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E.S.-342

Teaching of Mathematics

Disclaimer/Special Note: These are just the sample of the Answers/Solutions to some of the Questions given in the

Assignments. These Sample Answers/Solutions are prepared by Private Teacher/Tutors/Auhtors for the help and Guidance

of the student to get an idea of how he/she can answer the Questions of the Assignments. We do not claim 100% Accuracy

of these sample Answers as these are based on the knowledge and cabability of Private Teacher/Tutor. Sample answers

may be seen as the Guide/Help Book for the reference to prepare the answers of the Question given in the assignment. As

these solutions and answers are prepared by the private teacher/tutor so the chances of error or mistake cannot be denied.

Any Omission or Error is highly regretted though every care has been taken while preparing these Sample Answers/

Solutions. Please consult your own Teacher/Tutor before you prepare a Particular Answer & for uptodate and exact

information, data and solution. Student should must read and refer the official study material provided by the university.

Q. 1. Explain briefly the aims and objectives of teaching at secondary level.

Ans. Human Needs as a Basis of Growth in Mathematics: From the time of the primitive man to the ancient

civilization such as the Babylonian, the Chinese, the Summerian etc., to the modern era, mathematics had proved its

importance powerfully. No matter, from where the mathematics has started exactly, it has drawn significant attention

in every period of time. Primitive man used words to represent numbers, while the ancient civilizations developed

the knowledge regarding to the geometry and astronomy to meet the agricultural needs. They also developed number

system and proper units of measurements, which is confirmed by observing their architect and projects related to

irrigation, flood control, trade and taxation methods etc. Most of the invention of earlier period is relevant with the

space and time is related to mathematics. Mathematics has grown to meet the social and cultural demand of the

society. The base of our modern life also fully depends on mathematics and its several techniques. A few examples

are: time, money, trade, astronomy, industry, reading of maps, weights and scales used for construction purposes and

many more, in fact in every field.

Pure and Applied Mathematics

The growth of mathematics depends on the primary discoveries, which were generally based on trial and error

methods according to the human needs and the intrinsic development of the subject by forming a logical framework.

In short, the development of mathematics arises as a result of social (related to everyday life) and intellectual needs

(logical thinking and proof related). There is a very minor difference between pure and applied mathematics.

Pure mathematics involves certain rules for defining postulates to draw conclusions based on logical reasoning. It is the combined structure of basic idea of logic and the propositions, which are obtained from the general

axioms of these logics. Euclidean Geometry taught in school is pure mathematics. While the applied mathematics

include the application of these conclusions, which can be related to the world around like weighing, measuring,

trade, etc. In the school curriculum, mostly applied mathematics is taught.

The Role of Intuition and Logic in Mathematical Thinking

Intuition plays an important role in the mathematics towards creativity. It enables one to reach the conclusion

through mental perception without going in a systematic manner. This method must be adopted by the teacher by

asking questions for enhancing the creative ability in students. The conclusions drawn by the students may not be

correct, but it is essential to develop curiosity in them.

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Intuition is very helpful for confirming mathematical proof in geometry. There are many methods for deriving

propositions by the logical rules in geometry. Some of them are discussed as follows:

Direct Proof: In this type of method, conclusions are drawn from the deduced propositions of the already

accepted axioms and theorems. For example (a + 0) = a.

Indirect Proof (Reductio ad absurdum): Under this method, we create a contradiction by assuming a is not

true to prove th sts of various symbols. For example, the symbol (=) is used for equal to, (>) is used for

greater than, (S) is used for summation, (\) is used to represent therefore or hence.

Teachers must use simple language in developing the sense of symbolic presentation in mathematics and through

various activities with graphic and projective teaching aids. The mathematical language is simple, accurate and

precise. Now-a-day approximately every subject is using mathematical symbols in either form, therefore the knowledge

of mathematical language should not be neglected.

To Write a Definition in Mathematics

While writing a definition in mathematics, the language must be short, simple, precise, clear and consistent.

Common articles and connectives must be used along with the undefined terms for better understanding in a definition.

Need And Importance Of Mathematics In School Curriculum

Mathematics plays a vital and pivotal role in the development of many qualities of head and heart of the child

and helps him to be a good citizen in the society. The knowledge of this subject was born out of felt needs of man,

therefore, it is essential to keep mathematics as one of the important subject in school curriculum.

Social Aspects

1. One can lead a normal social life only when he is able to adjust himself in the existing social set-up. Today,

our social existence is totally governed by the scientific and the technological knowledge, which can only be

attained by the study of mathematics. The use of mathematical vocabulary, such that: price, rates, discount,

commission, interest, profit or loss, shares, dividend, taxes, inflations, growth, production, distributed etc.,

is concerned with everybodys life intimately.

2. Mathematics is considered to be a science of reasoning. With its proper knowledge and applications, child

starts judicial thinking to solve everyday problems of the life.

3. Mathematics plays very important role in learning different professions such that engineering profession

requires the knowledge of mathematics to understand different sciences, architect profession requires

knowledge of geometrical drawing, chemist requires the knowledge of measurement and calculation to

prepare medicine. Therefore, almost in each and every vocation, there is a need of mathematical knowledge.

