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Guidance and Counselling
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Answer the following questions

(a) Discuss the characteristics of an effective counsellor.
Ans. The meaning of counselling in the professional sense differ from the popular understanding of the term.
For this purpose we shall analyse the various definitions of counselling. It will help us clarify the concept.
Rogers (1952) describes counselling as The process by which the structure of the self is relaxed in the safety
of the clients relationship with the therapist and previously desired experiences are perceived and then integrated
into an altered self.
According to Halm and Mchem (1955) Counselling is a one to one relationship between an individual troubled
by problems with which he cannot cope alone and a professional worker whose training and experience have
qualified him to help others reach solutions to various types of personal difficulties.
Smith (1955) defined Counselling is process in which the counsellor assists the counsellee to make
interpretations of facts relating to a choice plan or adjustments which he needs to make.
Pepisky and Pepisky (1954) defined Counselling is that interaction which occurs between two individuals
called counsellor and clients that takes place in a professional setting and is initiated and maintained to facilitate
change in the behaviour of a client.
According to Stefflre (1970), Counselling is a learning teaching process.
Gustad (1953) stated that Counselling is a learning oriented process carried in a simple one to one social
environment in which the counsellor, professionally competent in relevant psychological skills and knowledge
seeks to assist the client by methods appropriate to the latters needs and within the context of the total personnel
programme, to learn how to put such understanding into effect in relation to more clearly perceived, realistically
defined goals to the end that the client may become a happier and more productive member of society.
From the several definitions given above it can be seen that Counselling involves a relationship. It involves
a relationship between a professionally trained, competent counsellor and an individual seeking help. This relationship
is not casual, matter of fact or business like. It is characterized by warmth, understanding, acceptance and trust.
There have been many attempts at identification of the characteristics of an effective counsellor:
1. General Characteristics: The National Vocational Guidance Association of USA has listed such
characteristics as interest in people, patience, sensitiveness, emotional stability and objectivity as important.
Harmin and Paulson (1950) listed understanding, sympathetic attitude, friendliness, sense of humor, stability,
patience, objectivity, sincerity, fairness, tolerance, neatness, calmness, broad mindedness, kindness, pleasantness,
social intelligence and poise. According the howrer (1951) personal maternity is the most important desirable
characteristics to be an effective counsellor. Association for counsellor education and supervision holds that



there are six basic qualities viz. belief in each individual, commitment to individual human values, alertness to
the world, open mindedness, understanding of self and professional commitment.
Variables like age, sex, experience etc. also to a certain extent are found to affect counselling process. Clients
were found to be confident in the ability of younger counsellors. Experience increases with age and counsellor
improves with experience. Generally, female clients prefer to discuss emotionally loaded problems with female
counsellors. Sex of the counsellor is important depending on the clients ease or difficulty with which they can
discuss their problemto same or opposite sex.
2. Personality characteristics: Weitz (1957), Snyder and Snyder (1961) and Styler (1961) have suggested
the following traits:
(a) Interest in holding people: If the counsellor has a basic interest in helping others, the clients will feel
more comfortable in their presence and this will increase the effectiveness.
(b) Perceptual sensitivity: Counsellors should perceive and understand the thoughts and feelings of the
clients as well as the clues given by him.
(c) Personal adjustment: Counsellor should be a well adjusted person if he should be effective in solving
other problems.
(d) Personal security: Weitz (1957) suggests that the feeling of security in the role of a counsellor is a very
important factor in effective counselling even though insecurities outside this area and other life situations is rather
not that important as far as effectiveness is concerned.
(e) Genuineness: Rogers (1958) suggests that counsellors should be able to establish a genuine relationship
with the client to achieve the counselling goals to be the best.
3. Counsellors Attitudes and Beliefs: This is important because it determines the nature of the counselling
relationships formed. These are as follows:
(a) Beliefs: Counsellor should believe in treating the clients with dignity, equality and individuality. He should
believe in the worth of and value of the counselee and in his need for freedom and liberty. Here liberty means the
power to strive for goals without external constraints.
(b) Values: Salmer (1960) states that counsellors should be fully aware of social values and expose it also,
because a change in value constitutes an important counselling goal.
(c) Acceptance: Tyler (1961) identifies two basic components of acceptance (i) Willingness to set individuals
differ one another in their behaviour and (ii) relation that experience of each person comprises a complex pattern of
striving, thinking and feeling. Thus the counsellor should have a non-judgemental attitude and this implies helping
an individual and not controlling him.
