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Computers in Education
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Answer the following questions in about 500 words each.

Q. 1. Elaborate the principles of programme instruction.
Ans. Instructional objectives should keep in mind while designing the CBI. One should know this that what the
student would know after completing the particular lesson. For the Motivation, Guideline and Evaluation of a
learner one want to go for instructional objectives. There are various components of Instructional Objectives like
Condition, Behaviour and performance. That under which conditions the learner is studying, what is the difference
between the behaviours of a learner before learning and after learning. And obviously performance is the criteria to
know what the learner had understood. There are some domains of Instructional Objectives like cognitive, Affective
and Psychomotor etc. After knowing about the Instructional objective there given about the specific objective that
a specific objective has designed to know what the student will be able to do after completing a unit, lesson, or
segment. There are four levels of writing specific objective. First, the condition under which the student will
perform, second, the action required, third, how the student will demonstrate the action and the mastery level
required. For example: If a student will complete a lesson given 10 correct and 5 incorrect definitions, the student
will identify correct definition of probability by pointing to 6 of the 10 correct definitions in 10 minutes.
Task Analysis is another important part to be evaluated that what work has been done.
Task analysis include the procedures to solve a particular task. It is the process of identifying the tasks and
subtasks that must be performed in order to complete a task. There are three type of task analysis: Hierarchical task
analysis, Information processing and Structured task analysis.
Hierarchical task analysis include the step-wise-step sequence, whereas information processing include the
pictorial representation of a particular task and structure task analysis has small set of sequential structures of
operations and decision steps that should be used in the analysis and design of procedures. Procedures can be
written linear, alternate, and repetitive . Repetitive structure with decision step and repetitive structure with abnormal
exit The part task and whole task relationship and underlying sequence of a procedure are not apparent in flow chart
representation without the dotted line around the primitive structures. These characteristics of a procedure become
very clear by using structured outline
There are two factors that should be considered in sequencing steps in procedural CBI. One concern is how
much of the sequence should be presented in one lesson; a designer should select between whole task and part task
sequence plans. A second consideration is whether the steps should be presented in forward or backward sequence.
A forward sequence, from first to last step , is usually used. However, there are some instances where it may be
useful to present steps in procedure in a backward manner, last step first then second to last step and so on. is
another topic discussed in this chapter The enabling objectives are developed to support the specific objectives.



When something has to be implemented. It definitely has some uses some of the uses of Instructional uses are:
1. Motivation: It is one the clearly defined objective to motivate the student to reach his/her goal. Without
motivation in student age it is very difficult to create a interest in learning.
2. Guideline: Student generally acts according to the guideline given by the teacher. Guidelines are generally
the strategy by the teacher to the student. It helps the student to remove some difficulties at learning level.
3. Evaluation: The teacher can evaluate the performance of the student in terms of specific objective. The
student can access the success and failure of his/her method of presenting subject-matter to the student and can
eliminate the weakness of the student.
In short we can say that we use instructional objectives for followings:
(a) Better instruction occurs.
(b) More efficient learning results.
(c) Better evaluation occurs.
(d) Students become better self-evaluators.
There are following three components of Instructional objectives:
1. Condition: This is the setting in which the demonstration of learning will take place, including environment
and materials, where appropriate. An objective containing this component is necessary to prepare a student for
learning. It draws the students attention to the enthusiasm.
2. Behaviour: An explanation of an observable behavior that may be measured from which one can infer that
the student has learnt. It is important to state objectives in the form of observable behaviour, which can be observed
and measured.
3. Performance: This is one of the measurement criteria for achievement of objective of the student. One can
not measure the learning of a learner it can only be checked by ones performance. We can judge that he/she learnt
something or not by comparing the performance before the learning process and after the learning process.
Q. 2. Explain the meaning and characteristics of a good tutorial, with suitable examples.
Ans. Some of the dimensions are as follows:
Teaching style

Amount of interaction
Course content
Student data

Student-computer dialogue

Control of instructional



Repetitive drill and practice.

System shapes student responses and

moves student to generalization
exercise : method of advancement
depends on student response patterns.

Little Interaction

Frequent interactions which begins

early in lesson.

Only simple content

Simple and advanced content.

Simple model based only on

Complex model based on

the students most recent

students response patterns

answer. No performance

Detailed performance records

records kept.

kept, student progress toward goal

presented visually

Student input accepted only

Student input accepted any

on practice or test items.

time, student and teacher ask and

answer questions.

System presents linear sequence,

Student can request certain

same sequence to each student

sequence or choose the system

selected sequence



Evaluation of student input

System evaluates only a

one-letter answer

System understand the sense of

a student answer.

Feedback to student

Canned feedback Mo prescriptive advice.

Tailored feedback system gives

advice based on students response

Course Content

Content embedded in the

courseware program

Content programmed in its

own knowledge base

Instructional strategy

Strategy embedded in the

courseware program

Strategy programmed in its own

rule base: system generates
instruction and tests based or rule.

Student model

No student file, or a simple

one embedded in the courseware

Feedback to student

Simple, one word

Student file includes diagnosis and

prescriptive advice generated by
instructional strategy rule base.
Tailored feedback created.
according to rule in instructional
strategy rule base.


