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# Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

Test at a Glance
Test Name Mathematics: Content Knowledge
Test Code 0061
Time 2 hours
Number of Questions 50
Format Multiple-choice questions, graphing calculator required
Approximate Approximate
Content Categories Number of Percentage of
Questions Examination

## I. Algebra and Number Theory 8 16%

V I II. Measurement 3 6%
IV
Geometry 5 10%
II Trigonometry 4 8%
III III. Functions 8 16%
Calculus 6 12%
IV. Data Analysis and Statistics 5–6 10–12%
Probability 2–3 4–6%
V. Matrix Algebra 4–5 8–10%
Discrete Mathematics 3–4 6–8%

Process Categories

## Mathematical Problem Solving

Mathematical Reasoning and Proof
Distributed Across
Mathematical Connections
Content Categories
Mathematical Representation
Use of Technology

The Praxis Content Knowledge test in Mathematics is designed to assess the mathematical knowledge and competencies
necessary for a beginning teacher of secondary school mathematics. Examinees have typically completed a bachelor’s
program with an emphasis in mathematics or mathematics education.
The examinee will be required to understand and work with mathematical concepts, to reason mathematically, to
make conjectures, to see patterns, to justify statements using informal logical arguments, and to construct simple proofs.
Additionally, the examinee will be expected to solve problems by integrating knowledge from different areas of
mathematics, to use various representations of concepts, to solve problems that have several solution paths, and to
develop mathematical models and use them to solve real-world problems.

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

## The test is not designed to be

aligned with any particular school
Graphing Mathematics
mathematics curriculum, but it is Calculators Content
intended to be consistent with the Examinees will be expected to bring Descriptions —
recommendations of national studies to the examination a graphing
on mathematics education, such as the calculator that can
Basic
National Council of Teachers of Representative descriptions of the
1. produce the graph of a
Mathematics (NCTM) Principles and topics covered in the basic content
function within an arbitrary
Standards for School Mathematics categories for the Content Knowledge
viewing window
(2000) and the National Council for and the Proofs, Models, and Problems
Accreditation of Teacher Education 2. find the zeros of a function tests follow. Because the assessments
(NCATE) Program Standards for 3. compute the derivative of a were designed to measure the ability
Initial Preparation of Mathematics function numerically to integrate knowledge of
Teachers (2003). mathematics, answering any question
4. compute definite integrals
Graphing calculators without may involve more than one
numerically
QWERTY (typewriter) keyboards are competency and may involve
required for this test. Some questions These capabilities may be either competencies from more than one
will require the use of a calculator. built into the calculator or programmed content area.
The minimum capabilities required of into the calculator prior to the
the calculator are described in the examination. Calculator memories Algebra and Number Theory
section on graphing calculators. need not be cleared. Computers, • Demonstrate an understanding
Because many test questions may be calculators with QWERTY of the structure of the natural,
solved in more than one way, (typewriter) keyboards, and electronic integer, rational, real, and
examinees should decide first how to writing pads are NOT allowed. complex number systems and
solve each problem and then decide Unacceptable machines include the the ability to perform the basic
whether to use a calculator. On the following: operations (+,  , × and ÷) on
test day, examinees should bring a Powerbooks and portable/handheld numbers in these systems
calculator they are comfortable using. computers • Compare and contrast properties
Selected notations, formulas, and Pocket organizers (e.g., closure, commutativity,
definitions are printed in the test book Electronic writing pads or associativity, distributivity) of
and are also listed on pages 6–8. pen-input/stylus-driven devices number systems under various
(e.g., Palm, PDA’s, Casio Class operations
Pad 300) • Demonstrate an understanding
Devices with QWERTY keyboards of the properties of counting
(e.g., TI-92 PLUS, Voyage 200) numbers (e.g., prime, composite,
Cell-phone calculators prime factorization, even, odd,
factors, multiples)
• Solve ratio, proportion, percent,
and average (including
arithmetic mean and weighted
average) problems

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

## • Work with algebraic Geometry Trigonometry

expressions, formulas, and
• Solve problems using • Define and use the six basic
relationships of parts of trigonometric relations using
multiply polynomials; divide
geometric figures (e.g., medians degree or radian measure of
of triangles, inscribed angles in angles; know their graphs and be
multiply, and divide algebraic
circles) and among geometric able to identify their periods,
fractions; perform standard
figures (e.g., congruence, amplitudes, phase displacements
algebraic operations involving
similarity) in two and three or shifts, and asymptotes
dimensions • Apply the law of sines and the
exponents, including fractional
and negative exponents • Describe relationships among law of cosines
sets of special quadrilaterals, • Apply the formulas for the
• Solve and graph systems of
such as the square, rectangle, trigonometric functions of
equations and inequalities,
parallelogram, rhombus, and x 2x, x, x  y, and x  y;
including those involving ,
trapezoid 2
absolute value prove trigonometric identities
• Solve problems using the
• Interpret algebraic principles • Solve trigonometric equations
properties of triangles,
geometrically and inequalities
• Recognize and use algebraic and parallel and perpendicular • Convert between rectangular and
representations of lines, planes, lines polar coordinate systems
conic sections, and spheres
• Solve problems using the
• Solve problems in two and three properties of circles, including Functions
dimensions (e.g., distance those involving inscribed angles, • Demonstrate understanding of
between two points, the central angles, chords, radii, and ability to work with
coordinates of the midpoint of a tangents, secants, arcs, and functions in various
line segment) sectors representations (e.g., graphs,
• Understand and apply the tables, symbolic expressions,
Measurement
Pythagorean theorem and its and verbal narratives) and to
• Make decisions about units and converse convert flexibly among them
scales that are appropriate for
• Compute and reason about • Find an appropriate family of
problem situations involving
perimeter, area/surface area, or functions to model particular
measurement; use unit analysis
volume of two- or three- phenomena (e.g., population
• Analyze precision, accuracy, dimensional figures or of regions growth, cooling, simple
and approximate error in or solids that are combinations harmonic motion)
measurement situations of these figures • Determine properties of a
• Apply informal concepts of • Solve problems involving function such as domain, range,
successive approximation, upper reflections, rotations, and intercepts, symmetries, intervals
and lower bounds, and limit in translations of geometric figures of increase or decrease,
measurement situations in the plane discontinuities, and asymptotes

