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Praxis Math Prep

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P-0061

Praxis Math Prep

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Test at a Glance

Test Name Mathematics: Content Knowledge

Test Code 0061

Time 2 hours

Number of Questions 50

Format Multiple-choice questions, graphing calculator required

Approximate Approximate

Content Categories Number of Percentage of

Questions Examination

V I II. Measurement 3 6%

IV

Geometry 5 10%

II Trigonometry 4 8%

III III. Functions 8 16%

Calculus 6 12%

IV. Data Analysis and Statistics 5–6 10–12%

Probability 2–3 4–6%

V. Matrix Algebra 4–5 8–10%

Discrete Mathematics 3–4 6–8%

Process Categories

Mathematical Reasoning and Proof

Distributed Across

Mathematical Connections

Content Categories

Mathematical Representation

Use of Technology

The Praxis Content Knowledge test in Mathematics is designed to assess the mathematical knowledge and competencies

necessary for a beginning teacher of secondary school mathematics. Examinees have typically completed a bachelor’s

program with an emphasis in mathematics or mathematics education.

The examinee will be required to understand and work with mathematical concepts, to reason mathematically, to

make conjectures, to see patterns, to justify statements using informal logical arguments, and to construct simple proofs.

Additionally, the examinee will be expected to solve problems by integrating knowledge from different areas of

mathematics, to use various representations of concepts, to solve problems that have several solution paths, and to

develop mathematical models and use them to solve real-world problems.

1

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

aligned with any particular school

Graphing Mathematics

mathematics curriculum, but it is Calculators Content

intended to be consistent with the Examinees will be expected to bring Descriptions —

recommendations of national studies to the examination a graphing

on mathematics education, such as the calculator that can

Basic

National Council of Teachers of Representative descriptions of the

1. produce the graph of a

Mathematics (NCTM) Principles and topics covered in the basic content

function within an arbitrary

Standards for School Mathematics categories for the Content Knowledge

viewing window

(2000) and the National Council for and the Proofs, Models, and Problems

Accreditation of Teacher Education 2. find the zeros of a function tests follow. Because the assessments

(NCATE) Program Standards for 3. compute the derivative of a were designed to measure the ability

Initial Preparation of Mathematics function numerically to integrate knowledge of

Teachers (2003). mathematics, answering any question

4. compute definite integrals

Graphing calculators without may involve more than one

numerically

QWERTY (typewriter) keyboards are competency and may involve

required for this test. Some questions These capabilities may be either competencies from more than one

will require the use of a calculator. built into the calculator or programmed content area.

The minimum capabilities required of into the calculator prior to the

the calculator are described in the examination. Calculator memories Algebra and Number Theory

section on graphing calculators. need not be cleared. Computers, • Demonstrate an understanding

Because many test questions may be calculators with QWERTY of the structure of the natural,

solved in more than one way, (typewriter) keyboards, and electronic integer, rational, real, and

examinees should decide first how to writing pads are NOT allowed. complex number systems and

solve each problem and then decide Unacceptable machines include the the ability to perform the basic

whether to use a calculator. On the following: operations (+, , × and ÷) on

test day, examinees should bring a Powerbooks and portable/handheld numbers in these systems

calculator they are comfortable using. computers • Compare and contrast properties

Selected notations, formulas, and Pocket organizers (e.g., closure, commutativity,

definitions are printed in the test book Electronic writing pads or associativity, distributivity) of

and are also listed on pages 6–8. pen-input/stylus-driven devices number systems under various

(e.g., Palm, PDA’s, Casio Class operations

Pad 300) • Demonstrate an understanding

Devices with QWERTY keyboards of the properties of counting

(e.g., TI-92 PLUS, Voyage 200) numbers (e.g., prime, composite,

Cell-phone calculators prime factorization, even, odd,

factors, multiples)

• Solve ratio, proportion, percent,

and average (including

arithmetic mean and weighted

average) problems

2

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

expressions, formulas, and

• Solve problems using • Define and use the six basic

equations; add, subtract, and

relationships of parts of trigonometric relations using

multiply polynomials; divide

geometric figures (e.g., medians degree or radian measure of

polynomials; add, subtract,

of triangles, inscribed angles in angles; know their graphs and be

multiply, and divide algebraic

circles) and among geometric able to identify their periods,

fractions; perform standard

figures (e.g., congruence, amplitudes, phase displacements

algebraic operations involving

similarity) in two and three or shifts, and asymptotes

complex numbers, radicals, and

dimensions • Apply the law of sines and the

exponents, including fractional

and negative exponents • Describe relationships among law of cosines

sets of special quadrilaterals, • Apply the formulas for the

• Solve and graph systems of

such as the square, rectangle, trigonometric functions of

equations and inequalities,

parallelogram, rhombus, and x 2x, x, x y, and x y;

including those involving ,

trapezoid 2

absolute value prove trigonometric identities

• Solve problems using the

• Interpret algebraic principles • Solve trigonometric equations

properties of triangles,

geometrically and inequalities

quadrilaterals, polygons, circles,

• Recognize and use algebraic and parallel and perpendicular • Convert between rectangular and

representations of lines, planes, lines polar coordinate systems

conic sections, and spheres

• Solve problems using the

• Solve problems in two and three properties of circles, including Functions

dimensions (e.g., distance those involving inscribed angles, • Demonstrate understanding of

