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Integration

CHAPTER 4

Subtopics
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4.1 The definite integral


4.2 The fundamental theorem and calculus
4.3 Substitution techniques
4.4 Integration by parts
4.5 Integration by partial fractions
4.6 Trigonometric integrals
4.7 Trigonometric substitutions

Formula Sheet
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4.1 Indefinite and definite integral


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Integration is the inverse of differentiation:

Differentiation is the inverse of integration:

The definite integral from a to b

Refer Tutorial 4

More exercises

2x

3 x 4dx

x dx

4.2 The fundamental theorem and calculus


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4.3 Substitution Techniques


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With algebraic substitutions, the substitution always

made is to let u be equal to f(x) such that f(u) du is a


standard integral. It is found that integrals of the
forms :

k f ( x ) f ' ( x )dx

f '(x)

f ( x )

dx
n

and

4.4 Integration by Parts


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4.5 Integration by Partial Fractions


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CASE 1 : If all of the factors of g(x) are distinct linear

factors, then the partial fraction decomposition of


contains the sum :
A
B
C

....
(ax b ) (cx d ) (ex f )
Example :

1
dx
2
x x 2

f (x)
g(x )

4.5 Integration by Partial Fractions


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CASE 2 : If the factors of g(x) are repeated linear

factors, then the partial fraction decomposition of


contains the sum :
A
B
C
Z

....
2
3
(ax b ) (ax b )
(ax b )
(ax b )m
Example :

6x 7
dx
2
( x 2)

f (x)

g ( x ) m

4.5 Integration by Partial Fractions


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CASE 3 : If the factors of g(x)=(ax+b)(ax2+bx+c) is a

combination of linear and quadratic factors where


the quadratic factor cannot be factorized, then the
partial fraction decomposition are as follows :
f (x)
A
Bx C

g ( x ) (ax b ) (ax 2 bx c )
Example :

2x 1
dx
2
x ( x 1)

4.6 Trigonometric Integrals


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Please refer to earlier formula sheet to solve these

trigonometric problems

4.7 Trigonometric Substitution


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End Chapter
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