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

## • Use the properties of • Demonstrate understanding of • Understand how sample

trigonometric, exponential, and ability to use the Mean statistics reflect the values of
logarithmic, polynomial, and Value Theorem and the population parameters and use
rational functions to solve Fundamental Theorem of sampling distributions as the
problems Calculus basis for informal inference
• Determine the composition of • Demonstrate an intuitive • Understand the differences
two functions; find the inverse of understanding of integration as a among various kinds of studies
a one-to-one function in simple limiting sum that can be used to and which types of inferences
cases and know why only one- compute area, volume, distance, can legitimately be drawn from
to-one functions have inverses or other accumulation processes each
• Interpret representations of • Determine the limits of • Know the characteristics of
functions of two variables, such sequences and simple infinite well-designed studies, including
as three-dimensional graphs, series the role of randomization in
level curves, and tables surveys and experiments
Data Analysis and Statistics
Calculus Probability
• Organize data into a suitable
• Demonstrate understanding of form (e.g., construct a histogram • Understand the concepts of
what it means for a function to and use it in the calculation of sample space and probability
have a limit at a point; calculate probabilities) distribution and construct
limits of functions or determine sample spaces and distributions
• Know and find the appropriate
that the limit does not exist; in simple cases
uses of common measures of
solve problems using the central tendency (e.g., • Understand the concepts of
properties of limits population mean, sample mean, conditional probability and
• Understand the derivative of a median, mode) and dispersion independent events; understand
function as a limit, as the slope (e.g., range, population standard how to compute the probability
of a curve, and as a rate of deviation, sample standard of a compound event
change (e.g., velocity, deviation, population variance, • Compute and interpret the
acceleration, growth, decay) sample variance) expected value of random
• Show that a particular function • Analyze data from specific variables in simple cases (e.g.,
is continuous; understand the situations to determine what fair coins, expected winnings,
relationship between continuity type of function (e.g., linear, expected profit)
and differentiability quadratic, exponential) would • Use simulations to construct
• Numerically approximate most likely model that particular empirical probability
derivatives and integrals phenomenon; use the regression distributions and to make
feature of the calculator to informal inferences about the
• Use standard differentiation and
determine curve of best fit; theoretical probability
integration techniques
interpret the regression distribution
• Analyze the behavior of a
coefficients, correlation, and
function (e.g., find relative Matrix Algebra
residuals in context
maxima and minima, concavity);
• Understand and apply normal • Understand vectors and matrices
solve problems involving related
distributions and their as systems that have some of the
rates; solve applied minima-
characteristics (e.g., mean, same properties as the real
maxima problems
standard deviation) number system (e.g., identity,
inverse, and commutativity
multiplication)
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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

• Scalar multiply, add, subtract, • Understand the relationship Mathematical Reasoning and Proof
and multiply vectors and between discrete and continuous • Select and use various types of
matrices; find inverses of representations and how they reasoning and methods of proof
matrices can be used to model various
• Make and investigate
• Use matrix techniques to solve phenomena
mathematical conjectures
systems of linear equations • Use difference equations,
• Develop and evaluate
• Use determinants to reason vertex-edge graphs, trees, and
mathematical arguments and
about inverses of matrices and networks to model and solve
proofs
solutions to systems of problems
equations
Mathematical Connections
• Understand and represent Mathematical
• Recognize and use connections
translations, reflections, Process among mathematical ideas
rotations, and dilations of
objects in the plane by using Categories • Apply mathematics in context
sketches, coordinates, vectors, In addition to knowing and outside of mathematics
and matrices understanding the mathematics • Demonstrate an understanding
content explicitly described in the of how mathematical ideas
Discrete Mathematics Content Descriptions section, entry- interconnect and build on one
• Solve basic problems that level mathematics teachers must also another
involve counting techniques, be able to think mathematically; that
including the multiplication is, they must have an understanding Mathematical Representation
principle, permutations, and of the ways in which mathematical
• Select, apply, and translate
combinations; use counting content knowledge is acquired and among mathematical
techniques to understand various used. Answering questions on this representations to solve
situations (e.g., number of ways assessment may involve one or more problems
to order a set of objects, to of the processes described in the
• Use representations to model
choose a subcommittee from a Process Categories below, and all of
and interpret physical, social,
committee, to visit n cities) the processes may be applied to any
and mathematical phenomena
• Find values of functions defined of the content topics.
• Create and use representations
recursively and understand how
Mathematical Problem Solving to organize, record, and
recursion can be used to model
various phenomena; translate communicate mathematical
• Solve problems that arise in
between recursive and closed- ideas
mathematics and those involving
form expressions for a function mathematics in other contexts
Use of Technology
• Determine whether a binary • Build new mathematical
relation on a set is reflexive, knowledge through problem • Use technology appropriately as
symmetric, or transitive; solving a tool for problem solving
determine whether a relation is • Use technology as an aid to
• Apply and adapt a variety of
an equivalence relation understanding mathematical
appropriate strategies to solve
• Use finite and infinite arithmetic problems ideas
and geometric sequences and
series to model simple
phenomena (e.g., compound
interest, annuity, growth, decay)