between two points, the central angles, chords, radii, and ability to work with

coordinates of the midpoint of a tangents, secants, arcs, and functions in various

line segment) sectors representations (e.g., graphs,

• Understand and apply the tables, symbolic expressions,

Measurement

Pythagorean theorem and its and verbal narratives) and to

• Make decisions about units and converse convert flexibly among them

scales that are appropriate for

• Compute and reason about • Find an appropriate family of

problem situations involving

perimeter, area/surface area, or functions to model particular

measurement; use unit analysis

volume of two- or three- phenomena (e.g., population

• Analyze precision, accuracy, dimensional figures or of regions growth, cooling, simple

and approximate error in or solids that are combinations harmonic motion)

measurement situations of these figures • Determine properties of a

• Apply informal concepts of • Solve problems involving function such as domain, range,

successive approximation, upper reflections, rotations, and intercepts, symmetries, intervals

and lower bounds, and limit in translations of geometric figures of increase or decrease,

measurement situations in the plane discontinuities, and asymptotes

3

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

trigonometric, exponential, and ability to use the Mean statistics reflect the values of

logarithmic, polynomial, and Value Theorem and the population parameters and use

rational functions to solve Fundamental Theorem of sampling distributions as the

problems Calculus basis for informal inference

• Determine the composition of • Demonstrate an intuitive • Understand the differences

two functions; find the inverse of understanding of integration as a among various kinds of studies

a one-to-one function in simple limiting sum that can be used to and which types of inferences

cases and know why only one- compute area, volume, distance, can legitimately be drawn from

to-one functions have inverses or other accumulation processes each

• Interpret representations of • Determine the limits of • Know the characteristics of

functions of two variables, such sequences and simple infinite well-designed studies, including

as three-dimensional graphs, series the role of randomization in

level curves, and tables surveys and experiments

Data Analysis and Statistics

Calculus Probability

• Organize data into a suitable

• Demonstrate understanding of form (e.g., construct a histogram • Understand the concepts of

what it means for a function to and use it in the calculation of sample space and probability

have a limit at a point; calculate probabilities) distribution and construct

limits of functions or determine sample spaces and distributions

• Know and find the appropriate

that the limit does not exist; in simple cases

uses of common measures of

solve problems using the central tendency (e.g., • Understand the concepts of

properties of limits population mean, sample mean, conditional probability and

• Understand the derivative of a median, mode) and dispersion independent events; understand

function as a limit, as the slope (e.g., range, population standard how to compute the probability

of a curve, and as a rate of deviation, sample standard of a compound event

change (e.g., velocity, deviation, population variance, • Compute and interpret the

acceleration, growth, decay) sample variance) expected value of random

• Show that a particular function • Analyze data from specific variables in simple cases (e.g.,

is continuous; understand the situations to determine what fair coins, expected winnings,

relationship between continuity type of function (e.g., linear, expected profit)

and differentiability quadratic, exponential) would • Use simulations to construct

• Numerically approximate most likely model that particular empirical probability

derivatives and integrals phenomenon; use the regression distributions and to make

feature of the calculator to informal inferences about the

• Use standard differentiation and

determine curve of best fit; theoretical probability

integration techniques

interpret the regression distribution

• Analyze the behavior of a

coefficients, correlation, and

function (e.g., find relative Matrix Algebra

residuals in context

maxima and minima, concavity);

• Understand and apply normal • Understand vectors and matrices

solve problems involving related

distributions and their as systems that have some of the

rates; solve applied minima-

characteristics (e.g., mean, same properties as the real

maxima problems

standard deviation) number system (e.g., identity,

inverse, and commutativity

under addition and

multiplication)

4

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

• Scalar multiply, add, subtract, • Understand the relationship Mathematical Reasoning and Proof

and multiply vectors and between discrete and continuous • Select and use various types of

matrices; find inverses of representations and how they reasoning and methods of proof

matrices can be used to model various

• Make and investigate

• Use matrix techniques to solve phenomena

mathematical conjectures

systems of linear equations • Use difference equations,

• Develop and evaluate

• Use determinants to reason vertex-edge graphs, trees, and

mathematical arguments and

about inverses of matrices and networks to model and solve

proofs

solutions to systems of problems

equations

Mathematical Connections

• Understand and represent Mathematical

• Recognize and use connections

translations, reflections, Process among mathematical ideas

rotations, and dilations of

objects in the plane by using Categories • Apply mathematics in context

sketches, coordinates, vectors, In addition to knowing and outside of mathematics

and matrices understanding the mathematics • Demonstrate an understanding

content explicitly described in the of how mathematical ideas

Discrete Mathematics Content Descriptions section, entry- interconnect and build on one

• Solve basic problems that level mathematics teachers must also another

involve counting techniques, be able to think mathematically; that

including the multiplication is, they must have an understanding Mathematical Representation

principle, permutations, and of the ways in which mathematical

• Select, apply, and translate

combinations; use counting content knowledge is acquired and among mathematical

techniques to understand various used. Answering questions on this representations to solve

situations (e.g., number of ways assessment may involve one or more problems

to order a set of objects, to of the processes described in the

• Use representations to model

choose a subcommittee from a Process Categories below, and all of

and interpret physical, social,

committee, to visit n cities) the processes may be applied to any

and mathematical phenomena

• Find values of functions defined of the content topics.

