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Lightning Protection of Transmission Lines: Optimal Shielding

Lightning Protection of Transmission Lines: Optimal Shielding

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Lightning protection of transmission lines: optimal shielding design procedure

T.T. Nguyen and R. Holt
Abstract: The paper first derives a set of shielding constraints which must be satisfied for achieving effective shielding against lightning for all of the phase conductors of an overhead transmission line in relation to earth-wire placement. The shielding constraints are obtained from the analysis related to the rigorous proof of the premise that, once the earth-wire position has been determined to achieve effective shielding for a nominated critical lightning stroke current, then shielding of the phase conductors is still maintained for stroke currents greater than the critical value. An optimal shielding design procedure is then developed in which the cost function relating to earth-wire position($ is minimised subject to shielding constraints and specified clearance constraints. Results of lightning protection designs using the procedure, to achieve effective shielding for a range of transmission-line configurations, are presented.

List of principal symbols

lightning stroke current critical lightning stroke current nonlinear function of conductor height in Eriksson’s EGMs nonlinear function of lightning stroke current in Eriksson’s EGMs attractive radius associated with a phase conductor attractive radius associated with the earth wire phase conductor height above the earth plane earth-wire height above the earth plane horizontal distance between the earth wire and the phase conductor nominated for analysis

e-@ 2
“0

z

S

attractive radius associated with a phase conductor for critical current Io attractive radius associated with the earth wire for critical current lo separation between the two earth wires in the transmission line with a horizontal configuration separation between two adjacent phase conductors in a transmission line with a horizontal configuration kth phase conductor height above the earth plane of phase conductor Pk
gD(hk)

gdh)

fxr,

dHP)

distance from the earth wire to the phase conductor nominated in the analysis in the general case distance from the earth wire to the phase conductor nominated in the analysis for achieving effective shielding shielding angle in the general case shielding angle for acheving effective shielding fao) B
0 TEE. 2003
IEE Proceeditqr online no. ZW30819 doi:lO.lM9/ip-ptd2~30819 Paper fin1 received 26th June 2002 and in revised form 17th April 2033 T.T. Nguyen is with the Energy Systems Centre, Sfhool of Electrical, Elenronic and Computer Engineering, The University of Westem Australia. 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Westem Australia 6W9. Australia R. Holt may be coniacted at Po Box 1192, Canlung Bndge, Applerross, Westem Australia 6153, Australia

distance from the earth wire to nhase conductor Pk shielding angle with respect to phase conductor P k

kf-8

Ak

B k

attractive radius associated with phase conductor Pk for critical current Io location of the earth wire (also the origin of the X-Y co-ordinates) location of the phase conductor nominated for analysis intersection between the circle having the centre at 0 and radius DsS, and the circle having the centre at P and radius Dsc intersection between the horizontal line at distance h above the earth plane and circle having the centre at P and radius Dsc intersection between the circle having the centre at 0 and radius D!s, and the circle having the centre on the phase conductor Pk and radius DOScK intersection between the horizontal line at distance hk above the earth plane and circle
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D

having the centre on the phase conductor Pk and radius D& X co-ordinates of points A and E, respectively Y co-ordinates of points A and B, respectively Xco-ordinate of point A when the lightning stroke current has the critical value Y co-ordinate of point A when the lightning stroke current has the critical value phase conductors phase conductors of the second circuit in a double-circuit transmission line earth wires identified by ‘I’ and ‘2, respectively intersection between the circle having the and centre at 0, radius Dss, and the circle having the centre at O2 and radius DSS intersection between the circle having the centre on the centre phase conductor and radius D , and the vertical line passing through that phase conductor infinitesimal change in i from z, infinitesimal change in xA and y,, respectively, corresponding to infinitesimal change in z by & the Y co-ordinates of points D and E, respectively
YE-YD