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)
Selected Notations, Formulas, and Definitions (as provided in the test book)
NOTATION

(a, b)  x: a  x  b
[ a, b)  x: a  x  b
(a, b]  x: a  x  b
[ a, b]  x: a  x  b
gcd  m, n  greatest common divisor of two integers m and n
lcm  m, n  least common multiple of two integers m and n
 x greatest integer m such that m  x
m  k mod n  m and k are congruent modulo n (m and k have the same remainder when divided by n, or
equivalently, m  k is a multiple of n)
1 1
f inverse of an invertible function ƒ (not the same as )
f
lim f ( x ) right-hand limit of f  x  ; limit of f  x  as x approaches a from the right
x  a
lim f ( x ) left-hand limit of f  x  ; limit of f  x  as x approaches a from the left
x  a

##  the empty set

x S x is an element of set S
ST set S is a proper subset of set T
ST either set S is a proper subset of set T or S  T
S T union of sets S and T
S T intersection of sets S and T

DEFINITIONS
Discrete Mathematics
A relation  on a set S is
reflexive if x  x for all x  S
symmetric if x  y  y  x for all x, y  S
transitive if  x  y and y  z   x  z for all x, y, z  S
antisymmetric if  x  y and y  x   x  y for all x, y  S

## An equivalence relation is a reflexive, symmetric, and transitive relation.

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

FORMULAS

Sum

Half-angle sign depends on the quadrant of θ
2 
sin( x  y)  sin x cos y  cos x sin y θ 1  cos θ
sin 
cos( x  y)  cos x cos y ∓ sin x sin y 2 2
tan x  tan y
tan( x  y) 
1 ∓ tan x tan y θ 1  cos θ
cos 
2 2
Range of Inverse Trigonometric Functions

sin 1 x Ë π , π Û
ÌÍ 2 2 ÜÝ

cos 1 x >0, π @

tan 1 x  2 , 2
π π

Law of Sines

## sin A sin B sin C B

 
a b c

A C
Law of Cosines

c 2  a 2  b2  2 ab cos C 

DeMoivre’s Theorem

## cos θ  i sin θ  k  cos k θ   i sin k θ 

Coordinate Transformation
y
Rectangular  x, y  to polar r , θ  : r 2  x 2  y 2 ; tan θ  if x  0
x
Polar r , θ  to rectangular  x, y  : x  r cos θ ; y  r sin θ

## Distance from point x1 , y1 to line Ax  By  C 0

Ax1  By1  C
d 
A2  B2

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Volume
4 3
Sphere with radius r: V πr
3
1 2
Right circular cone with height h and base of radius r: V πr h
3
Right circular cylinder with height h and base of radius r: V π r 2h
1
Pyramid with height h and base of area B: V  Bh
3
Right prism with height h and base of area B: V  Bh

Surface Area

## Right circular cone with radius r and slant height s: A π rs  π r 2

Differentiation

f ( x ) g( x )  f  x g x  f x g  x

f g( x )  f  g( x ) g  x

È f x  f  x g x  f x g  x
ÊÉ
ÉÊ g x È if g x  0
g ( x ) 2

Integration by Parts

 u dv  uv   v du

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

Sample Test Questions 4. A taxicab driver charges a fare of \$2.00 for the first
quarter mile or less and \$0.75 for each quarter mile
The sample questions that follow illustrate the kinds of after that. If f represents the fare, in dollars, which of
questions in the test. They are not, however, representative
the following equations models the fare, in dollars, for
of the entire scope of the test in either content or difficulty.
Answers with explanations follow the questions. a ride m miles long, where m is a positive integer?

## Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete (A) f  2.00  0.75(m  1)

 
statements below is followed by four suggested answers or
completions. Select the one that is best in each case. (B) f  2.00  0.75 m  1
4
(C) f  2.00  0.75(4 m  1)
Algebra and Number Theory
1 (D) f  2.00  0.75(4(m  1))
1. Jerry is 50 inches tall and is growing at the rate of
24
inch per month. Adam is 47 inches tall and is growing 5. For which of the following values of k does the
equation x 4  4 x 2  x  k  0 have four distinct
at the rate of 1 inch per month. If they each continue real roots?
8
to grow at these rates for the next four years, in how I. 2
many months will they be the same height? II. 1
III. 3
(A) 24
(B) 30 (A) II only
(C) 36 (B) III only
(D) 42 (C) II and III only
(D) I, II, and III
2. What is the units digit of 33408 ?
(A) 1
(B) 3
(C) 7
(D) 9

## 3. If x and y are even numbers and z  2 x 2  4 y 2 , then

the greatest even number that must be a divisor of z is

(A) 2
(B) 4
(C) 8
(D) 16

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

Measurement
C
x
B

O
A
x x y

## 8. In the circle above with center O and radius 2, AP

x
has length 3 and is tangent to the circle at P. If CP is a
diameter of the circle, what is the length of BC ?
6. The inside of a rectangular picture frame measures (A) 1.25
36 inches long and 24 inches wide. The width of the (B) 2
frame is x inches, as shown in the figure above. When (C) 3.2
hung, the frame and its contents cover 1,408 square (D) 5
inches of wall space. What is the length, y, of the
frame, in inches?
Trigonometry
9. If y  5 sin x  6, what is the maximum value of y?
(A) 44
(B) 40 (A) 6
(C) 38 (B) 1
(D) 34 (C) 1
(D) 5
Geometry 10. In 䉭ABC (not shown), the length of side AB is 12, the
length of side BC is 9, and the measure of angle BAC
y
is 30°. What is the length of side AC ?