• Create and use representations

recursively and understand how

Mathematical Problem Solving to organize, record, and

recursion can be used to model

various phenomena; translate communicate mathematical

• Solve problems that arise in

between recursive and closed- ideas

mathematics and those involving

form expressions for a function mathematics in other contexts

Use of Technology

• Determine whether a binary • Build new mathematical

relation on a set is reflexive, knowledge through problem • Use technology appropriately as

symmetric, or transitive; solving a tool for problem solving

determine whether a relation is • Use technology as an aid to

• Apply and adapt a variety of

an equivalence relation understanding mathematical

appropriate strategies to solve

• Use finite and infinite arithmetic problems ideas

and geometric sequences and

series to model simple

phenomena (e.g., compound

interest, annuity, growth, decay)

5

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

Selected Notations, Formulas, and Definitions (as provided in the test book)

NOTATION

(a, b) x: a x b

[ a, b) x: a x b

(a, b] x: a x b

[ a, b] x: a x b

gcd m, n greatest common divisor of two integers m and n

lcm m, n least common multiple of two integers m and n

x greatest integer m such that m x

m k mod n m and k are congruent modulo n (m and k have the same remainder when divided by n, or

equivalently, m k is a multiple of n)

1 1

f inverse of an invertible function ƒ (not the same as )

f

lim f ( x ) right-hand limit of f x ; limit of f x as x approaches a from the right

x a

lim f ( x ) left-hand limit of f x ; limit of f x as x approaches a from the left

x a

x S x is an element of set S

ST set S is a proper subset of set T

ST either set S is a proper subset of set T or S T

S T union of sets S and T

S T intersection of sets S and T

DEFINITIONS

Discrete Mathematics

A relation on a set S is

reflexive if x x for all x S

symmetric if x y y x for all x, y S

transitive if x y and y z x z for all x, y, z S

antisymmetric if x y and y x x y for all x, y S

6

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

FORMULAS

Sum

Half-angle sign depends on the quadrant of θ

2

sin( x y) sin x cos y cos x sin y θ 1 cos θ

sin

cos( x y) cos x cos y ∓ sin x sin y 2 2

tan x tan y

tan( x y)

1 ∓ tan x tan y θ 1 cos θ

cos

2 2

Range of Inverse Trigonometric Functions

sin 1 x Ë π , π Û

ÌÍ 2 2 ÜÝ

cos 1 x >0, π @

tan 1 x 2 , 2

π π

Law of Sines

a b c

A C

Law of Cosines

c 2 a 2 b2 2 ab cos C

DeMoivre’s Theorem

Coordinate Transformation

y

Rectangular x, y to polar r , θ : r 2 x 2 y 2 ; tan θ if x 0

x

Polar r , θ to rectangular x, y : x r cos θ ; y r sin θ

Ax1 By1 C

d

A2 B2

7

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

Volume

4 3

Sphere with radius r: V πr

3

1 2

Right circular cone with height h and base of radius r: V πr h

3

Right circular cylinder with height h and base of radius r: V π r 2h

1

Pyramid with height h and base of area B: V Bh

3

Right prism with height h and base of area B: V Bh

Surface Area

Differentiation

f ( x ) g( x ) f x g x f x g x

f g( x ) f g( x ) g x

È f x f x g x f x g x

ÊÉ

ÉÊ g x È if g x 0

g ( x ) 2

Integration by Parts

u dv uv v du

8

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

Sample Test Questions 4. A taxicab driver charges a fare of $2.00 for the first

quarter mile or less and $0.75 for each quarter mile

The sample questions that follow illustrate the kinds of after that. If f represents the fare, in dollars, which of

questions in the test. They are not, however, representative

the following equations models the fare, in dollars, for

of the entire scope of the test in either content or difficulty.

Answers with explanations follow the questions. a ride m miles long, where m is a positive integer?

statements below is followed by four suggested answers or

completions. Select the one that is best in each case. (B) f 2.00 0.75 m 1

4

(C) f 2.00 0.75(4 m 1)

Algebra and Number Theory

1 (D) f 2.00 0.75(4(m 1))

1. Jerry is 50 inches tall and is growing at the rate of

24

inch per month. Adam is 47 inches tall and is growing 5. For which of the following values of k does the

equation x 4 4 x 2 x k 0 have four distinct

at the rate of 1 inch per month. If they each continue real roots?

8

to grow at these rates for the next four years, in how I. 2

many months will they be the same height? II. 1

III. 3

(A) 24

(B) 30 (A) II only

(C) 36 (B) III only

(D) 42 (C) II and III only

(D) I, II, and III

2. What is the units digit of 33408 ?

(A) 1

(B) 3

(C) 7

(D) 9

the greatest even number that must be a divisor of z is

(A) 2

(B) 4

(C) 8

(D) 16

9

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

Measurement

C

x

B

O

A

x x y

x

has length 3 and is tangent to the circle at P. If CP is a

diameter of the circle, what is the length of BC ?

6. The inside of a rectangular picture frame measures (A) 1.25

36 inches long and 24 inches wide. The width of the (B) 2

frame is x inches, as shown in the figure above. When (C) 3.2

hung, the frame and its contents cover 1,408 square (D) 5

inches of wall space. What is the length, y, of the

frame, in inches?

