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DISORDERS OF PLATELET :Prepared by Abdelgadir H. Elagib

Haemorrhagic disorders due to platelet abnormalities: Haemorrhagic disorders caused by platelet abnormalities are usually due to quantitative defect (thrombocytopenia), but some are due to a qualitative defect (thrombocytoasthenia or thrombocytopathy).  Quantitative Thrombocytopenia: Thrombocytopenia is defined as a subnormal number of platelets, cause abnormal bleeding, pathophysiology is similar to that of anaemia, haemorrhage, bleeding is common when the count is less than 30-40 x10/l. (Less than 10x109/l, usual).

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Primary thrombocytopenia: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), defect is due to deficient of release reaction (Werlhof,s disease, autoimmune thrombocytopenia). Skin haemorrhage, mucous membrane bleeding. Secondary thrombocytopenia: Drug-induced thrombocytopenic purpura, (Benzene,Sulfur & Ionizing radiation) -Acute Leukaemias, Aplastic anaemia, Bone marrow Infiltration.

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Qualitative Thrombocytopenia: A bleeding disorder can result from a platelet dysfunction: Hereditary:  Thrombasthenia) - Glanzmann- disease, Deficient ADP induced platelet aggregation and deficient clot retraction, with normal platelet count, Bleeding time is prolonged.  Thrombocytopathy)- deficient platelet factor 3 activity.  Thrombocytopenia (Bernard-Soulier syndrome) Giant platelets, mild thrombocytopenia, moderate bleeding less than 30 x 109 (skin, Mucous membrane). Acquired: Drugs & uraemia

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 Thrombocytosis:Increase

5 level above normal values.

Causes: Haemorrhage, surgery, IDA, Polycythaemia Vera.  Thrombocythemia: Abnormal proliferation of the megakaryocytes, increased in number.  Platelet dysfunction due to Fibrinogen Degradation Products (FDP): FDP are protein fragments that result from the proteolytic cleavage of fibrin or fibrinogen by plsmin

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