4 (A) 17.10
(B) 4.73
(–2, 2) (2, 2) (C) 3.68
x (D) It cannot be determined from the information
–3 3 given.
(–2, –2) (2, –2)
–4

## 7. For how many angles θ , where 0  θ  2π , will

rotation about the origin by angle θ map the octagon
in the figure above onto itself?
(A) One
(B) Two
(C) Four
(D) Eight

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

## 11. In the xy-plane, an acute angle with vertex at the origin t

is formed by the positive x-axis and the line with P t   250 ⴢ 3.04 1.98
equation y  3 x. What is the slope of the line that
14. At the beginning of 1990, the population of rabbits
contains the bisector of this angle?
in a wooded area was 250. The function above was
(A) 3 used to model the approximate population, P, of
rabbits in the area t years after January 1, 1990.
(B) 3 According to this model, which of the following best
2
describes how the rabbit population changed in the
10  1 area?
(C)
3
(A) The rabbit population doubled every 4 months.
10  1 (B) The rabbit population tripled every 6 months.
(D) (C) The rabbit population doubled every 36 months.
3
(D) The rabbit population tripled every 24 months.

## Functions 15. If f  x   3 x 2 , what are all real values of a and b

12. At how many points in the xy-plane do the graphs of for which the graph of g  x   ax 2  b is below the
y  4 x 5  3 x 2  1 and y   0.4  0.11x intersect? graph of f  x  for all values of x ?
(A) One (A) a  3 and b is positive.
(B) Two (B) a  3 and b is negative.
(C) Three (C) a is negative and b is positive.
(D) Four (D) a is any real number and b is negative.

13. If

## (i) the graph of the function f  x  is the line with

slope 2 and y-intercept 1

and

## (ii) the graph of the function g  x  is the line with

slope 2 and y-intercept 1,

## which of the following is an algebraic representation

of the function y  f  g  x  ?
(A) y  0
(B) y   4 x  3
(C) y   4 x  1
(D) y   2 x  12

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## Calculus 18. In a certain chemical reaction, the number of

y grams, N, of a substance produced t hours after
the reaction begins is given by N t   16t  4t 2 ,
where 0  t  2. At what rate, in grams per hour, is
the substance being produced 30 minutes after the
reaction begins?
x (A) 7
a
(B) 12
(C) 16
16. The figure above is a graph of a differentiable function (D) 20
f. Which of the following could be the graph of the
first derivative of this function? Data Analysis and Statistics
19. The measures of the hand spans of ninth-grade
(A) y (B) y students at Tyler High School are approximately
normally distributed, with a mean of 7 inches and a
standard deviation of 1 inch. Of the following groups
of measurements of hand span, which is expected to
x contain the largest number of ninth graders?
a x
a
(A) Less than 6 inches
(B) Greater than 7 inches
(C) Between 6 and 8 inches
y (D) Between 5 and 7 inches
(C) y (D)

Stem Leaf
9 1 3 4 5 7
8 2 2 5 6 6 8 9
x x
a a 7 0 2 4 5 8 8
6 1 3 7 9

20. The stem plot above shows the course grades that each
17. If lim f  x   0 and lim g  x   0, what can be of 22 students received in a history course. The course
xc xc grade is represented by using the tens digit of each
f x grade as a stem and the corresponding units digit as a
concluded about the value of lim ?
xc g  x leaf. For example, the stem 9 and the leaf 1 in the first
(A) The value is not finite. row of the table represent a grade of 91. What was the
(B) The value is 0.
median course grade of the 22 students?
(C) The value is 1.
(D) The value cannot be determined from the (A) 78
information given. (B) 80
(C) 80.7
(D) 82

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Probability  1 4
21. A two-sided coin is unfairly weighted so that when it 23. For what value of x is the matrix  x 6  NOT invertible?
is tossed, the probability that heads will result is twice 3
(A) 
the probability that tails will result. If the coin is to be 2
tossed 3 separate times, what is the probability that (B) 0
tails will result on exactly 2 of the tosses?
3
(C)
2 2
(A)
9 (D) 2
(B) 3
8
4 Discrete Mathematics
(C)
9 24. Given the recursive function defined by
(D)
2 f 1  3,
3
f  n   f  n  1  6 for n  2,

## what is the value of f  4  ?

Matrix Algebra (A) 2
22. The orthogonal projection of 3-space onto the xy- (B) 9
plane takes the point x, y, z onto the point x, y, 0 . (C) 10
(D) 21
This transformation can be represented by the matrix
equation
 x  x 25. For lines in the plane, the relation
M  y    y  , where M is which of “is perpendicular to” is
   
 z   0 (A) reflexive but not transitive
the following matrices? (B) symmetric but not transitive
(C) transitive but not symmetric
È0 0 0 È (D) both symmetric and transitive
(A) É 0 0 0 É
É É
Ê0 0 1 Ê

