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pH and Metabolism

  • 1. Explain why the massive amount of acid produced each day by ATP hydrolysis (ATP 4- + H 2 O → ADP 3- + P i 2- + H + ) does not result in a significant decrease in body pH.

  • 2. Explain how normal catabolic pathways for carbohydrates, lipids and proteins can cause net production of acid.

  • 3. Indicate the sources of fixed and volatile acids.

  • 4. Explain why the catabolism of the sodium salt of a carboxylic acid (e.g. sodium lactate) results in the net utilization of acid.

  • 5. Indicate the role of carbonic anhydrase in the transport of CO 2 in the blood.

  • 6. Show that an increase in the partial pressure of CO 2 would lower blood pH.

  • 7. Give the mechanism that explains the effectiveness of the CO 2 - bicarbonate system as a buffer at physiological pH.

  • 8. Calculate the pH of blood at bicarbonate concentration of 24 mM and pCO 2 of 40 mm Hg.

  • 9. Describe the mechanisms responsible for handling of fixed and volatile acids by the body.

  • 10. Explain the significance and reason for the anion gap.

  • 11. Indicate why and how glutamine metabolism is altered in chronic acidosis.