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Trapping Protocol for Emerging UnknownVector Borne Epidemic in Northern North

America
Literature Review

2 Trapping Protocol
Abstract and Keywords
Successful vector collection is a fundamental requirement of any
attempt to study a vector borne disease, particularly in cases of
emerging diseases in which little or no knowledge exists of the
pathogen and its transmission. Here we attempt to collect the
suspected vector for an unknown disease, a species in the family
Simuliidae, utilizing the Esperanza window trap, the malaise trap, and
the CO2 trap. The sweeping method collection of vegetation will also
be employed in moving bodies of fresh water, where black flies are
typically found. Stationary traps will be placed near moving bodies of
fresh water as well. The malaise trap has been shown to effectively
trap all manner of flying insects, while the Esperanza window trap has
been shown to capture black flies as reliably as the standard human
landing collection method. CO2 baiting in the traps will serve as
attractants for female black flies looking for a blood meal. The use of
multiple traps in combination with the locations that the traps will be
placed at should yield a large collection of vectors and, in turn, the
unknown pathogen.
Key Words: Simuliidae, Esperanza window trap, malaise trap, vector,
pathogen
Beginning April 4, 2014 an unknown epidemic has appeared in the northern
region of North America, reporting 10 cases from Maine to Alberta. All cases of this
infection have resulted in the death. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) has been lead
to believe this is a zoonotic infection vectored by an arthropod and with an animal as a
reservoir host due to most patients having common close contact with animals and all
reporting recent insect. The CDC is deploying entomologist in the areas of the reported
cases of infection to trap and determine the arthropod vector of this disease. The purpose
of this literature review is to provide a rationalized synoptic report of the strategic
trapping protocol being implemented by the CDC.
Materials and Methods
CO2 trap/Esperanza Window Trap
Esperanza Window Trap.
The trap consists of a one meter squared section of blue fabric between two panes of
glass the same size. Each glass pane was coated with adhesive. The trap was baited with
CO2 and suspended approximately half a meter above the ground using a frame.
(Rodriguez-Perez et al. 2013) The traps were checked after dusk and dawn.
Materials
CO2 cartridges, black satin fabric, clear acrylic panels, human scent lure (such as BG
lure), insect trap coating paste (such as Tangle Trap), wooden frame, minereal spirits,
forceps, ethanol,
Methods
1) Determine sites near potential black fly breeding grounds.

2) Set up wooden frames that have one-meter square cutout to place fabric on, and sturdy
base to remain upright.
3) Place one square meter of black satin fabric between acrylic panels.
4) Set acrylic panels containing black satin into wooden frame.
5) Coat panels in insect trap coating paste
6) Place slow leak CO2 cartridges in a large jug right beside the trap.
7) Insert a tube into the top of the jug, seal off jug and affix tube to the trap so that the
gases will flow across the trap.
8) Apply BG lure to the bottom of the trap.
9) Repeat trap creation for the desired amount of traps.
10) Place traps in desired locations and load enough lure, trap coating paste and CO2 to
last approximately one hour.
11) Place active traps during optimal biting times; sunrise and sunset.
12) Collect flies by dissolving trap coating paste using mineral spirits, then grabbing
gently with forceps.
13) Rinse flies and keep them in ethanol to be keyed later.
14) Repeat experiment daily for two weeks.
Study Sites
Place numerous (three or more) traps...
1) By the flowing water on Riggs' ranch where the goats drank,
2) Near the river near the golf course in Baldwin, MI,
3) Dispersed across Clemons' ranch,
4) On Wynn's Grand Fork ranch,
5) Around the lakes and streams of West Hawk Lake Resort in Whiteshell, Manitoba,
6) Near the river Sylvia Delaney frequently ran by,
7) Surrounding the water treatment plant in Caribou, Maine,
8) Around Tiffany Snider's home,
9) Near the Gateway Motel in Newberry, Michigan,
10) Around the waterways and parks Victoria Compton ran along,
11) On Zachary Stanton's ranch in Alberta, Canada.
FIG. A