È1 0 0 È
(B) É 0 1 0 É
É É
Ê0 0 0 Ê

È1 0 0 È
(C) É 0 0 0 É
É É
Ê0 0 1 Ê

È0 0 0 È
(D) É 0 1 0 É
É É
Ê0 0 1 Ê

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1. The heights in this question can be expressed as 3. It is clear from the equation defining z that 2 is a
two linear equations. Jerry’s height in inches, J, can be divisor of z (2 is a factor of both 2 x 2 and 4 y 2 ). To
find out if there is a greater even number that must
expressed as J  50  1 m, where m is the number be a divisor of z, you need to consider the additional
24
of months from now. Adam’s height in inches, A, can information given, which is that x and y are both even
1 numbers. Since x and y are even numbers, they can
be expressed as A  47  m. The question asks,
8 be expressed as x  2 m and y  2 n, respectively,
“in how many months will they be the same height?” where m and n can be either odd or even integers.
This is the same as asking, “for what value of m Substituting these values for x and y into the expression
will J  A ? ” The solution can be found by solving for z yields z  2(2 m)  4(2 n) . It follows then that
2 2

50 
1 1
m  47  m for m. z  8m 2  16 n2 and that 8 is a divisor of z. The number
24 8 16 would also be a divisor of z if m is even, but not if m
1 1 is odd. Since m and n can be either even or odd and the
50  m  47  m question asks for the largest even number that must be a
24 8

 
1 1 divisor of z, the correct answer is 8, answer choice (C).
50  47   m
8 24

 
4. This question asks you to determine which of the
3 1
3  m four equations given as choices models the fare for a
24 24 taxi ride of m miles, where m is a positive integer. The
1 question states that the fare is \$2.00 for the first quarter
3 m
12 mile or less and \$0.75 for each quarter mile after that.
m  36 You will notice by examining the answer choices that
all of the choices include a constant term of 2.00 (for
So the correct answer is (C), 36 months. the \$2.00 for the first quarter mile). Thus, the task is to
model the fare for the remaining distance beyond the
2. To find the units digit of 33408 , it is helpful to find first quarter mile. Since the question states that \$0.75 is
the first few integer powers of 33 and look for a pattern. charged for each quarter mile after the first, you must
For example, determine how many quarter miles the trip is. Since
331  33 the trip is given as m miles (where m is an integer), the
332  1089 number of quarter miles in the trip would be 4m. The
charge for the first quarter mile is \$2.00, so that would
333  35, 937 leave 4m –1 quarter miles to be charged at a rate of
334  1,185, 921 \$0.75 each. The total fare for the trip would thus be
335  39,135, 393 modeled by the equation f  2.00  0.75  4 m  1 . By
comparing this with the choices given, you will see that
You can see that the pattern in the units digits is the correct answer is (C).
3, 9, 7, 1, 3, … and that it will continue to repeat with
every four integers of the exponent. Dividing 408 by 4
yields 102 with no remainder. So the units digit of 33408
will be the same as the units digit of 334 , which is 1. So

14
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5. You may recall from your study of solutions to 6. This question requires you to use your knowledge
polynomial equations that a fourth-degree polynomial of the area of a rectangle in order to find the outer
has at most four distinct real roots and that the roots length, y, of the picture frame described. You should
of the equation are the x-intercepts of the graph of the recall that the area of a rectangle can be found by
equation. One way to determine for which of the three multiplying the length of the rectangle by the width of
values of k given, the equation will have four distinct the rectangle. The inside dimensions of the frame are
real roots is to graph the equations using your calculator. given as 36 inches long and 24 inches wide. The width
of the frame is given as x inches, so that the outside
dimensions of the frame would be 36  2 x inches long
and 24  2 x inches wide. The area of the rectangle
with the outside dimensions of the frame is given as
1,408 square inches. This area can then be represented
I. x4  4 x2  x  2  0
as 36  2 x  24  2 x   1, 408. Solving this for x
yields
36  2 x  24  2 x   1, 408
864  48 x  72 x  4 x 2  1, 408
II. x  4 x  x  1  0
4 2
4 x 2  120 x  544  0
x 2  30 x  136  0
 x  34   x  4   0
x  34 or x  4
III. x  4 x  x  3  0
4 2
Only x  4 makes sense in the context of this
question, so the width of the frame is 4 inches
Using an appropriate viewing window to see the and therefore the outer length, y, of the frame is
behavior of the graphs for the three values of k clearly, 36  2 x  36  2(4)  44. The correct answer is (A),
you can see that the values of k given in I and III each 44 inches.
result in the equation having only two distinct real roots.
The value of k given in II results in the equation having 7. The question asks you to consider rotation about
four distinct real roots. So the correct answer is II only, the origin of the octagon in the figure and to determine
answer choice (A). for how many angles θ , between 0 and 2p, would
rotation of the octagon result in the octagon being
mapped onto itself. One way to begin is to consider a
single point on the octagon, such as the point 0, 4  ,
at the “top” of the octagon in the figure. This point is
4 units from the origin, so any rotation that maps the
octagon onto itself would need to map this point onto a
point that is also 4 units from the origin. The only other
point on the octagon that is 4 units from the origin is the
point 0,  4  . A rotation of angle θ π would map
the point 0, 4  onto the point 0,  4  . You can see
that the octagon is symmetric about both the x- and y-
axes, so a rotation of angle θ π would map all of the
points of the octagon onto corresponding points of the
octagon. Likewise, a rotation of angle θ 2π would
map the point 0, 4  onto itself (and map all other
points of the octagon onto themselves). No other values
of θ would map the octagon onto itself. Therefore the
correct answer is two, choice (B).

