ZOOLOGY 100 NOTES (4).

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SKELETAL SYSTEM

Osteology – study of structure, function and composition of bones Chondrology – study of structure, function and composition of cartilages Syndesmology – study of structure, functions, and compositions of joints. Function Of Bones  Support  Protection  Movement  Mineral storage  Hemopoeisis/hematopoiesis  Leverage for locomotion  Transduction of sounds Gross Anatomy of Bones I. Compact Bones  Long Bones • Diaphysis -tubular part • Epiphyses -bone ends • Epiphyseal Plate • Blood Vessel -with nutrient arteries and veins • Medullary cavity -marrow cavity of bones • Membrane • Periosteum -covers the entire outer surface of each bone except in epiphyses • Endosteum - innermost covering of bones Chemical Composition of Bones 1. Organic components  Collagen fibers 2. Inorganic components

  

calcium phosphate calcium carbonate Hydroxypatite ions

Microscopic anatomy of bones

The haversian system

Bone Development OSSIFICATION – process of bone development 1. Intramembranous ossification - direct bone development of membrane bones 2.Endochondral ossification - development of bones preceeded by cartilages Classification of Bones 1. Long Bones Ex. femur, humerus 2. Short Bones Ex. trapezoid 3. Flat Bones Ex. Sternum, ribs 4. Irregular Bones Ex. Hip bones, vertebrae II. Cartilage - specialized connective tissue in which fibers are laid down along the lines of stress in long, parallel arrays firm and flexible chondrocytes - cartilage cells that live within spaces (lacunae) within cartilage matrix -CHONDRIFICATION – chondroblast- chondrocytes

TYPES OF CARTILAGES BASIS 1.Matrix 2. Function 3. Location HYALINE Fine collagenous fibers Cover and protect bones,support Joints, trachea,costal ribs ELASTIC Collagenous,elastic fibers Flexible strength FIBRO-CARTILAGE Dense collagenous Withstand tension & compression

Ears,nose, Vertebral discs,pubic larynx,audi-tory canal sysmphysis

THE CALCIFIED CARTILAGE  The cartilages replaced by bones  Ex. Jaw, fins of sharks, fontannels of the fetal human IV. ENAMEL  Developed from ameloblasts  Teeth – important for digestion

skull

V. BONE REMODELING

PARATHORMONE AND CALCITONIN  The hormones that influence or regulates the withdrawal of calcium to maintain calcification  OSTEOBLAST – developing bone cells  OSTEOCLAST – bone destructing cells  OSTEOCYTES – bone-building cells VI. CONNECTIVE TISSUES OF BONES 1. TENDON 2. LIGAMENTS 3. CARTILAGES Frog’s skeleton  AXIAL SKELETON I. SKULL *Fronto-parietals – 1 *Sphenethmoid -1 *Vomer -1 * Squamosal -2 *Quadrotojugals – 2 *Exoccipitals -2 * Prootics -2 * Nasals -2 *Maxillae -2 *Premaxilae -1 * Parasphenoid -1 * Pterygoid -2 * Palatine -2 Lower Jaw *Mento-Meckelian - 1 *Dentary -2 *Angulo-splential -2 II.VERTEBRAL COLUMN 10 VERTEBRAE • Cervical (atlas) - 1 • typical vertebrae - 7 • Sacral -1 • Urostyle – 1

III. Hyoid - 1  APPENDICULAR SKELETON I. PECTORAL GIRDLE * Suprascapula - 2 * Scapula -2 * Coracoid -2 * Clavicle -2 * Epicoracoid - 2 II. PELVIC GIRDLE * Ilia –2 * Ishium -1 * Pubis -1  FORELIMB * Humerus - 2 * Radio-ulna - 2 * Carpals - 3(2) - Radiale -2 - Centrale – 2

- Ulnare -2 * Ordinary Carpals - 2 * Metacarpals - 4 (2) * Phalanges - 11(2) Ratio: 2:3:3:3 (2)  HINDLIMB * Femur -2 * Tibio-fibula - 2 The Human Skeleton  The human skeleton ­ 206 regular named bones  The axial skeleton ­ Along the body’s axis ­ 80 bones ­ Skull, hyoid, auditory ossicles, sternum, ribs, vertebral column  The appendicular skeleton ­ “Hangs on” to axial skeleton ­ 126 bones ­ Upper and lower limbs, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle

* Tarsals - 2(2) - Tibiale(astragalus)-2 - Fibulare(calcaneum) -2 * Ordinary tarsals - 2 * Metatarsals - 5(2) *Calcar -2 *Phalanges - 14(2) Ratio: 1:2:3:4:3 (2)

The 14 Facial Bones Vomer (1) Nasal Mandible (1) Zygomatic Conchae Maxilla Palatine Lacrimal Virgil Can Not Make My Pet Zebra Laugh!