earth-wire cost function number of phase conductors

1

Introduction

one in the case of Eriksson’s EGMs which are sigdcantly different from the traditional EGMs previously presented by Brown and Whitehead. The first objective of the present paper is to develop a formal and rigorous proof of the premise. The starting point is that of the derivation based on the electrogeometric theory of a set of effective shielding constraints for a nominated critical current. A formal proof is then developed to show that, if the shielding constraints are satisfied at the critical current, then they will also be satisfied for any lightning stroke currents greater than the critical value. The development focuses on the Eriksson’s EGMs, given that these have been presented more recently. The second objective is to develop a systematic and optimal procedure for effective shielding design using the constraints derived. The previously-published procedure for shielding design has been based on the representation of one phase conductor of a multiconductor transmission line. Very often, it is the phase conductor with the greatest height that is considered in the design. It has been assumed that the other lower phase conductors would be protected once the highest phase conductor has been shielded [IM]. In the new procedure, all of the phase conductors of a transmission line are represented simultaneously. There is one set of effective shielding constraints associated with each phase conductor. Previous assumption in relation to the use of a single phase conductor in the design is not required in the method formulated in this paper. The design is based on constrained optimisation, in which the earthwire cost is minimised subject to the shielding constraints and statutory clearance requirements. The procedure is applicable to any transmission-lineconfiguration. The application of the design procedure developed to representative transmission-line configurations is reported in the paper.
2 Eriksson’s EGMs

Fundamental to all of the methods of designing lightning protection for overhead transmission lines that use earth wires is the premise that, once effective shielding has been established for a critical lightning stroke current, shielding will be maintained for all lightning stroke currents greater than the critical current [1-7]. However, no formal and rigorous proof of this shielding premise or reference to a proof can he found in the open literature. For the electrogeometricmodels (EGMs) in which the earth plane is explicitly represented [I-51, the premise is often justified in passing, in previously-published works, by briefly making reference to diagrams. However, this cannot be taken to be a formal and rigorous proof. For facilitating the subsequent discussion, the group of EGMs that represent the earth plane as a separate structure is denoted here as the IEEE EGMs, which include the models presented by Brown and Whitehead [3] and those recommended by the IEEE [I, 4, 5) More recently, EGMs which do not explicitly represent the earth plane have been presented [6, 71. Supported by field data, Eriksson [6] and Rizk [qhave proposed EGMs in which an attractive radius associated with a structure has an explicit dependence on the height of the structure, and the earth plane represents a default condition. For convenience, this second group of EGMs is denoted here as Eriksson’s EGMs. The Eriksson’s EGMs have been applied for designing the shielding of a transmission line for a nominated critical lightning stroke current [6].The design has also implicitly assumed that the shielding would still be effective for any lightning stroke currents greater than the critical current. However, there have been no published papers which give any justification or proof that the assumption is a correct
660

Based on Eriksson’s EGMs [6], the shielding analysis diagram of Fig. 1 is constructed. The attractive radii Dsc and Dss in Fig. 1 associated with the phase conductor and

Fig. 1 Shielding a m l y s i ~ diqrom
General case of incomplete shielding condition Enksson’s EGM
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the earth wire are given in the following:
Dsc = % . f r ( I )
DSS = k . f E ( I )

4

Proof

(‘1
(2)

In (I) and (2), fdf) is an increasing function of lightning k, stroke current I [HI; and k,,depend on the heights h and H,, of the phase conductor and the earth wire, respectively:
kc = g D ( h )
kz = g D ( H p )

4.1 Requirement The requirement in the proof is to show that when lightning stroke current, I, is greater than the critical current I,, the shielding diagram becomes that shown in Fig. 3. It is, therefore, required to prove the following:
(i) Part 1: Point A is below the horizontal line at distance h above the earth plane. (ii) Part 2: Point B is inside the circle having the centre at 0 (the earth wire) and radius Dss.

(3)

(4)

From previously published results derived from many observed lightning flashes to a variety of structures [W], gD in (3) and (4) is a monotonically increasing function of conductor height. With H,,>h, (3) and (4) give

4.2 Proof of Part 1 By delining z =fA& (I) and (2) become:
Dsc = k,.z
(6)

Ds = k,.z
ks > kc
(5)

(7)

At the critical current I,, functionf, has the value off&)

which is denoted as q.For the purpose of developing the ) proof, functionf(do, On, z is defined in:

3

Effective shielding premise

In Fig. 2 is shown the shielding analysis diagram of the case where effective shielding of phase conductor P is just achieved at a critical current Io [q.With reference to Fig. 2, the effective shielding premise is stated in the following: Once the distance & between the phase conductor and earth wire, and shielding angle So have been determined to achieve the effective shielding condition at the critical , lightning stroke current 1 as shown in Fig. 2, then effective shielding of the phase conductor will he maintained for any lightning stroke current greater than the critical value Io.