15
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8. To determine the length of BC, it would be helpful 10. In this question, you are given the length of two
to first label the figure with the information given. Since sides of a triangle and the measure of the angle opposite
the circle has radius 2, then both OC and OP have one of those two sides of the triangle. You are asked
length 2 and CP has length 4. AP is tangent to the circle to find the length of the third side of the triangle. You
at P, so angle APC is a right angle. The length of AP is should recall that the law of sines relates the lengths
given as 3. This means that triangle ACP is a 3-4-5 right of two sides of a triangle and the sines of the angles
triangle and AC has length 5. You should also notice opposite the sides. (The law of sines is included in the
that since CP is a diameter of the circle, angle CBP is Notation, Definitions, and Formulas pages that are
also a right angle. Angle BCP is in both triangle ACP included in this document and at the beginning of each
and triangle PCB, and therefore the two triangles are of the Content Knowledge tests.) Using the law of sines
yields sin( BAC )  BC and sin 30  9 .
similar. You can then find the length of BC by setting
up a proportion between the corresponding parts of the sin( BCA) BA sin( BCA) 12
similar triangles as follows: 4 2
Therefore, sin( BCA)  sin 30  . You should
CP BC 3 3
 recall that this is an example of the ambiguous case
AC PC
4 BC of the law of sines—that since the value of the sine is
 between 0 and 1, there are two angles, one acute and
5 4
16 one obtuse, associated with this sine and therefore there
BC   3.2 are two possible triangles with the given sides and angle
5
measure. The correct answer then is (D), “It cannot be
determined from the information given.”
9. There are two ways to answer this question. You
The two values of the measure of BCA are
should be able to use either method. The first solution
approximately 41.8° and 138.2°. Using either the law of
is based on reasoning. First you need to recall that
sines again (with BAC and ABC, or with BCA
the maximum value of sin x is 1, and therefore the
and ABC ) or the law of cosines, you can determine
maximum value of 5sin x is 5. The maximum value
that the length of side AC is either approximately
of y  5 sin x  6 is then 5  6  1. Alternatively,
3.68 or 17.10. Since the length of side AC cannot be
you could graph the function y  5 sin x  6 and find
uniquely determined, the correct answer is (D).
the maximum value of y from the graph.

## The maximum value is –1, and the correct answer

is (B).

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## 11. To answer this question, it might be helpful to first 3

draw a figure such as the one shown below. 10

Y 1
1
10

 ! 3

10  1

3  10  1

 10  1
a
"
X 10  1
/  
3

## Consider the triangle OAB, where O is the origin, A is

the point 1, 3 , and B is the point 1, 0  . Point A lies So the correct answer is (D).
on the line y  3 x. The acute angle described in the
question is the angle AOB. The question asks you to 12. To answer this question, you should graph the
find the slope of the line that contains the angle bisector equations on your calculator using an appropriate viewing
of angle AOB. Let a be the angle between the x-axis and window and then see how many points of intersection
the angle bisector of angle AOB. Then the slope of the are shown. The figure below shows one view of the
line that contains the angle bisector of angle AOB will intersections of the two graphs.
be equal to tan a. You can use the half-angle formulas
in the Notations, Definitions, and Formulas pages that
are included in this document and at the beginning of
the Mathematics: Content Knowledge tests to find tan
a in terms of the sine and cosine of angle AOB. From
your figure, you can see that OB  1, AB  3, and
OA  10. You should also convince yourself that there are no
additional points of intersection that are not visible in
 AOB 
sin  1  cos( AOB) this viewing window. One way to do that is to verify
 2  2
tan α   that y  4 x 5  3 x 2  1 has only two relative extrema,
  AOB  1  cos( AOB)
cos both of which are shown. (Find where y   0.) Only
 2  2 one point of intersection is shown in the figure above,
so the correct answer choice is (A).
Simplifying yields
1  cos( AOB) 1  cos( AOB) 1  cos2 ( AOB)
2 ⴢ 2  2
1  cos( AOB) 1  cos( AOB) 1  cos( AOB)
2 2 2

sin( AOB)

1  cos( AOB)

17
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13. This question asks you to find an algebraic 16. This question asks you to determine the
representation of the composition of the functions possible shape of the graph of the first derivative of a
f(x) and g(x). First you should write algebraic differentiable function from the shape of the graph of
representations of the individual functions. You are the function. You should recall that the first derivative of
given the slopes and y-intercepts of the lines that are the function at a point is equal to the slope of the graph
the graphs of f(x) and g(x). Using the slope-intercept of the function at that point. By inspection, you will see
form of the equation of a line ( y  mx  b, where m is that, starting near x  0, the slope of the graph of f (x)
the slope and b is the y-intercept) and the information is negative and becomes less negative as x approaches
given in parts (i) and (ii) yields the following functions, a and that the slope is 0 at x  a (at the minimum
which have the graphs described in the question: value of f ) and then becomes increasingly positive as
f ( x )  2 x  1 and g( x )  2 x  1. These functions x increases. Only answer choice (B) is consistent with
imply that f ( g( x ))  2( 2 x  1)  1   4 x  1. So this behavior. Therefore, (B) is the correct answer.
y   4 x  1, and (C) is the correct answer.
Alternatively, you may recognize that the graph of the
14. In this question, a model is given for the growth function f appears to be a parabola, which implies that
of the rabbit population as a function of time, t, in f is a quadratic function. The graph of f suggests that f
years. The question asks for a verbal description of the could be of the form f ( x )  c( x  a )2  b. The first
change in the rabbit population, based on the function derivative then would be f  x   2c( x  a ). The graph
given. You should recall the meaning of the base of f  would be a line with an x-intercept of a. Since
(growth factor) and the exponent in an exponential the graph of f is a parabola that opens up, the value of
growth model. You should note that the function given c must be positive (i.e., f  x   2c  0 ), so the slope
t t
of the line that is the graph of f  must also be positive.
P (t )  250 ⴢ (3.04) 98
1 .  250 ⴢ 3 .
2 You can observe from
The only answer choice that is a line with positive slope
t and x-intercept of a is (B). Therefore, (B) is the correct
this approximation (with base 3, and exponent ) that
the population tripled every two years. Thus the correct
answer would be (D), “The rabbit population tripled
every 24 months.”