4 Trapping Protocol

Discussion
CO2 trap/Esperanza Window Trap
The Esperanza Window Trap was chosen for trapping the suspected vectors due
to its efficiency in collecting small insects, smaller than 3mm. Insects this small were
targeted because of the many patient reports of being painfully bitten by insects that were
hard to see, also the patient reported insects which seem to most likely be vector of
SBISA Fever will be collected in the Esperanza Trap.
A used method for the entrapment of Simulium flies is the Esperanza window
trap (EWT). The EWT was designed to collect Simulium ochraceum s.l., when baited
with a commercial human scent lure and CO2. Collections of Simuliidae on variously
colored two-dimensional silhouettes indicated that the species oriented to and landed on
certain 'preferred' colors. Blue, black, and red were identified as being preferred colors
with blue being most preferred. (Bradbury and Bennett 1974) The trap consists of a one
square meter piece of blue satin fabric sandwiched between two thin clear one square
meter acrylic panels supported by a wooden frame that placed the lower edges of the
panels 0.6 meters above the ground. The surfaces are coated with insect trap coating paste
to immobilize the flies after landing. The human skin lure is attached to the bottom of the
trap as bait while the carbon dioxide for the traps was produced using a yeast generation
system. The system consists of 17.5 grams of Baker's yeast and 250g of sugar dissolved
within 2.5 liters of tap water. This solution was placed in a four liter plastic jug and
replaced every three days. The jug was sealed with a stopper in which a piece of plastic
tubing was inserted to permit a directed flow of the CO2 from the jug to the trap and the
jug was placed on the ground next to the trap. The distal end of the tube was affixed to
the trap itself to permit CO2 to flow across the trap surface. (Toe 2014)
Malaise traps was devised for the capture of insects in general and proves to be
only effective at collection of specimens when be installed at specific sites for efficient
operation. (Juliet 1962) Many versions of the Malaise trap exist, but all follow the same
basic structure. This consists of a tent with a large opening at the bottom for insects to fly
into and a tall central wall that directs the black flies upwards to a cylinder containing a
killing agent. Killing agents vary, though cyanide and ethanol is the most common.
However, due to restrictions and for safety purposes, ethanol is preferred in most cases.
Commercially available Malaise traps (Townes 1972) were used exclusively in this study.
Protocol involves two separate sampling periods of six days each, and specimens
collected at the end of these periods. (Darling and Packer 1988)
Specimens obtained from the collections will be analyzed and sent to a laboratory
for testing for unknown pathogens. Through pervasive research, tests, and cross
examination of tissues obtained from infected individuals

Fig. B

Locations
For Christian Riggs, the traps are being placed next to the rivers on his land. Mr.
Riggs is a business man, that involves trading his hybrid goats to ranchers. He was aware
of the range of parasitic insects that were found on his ranch, but did not witness any ill
effects on his goats from them. The traps are being placed on a local golf course in
Baldwin, Michigan due to Edna Bairds history. She would have lunch daily by a river,
and encounter insect bites during that time. Traps are being placed across Levi Clemons
ranch, because a specific location wasn't given. He also traded hybrid animals, including
buying some from Mr. Noah Wynn. Noah Wynn also involved with hybrid animals,
including interaction with Mr. Christian Riggs and Levi Clemons. Mr. Wynn would
encounter insect bites on his ranch with the animals, therefore traps are being placed
throughout. Traps are being placed throughout The West Hawk Lake Resort in
Whiteshell, MB, because Mr. Seth Raymond was bit multiple times while visiting there.
There are also plenty of water sources for parasitic insects to live. Traps are being placed
near the river in a park close to Sylvia Delaneys house, where she would get bit by
insects. Traps are placed in the water treatment facility in Caribou, Maryland, because
Tiffany Snider reported insect bites by the pools of water. She reported how there was an
influx of water needing treatment, due to more rainfall and other plants shutting down,
thus leading to an influx of insects. Traps are placed on Tracy Donovans walkway to
work in Newberry, Maryland, because that was where she was bitten. Victoria Compton
got bit near a river in a park where she ran in Canada, so traps are placed there. Traps are
needed in the fields on Zachary Stantons ranch. He bought some hybrid animals that
facilitated an insect infestation among the herd. He was in the field when he first
encountered symptoms. I organized important info gathered from patient info into a chart
below.
FIG. C
Field/
Ranch
Fresh
Water
Outdoors
(parks)
Animal
interaction
Biting
Flies

Z.
Stanton
X

C.
Riggs
X

E.
Baird

L.
Clemons
X

N.
Wynn
X

X
X
X
X

X
X

S.
Raymond

S.
Delaney

T.
Snider

T.
Donovan

V.
Compton
X

6 Trapping Protocol
Ticks
Foreign
Nation
affiliate
Mosquitos
Bites in
Morning
Bites in
evening
Traveling

X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X

Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements go to the renowned Professor Brundage of the Texas A&M
Entomology Department for providing the knowledge to our team.
References Cited
Currie, Douglas C., and Peter H. Adler. 2008. Global diversity of black flies (Diptera:
Simuliidae) in freshwater. In Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment, pp. 469-475.
Springer Netherlands.
Darling, D. C., and Packer, L. 1988. Effectiveness of Malaise traps in collecting
Hymenoptera: the influence of trap design, mesh size, and location. The Canadian
Entomologist 120.8-9: 787-796.
Juillet, J. A. 1963. A comparison of four types of traps used for capturing flying insects.
Canadian Journal of Zoology 41.2 219-223.
Rodriguez-Perez, M. 2013. Development of a Novel Trap for the Collection of Black
Flies of the Simulium ochraceum Complex. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?
id=10.1371/journal.pone.0076814
Toe, L. 2014. Optimization of the Esperanza window trap for the collection of the African
onchocerciasis vector Simulium damnosum sensu lato.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001706X14001521
Townes, H. 1962. Design for a Malaise trap. Ent. NEws. 83: 239-247
Tables and Figures
FIG. A

Fig. B

FIG. C
Field/
Ranch
Fresh
Water
Outdoors
(parks)
Animal
interaction
Biting
Flies
Ticks
Foreign
Nation
affiliate
Mosquitos
Bites in
Morning
Bites in
evening
Traveling

Z.
Stanton
X

C.
Riggs
X

E.
Baird

L.
Clemons
X

N.
Wynn
X

X
X
X

S.
Raymond

S.
Delaney

T.
Snider

T.
Donovan

V.
Compton
X

X
X

X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X

8 Trapping Protocol