(8) In (8), yA and ye are the Yco-ordinates of points A and 5 in Fig. 3, respectively. When z= zo (or I= I,), points A and 5 coincide. This leads to:

f ( d O , ~ O > 4 Y B - YA =

f(do,@o,zn) 0 = It is then required to show that:

(9)

f(do,So,z ) >0 for zt zo (or I >Io) (10) Point A in Fig. 3 is the intersection between the two circles having the centres at 0 and P with radli k 3 and k?, respectively. The Xand Y co-ordinates of point A , (XA, y ~ ) ,

v

... ..

-.. .-.-.. . . . C .

. . -.. . . b

h

P

2Z 7z

arth plane

m///-

earth plane

Fig. 2 Shielding m l y s i r diagram Effective shielding condition at the critical current Erikssan’s EGM
IEE Proe-CPMr Trmm. Dlrrrh, VoL 150, No. 6, Notw!her 2003

Fig. 3 ShirHing annlysis diagram Lightning stroke c u r ” greater than the critical current Eriksson’s EGM
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therefore satisfy the following equations of the two circles:

x;+d=gz
and
(xa

(11)

-dosin(&))’+ (yA+ d ~ c o s ( & ) )= k : 1 ~ (12) ) The property offldo, eo, z is investigated in the following, when z=zo+L-, with L being positive and infinitesimal: ! With z = z o + A z , linearising (11) and (12) about x = dosin(0o) + k , q and y> = ; o cos(&), which are the cod ordinates of point A in Fig. 2, where z = io,and then solving the linearised equations gives

At z= zo, Ad,, Bo, zo) = 0 and gdQ) = 0. The quadratic form g&) has another root at a,. Assuming first that a,<@, then gs(a)>O if a<al or a>@. With this assumption of al<a,,./&, SO, i) will be positive for z>io because gs(a)>O for a>@. This is then consistent with the property derived and given in inequality (16) thatflh, Oo. z) becomes positive when z= zo + Az, with L being positive and infinitesimal. If it is assumed otherwise that %<al, then gda)<O for %<a<al, which means flh, BO. z)<O for This is contradictory to the zo<z<zi (with zI = &). property given in inequality (16). Hence, it is concluded thatfld,, O0, i ) > O for z>zo. The proof of part 1 is completed.

4.3 Proof of Part 2
withx~<k,zo,k,<k,, Az>Oand u & c o ~ ( ~ ~ ) AyA, in (13) >O is negative, hence,
AYA<~ As yB= -docos(Oo) which is independent of z: (14) The equation of the circle having the centre at 0 (earth wire) with radius Dss= ksz in Fig. 3 is given by
X 2 + Y2

-el

=0

(24)
(25)

The X and Y co-ordinates of point B in Fig. 3 are:
XB

AYB = 0 (15) From (8) and (15), and inequality (14), together withflh,
00,
20) = 0:

= d sin(&) o

+ k,z

f(Q, 00,z > 0 for z = zo + Az ) (16) Inequality (16) confirms that flu&,Go, z) has the property that it becomes positive when i increases from zo to zo+ &-. It is now required to prove thatf(4, BO, z remains positive ) for any z>zo. From the expression for ya which is obtained by solving (1 1) and (12) simultaneously, and yB= -&os(Qo) together with the attractive radii given in (6) and (7), eo,z) is expressed using (8):

y~ = -do COS(&) (26) It is required to prove that point B is inside the circle described by (24). It is sufficient to prove that, by substituting X = x B and Y=yB, the left-hand side of (24) is negative, i.e.

flu&,

(27) The left-hand side of inequality (27) is a quadratic form in z. It has two roots 22 and zo. with z2<0. Hence, the left-hand side is negative for z>zo. With the validity of inequality (27) being established, the proof of part 2 is completed. When z = io (or I= IO);inequality (27) becomes
-