of how changing the values of the coefficient a and
y-intercept b in a quadratic function f ( x )  ax 2  b
affects the graph of the function. You should recall that
for a  0, as a decreases, the width of the parabola
that is the graph of y  ax 2 increases and for a  0,
the graph opens downward. You should also recall that
as the value of b decreases, the vertex of the graph of
y  ax 2  b moves in a negative direction along the
y-axis. So for the graph of g( x )  ax 2  b to be below
the graph of f ( x ) 3 x 2 for all values of x, a must
be less than or equal to 3 and b must be negative (the
vertex will be below the vertex of f (x), which is at the
origin). The correct answer, therefore, is (B).

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17. In a problem such as this, which contains the 18. In this question, you are given a function, N, that
answer choice “It cannot be determined from the models the production of a certain chemical reaction in
information given,” you should be careful to base your grams as a function of time, t, in hours. You are asked
answer on correct reasoning. If you conclude that to find the rate of production at 30 minutes after the
the value can be determined, you should base your reaction begins. The rate of production will be equal
conclusion on known mathematical facts or principles; to the first derivative of N evaluated at 30 minutes.
if, however, you conclude that the value cannot be You should recognize that you first need to convert 30
determined, you should support your conclusion by minutes into hours and then evaluate the first derivative
producing two different possible values for the limit. of N at that value of t. Since
You should recall that the quotient property of limits 30 minutes equals 1 hour, you will need to evaluate
states that if lim f ( x )  L and lim g( x )  M , and if 2

xc xc
1 First find
f ( x) L N . N  t  . N  t   16  8t. Therefore,
M  0, then lim  . However, this property 2

 
x  c g( x ) M
1 1
cannot be used to determine lim
f ( x)
for the problem N  16  8  12. The answer is 12 grams per
x  c g( x )
2 2
hour, so the correct answer is (B).
at hand since the value of lim g( x ) is 0 and the
xc
19. In this question, you will need to use your
quotient property is inconclusive in this case. In fact, knowledge of a normally distributed set of data.
f ( x) lim f ( x ) In particular, you should know that approximately
0
for this problem, lim  xc  . Note that 68 percent of a normally distributed set of data lie
x  c g( x ) lim g( x ) 0
xc within 1 standard deviation of the mean and that
the expression 0 does not represent a real number; in approximately 95 percent of the data lie within 2
0
particular, it is not equal to either 0 or 1. Thus, the value standard deviations of the mean. The question asks you
to identify which of the groups given in the answer
f ( x)
of lim cannot be determined by using the basic choices is expected to correspond to the greatest
x  c g( x )
number of ninth graders if the hand spans of ninth
properties of limits. As a result, you should suspect that, graders are approximately normally distributed with
f ( x) a mean of 7 inches and a standard deviation of 1 inch.
in fact, lim cannot be determined and verify your
x  c g( x ) You will need to evaluate each answer choice in order
hunch by producing examples to show that the value of to determine which of the groups is largest.
the limit depends on the particular functions f and g.
Answer choice (A) is the group of hand spans less than
In the remaining discussion, it will be assumed
6 inches. Since the mean hand span is 7 inches and the
that c  0 . (It is always possible to apply a translation
standard deviation is 1 inch, the group of hand spans
of c units to the two functions.)
that is less than 6 inches is the group that is more than
You should be aware that, although both f and g 1 standard deviation less than the mean. The group of
have the limit 0 as x  0, one function might be hand spans that is less than 7 inches includes 50 percent
approaching 0 more quickly than the other, which 1
of the measurements. Approximately 34 percent ( of
would affect the value of the limit of the quotient. 2
Thus, if one of the functions is x and the other x 2 , 68 percent) of the measurements are between 6 inches
1 and 7 inches (within 1 standard deviation less than the
then the quotient is either x or , and so the limit of
x mean). So the group with hand spans less than 6 inches
the quotient is either 0 or nonexistent, respectively. would be approximately equal to 50  34, or 16 percent
The value of the limit can, in fact, be any nonzero real of the measurements.
number b, as the functions bx and x show. Thus, answer
choices (A), (B), and (C) are incorrect and the correct