Organization of the skeleton  AXIAL 1. Skull a. Cranial • Occipital(1) • Parietal(2) • Frontal (1) • Temporal(2) • Ethmoid(1) • Sphenoid(1) Old People From Transylvania Eat Spiders b. facial • Vomer(1) • Conchae(2) • Nasal(2) • Maxillary(2) • Mandible(1) • Palatine(2) • Zygomatic(2) • Lacrimal(2) Virgil Can Not Make My Pet Zebra Laugh! c. middle ear • • • • Auditory ossicles Malleus(2) Incus(2) stapes(2)

2. Hyoid(2) 3. Vertebral column HOMOLOGY OF APPENDICULAR BONES  FORELIMB 1. Humerus 2. Radius

• Cervical(7) • Thoracic(12) • Lumbar(5) • Sacrum(1) • Coccyx(1) 4. Thoracic cage • Ribs(12 pairs) • Sternum(1)  APPENDICULAR 1. Pectoral Girdle • Clavicle(2) • Scapula(2) 2. Upper Limbs • Humerus(2) • Radius(2) • Ulna(2) • Hand carpal(16) meta carpal(10) phalanges(28) 3. Pelvic Girdle • Coxal bone(2) 4. Lower Limbs • Femur(2) • Tibia(2) • Fibula(2) • Foot tarsal(14) meta tarsal(10) phalanges(28) 3. Ulna 4. Carpals 5. Metacarpals

6.  1. 2.

Phallanges HINDLIMB Femur Tibia

3. 4. 5. 6.

Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals Phallanges

HOMOLOGY OF GIRDLES PECTORAL GIRDLE 1. Scapula * coracoid process 2. Clavicle Frog versus Human skeleton BASIS I. SKULL A. Fronto-parietals B. Sphenethmoid C. Occipital D. Premaxillae E. Dentition e.1 shape & size e.2 attachment e.3 dental formula II. Hyoid III. Vertebral Column FROG Platybasic Fused Fused 2 exoccipital Present Heterodont Pleurodont 1V:1M:2P (2) Cartilaginous

 PELVIC GIRDLE 1. Ilia 2. Ischia 3. Pubis

MAN Anapsid Separate Separate 1 occipital absent Heterodont Thecodont 2I:1C:2P:3M (2) 2I:1C:2P:3M (2) Bony 26 vertebrae 7 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 1 sacral 1 coccyx 12 pairs of ribs (7 true, 3 false, 2 floating)

10 vertebrae 1 atlas 7 typical vertebrae 1 sacral 1 urostyle None (transverse processes)

IV. Ribs

Appendicular Skeleton BASIS PECTORAL GIRDLE FROG *Suprascapula * Scapula * Coracoid * Clavicle * Epicoracoid -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 MAN * Scapula - 2 With coracoid process *clavicle - 2

FORELIMB

* Humerus - 2 * Radio-ulna - 2 * Carpals - 3(2) - Radiale -2 - Centrale – 2 - Ulnare -2 * Ordinary Carpals - 2 * Metacarpals - 4 (2) * Phalanges - 11(2) Ratio: 2:3:3:3 (2) * Ilia * Ishium * Pubis –2 -1 -1

* * * *

Humerus Radius Ulna Carpals Proximal Distal

-2 -2 -2 - 3(2) – SLTP - TTCH

* Metacarpals - 5 (2) * Phalanges - 14(2) Ratio: 2:3:3:3:3 (2) * Ilia * Ischia * Pubis -2 -2 -2