(kf

e ) 2+ 2d0 sin(&)k,z + di < O

for Z>ZO

(kf - <)d + 2d0 sin(Oo)kcio +do’ = 0
In (17): a = l
(18)

(28)

a=<-kz (19) It is then required to prove that, from inequality (IO) and (17): a.acos(00) -d~cos(H0)>2d0.~in(00)

4.4 Discussion The proof developed in Sections 4.2 and 4.3 has the focus on the case in which the shielding angle is positive, i.e. fl&-W. However, the proof for the case of negative shielding angle follows the steps similar to those which have been derived for the case of positive angle. In the proof in Sections4.2 and 4.3, it has been taken that the circle having the centre on the phase conductor and the circle having the centre on the earth wire intersect, i.e. the argument of the square root function in the right-hand side of (17) is positive or zero. The following Section discusses the condition in which the two circles do not intersect.
5

where
a0=d (21) When z = io,the left-hand side of inequality (20) is equal to the right-hand side. Hence, the left-hand side of inequality (20) is positive when i = z o . As the left-hand side of inequality (20) is an increasing function of z , it is also positive for any z>zo (or a>%). For positive left-hand side of inequality (20) when a>%, the proof of inequality (20) is equivalent to proving that, following squaring both sides of inequality (20) and rearrangement:

A particular case of effective shielding

With Eriksson’s EGMs, the effective shielding condition shown in Fig. 4 can arise where the circle having the centre on the phase conductor and radius &is completely inside the circle, having the centre on the earth wire and radius D:s. The condition happens when D$>&+ D”,, i.e. >do (29) If inequality (29) is satisfied at 20, then, for z>zo (i.e. I>Io),
-

(L

~ ) Z O

gs(a)>O for a>ao In inequality (22): gs(a) = u2a2 + 2d,,(k?cos(200) - ki)a
662

(22)

+4

(23)

(t- kc)z>do (30) Hence, shielding will he maintained for lightning stroke current greater than the critical value Io. When the argument of the square-root function in the right-hand side of (17) becomes negative, inequality (30),
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Defining
g(z) Y E - J’D (31) and substituting the Y co-ordinates of points D and E into (3 I) gives

g(z) = l/k:-z’

-

f

e’

- kc~

+ do COS(OO)

(32)

’ In (321, eo is the distance between earth wires O1and 0 in Fig. 5 where eo is, from Fig. 5, 2(s-&sin(OO)) and s is the separation between two adjacent phase conductors. At critical current Io, effective shielding is achieved hence
dzo) 2 0 For point E to exist, it is required that
HP

(33)

h

k,+O 2 2

(34)

As g(z) in (32) is an increasing function ofz, it is concluded

that, from inequality (33):

I
earth plane

Fig. 4 Shielding analysir diagram Special case where D:s>do+D!c Enksson’s EGM

y(z)>O f o r z z z o (35) With the validity of inequality (35) being established, the proof of the effective shielding premise in relation to the centre phase conductor in Fig. 5 is completed.

which represents an effective shielding condition, is satisfied. This complements the proof developed in Section 4.
6 The case of horizontal configuration with t w o earth wires

7 Effective shielding constraints for a multiconductor transmission line The results obtained from the analysis developed in Sections 4-6 are now extended to individual phase conductors of a multiconductor transmission line, for developing the design procedure. In Fig. 6 is shown the shielding analysis diagram for a phase conductor identilied by Pk.The position of the earth

With reference to Fig. 5, shielding of the centre phase conductor PI is achieved when point E is above point D.

?

.......... c
dh
.........

.....................
P2

.............
P,

...... C

Mh

Po

h

HP

hh

7%h n a /+ r l

plane 4% %-

A....-

+

+
earth plane

Fig. 5 Shielding anulysis diagram Horizontal transmission line configuration with two earth wires

Fig. 6 Shielding analysis diagram Effective shielding condition at the critical current
Minimum requirement Eriksson’s EGM
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wire 0 relative to this phase conductor is given by dhand Qh. The diagram in Fig. 6 represents the minimum condition in which effective shielding is just achieved at the critical current I,. As the minimum condition might not he achieved in the final design, for each and every phase conductor, a more general situation of effective shielding, at the critical current Io, is shown in Fig. 7. ln the final design, either the diagram in Fig. 6 or that in Fig. 7 is applicable to a phase conductor.

