT IS DONE THROUGH CONCEPT OF OD. IN OD HR INTERVENTIONS ARE MADE TO CHANGE PEOPLE & THEIR NATURE OF RELATIONSHI

RESISTANCE TO CHANGE: • ORGANIZATION & THEIR MEMBERS RESIST CHANGE • RESISTANCE PROVIDES STABILITY & PREDICTABILITY TO BEHAVIOR • RESISTANCE CAN BE OVERT, IMPLICIT, IMMEDIATE OR DEFERRED • SOURCES OF RESISTANCE CAN BE CLASSIFIED AS: o INDIVIDUAL  FOLLOWING ARE THE REASONS: • HABIT • SECURITY • ECONOMIC FACTORS • FEAR OF UNKNOWN • SELECTIVE INFORMATION PROCESSING o ORGANIZATIONAL o FOLLOWING ARE THE REASONS:  STRUCTURAL INERTIA • ORGANIZATIONS HAVE BUILT-N MECHANISM TO PRODUCE STABILITY • FOR EXAMPLE, THE SELECTION PROCESS SYSTEMATICALLY SELECTS CERTAIN PEOPLE IN & CERTAIN PEOPLE OUT  LIMITED FOCUS ON CHANGE • ORGANIZATIONS ARE MADE UP OF A NUMBER OF INTERDEPENDENT SUBSYSTEMS. YOU CAN’T CHANGE ONE WITHOUT AFFECTING THE OTHERS  GROUP INERTIA • EVEN IF INDIVIDUALS WANT TO CHANGE THEIR BEHAVIOR, GROUPS NORMS MAY ACT AS A CONSTRAINT

  

THREAT TO EXPERTISE • EXPERTS LOOSE THEIR IMPORTANCE THREAT TO ESTABLISHED POWER RELATIONSHIP • FEAR OF LOOSING POWER THREAT TO ESTABLISHED RESOURCE ALLOCATION • FEAR OF LOOSING POWER & IMPORTANCE

OVERCOMING RESISTANCE: • EDUCATION & COMMUNICATION • PARTICIPATION • FACILITATION & SUPPORT • NEGOTIATION • MANIPULATION & CO-OPTATION • COERCION APPROACHES TO MANAGING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE • KURT LEWIN’S THREE STEP MODEL o UNFREEZING o MOVING o REFREEZING • ACTION RESEARCH o A CHANGE PROCESS BASED ON SYSTEMATIC COLLECTION OF DATA & THEN SELECTION OF CHANGE ACTION BASED ON WHAT THE ANALYZED DATA INDICATE • ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT o A COLLECTION OF PLANNED CHANGE INTERVENTIONS, BUILT ON HUMANISTIC-DEMOCRATIC VALUES THAT SEEKS TO IMPROVE ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS & EMPLOYEE’S WELL BEING THANK YOU FOR YOUR PATIENT LISTENING & HEARING MY BEST WISHES

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