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Answer choice (B) is the group of hand spans P (T ) is the probability of tossing tails. In this case,
greater than 7 inches. Since 7 inches is the mean, you are given that the probability of tossing heads is
approximately 50 percent of the measurements are 2
twice the probability of tossing tails. So, P ( H ) 
greater than the mean. 3
1
and P (T )  . (Out of 3 tosses, 2 would be expected
Answer choice (C) is the group of hand spans between 3
6 and 8 inches. This is the group that is within 1 to be heads and 1 would expected to be tails.) Therefore
standard deviation of the mean. This group contains
approximately 68 percent of the measurements.
P  HTT      
2 1 1
3 3 3

2
27
. There are 3 ways
in which exactly 2 of 3 tosses would be tails and
Answer choice (D) is the group of hand spans between each of them has an equal probability of occurring:
5 and 7 inches. This group is between the mean and 2 2
P (THT )  P (TTH )  P ( HTT )  . Therefore the
standard deviations less than the mean. Approximately 27
total probability that tails will result exactly 2 times in 3
47.5 percent ( 1 of 95 percent) of the measurements are
2
between 5 inches and 7 inches. 27  
tosses is 3 2  2 . So the correct answer is (A).
9
22. In order to answer this question, you need to
Of the answer choices given, the group described in consider how matrix multiplication is performed. You
(C) is expected to contain the greatest percent of the are asked to find a matrix, M, that when multiplied
measurements, approximately 68 percent, and would  x  x
by any matrix of the form y , yields the result  y  .
 
correspond to the largest number of ninth graders, so
(C) is the correct answer.    
z  0
20. A stem plot such as the one shown in this question You will notice that all of the answer choices are
is a very useful way to display data such as these
when you are interested in determining the median 3  3 matrices. You can either solve this problem
value of the data. The data in a stem plot is ordered,
so finding the median, the middle number when the for the general case or reason to the answer. First,
data are ordered from least to greatest or greatest to a b c
least, is straightforward. You are given the course
the general solution: Let M   d e f  . Then
grade would be the average of the course grades of g h j
the 11th and 12th students. You can start at either the  x  a b c   x   ax  by  cz 
least or greatest data entry and count in increasing (or M  y   d e f   y    dx  ey  fz 
decreasing) order along the leaves until you reach the       
z g h j   z   gx  hy  jz 
11th and 12th entries. In this case, both the 11th and
12th entries have a value of 82 (i.e., a stem value of  x  x  x  x
for all  y  . Since M  y    y  for all  y  , then
8 and a leaf value of 2). Therefore the median course
grade received by the 22 students is 82. The correct       z
 0  z   0
ax  by  cz  x

21. In this question, you are asked to apply your dx  ey  fz  y for all x, y, and z. This implies
knowledge of independent events to find the probability  gx  hy  jz  0
of tossing tails exactly 2 out of 3 times when using an
unfairly weighted coin. Because each toss of the coin is a 1, b 0, c 0; and d 0, e 1, f 0;
and g h j 0;
an independent event, the probability of tossing heads
 1 0 0
then 2 tails, P  HTT  , is equal to P ( H ) ⴢ P (T ) ⴢ P (T ),
and therefore M   0 1 0 . The correct answer
where P ( H ) is the probability of tossing heads and  
 0 0 0
is (B).

20
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You could also reason to the answer by inspecting the 25. To answer this question, you must read each
answer choices given. Since multiplying the first row of answer choice and find the statement that correctly
 x describes the properties of the relation defined as “is
M by the matrix  y  has to result in only the x term for perpendicular to.” You can see that each answer choice
  includes two of three properties: reflexivity, symmetry,
z
or transitivity. It may be most efficient to consider each
all x, y, and z, the first entry in the first row must be 1 and
of these properties first and then find the statement
the others 0. Likewise, multiplying the second row of M
that describes these properties correctly for the given
 x
relation. The definition of these properties can be found
by the matrix  y  will result only in the y term for all
  in the Notation, Definitions, and Formulas pages that are
z included in this document and at the beginning of each
x, y, and z, so the entries in the second row must be 0, of the Mathematics: Content Knowledge tests.
1, 0, in that order. Multiplying the third row of M by the
 x A relation  is reflexive if x  x for all x. In this case,
matrix  y  results in 0 for all x, y, and z, so the entries in a line cannot be perpendicular to itself, so the relation
 
z  1 0 0 given in the question is not reflexive.
the third row must all be 0. Therefore M   0 1 0 A relation  is symmetric if x  y  y  x for all
 
 0 0 0 x and y. In this case, if line j is perpendicular to line k,
and the correct answer is (B). it follows that line k is perpendicular to line j. So this
relation is symmetric.
23. This question asks you to find the value of x for
which the given matrix is NOT invertible. A matrix is A relation  is transitive if
not invertible if the determinant of the matrix is equal to  x  y and y  z   x  z for all x, y, and z. In this
 a b case, if line j is perpendicular to line k and line k is
zero. The determinant of the matrix 
 c d 
is equal to perpendicular to line l, then lines j and l are either the
ad  bc. same line or are parallel to each other. Thus, line j is not
perpendicular to line l. So this relation is not transitive.
For the matrix given in the question, the determinant
is equal to (1)(6)  (4)( x ). This equals 0 when The answer choice that correctly describes the relation
3 “is perpendicular to” is (B), “symmetric but not
6  4 x  0, or x  . The correct answer then is (C). transitive.”
2
24. Given the recursive function defined in the
question, in order to find f (4), you need first to find
f (2) and f (3). ( f (1) is given.)

## Since f (1)  3 and f (n)  f (n  1)  6

f (2)  3  6  9
for n  2, then f (3)  9  6  15
f (4)  15  6  21
So the correct answer is (D).

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