Phase conductor Po is nominated for defining the earthwire position in terms of & and shielding angle 0,. .From Fig. 8, d k and 0, (with kfO) are related to 4 and Qo by
dk =

[(doSin(00)+Hk)2+(vk-dnCOs00)2]''2

(42)

In (42) and (43), Hk and Vk are the co-ordinates of phase conductor Pk with respect to phase conductor Po.

Y

. . .... . . . . . . 0 .

Z Z % / / / / m plane -anh
Fig. 7 Shielding analysis diagram Effective shielding condition at the critical current Eriksson's EGM

Fig. 8 Definitwn of the earth-wire Dosition with rewecl to o h e co;;ductor Po Po = the vhase conductor nominated for defining the shieldine ande 0, Pk= phase conductor P,(k#O) 0 = earth wire
I

Drawing on (9) and (28), and inequalities (10) and (27), the effective shielding constraints applied to phase conductor P,, corresponding to the situation in Fig. 6 or Fig. 7, are given by fk(dk,Hk,ZO)>o k = 0 , 1 , 2 , . . . . . . ,M - l gk(dk,ok;Zo) 5 0 k = 0 , 1 , 2 , .. . . . . : M - 1 In inequalities (36) and (37): (36) (37)

gk(dki @ h , Z O ) = (k:h where

~

k:)d

+ 2dh Sin(&)k<kZO+ d,'
2

(39) (40)

a i = k, -

ek

With (42) and (43), the constraint functionsfk(dk, t?,, zo) and gk(dk, ,e i for ) , n individual phase conductors are fimctions of variables & and 0 ., In the case of a horizontal configuration with two earth wires, the shielding constraints in inequalities (33) and (34) are required in respect of the centre phase conductor. The effective shielding proof given in Section 4 has been based on the minimum condition of Fig. 6. However, the proof extends directly to the situation in Fig. 7 which is discussed as follows: Whenfk(dk, Bk, zo)>O, then it is straightfonvard to prove thatfk(dk, z)>O for z > z , . If it is assumed thatf&fk, Oh, z ) i O for z>zo. then there exists z, such that z n c i , i i , and fjdk, oh, 2,) = 0. However, based on the results in Section 4.2, iffh(dhr Sk, zmr)=O,then, for z>z,, fk(dk, O, , z)>O. This leads to a contradiction to the assumption. Hence, if the effective shielding condition in Fig. 7 is achieved for z=zn, then, for z>zn (i.e. Z>Zn), fk(dh, Oh,

e,,

z)>O.

kck = gD(b) (41) M is the total number of phase conductors; subscript k identifies individual phase conductors.
664

A similar reasoning also confirms that, if gk(dk, ok, 2,) i 0, then gh(dhr Oh, z)<O for z>zo. Hence, if the effective shielding condition of Fig. 7 is achieved for zn (i.e. for critical current I , ) , then effective shielding is still maintained for any lightning stroke current greater than Io.
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When z leads to the situation where the argument (with ol = 2) the square-root function in rightin hand side of (38) is negative, effective shielding will still be maintained as proved in Section 5.

c ,replaced by q

LO1 \

8

Optimal shielding design procedure

In addition to the effective shielding constraints, there are other design considerations and constraints, including those relating to clearance requirement. However, in general, there will be a range of earth-wire positions that satisfy all of the constraints. There are different design criteria which can be used in selecting a particular earth-wire position among a possible range. A particular criterion adopted here is that based on minimising the earth-wire cost. However, the procedure can he adopted to any other criteria. The cost in relation to earth wire(.$ is denoted by C€&, go) which is a function of 4 and Bo. The shielding design is then expressed in terms of the constrained optimisation in which C€(& 0,) is minimised with respect to 4 and Qo, and subject to: the set of constraints given in inequalities (36) and (37) the set of constraints given in inequalities (33) and (34), for the c a s of a horizontal configuration with two earth wires and