Trigonometry

9. If y 5 sin x 6, what is the maximum value of y?

(A) 44

(B) 40 (A) 6

(C) 38 (B) 1

(D) 34 (C) 1

(D) 5

Geometry 10. In 䉭ABC (not shown), the length of side AB is 12, the

length of side BC is 9, and the measure of angle BAC

y

is 30°. What is the length of side AC ?

4 (A) 17.10

(B) 4.73

(–2, 2) (2, 2) (C) 3.68

x (D) It cannot be determined from the information

–3 3 given.

(–2, –2) (2, –2)

–4

rotation about the origin by angle θ map the octagon

in the figure above onto itself?

(A) One

(B) Two

(C) Four

(D) Eight

10

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

is formed by the positive x-axis and the line with P t 250 ⴢ 3.04 1.98

equation y 3 x. What is the slope of the line that

14. At the beginning of 1990, the population of rabbits

contains the bisector of this angle?

in a wooded area was 250. The function above was

(A) 3 used to model the approximate population, P, of

rabbits in the area t years after January 1, 1990.

(B) 3 According to this model, which of the following best

2

describes how the rabbit population changed in the

10 1 area?

(C)

3

(A) The rabbit population doubled every 4 months.

10 1 (B) The rabbit population tripled every 6 months.

(D) (C) The rabbit population doubled every 36 months.

3

(D) The rabbit population tripled every 24 months.

12. At how many points in the xy-plane do the graphs of for which the graph of g x ax 2 b is below the

y 4 x 5 3 x 2 1 and y 0.4 0.11x intersect? graph of f x for all values of x ?

(A) One (A) a 3 and b is positive.

(B) Two (B) a 3 and b is negative.

(C) Three (C) a is negative and b is positive.

(D) Four (D) a is any real number and b is negative.

13. If

slope 2 and y-intercept 1

and

slope 2 and y-intercept 1,

of the function y f g x ?

(A) y 0

(B) y 4 x 3

(C) y 4 x 1

(D) y 2 x 12

11

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

y grams, N, of a substance produced t hours after

the reaction begins is given by N t 16t 4t 2 ,

where 0 t 2. At what rate, in grams per hour, is

the substance being produced 30 minutes after the

reaction begins?

x (A) 7

a

(B) 12

(C) 16

16. The figure above is a graph of a differentiable function (D) 20

f. Which of the following could be the graph of the

first derivative of this function? Data Analysis and Statistics

19. The measures of the hand spans of ninth-grade

(A) y (B) y students at Tyler High School are approximately

normally distributed, with a mean of 7 inches and a

standard deviation of 1 inch. Of the following groups

of measurements of hand span, which is expected to

x contain the largest number of ninth graders?

a x

a

(A) Less than 6 inches

(B) Greater than 7 inches

(C) Between 6 and 8 inches

y (D) Between 5 and 7 inches

(C) y (D)

Stem Leaf

9 1 3 4 5 7

8 2 2 5 6 6 8 9

x x

a a 7 0 2 4 5 8 8

6 1 3 7 9

20. The stem plot above shows the course grades that each

17. If lim f x 0 and lim g x 0, what can be of 22 students received in a history course. The course

xc xc grade is represented by using the tens digit of each

f x grade as a stem and the corresponding units digit as a

concluded about the value of lim ?

xc g x leaf. For example, the stem 9 and the leaf 1 in the first

(A) The value is not finite. row of the table represent a grade of 91. What was the

(B) The value is 0.

median course grade of the 22 students?

(C) The value is 1.

(D) The value cannot be determined from the (A) 78

information given. (B) 80

(C) 80.7

(D) 82

12

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

Probability 1 4

21. A two-sided coin is unfairly weighted so that when it 23. For what value of x is the matrix x 6 NOT invertible?

is tossed, the probability that heads will result is twice 3

(A)

the probability that tails will result. If the coin is to be 2

tossed 3 separate times, what is the probability that (B) 0

tails will result on exactly 2 of the tosses?

3

(C)

2 2

(A)

9 (D) 2

(B) 3

8

4 Discrete Mathematics

(C)

9 24. Given the recursive function defined by

(D)

2 f 1 3,

3

f n f n 1 6 for n 2,

Matrix Algebra (A) 2

22. The orthogonal projection of 3-space onto the xy- (B) 9

plane takes the point x, y, z onto the point x, y, 0. (C) 10

(D) 21

This transformation can be represented by the matrix

equation

x x 25. For lines in the plane, the relation

M y y , where M is which of “is perpendicular to” is

z 0 (A) reflexive but not transitive

the following matrices? (B) symmetric but not transitive

(C) transitive but not symmetric

È0 0 0 È (D) both symmetric and transitive

(A) É 0 0 0 É

É É

Ê0 0 1 Ê

È1 0 0 È

(B) É 0 1 0 É

É É

Ê0 0 0 Ê

È1 0 0 È

(C) É 0 0 0 É

É É

Ê0 0 1 Ê

È0 0 0 È

(D) É 0 1 0 É

É É

Ê0 0 1 Ê

13

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

Answers

1. The heights in this question can be expressed as 3. It is clear from the equation defining z that 2 is a

two linear equations. Jerry’s height in inches, J, can be divisor of z (2 is a factor of both 2 x 2 and 4 y 2 ). To

find out if there is a greater even number that must

expressed as J 50 1 m, where m is the number be a divisor of z, you need to consider the additional

24

of months from now. Adam’s height in inches, A, can information given, which is that x and y are both even

1 numbers. Since x and y are even numbers, they can

be expressed as A 47 m. The question asks,

8 be expressed as x 2 m and y 2 n, respectively,

“in how many months will they be the same height?” where m and n can be either odd or even integers.