(d) Understanding: Tyler (1961) destines understanding as the ability to grasp clearly and completely the
meaning the client is trying to convey. Counsellor should be able to participate completely in the clients
communications and his comments should harmonize with what the client is trying to convey.
4. Counsellor Skills: Rapport attentiveness and empathy are the three skills needed to facilitate counselling.
These are closely related to acceptance and understanding.
Rapport: It refers to that atmosphere created by the counsellor at the initial stage of the counselling process
by which a comfortable and unconditional relation with the counselee is established.
Attentiveness: To establish rapport the counsellor has to take into consideration the needs, roots and conflicts
of the counselee into consideration and for this a friendly and attentive attitude on the part of the counsellor is
Empathy: Refers to feeling into, Dymond (1949) describes empathy as the imaginativeness of oneself into
the thinking, feeling and acting of another and so structuring the world as he does. This is significant factor in
(b) Describe the advantages of group guidance. Illustrate a group guidance activity you have conducted
for your learners.
Ans. Following are the advantages of group guidance:



(i) It is suitable for certain kinds of guidance activities like information about career or orienting new entrant
about the school. Here individual guidance will be a mere waste of time and other resources involved in
undertaking the activity.
(ii) It establishes a relationship between students and guidance worker which creates avenues for other guidance
(iii) It provides orientation to unfamiliar situation on new experiences.
(iv) It paves the way for individual counselling. Group guidance save time and effort on part of the counsellor
as well as the students. Further it reduces monotony.
(v) It focuses collective attention on common problems. A group situation helps individual, more readily, to
find a solution for a problem if he works on it alone.
(vi) It provides the individual with a chance for real group life and learn how to deal with people. In group
situation students are more exposed to a variety of group experiences in the school life which helps them
to modify their behaviour in a socially acceptable ways. They also learn to respect others point of view.
(vii) It also helps a counsellor to multiply contacts with the students.
(viii) The informal and free atmosphere of the group discussion provides a good opportunity to the counsellor to
observe students as she/he reacts in a group situation and to learn about him/her which otherwise is not
Principles of Guidance in Group: There are few considerations to be kept in mind if one is organizing group
guidance effectively. They are as follows:
(i) It is a team work. It requires the co-operation of the students, teachers, administrative staff in the school
(ii) The identified group should have the common need, problem.
(iii) Group guidance must be a continuous activity of the school so that its impact is realized by the students.
(iv) It requires active participation of all the team members. So such methods should be employed so that the
students feel the curiosity to ask questions, issues etc. While organizing class talks, individuals should be
encouraged to express their personal experiences.
(v) The size of the group should not be over crowded.
(vi) It is not a substitute for individual guidance, but both types are complementary to each other.
Group Guidance: Activities
Group guidance includes various types of activities, like:
Orientation of the Students: The purpose of the orientation programme is to help each person feel at home in
a new surrounding. It is supposed that every new situation makes the individual feel uncomfortable and possess
difficulty in accepting and adjusting to it very easily. The orientation can present information about the institution,
its physical layout, personnel and administrative arrangement, help students become acquainted with one another
etc. The newly admitted students can be given a brief information about the school, the various facilities available,
the rules and regulations, the course curriculum what is expected to them etc.
Orientation thus begins when the parents first take a child to a nursery class. This is not the end. Orientation
should be provided for each individual moving into the school during the term as he moves into the new class.
Orientation programme will not be the same for elementary, secondary, senior secondary students. It has to be
different at different levels depending on the need.
Career Conferences: It is carefully planned, where a series of meetings are arranged for students to provide
information on themes, helpful to them to plan their future professional and educational career. The planning of
career conferences call for a collective effort on the part of the counsellor, school faculty and the students. Further
a planning committee consisting of representatives of all these groups should be formed to give the entire school, a
sense of involvement. The parents can be taken as the resource persons. Certain guidelines can be drawn while
planning a conference. These are:
The students should be informed before hand about the purpose of the conference.



Through the checklist, the occupational interest of the students may be determined so that the approach
speakers in those areas may be invited.
The name of the guest speakers is suggested in the meeting and the person who is going to take the charge
be appointed.
The day is discussed on which the conference is to be held. The exams should not be approaching during
that time period e.g. in that case students will not show interest.
The days schedule of talks, discussion groups, film shows to be arranged.