Fig. 9
case I

Shieldinng achieved wirh earth-wire parameters obtained i n

dk>dmin k = O , 1 , 2 ,...., M - I

(44)
(45)

Doublecircuit transmission line Vertiwl configuration with the middle phase conductors in the outer positions Po, PI, P2, P,, P4, = phase conductors Ps O,, 0 2 = wrth wires Lo,=circle having the Centre at 0, and radius equal to the attractive radius associated with the earth wire at the critical current Lw, LpI, Lp2= circles having the Centres at PO,P, and P2 and radii equal to the attractiveradii associated with the phase conductors Po, PI and P2 at lhe critical current, respectively

p<6'k59v k = O , 1 , 2 ,_..., - l M

d,, in inequality (44) is the minimum distance required ,,, between the earth wire and individual phase conductors. However, any other clearance constraints can be formulated and included in the optimisation.
The sequential quadratic programming (SQP) method [9] is applied to solve the constrained minimisation problem.
9
Representative designs

In (47) and (48), hk is the height of the individual phase conductors, and H,, is the height of each of the earth wires. Hp is a function of 4 and So given in (from Fig. 9) H,, = ho d COS(UO) o (49) In (49), ho is the height of phase conductor Po. In the representative design study, a critical current IO with a typical value of lOkA is adopted. In addition to effective shielding constraints, those relating to minimum separation between earth wires and phase conductors are included. The minimum separation is set to be 7.5m. The results obtained from the cost nunimisation subject to constraints are as follows:
d = 7Sm, o
80

+

9.1 Case 1 The optimal design procedure is applied to a 330kV transmission-line configuration shown in outline in Fig. 9. The transmission line is of a double-circuit construction, in which each circuit has a vertical configuration. Phase conductor Po is nominated for defining the shielding angle So, and & is the distance between earth wire O1 and phase conductor Po. For illustration, the earth-wire cost function is taken to comprise a h e d component Fo and a component proportional to the distance between each eartb wire and the tower, and the earth-wire height above the top phase conductors. The cost function CE(do,8,) is then
CE(d0,Bo) = Co[docos(Bo)+XDm -do sin(Bo)] + Fo (46) In (46), COis the cost coefficient relating to the earth-wire positions, and XDm is the perpendicular distance from phase conductor Po to the centre line of the tower. Attractive radii for phase conductors and earth wires are given, respectively, in [6]:
D&K = 0 . 6 7 h F 6 p

= 22.23"

To verify that the parameters identified give effective shielding, the shielding diagram for the critical current of lOkA is constructed in Fig. 9. Owing to symmetry, the shielding diagram is shown only for the circuit on the righthand side of the tower. The shielding diagram for the lefthand side circuit can be constructed in the same way.

(47)
(48)

D&

= 0.67Hy4.74

9.2 Case2 In this case, the design procedure is applied to a 330kV double-circuit transmission line shown in Fig. IO. The conductor spacings are reduced in comparison with those in case I . The other difference from case 1 is that all of the phase conductors in Fig. IO are at equal perpendicular distanczs from the tower. The minimum separation between the earth wires and phase conductors is set to be 4.5 m. The results obtained from the earth-wire cost minimisation subject to constraints are: do = 4.5m, 80 = 24.29"
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Fig. 10 Shielding achieued with earth-wire parameters obtained in cme 2
Doublecircuit transmission line Vertical configuration with all phase conductors at equal perpendicular distances from the tower Pi,, PI, P2, P3, Pa, P5= phase conductors 01, O,=earth wires Lo,=circle having the Centre at 0 , and radius equal to the attractive radius associated with the earth wirc at the critical current Lm, LpI. Lp2=circles having the centra at PO,P, and P2 and radii equal to the attractive radii associated with the phare conductors PO, P, and P2 at the critical current, respectively Critical current adopted in the design= lOkA Phase conductor Po is nominaled for defining 6 and So