This is the same as asking, “for what value of m Substituting these values for x and y into the expression

will J A ? ” The solution can be found by solving for z yields z 2(2 m) 4(2 n) . It follows then that

2 2

50

1 1

m 47 m for m. z 8m 2 16 n2 and that 8 is a divisor of z. The number

24 8 16 would also be a divisor of z if m is even, but not if m

1 1 is odd. Since m and n can be either even or odd and the

50 m 47 m question asks for the largest even number that must be a

24 8

1 1 divisor of z, the correct answer is 8, answer choice (C).

50 47 m

8 24

4. This question asks you to determine which of the

3 1

3 m four equations given as choices models the fare for a

24 24 taxi ride of m miles, where m is a positive integer. The

1 question states that the fare is $2.00 for the first quarter

3 m

12 mile or less and $0.75 for each quarter mile after that.

m 36 You will notice by examining the answer choices that

all of the choices include a constant term of 2.00 (for

So the correct answer is (C), 36 months. the $2.00 for the first quarter mile). Thus, the task is to

model the fare for the remaining distance beyond the

2. To find the units digit of 33408 , it is helpful to find first quarter mile. Since the question states that $0.75 is

the first few integer powers of 33 and look for a pattern. charged for each quarter mile after the first, you must

For example, determine how many quarter miles the trip is. Since

331 33 the trip is given as m miles (where m is an integer), the

332 1089 number of quarter miles in the trip would be 4m. The

charge for the first quarter mile is $2.00, so that would

333 35, 937 leave 4m –1 quarter miles to be charged at a rate of

334 1,185, 921 $0.75 each. The total fare for the trip would thus be

335 39,135, 393 modeled by the equation f 2.00 0.75 4 m 1 . By

comparing this with the choices given, you will see that

You can see that the pattern in the units digits is the correct answer is (C).

3, 9, 7, 1, 3, … and that it will continue to repeat with

every four integers of the exponent. Dividing 408 by 4

yields 102 with no remainder. So the units digit of 33408

will be the same as the units digit of 334 , which is 1. So

the correct answer is (A).

14

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

5. You may recall from your study of solutions to 6. This question requires you to use your knowledge

polynomial equations that a fourth-degree polynomial of the area of a rectangle in order to find the outer

has at most four distinct real roots and that the roots length, y, of the picture frame described. You should

of the equation are the x-intercepts of the graph of the recall that the area of a rectangle can be found by

equation. One way to determine for which of the three multiplying the length of the rectangle by the width of

values of k given, the equation will have four distinct the rectangle. The inside dimensions of the frame are

real roots is to graph the equations using your calculator. given as 36 inches long and 24 inches wide. The width

of the frame is given as x inches, so that the outside

dimensions of the frame would be 36 2 x inches long

and 24 2 x inches wide. The area of the rectangle

with the outside dimensions of the frame is given as

1,408 square inches. This area can then be represented

I. x4 4 x2 x 2 0

as 36 2 x 24 2 x 1, 408. Solving this for x

yields

36 2 x 24 2 x 1, 408

864 48 x 72 x 4 x 2 1, 408

II. x 4 x x 1 0

4 2

4 x 2 120 x 544 0

x 2 30 x 136 0

x 34 x 4 0

x 34 or x 4

III. x 4 x x 3 0

4 2

Only x 4 makes sense in the context of this

question, so the width of the frame is 4 inches

Using an appropriate viewing window to see the and therefore the outer length, y, of the frame is

behavior of the graphs for the three values of k clearly, 36 2 x 36 2(4) 44. The correct answer is (A),

you can see that the values of k given in I and III each 44 inches.

result in the equation having only two distinct real roots.

The value of k given in II results in the equation having 7. The question asks you to consider rotation about

four distinct real roots. So the correct answer is II only, the origin of the octagon in the figure and to determine

answer choice (A). for how many angles θ , between 0 and 2p, would

rotation of the octagon result in the octagon being

mapped onto itself. One way to begin is to consider a

single point on the octagon, such as the point 0, 4 ,

at the “top” of the octagon in the figure. This point is

4 units from the origin, so any rotation that maps the

octagon onto itself would need to map this point onto a

point that is also 4 units from the origin. The only other

point on the octagon that is 4 units from the origin is the

point 0, 4 . A rotation of angle θ π would map

the point 0, 4 onto the point 0, 4 . You can see

that the octagon is symmetric about both the x- and y-

axes, so a rotation of angle θ π would map all of the

points of the octagon onto corresponding points of the

octagon. Likewise, a rotation of angle θ 2π would

map the point 0, 4 onto itself (and map all other

points of the octagon onto themselves). No other values

of θ would map the octagon onto itself. Therefore the

correct answer is two, choice (B).