4. It has been truly said that Mathematics is the mirror of civilization. It is also a pivot for cultural art such

as painting, sculpture etc. It might not be altogether a matter of chance that the Greeks, the great geometers,

were very successful artists. The progress and prosperity of nation and its cultural advancement have depended

considerably upon the advancement of mathematics.

5. Discoveries made by famous mathematicians helped us to solve various mysteries of nature and to overcome

superstitions.

Mathematical Aspects

1. Mathematical knowledge helps to develop intellectual power i.e. the power of thinking of an individual. It is

only the knowledge of mathematics, which can train different faculties of mind like sense of meaningful

observations, factual reasoning, purposeful thinking and the imagination power of an individual. To develop

all the senses, which are correlated with the thinking power of an individual, learning of mathematical

concepts and principles are must.

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2. Accuracy, exactness and precision compose the beauty of mathematics. The student learns the value and

appreciation of accuracy and adopts it as a principle of life.

3. Mathematics provides:

Tools and concepts for making and assessing estimates and tentative approximation.

Set concepts and rules in the form of various formulas and procedures.

Methods of interpretations of information in the form of graph, tables and other arrangements.

Applications of Mathematics

1. The need of mathematics is felt right from the early morning by everyone of us. One has to get up early at

the right time so that one may be able to join his duties at the right time. All such things need measurement

which can be possible only through mathematics.

2. A housewife need mathematics the most for looking after her house, preparing family budget and estimates,

writing various expenses and noting down so many various transactions.

3. The understanding of the world in which man lives, of the civilization to which he belongs and of the

culture of which he is very proud, requires the understanding of scientific and social principles, the

development of which in turn, depends upon mathematical principles. Modern civilizations owe its

advancement to the progress of various occupations build up culture and they are its backbone.

4. Mathematical puzzles and riddles not only entertain the mind of the child, but also create ability to accept

challenges and finally produce a sense of joy and appreciation after solving it.

5. Various geometrical concepts in mathematics such as symmetry, similarity, ideas of line and point have

aesthetic value.

Q. 2. Distinguish Inductive and Deductive method of teaching Mathematics.

Ans. Although the methods adopted by the teachers very much depends upon the child ability and its learning

power, but there are few methods recommended by professionals described below:

Induction and Deduction

Inductive Method: It leads from concrete to abstract, particular to general and from examples to general rule. It

is the method of constructing a formula on induction which means proving a universal truth by showing that if it is

true for a particular case and is further true for a reasonably adequte number of cases, it is true for all such cases. A

formula or generalisation is thus arrived at through a convincing process of reasoning and solving of problems. After

a number of concrete cases have been understood, the student successfuly attempts the gereralisation.

Procedure

Ex. 1. Ask students to draw a few sets of semi-circles. Let them construct and meassure the alternate and

corresponding angles in each semi-circle. They will find them equal i.e. 90 in all the cases. This conclusion in a

good number of cases, will enable them to formulate the relevant generalisation.

Deductive Method: It is the opposite of Inductive Method. Here the learner proceeds from general to particular,

abstract to concrete, and formula to examples. A pre-constructed formula is told to the student and they are asked to

solve the problems. The learners accept the formula as a pre-established and well-established truth.

For Example: Immediately after announcing the topic the relevant formula is told by the teacher. To explain

further the application of the formula to problems, he solves a number of problems on the blackboard. The students

come to understand how the formula can be used or applied. Then a few problems are given to the students. They

solve them on the same lines as have been explained by the teacher.

Volume of the Cube = (Length)3

Simple interest =

and profit or loss is always calculated on the cost price. The students apply these formulae to solve the problems, and

then memorise them for future use.

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Inductive Method

1. In this method we proceed from known to

unknown facts.

2. It is lengthy method. Syllabus cannot be

covered in time.

3. It is method of discovery.

4. Learning is based upon understanding and

logical reasoning.

5. It is psychological and scientific in nature.

6. How and Why of the subject-matter

becomes clear with proper reasoning.

7. Development of critical thinking and logical

reasoning takes place.

8. Sense of keen observation is developed.

9. It is good for lower classes as it provides

direct and concrete experience to the child.

10. It is very laborious method.

3.

4.

Deductive Method

In this method we proceed from unknown to

known facts.

It is short and quick method, lengthy syllabus

can be covered in time.

It is not a method of discovery.

Learning depends upon memory works.

5.

6.

No explaination of How and Why is given.

1.

2.

7.

reasoning takes place.

8. No sense of keen observation is developed.

9. It is not good for lower clases as it is abstract

in nature.

10. There is no need of hard work simply rote

learning is required.

11. It develops habit of self-study with logical 11. No development of originality and creativity.

thinking.

12. There is proper link of the previous 12. There is no link of previous knowledge with

new knowledge.

knowledge with new knowledge.

Q. 3. You as a mathematics teacher experienced that teaching aids are important for effective teaching.

Mention any two of these aids used by you and illustrate how did you evaluated their effectiveness for teaching

learning.