Fig. 11 Shielding achieued with earth-wirepummeters obtained in cuse 3
Singlecircuit transmission line Horizontal configuration Po, P,, P, = phase conductors o,,O2=earth wires Lo,,Lo2=circles having the centres at 0 1 and O2and radii equal to the attractive radii associated with the earth wires 0 , and O2 at the critical current, respectively Lm, Lpl, Ln = circles having the centres at Po, PI and P2 and radii equal to the attractive radii associated with the phase wnductors Po,PI and P1 at the critical current, respectively Critical current adopted in the design= lOkA Phase conductor Po is nominated for d e h n g 6 and Bo

The shelding diagram constructed in Fig. IO for the critical current of I O kA confirms that effective shielding is achieved for all of the phase conductors, when the earth-wire positions have the parameters do and 0,.

9.3 Case 3
I n this case, a 330 kV singlecircuit

transmission line with the horizontal configuration shown in Fig. 11 is considered. The minimum separation between earth wires and phase conductors is set to be 9m. The results obtained from the earth-wire cost minimisation subject to constraints are:
do = 9m, Oo = 24.39"

effective shielding for all of the phase conductors of a transmission line. With the present availability of powerful computers at low cost, the procedure represents an advancement in which lightning protection design is carried out in a systematic way and at high speed. The design procedure removes the previous approximation, simplification and assumption based on charts and graphical methods. The design procedure developed has been successfully applied to many test cases in which representative results are given in the paper.

11

Acknowledgments

In Fig. 1 I is shown the shielding diagram for the critical current of I O k A . The diagram verifies that effective shielding for all of the phase conductors is achieved.

10

Conclusions

A rigorous analytical proof of the effective shielding premise in relation to the more recent EGMs referred to as Eriksson's EGMs has been developed in the paper. The procedure in the proof can be extended and applied to other EGMs, such as IEEE EGMs, which represent the earth plane explicitly. The detailed analysis required in the derivation of the proof has led to a set of constraints which have to be satisfied to achieve effective shielding. Based on these constraints, a systematic and practical design procedure has been developed for earth-wire placement, which achieves
666

The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Energy Systems Centre at The University of Western Australia for the research work reported in the paper, and the permission of Westem Power Corporation to use the data for the design study. They express their appreciation to The University of Westem Australia for permission to publish the paper.
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References

I 'IEEE guide for improving the lightning performana of transmission lines' IEEE Standards Board, Transmission and Distribution Committee of the IEEE Power Enginenng Swiety (IEEE Standard 1243-1997, 1997). 2 Young. F.S., Clayton, J.M., and Hileman, A.R.: 'Shielding of transmission lines. IEEE T r m . Power Anoar. Svrr.. 1963. 132. . . pp. 132-154 3 Brown, G.W., and Whitehead, ER.:'Field and analytical studies of transmission line shielding: Part II', IEEE Power Appo. Syst., 1969. 88, (S), pp. 617-626
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IEE Pro<.-Cuur T r m DVlrib.. VoL I50 No.6, Nouemher 2W3

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4 IEEE Working Group Repon: 'A simplilied method for estimating lightnine oerformance af transmission tines'. IEEE T r m . Power ADW. &r., lFi5, 104. (41, 91%932 pp. 5 IEEE Working Group Report: 'Estimating lightning performance of transmission lines T1-updates to analytical models', IEEE Trms. Power Delia, 1993, 8, (3). pp. 1254-1267 6 Eriksson, A.J.: 'An unproved eleCtrogeome1"c model for transmission line shielding analysis', IEEE T r m . Power Delir;, 1987, 2, (3), pp. 871486

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7 k k , F.A.M.: 'Modeling of transmission line exposure to direct liehtnine strokes'. IEEE Tram Power Pelio.. 1990. 5. ( ) 4. , , ,,, pi. 198i1997 8 Eriksson, A.J.: 'The incidence of lightning strikes to power lines', IEEE Tr-. Power Deli"., 1987, 2, (3). pp. 859470 9 Panier, E.R., and Tiw. A.L.: 'On combining feasibility. descent and superlinear convergence in inequality constrained aptimi/ation', Mnfh Proyrom, 1993,59, pp. 261-276

IEE Proc-Gmer T r m n . Dlrr&., Vol. 150, No. 6, Nouemher 2W3

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