Line drawings


Three-dimensional dynamic

No speech capability

System speaks to students and


There are four components to any intelligent tutoring system,

1. Student Model (Records updates histories of individual)
2. Pedagogical Module (Makes teaching decision)

3. Experts System (Model of ideal student actions)

4. Graphical Interface (Input and Output device for interaction)

Intelligent Tutoring System: ITS are programmes designed to teach as a good teacher. They concentrate on
developing system which provide supportive environment for more limited topic i.e. a specific domain of knowledge
such as antibiotic, solution of quadratic,electronic fault diagnostic procedures etc. Since the ITS are domain specific,
the subject domain should be chosen carefully as its development involves major investment of resources. Since the
efforts have been in the direction of developing experimental ITS, they are designed with future technology in mind
and hence require substantial computing resources to run. This makes the ITS at present a cost-in effective proposition.
Role of ITs in teaching: In principle, ITS offers a highly interactive environment that is responsive to individual
learners need. Like a good teacher it acts as a facilitator and a discerning advisor who determines what the student
knows and guides in a manner that the student remains in control and is always at the centre of learning. However,
all his requires accurate and extremely refined understanding of characteristic of learners as well as of the domain
and the methdology of instruction. Frequently, the models built in are rather adhoc, restrictive and incapable of
deciphering studentss response of offering appropriate remedial help. Even for well designed system, the utility is
ultimately determined by the quality of dialogue and the actual degree of uSER INITIATIVE AND MOTIVATION.
and Instructional. In its advisory role, the system is used to provide the advice about particular course of action
relevant to any given situation that four components CAI-oriented activity.






Teaching style

Repetitive drill and practice

System shapes student responses

and moves student to generalization exercise: Method of advancement depends on student response

Amount of interaction

Little Interaction

Frequent interactions which begins

early in lesson.

Course content

Only simple content

Simple and advanced content.

Student data

Simple model based only on

the students most recent
answer. No performance
records keep.

Complex model based on students

response patterns Detailed performance records kept, students
progress toward presented visually.


Student input accepted only

on practice or test items.

Student input accepted any time,

student and teacher ask and answer

Control of instructional

System presents linear

sequence, same sequence to
each student.

Student can request certain sequence

or choose the system selected

Evaluation of student
Feedback to student

System evaluates only a one

letter answer.

System understand the sense of a

students answer.

Canned feeback No prescriptive advice.

Tailored feedback system gives

advice based on students response

There are four components of any intelligent tutoring system.

1. Student Model (Records updates histories of individual)
2. Pedagogical Module (Makes teaching decision)
3. Experts System (Mades of ideal student actions)
4. Graphical Interface (Input and Output device for interaction).
Q. 3. Select a topic of your choice and explain how you will use computers to teach that topic.
Ans. The importance of computer in education are recognized in the field of Computer Based Instructions (CBI)
which is also referred as Computer Assisted Instructions (CAI). The innovation of Artificial Intelligence techniques
in CAI has given rise to new kind of interactive systems known as Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) and Interactive
Learning Environment. The applications oOf computer in education field can be classify in followings:
1. Research
2. Teaching Computing.
3. Administration
4. Management
5. Teaching-Learning
Computers have been used in the classroom now-a-day to demonstrate the lessons related to various fields.
In our school computer plays a very important role to deliver the education to the student in a modern way, We
have a big computer room. In that all the computers are equipped with latest devices like CD Rom and speaker etc.
All the computers are attached within single network. When teacher demonstrate anything on one computer then all
the other students are able to see those instructions on to their own computers with sound and graphics, Despites of



that computer lab we have a separate audio-visual room in that student comes and have their sessions on a big screen
that is totally controlled by the computers. Teachers of different subjects used to make the presentations on computer
and displayed them on the computer. In that way students have better option to acquire knowledge by the teacher
side. Suppose some students have a lesson on Disaster Management, for this they want to see different volcanos,
Sonai. Hs etc. and that matter can be only collected by different place and can be converted into single presentation.
So, in a nutshell we can say that computer are very useful in education.
1. Algorithm: A set of well-defined instructions that outline the solution of a problem in a finite number of
2. Artificial Intelligence (Al): The use of computer to imitate or expand human intelligence. Computer that
play chess usually employ artificial intelligence. It is the intelligence exhibited by a machine or software. It is the
field of research currently developing techniques whereby computer can be used for solving problem that appear to
require imagination, intuition, or intelligence.
3. Flow Chart: A flow chart is a graphical representation of the algorithm to show the actual flow of the data.
There are many symbols which represent the flow of operations, logic, data, and equipment of program or system.
4. Function: These are the small part of the program use in programming languages like C & C++, They can be
used when needed in the program, In Excel functions are the built in process to solve the particular task like SUM,
There are following three physical components of CAI
1. Hardware
2. Software
3. Courseware
1. Hardware: Hardware consists cf all the physical components of the computer attached with it, which we can
touch. Like Monitor, CPU. Kx.'board, Mouse etc. CAI may be designed for use on a variety of hardware platforms
or computers ranging from nainframe computer to Personal Computer.
2. Softwares: Software refers to it. Programs and packages where we work. In CAI softwares are of two types
Delivery Software and Authoring System Software. Delivery system software interfaces the learner with the computer
while authoring system software interfaces the course writer with the computer for designing lessons or material.
3. Courseware: It refers to programs that administer or impart instruction to the learner. This refers to those
programs that are course material apart from the handbooks and performance aids.
The communication media used in education was earlier radio and television which is now followed by computers
too. The computerization trend consists of a purposeful and integrated approach to the use of communication media.
Computer and internet are playing role in each and every field of education. Computer technology can be used to
teach many topics to school children. I would like to use it to teach students about aquatic animals. Issues related to
media selection are:
1. Democratization of educational opportunities.
2. Improving the quality of instruction and learning.
3. Impact of communication media on rural area.
4. Participation of people in their own education.
5. Effective demonstration via computerized plan.
6. Motivation to education field through computerized graphical mode.
Digital graphical mode of the software will help satisfy all the media related issues and it will enhance the
quality of instruction and learning. For example, instead of discussing the habits and habitate of aquatic animals, the
variety of species, it can be shown and elaborate using media to provide lively effect.