15

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

8. To determine the length of BC, it would be helpful 10. In this question, you are given the length of two

to first label the figure with the information given. Since sides of a triangle and the measure of the angle opposite

the circle has radius 2, then both OC and OP have one of those two sides of the triangle. You are asked

length 2 and CP has length 4. AP is tangent to the circle to find the length of the third side of the triangle. You

at P, so angle APC is a right angle. The length of AP is should recall that the law of sines relates the lengths

given as 3. This means that triangle ACP is a 3-4-5 right of two sides of a triangle and the sines of the angles

triangle and AC has length 5. You should also notice opposite the sides. (The law of sines is included in the

that since CP is a diameter of the circle, angle CBP is Notation, Definitions, and Formulas pages that are

also a right angle. Angle BCP is in both triangle ACP included in this document and at the beginning of each

and triangle PCB, and therefore the two triangles are of the Content Knowledge tests.) Using the law of sines

yields sin( BAC ) BC and sin 30 9 .

similar. You can then find the length of BC by setting

up a proportion between the corresponding parts of the sin( BCA) BA sin( BCA) 12

similar triangles as follows: 4 2

Therefore, sin( BCA) sin 30 . You should

CP BC 3 3

recall that this is an example of the ambiguous case

AC PC

4 BC of the law of sines—that since the value of the sine is

between 0 and 1, there are two angles, one acute and

5 4

16 one obtuse, associated with this sine and therefore there

BC 3.2 are two possible triangles with the given sides and angle

5

measure. The correct answer then is (D), “It cannot be

The correct answer, 3.2, is answer choice (C).

determined from the information given.”

9. There are two ways to answer this question. You

The two values of the measure of BCA are

should be able to use either method. The first solution

approximately 41.8° and 138.2°. Using either the law of

is based on reasoning. First you need to recall that

sines again (with BAC and ABC, or with BCA

the maximum value of sin x is 1, and therefore the

and ABC ) or the law of cosines, you can determine

maximum value of 5sin x is 5. The maximum value

that the length of side AC is either approximately

of y 5 sin x 6 is then 5 6 1. Alternatively,

3.68 or 17.10. Since the length of side AC cannot be

you could graph the function y 5 sin x 6 and find

uniquely determined, the correct answer is (D).

the maximum value of y from the graph.

is (B).

16

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

draw a figure such as the one shown below. 10

Y 1

1

10

! 3

10 1

3 10 1

10 1

a

"

X 10 1

/

3

the point 1, 3 , and B is the point 1, 0 . Point A lies So the correct answer is (D).

on the line y 3 x. The acute angle described in the

question is the angle AOB. The question asks you to 12. To answer this question, you should graph the

find the slope of the line that contains the angle bisector equations on your calculator using an appropriate viewing

of angle AOB. Let a be the angle between the x-axis and window and then see how many points of intersection

the angle bisector of angle AOB. Then the slope of the are shown. The figure below shows one view of the

line that contains the angle bisector of angle AOB will intersections of the two graphs.

be equal to tan a. You can use the half-angle formulas

in the Notations, Definitions, and Formulas pages that

are included in this document and at the beginning of

the Mathematics: Content Knowledge tests to find tan

a in terms of the sine and cosine of angle AOB. From

your figure, you can see that OB 1, AB 3, and

OA 10. You should also convince yourself that there are no

additional points of intersection that are not visible in

AOB

sin 1 cos( AOB) this viewing window. One way to do that is to verify

2 2

tan α that y 4 x 5 3 x 2 1 has only two relative extrema,

AOB 1 cos( AOB)

cos both of which are shown. (Find where y 0.) Only

2 2 one point of intersection is shown in the figure above,

so the correct answer choice is (A).

Simplifying yields

1 cos( AOB) 1 cos( AOB) 1 cos2 ( AOB)

2 ⴢ 2 2

1 cos( AOB) 1 cos( AOB) 1 cos( AOB)

2 2 2

sin( AOB)

1 cos( AOB)

17

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

13. This question asks you to find an algebraic 16. This question asks you to determine the

representation of the composition of the functions possible shape of the graph of the first derivative of a

f(x) and g(x). First you should write algebraic differentiable function from the shape of the graph of

representations of the individual functions. You are the function. You should recall that the first derivative of

given the slopes and y-intercepts of the lines that are the function at a point is equal to the slope of the graph

the graphs of f(x) and g(x). Using the slope-intercept of the function at that point. By inspection, you will see

form of the equation of a line ( y mx b, where m is that, starting near x 0, the slope of the graph of f (x)

the slope and b is the y-intercept) and the information is negative and becomes less negative as x approaches

given in parts (i) and (ii) yields the following functions, a and that the slope is 0 at x a (at the minimum

which have the graphs described in the question: value of f ) and then becomes increasingly positive as

f ( x ) 2 x 1 and g( x ) 2 x 1. These functions x increases. Only answer choice (B) is consistent with

imply that f ( g( x )) 2( 2 x 1) 1 4 x 1. So this behavior. Therefore, (B) is the correct answer.

y 4 x 1, and (C) is the correct answer.