Duties to be assigned to the staff members and volunteer students.
Prepare pamphlets for due publicity. A note to be sent to the parents informing about the conference.
Suitable charts could be arranged for the students by providing them with idea pertaining to topic/theme of
the career conference.
(c) Describe the different type of behavioural problems observed among school going children. Identify
specific behavioural problems among secondary level students in your school. Find out the causes of their
behavioural problems. Write a report on how you have helped these students to deal with their behavioural
Ans. The nature of behaviour problems may vary from person to person. The behaviour problem of students can
be as serious a handicap of their development and learning as the mentally retarded childrens slowness to learn.
Teachers and parents are faced with the difficulty of dealing with the behaviour problems of their children. Behaviour
problems of children often interfere with the learning process and are incompatible with their educational programme.
Students with behaviour problems often offer the most frustrating problems or the most rewarding challenges
for teacher. The behaviours reflecting children are seldom liked by their peers, teachers, brothers and sisters or even
parents. It is important for teacher to understand the factor which could be responsible for the observable behaviour
problems of their students behaviour or else he/she might deal with such students in a way which might aggravate
the result. Students with behaviour problems often interfere with the learning process and are incompatible with
their educational programme. Students have a number of physical, psychological and educational needs which are
basis of their growth. All these needs are inter-connected. They interact with one another and leave their imprint on
the growing child.
When these needs are not fulfilled to the children, these behavioural problems start as a lacking of needs, not
given. So to stop or say to not face with this problem of children, teachers and parents should care what needs are
lacking which is needed for growth of children.
Problems of Children
Some problems faced by children are extreme shyness, fearfulness, aggression, attention getting, hyperactive,
excessive dependent, day dreaming, lying and cheating, stealing etc. Many of these problems can be handled by the
teacher/parents by using reward such as adult praise, treats and trinkets and parents/teachers can be trained to
engage children with such problems in appropriate behaviours in order to earn these rewards.
Identification of Behaviour Problems
Quary and his co-worker have developed a well known classification system of behaviour problems they have
classified these behaviour problems in four clusters.
Conduct Disorder
Disobedient, disruptive, get into fights, be bossy, temper tantrums.
Personality Disorder
Social withdrawal, anxiety, depression and inferiority, guilty, shyness, unhappiness.
Short attention span, extreme passivity, day dreaming, younger playmates, clumsiness.
Socialized Delinquent
Truancy, gang membership, theft.
Different Type of Behaviour Problem
(i) Classroom Distribution: The extent to which the child teases and torments classmates, interferes with
others work and is quickly drawn into noise making and must be controlled.



(ii) Impatience: The extent to which the child starts work too quickly, is sloppy in work, is unwilling to go
back over work and rush through work, Physically more active and restless.
(iii) Disrespect-Defiance: The extent to which the child speaks disrespectfully to teachers, resists doing what
is asked of belittles the work being done and breaks classroom rules.
(iv) Achievement Anxiety: The extent to which the child gets upset about tests and scores and is sensitive to
criticism and correction.
(v) External Reliance: The extent to which the child looks to others for direction, requires precise direction
and has difficulty in making ones own decisions.
(vi) Inattentive Withdrawn: The extent to which the child loses attention, seems to be oblivious to what
transpires in the classroom and seems difficult to reach, or is preoccupied.
(vii) Need for Closeness to Teacher: The extent to which the child seeks out the teacher before and after
class, offers to do things for the teachers, is friendly towards the teachers and likes to be physically close to the
(viii) Anxiety Depression: The child seems to be tense with face drawn and rigid, cries easily at the smallest
pretext, does not talk to anyone, doesnt take interest in things. The child gets upset about tests and test score, is
sensitive to criticism or correction.
(ix) Aggression and Violence: A hostile or angry behaviour directed to harm or injure a person or property.
(x) Truancy: The child who is frequently absent in school for vague reasons or minor ailments.
(xi) Physical Injury: Recurrent and multiple injuries are observed for which no adequate evidence is given
for delay like medication, spots, strap marks, bites and burns.
Causes of Behaviour Problems
There are several causes for behaviour problems in children as:
1. Personal and Social Needs: A childs need for attention, recognition, approval and belonging are just as
real and compelling as the need for food and drinks. A child deprived of attention might resort to any activity which
promises being into the limelight. Besides social needs, the need of self-respect, the need to feel that one is free and
independent and important as an individual might be expressed by an individual in the form of disobedience,
disorderly, unco-operative, truant, or talks when he/she should be listening or pushes when he/she should be waiting
for his/her turn.