Ans. Lesson Planning: Lesson planning helps in organizing the contents according to the limited interval of

time period. Effective planning lead to certain and positive results. Though daily teaching by teachers are based on

the curriculum as defined in the form of text book but it is suggested to plan the daily lessons. Planning of daily

lessons will help in preparing effective structure of the lesson and apart of subject-matter defined in text books the

teacher may incorporate the live examples and instances from real life. This will help pupil and teacher in keeping

interest alive and to participate in more active way. The six important factors of lesson planning are objectives,

previous learning or background, motivational activities, developmental activities, summary and application.

Materials and Teaching Aids

The most important and most common teaching aid is the chalkboard. It is simply a kind of plan wooden board

generally painted with black colour. On this board, the teacher can write and draw diagrams with chalk to explain the

subject-matter to be taught to the students in an orderly manner. The other teaching aids includes concrete and semiconcrete materials like measuring instruments, maps, models etc., audio-visual aids such that sound projector, motion

pictures, film slides etc., active aids by which learning and teaching takes place due to the activities of the child and

the teacher. By organizing tours and excursions to exhibitions, the student may adopt the habit of generalization

through actual observations and experiments.

But before the selection of teaching aid by the teacher mental level, age of students, subject-matter to be taught

should be given due importance. The teacher should have the perfect knowledge about the working of teaching aid.

Availability of funds also plays an important role in choosing an appropriate teaching aid.

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The method in which the student learns the various concepts of mathematics by doing experiments using different

instruments in the mathematics room or in a laboratory is called laboratory method for teaching mathematics. Through

this method the learning and teaching becomes interesting and child centred. It helps the students to become keen

observer and critical thinker. The mathematics laboratory must be well equipped with needed instruments, suitable

apparatus, wall charts, models, slides etc. to ensure the active involvement of each child.

A good evaluation device should be comprehensive and balanced and it must not neglect any significant aspect

of subject-matter. For evaluating a large number of outcomes pertaining to the process of acquiring knowledge by

reasoning, intuition or perception, we use tests of various kinds.

Tests

Each and every type of test has points of credit and discredit towards its utility in the field of education during

the process of learning and teaching. These tests can be categorized as follows:

1. Aptitude test to predict a students success.

2. Pre-test (also known as inventories or surveys) to measure the previous knowledge and experience of student.

3. Practice test during instruction period for the students to check their own progress.

4. Unit test to determine the extent of attainment or achievement of students.

5. Diagnostic test for identifying the persistent errors made by students.

These tests are prepared by teachers or experts. The only difference is that tests prepared by experts help in

comparing individual performance or group performance at the state or national level while the teachers prepared

tests by keeping in mind the syllabus taught and local circumstances of learning teaching process. Unit tests are

generally designed by teachers.

The Unit Test

The unit tests are designed for assessing the attainment of learning outcomes of students. These tests provide the

students the feedback of their progress and the teachers the feedback of their instruction programme i.e. involves

formative and summative evaluation both. The steps followed while preparing the unit tests are planning, constructing

test items and assembling, administering and scoring the tests discussed below:

1. Planning a Unit Test: While setting unit test, a teacher must be clear about the objective of the unit, type and

number of items to be included in that test. Time is also a big factor as students have to finish their tests in limited

span of time. For this, a table of specification should be prepared to ensure the presence of every type of items

satisfied each objective. Table of specification is also known as the test blue print. A blue print of test helps us in

determine whether the numbers of items of relatively more important objectives are included or not.

2. Constructing Test Items: Keeping in mind the various behavioural specifications and the subject-matter, the

teacher has to decide how much weightage should be given to objective type questions or short answer type questions

or essay type questions. Essay type questions are valuable exercise for the students but they require a lot of time.

Objective type questions can be categorized into true/false questions, multiple choice questions, one word answer,

fill in the blanks and match the pair items. Essay type questions are used to assess communication skills of students,

while objective type questions are used to test students knowledge about understanding of different facts and their

relationship. Through objective types questions organization of thoughts and expression power of the students can

not be judged, therefore a unit test must include both essay type and objective type items if possible.

3. Assembling, Administering and Scoring the Test Assemble: Assembling means organizing the number of

test items in a proper manner so that the students easily understand the way of answering the questions. While

assembling the question paper the some of the points should be keep in mind as discussed below:

(i) Arrangement of questions must be from easy to difficult.

(ii) Numbering to every question and its all parts must be proper.

(iii) Same type of questions like multiple choice items should be grouped together numbered from easiest to

most difficult one.

(iv) Splitting of any question in two pages must be avoided.

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(v) It must include general instructions addressing the students with respect to time, marks and number of

questions to be attempted.

Administration

For proper administration:

(i) Each student must be provided copy of the test paper separately.

(ii) Seating arrangement for the students must be proper in order to get sufficient air, light and space for writing.

Scoring the Test

Teacher must prepare the answer key for all that questions given in the test paper. For essay and short type

questions model answers must be written in steps and marking scheme for each steps should be mentioned in that

answer key.

After scoring the answer sheets, it is essential to analyze the performance of each student distinguishly.

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