Alternatively, you may recognize that the graph of the

14. In this question, a model is given for the growth function f appears to be a parabola, which implies that

of the rabbit population as a function of time, t, in f is a quadratic function. The graph of f suggests that f

years. The question asks for a verbal description of the could be of the form f ( x ) c( x a )2 b. The first

change in the rabbit population, based on the function derivative then would be f x 2c( x a ). The graph

given. You should recall the meaning of the base of f would be a line with an x-intercept of a. Since

(growth factor) and the exponent in an exponential the graph of f is a parabola that opens up, the value of

growth model. You should note that the function given c must be positive (i.e., f x 2c 0 ), so the slope

t t

of the line that is the graph of f must also be positive.

P (t ) 250 ⴢ (3.04) 98

1 . 250 ⴢ 3 .

2 You can observe from

The only answer choice that is a line with positive slope

t and x-intercept of a is (B). Therefore, (B) is the correct

this approximation (with base 3, and exponent ) that

2 answer.

the population tripled every two years. Thus the correct

answer would be (D), “The rabbit population tripled

every 24 months.”

of how changing the values of the coefficient a and

y-intercept b in a quadratic function f ( x ) ax 2 b

affects the graph of the function. You should recall that

for a 0, as a decreases, the width of the parabola

that is the graph of y ax 2 increases and for a 0,

the graph opens downward. You should also recall that

as the value of b decreases, the vertex of the graph of

y ax 2 b moves in a negative direction along the

y-axis. So for the graph of g( x ) ax 2 b to be below

the graph of f ( x ) 3 x 2 for all values of x, a must

be less than or equal to 3 and b must be negative (the

vertex will be below the vertex of f (x), which is at the

origin). The correct answer, therefore, is (B).

18

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

17. In a problem such as this, which contains the 18. In this question, you are given a function, N, that

answer choice “It cannot be determined from the models the production of a certain chemical reaction in

information given,” you should be careful to base your grams as a function of time, t, in hours. You are asked

answer on correct reasoning. If you conclude that to find the rate of production at 30 minutes after the

the value can be determined, you should base your reaction begins. The rate of production will be equal

conclusion on known mathematical facts or principles; to the first derivative of N evaluated at 30 minutes.

if, however, you conclude that the value cannot be You should recognize that you first need to convert 30

determined, you should support your conclusion by minutes into hours and then evaluate the first derivative

producing two different possible values for the limit. of N at that value of t. Since

You should recall that the quotient property of limits 30 minutes equals 1 hour, you will need to evaluate

states that if lim f ( x ) L and lim g( x ) M , and if 2

xc xc

1 First find

f ( x) L N . N t . N t 16 8t. Therefore,

M 0, then lim . However, this property 2

x c g( x ) M

1 1

cannot be used to determine lim

f ( x)

for the problem N 16 8 12. The answer is 12 grams per

x c g( x )

2 2

hour, so the correct answer is (B).

at hand since the value of lim g( x ) is 0 and the

xc

19. In this question, you will need to use your

quotient property is inconclusive in this case. In fact, knowledge of a normally distributed set of data.

f ( x) lim f ( x ) In particular, you should know that approximately

0

for this problem, lim xc . Note that 68 percent of a normally distributed set of data lie

x c g( x ) lim g( x ) 0

xc within 1 standard deviation of the mean and that

the expression 0 does not represent a real number; in approximately 95 percent of the data lie within 2

0

particular, it is not equal to either 0 or 1. Thus, the value standard deviations of the mean. The question asks you

to identify which of the groups given in the answer

f ( x)

of lim cannot be determined by using the basic choices is expected to correspond to the greatest

x c g( x )

number of ninth graders if the hand spans of ninth

properties of limits. As a result, you should suspect that, graders are approximately normally distributed with

f ( x) a mean of 7 inches and a standard deviation of 1 inch.

in fact, lim cannot be determined and verify your

x c g( x ) You will need to evaluate each answer choice in order

hunch by producing examples to show that the value of to determine which of the groups is largest.

the limit depends on the particular functions f and g.

Answer choice (A) is the group of hand spans less than

In the remaining discussion, it will be assumed

6 inches. Since the mean hand span is 7 inches and the

that c 0 . (It is always possible to apply a translation

standard deviation is 1 inch, the group of hand spans

of c units to the two functions.)

that is less than 6 inches is the group that is more than

You should be aware that, although both f and g 1 standard deviation less than the mean. The group of

have the limit 0 as x 0, one function might be hand spans that is less than 7 inches includes 50 percent

approaching 0 more quickly than the other, which 1

of the measurements. Approximately 34 percent ( of

would affect the value of the limit of the quotient. 2

Thus, if one of the functions is x and the other x 2 , 68 percent) of the measurements are between 6 inches

1 and 7 inches (within 1 standard deviation less than the

then the quotient is either x or , and so the limit of

x mean). So the group with hand spans less than 6 inches

the quotient is either 0 or nonexistent, respectively. would be approximately equal to 50 34, or 16 percent

The value of the limit can, in fact, be any nonzero real of the measurements.

number b, as the functions bx and x show. Thus, answer

choices (A), (B), and (C) are incorrect and the correct

answer is (D).