2. The teacher and classroom condition: Some of the behaviour problem are also caused because of teachers.
Teachers who are sarcastic or who humiliate their students and those who are down right unfair to them, earn the
animosity of the students, and they become intent on seeking means of gaining revenge. The vacillating teacher
with no set policy also contributes to students misbehaviour, since they try out to see what and how much they can
do before the teacher demonstrates displeasure. The teacher who are easy going, who tries to be a pal to the
students, in another, who practically extends the class an invitation to do as they jolly well please. The teachers
methodology as well as personality can contribute to the incidence of behaviour problem.
Along with teacher the classroom is also a vital factor for the cause of behavioural problem among the students.
Dimension of the classroom itself, particularly the size of room, the number of students and the seating arrangements
are the factors related to classroom condition. The greater the number of students in the class, the less opportunity
there is for anyone to obtain the attention she/he wants and needs. The more crowded the room, the greater is the
opportunity and temptation for a student to misbehave. Subgroups within a classroom exert a considerable effect on
individual behaviour.
3. Social and Cultural Condition: Among the socio-cultural factors which have been found to contribute to
the misbehaviour of children and youth are certain television shows, movies, magazines in which they encounter
violence, horror, sadism, terror, disregarding of principles of decency and morality. Children watch the wrong
television shows, and hence they get affected by the behavioural problem. The behaviour problem of adolescents is
often explained in terms of the unfavourable world conditions in which they live. Discrimination, persecution and
inequality of opportunity on the basis of race, religion or nationality, may also contribute to the misbehaviour in



young people. Thus it can be concluded that social and cultural conditional imprints are the causes for the behavioural
problem in the students/children.
4. Home Condition: It also causes behavioural problem among students coz what the students see in their
family they learn. Students whose home have been broken due to death of parents, their divorce or by the prolonged
absence of both parents for business or social reasons probably lack the firm, They need loving parental guidance
for satisfactory adjustment in school life. A child learns to disregard social and moral conventions when their
parents become impudent and rude to one another; when they fail to respect each others rights and dignity.
Students become accustomed to the belief that the rest of the world exists to serve them. When such students
find themselves in a situation where they are not expected to perform tasks which are not immediately enjoyable or
to conform to needed regulation for the good of the group, they do not know how to act. Aggressive and behaviourproblem students often come from homes in which their parents are consistent disciplinarians and show lesser love
and affection.
5. Occasional Lapses: In some instance, none of the factors that have been mentioned above might the
applicable. The explanation of the misbehaviour might be the simple fact that students were unaware, of a certain
regulation or that they had forgotten it, or that they did not think it would be enforced or that they were carried away
is the excitement of a movement and did something that they now they shouldnt have done and wouldnt if they had
only stopped to deliberate before acting.
Truancy from school can mean of the two things, first the students is escaping from an intolerable situation in
which the school programme brings nothing but failure, shame disgrace and ridicule from peers. Second, the student
is suffering from serious emotional conflicts. In either case truancy is a symptom demanding immediate attention
from a psychologist or responsible adult. The students require prompt and thoughtful attention in order to help them
attain better emotional adjustment.
Suggestions for Dealing with Behavioural Problems
Is punishment helpful to improve behaviour?
A teacher is punishing a student whenever he consciously inflicts physical or mental pain or discomfort upon
other student. An important area of misunderstanding must be clarified before we proceed further. There is substantial
qualitative difference between withholding gratification and inflicting punishment. For example, Mrs. Malika, the
physical education teacher of 6th grade determined that all boys should wear their regular uniform in every class.
On Wednesday Imran forgot his uniform for the third time in a row. The teacher punished him and asked him wear
a girls uniform and come in front of the class. The classmate made fun of him and called him sissy. The boy soon
burst into tears. He did, however, remember his uniform daily as long as he had the same teacher.
In this case the childs fear of re-experiencing unpleasantness becomes the major reason for pupils stopping
the behaviour. This is positive technique. Research shows that punishment may suppress deviant behaviour for a
time, but it does not weaken the bad habit.
Technique for Behaviour Management
Some of the proved technique effective in managing behaviour problem in the classroom are as following:
(i) Signals such as a finger on the lips or a frowny shaking the teachers head might be all that is required
to get the students back to their work.