PELVIC GIRDLE

HINDLIMB

* Femur -2 * Tibio-fibula - 2 * Tarsals - 2(2) -Tibiale(astragalus)-2 - Fibulare(calcaneum) -2 * Ordinary tarsals - 2 * Metatarsals - 5(2) *Calcar -2 *Phalanges - 14(2) Ratio: 1:2:3:4:3 (2)

Femur -2 * Tibia -2 * Fibula -2 * Patella -2 * Tarsals - 7(2) Proximal - CTN Distal - 3 C 1C * Metatarsals - 5(2) *Phalanges - 14(2) Ratio: 2:3:3:3:3 (2)

The Articular System Joints/articulation -places where the rigid elements of the skeleton meet. TYPES OF JOINTS ACCORDING TO FUNCTION: 1. Synarthroses -fixed or immovable joints 2. Amphiarthroses -slightly movable joints 3. Diarthroses -freely movable joints TYPES OF JOINTS ACCORDING TO STRUCTURE: 1. FIBROUS JOINTS a. Structures -minimal connective tissue b. Syndesmoses -connected by ligaments c. Gamphoses -peg-in-socket joint 2. CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS a. Synchondrosis -hyaline cartilage b.Symphyses -fibrocartilage 3. SYNOVIAL JOINTS -most movable joints of the body -diarthoroses

Features of Synovial joints 1. Articular cartilage 2. Joint cavity/ synovial cavity 3. Articular Capsule 2 LAYERS: a. fibrous capsule-strengthens joint so that bones are not pulled apart b. synovial membrane-cover enternal joint surfaces 4. Synovial fluid-a filtrate of blood which contains glycoproteins 5. Reinforcing ligaments -thickened parts of fibrous capsule itself a. Extracapsular ligament b. Intracapsular ligament 6. Nerves and Blood vessels SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE

Types of Synovial joints 1. Plane joints -nonaxial joint 2. Hinge joints -uniaxial joint(flexible) 3. Pivot joints

- rotatory, uniaxial joint 4. Condyloid joints - biaxial joint 5. Ball and Socket joints -multiaxial joint

Types of angular movements of synovial joints 1. ABDUCTION 2. ADDUCTION 3. FLEXION 4. EXTENSION 5. ELEVATION 6. DEPRESSION 7. PROTRACTION 8. RETRACTION 9. INVERSION 10. DORSIFLEXION 11. EVERSION 12. PLANTARFLEXION 13. SUPINATION 14. PRONATION TYPES OF GAIT  PLANTIGRADE - EX. Man, primates, bear  DIGITIGRADE - ex. Cats, dogs  UNGULIGRADE - Ex. Horses, cows, carabao, pigs, goats LOCOMOTION OF LIMBLESS VERTEBRATES 1. SERPENTINE OR LATERAL UNDULATION – movement forming irregular loops 2. CONCERTIVE OR RECTILINEAR - move from place to place by gliding using the cervical ribs 3. SIDESWINDING - occupy territory or sandy dessert - rattlesnakes

Examples Phases of Healing of Fractures  Hematoma Formation  Fibrocartilaginous Callus Formation  Body Callus Formation  Bone Remodeling

FRACTURE

HEALING

Clinical Problems: Spina Bifida  Spina bifida is a congenital defect  failure of the vertebral laminae to  nervous tissue is unprotected  possible paralysis and other

unite complications

Curves of the Vertebral Column  There are four typical regions of curvature in the vertebral column  cervical curve  thoracic curve  lumbar curve  sacral or pelvic curve

Clinical Problems: Abnormal Curvature  Abnormal curves of the spine  scoliosis (lateral bending of the column)  kyphosis (exaggerated thoracic curve)  lordosis (exaggerated lumbar curve)

Clinical Problems

KYPHOSIS

Scoliosis

LORDOSIS

OSTEOPOROSIS

Osteoporosis  Decreased bone mass resulting in porous bones  Those at risk  White, thin, menopausal females  Athletes who are not menstruating due to decreased body fat & decreased estrogen levels  People allergic to milk or with eating disorders whose intake of calcium is too low  Smoking, drinking, & family history increase risk  Prevention or decrease in severity

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Adequate diet, weight-bearing exercise, & estrogen replacement therapy (for menopausal women) Behavior when young may be most important factor

OSTEOMALACIA

BURSITIS

OSTEOMYELITIS

ARTHRITIS

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