19

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

Answer choice (B) is the group of hand spans P (T ) is the probability of tossing tails. In this case,

greater than 7 inches. Since 7 inches is the mean, you are given that the probability of tossing heads is

approximately 50 percent of the measurements are 2

twice the probability of tossing tails. So, P ( H )

greater than the mean. 3

1

and P (T ) . (Out of 3 tosses, 2 would be expected

Answer choice (C) is the group of hand spans between 3

6 and 8 inches. This is the group that is within 1 to be heads and 1 would expected to be tails.) Therefore

standard deviation of the mean. This group contains

approximately 68 percent of the measurements.

P HTT

2 1 1

3 3 3

2

27

. There are 3 ways

in which exactly 2 of 3 tosses would be tails and

Answer choice (D) is the group of hand spans between each of them has an equal probability of occurring:

5 and 7 inches. This group is between the mean and 2 2

P (THT ) P (TTH ) P ( HTT ) . Therefore the

standard deviations less than the mean. Approximately 27

total probability that tails will result exactly 2 times in 3

47.5 percent ( 1 of 95 percent) of the measurements are

2

between 5 inches and 7 inches. 27

tosses is 3 2 2 . So the correct answer is (A).

9

22. In order to answer this question, you need to

Of the answer choices given, the group described in consider how matrix multiplication is performed. You

(C) is expected to contain the greatest percent of the are asked to find a matrix, M, that when multiplied

measurements, approximately 68 percent, and would x x

by any matrix of the form y , yields the result y .

correspond to the largest number of ninth graders, so

(C) is the correct answer.

z 0

20. A stem plot such as the one shown in this question You will notice that all of the answer choices are

is a very useful way to display data such as these

when you are interested in determining the median 3 3 matrices. You can either solve this problem

value of the data. The data in a stem plot is ordered,

so finding the median, the middle number when the for the general case or reason to the answer. First,

data are ordered from least to greatest or greatest to a b c

least, is straightforward. You are given the course

the general solution: Let M d e f . Then

grades received by 22 students. The median course

grade would be the average of the course grades of g h j

the 11th and 12th students. You can start at either the x a b c x ax by cz

least or greatest data entry and count in increasing (or M y d e f y dx ey fz

decreasing) order along the leaves until you reach the

z g h j z gx hy jz

11th and 12th entries. In this case, both the 11th and

12th entries have a value of 82 (i.e., a stem value of x x x x

for all y . Since M y y for all y , then

8 and a leaf value of 2). Therefore the median course

grade received by the 22 students is 82. The correct z

0 z 0

answer is (D).

ax by cz x

21. In this question, you are asked to apply your dx ey fz y for all x, y, and z. This implies

knowledge of independent events to find the probability gx hy jz 0

of tossing tails exactly 2 out of 3 times when using an

unfairly weighted coin. Because each toss of the coin is a 1, b 0, c 0; and d 0, e 1, f 0;

and g h j 0;

an independent event, the probability of tossing heads

1 0 0

then 2 tails, P HTT , is equal to P ( H ) ⴢ P (T ) ⴢ P (T ),

and therefore M 0 1 0 . The correct answer

where P ( H ) is the probability of tossing heads and

0 0 0

is (B).

20

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Mathematics: Content Knowledge (0061)

You could also reason to the answer by inspecting the 25. To answer this question, you must read each

answer choices given. Since multiplying the first row of answer choice and find the statement that correctly

x describes the properties of the relation defined as “is

M by the matrix y has to result in only the x term for perpendicular to.” You can see that each answer choice

includes two of three properties: reflexivity, symmetry,

z

or transitivity. It may be most efficient to consider each

all x, y, and z, the first entry in the first row must be 1 and

of these properties first and then find the statement

the others 0. Likewise, multiplying the second row of M

that describes these properties correctly for the given

x

relation. The definition of these properties can be found

by the matrix y will result only in the y term for all

in the Notation, Definitions, and Formulas pages that are

z included in this document and at the beginning of each

x, y, and z, so the entries in the second row must be 0, of the Mathematics: Content Knowledge tests.

1, 0, in that order. Multiplying the third row of M by the

x A relation is reflexive if x x for all x. In this case,

matrix y results in 0 for all x, y, and z, so the entries in a line cannot be perpendicular to itself, so the relation

z 1 0 0 given in the question is not reflexive.

the third row must all be 0. Therefore M 0 1 0 A relation is symmetric if x y y x for all

0 0 0 x and y. In this case, if line j is perpendicular to line k,

and the correct answer is (B). it follows that line k is perpendicular to line j. So this

relation is symmetric.

23. This question asks you to find the value of x for

which the given matrix is NOT invertible. A matrix is A relation is transitive if

not invertible if the determinant of the matrix is equal to x y and y z x z for all x, y, and z. In this

a b case, if line j is perpendicular to line k and line k is

zero. The determinant of the matrix

c d

is equal to perpendicular to line l, then lines j and l are either the

ad bc. same line or are parallel to each other. Thus, line j is not

perpendicular to line l. So this relation is not transitive.

For the matrix given in the question, the determinant

is equal to (1)(6) (4)( x ). This equals 0 when The answer choice that correctly describes the relation

3 “is perpendicular to” is (B), “symmetric but not

6 4 x 0, or x . The correct answer then is (C). transitive.”

2

24. Given the recursive function defined in the

question, in order to find f (4), you need first to find

f (2) and f (3). ( f (1) is given.)

f (2) 3 6 9

for n 2, then f (3) 9 6 15

f (4) 15 6 21

So the correct answer is (D).

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