(ii) Moving nearer the noisy pair could remain them of the proper class-room decorum.
(iii) Ignoring the noise for a moment might be Mr. Shoods choice of technique if he believes that the noise
will soon subside by itself.
(iv) Power with reason is one technique.
(v) Verbal clarity of a command produces results.
(vi) A firm control technique conveying I mean it.
(vii) A task-focussed technique dealing with noise in the I hear noise in the back of this room. We will never
finish learning how to do square-root if that continues.



(viii) Encourage the students by pointing out their good points and their peers.
(ix) Stop misbehaviour in time.
(x) Establish limits and maintain consistentency.
These are certain actions which we should avoid while dealing with students. These actions have been found
inappropriate. Thus, for helping a behaviour problem student, do not include the following:
(i) Using brute force: You hit me, Ill hit you back!
(ii) Accusing the student of misbehaving. You are, in a sense, forcing the student to lie to save face.
(iii) Comparing the students behaviour with that of his/her peers or siblings.
(iv) Arguing- you cant win a argument with a student. Usually, you both lose.
(v) Embarrassing the students in front of his/her peers or other elders.
(vi) Removing the students from activities she/he does well and enjoys doing.
(vii) Ridiculing the student for his/her mistakes or misbehaviour.
(viii) Not to label the student until sure.
Behaviour Modification Technique
This technique is helpful for parents and teachers who wants to relate more effectively to children and to assist
them to grow in the most healthy way, both physically and mentally. Major terms used in this context are:
Reinforcement: It is a consequence following a behaviour that is designed to increase the behaviour occurrence
in the future.
Punishment: Punishment is a consequence following a behaviour that is designed to decrease the behaviours
future occurrence.
Extinction: Extinction is not-responding to a behaviour in order to decrease that behaviour.
Shaping: Shaping is the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations to the desired behaviour.
Consistency: Consistency is following through with a selected approach.
Observation: Observation is watching behaviour for a specific period of time in order to determine the frequency
of the behaviours occurrences.
Consequence: Consequence is the event that follows the occurrence of a behaviour.
Baseline: It is the frequency of occurrence of a behaviour prior to intervention.
Manipulation: Manipulation is the intervention technique in order to change a behaviour.
Remedial Measure: Some of the measures that teachers, parents and counsellors may take to manage behaviour
problems are as follows.
Serious behavioural problem teenagers are refferred to the agencies for the services and the way of working
of agencies:
The main and very important agencies of teenagers, with serious behavioural problems are counsellors and
psychologist. The counsellors first responsibility is to make sure that he or she does not further damage to the child
and manipulate the childs present environment in order to cause more appropriate behaviour to develop in spite of
past and present circumstances that can not be changed. The emphasis is on the present and future, and not the past
and on improving the school and have environment or using community resources for childs benefit.
The counsellor, when receives a request for assistance, would usually talk with parents or teachers to get a first
hand report and assesment of the problem of the child. Following a detailed picture and understanding of the childs
problem for the source of referral, he would then decide whether the particular problem of the child could be
handled by the parent or teacher or herself/himself. If counsellor feels that the problem is severe she/he makes use
of a number of diagnostic techniques in making study about the child, such as psychological tests, interviews
observations of the child, etc. The childs physical health in some cases may also be ascertained through consultation
with the parents or a physical examination.
Following the completion of the detailed study, findings will be discussed with the childs parents and
recommendations will be made to help him. The recommendation may be therapy for the child, together with
counselling for one or both parents. Just as the child needs help, so do the parents in knowing how to work with the



child at home. The counsellor also always discuss helpful procedures with the childs teacher. He maintains a
contact with the parents and teacher to check on the childs progress after a plan of assistance has been established,
determine whether the planned strategy is working with the child or it needs to be changed or modified and further
determine whether assistance is needed.
The counsellor can also address a group of teachers and explain in a general way the pupils difficulties and
discuss methods by which teachers who come in contact with such children can help or plan a programme. The
counsellors can also assist the school with Parent-Teacher-Association (PTA) meetings or parents discussion groups.
In spite of counsellor or psychologist the teenagers with serious behavioural problems can also be helped by
the teacher at school and by parents at home. Just what parents and teacher need is to be trained according to plan
of assistance set by the counsellor and psychologist. This is also because child spends most of his/her time either at
school under guidance of teacher or at home under guidance of parents.