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1, ISSN 1821-1259

pp. 59-66

Research paper

**EVALUATION OF BUCKET CAPACITY, DIGGING FORCE CALCULATIONS AND STATIC
**

FORCE ANALYSIS OF MINI HYDRAULIC BACKHOE EXCAVATOR

Bhaveshkumar P. PATEL1, * - Jagdish M. PRAJAPATI2

1

2

**JJT University, Research Scholar, Mechanical Engineering Department, Chudela, Dist. Jhunjhunu-333001, Rajasthan, India
**

M. S. University of Baroda, Associate Professor, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, Vadodara - 390002, Gujarat, India

**Received (01.03.2012); Revised (16.03.2012); Accepted (19.03.2012)
**

Abstract: Rapidly growing rate of industry of earth moving machines is assured through the high performance

construction machineries with complex mechanism and automation of construction activity. Design of backhoe link

mechanism is critical task in context of digging force developed through actuators during the digging operation. The

digging forces developed by actuators must be greater than that of the resistive forces offered by the terrain to be

excavated. This paper focuses on the evaluation method of bucket capacity and digging forces required to dig the

terrain for light duty construction work. This method provides the prediction of digging forces and can be applied for

autonomous operation of excavation task. The evaluated digging forces can be used as boundary condition and loading

conditions to carry out Finite Element Analysis of the backhoe mechanism for strength and stress analysis. A

generalized breakout force and digging force model also developed using the fundamentals of kinematics of backhoe

mechanism in context of robotics. An analytical approach provided for static force analysis of mini hydraulic backhoe

excavator attachment.

Key words: Digging Forces, Autonomous Excavation, Resistive forces, Heaped capacity

1. INTRODUCTION

Applications for backhoe excavator in India include use

as a utility machine at large construction sites (roads and

dams for example) and urban infrastructure projects as

well as the loading of hoppers and trucks, trenching, the

cleaning of canals and ditches, general excavation, solid

waste management and even demolition and mining work.

However, the backhoe loader, with over 70 per cent of its

usage being in excavating tasks, is most frequently used

as a production machine as opposed to a utility machine

in other parts of the world [3]. An excavator is an

engineering vehicle consisting of a backhoe with cabin for

the operator and wheeled or tracked system for movement

and engine is used for power generation. Hydraulic

system is used for operation of the machine while digging

or moving the material. Excavation is of prime

importance in mining, earth removal and general

earthworks. Hydraulic cylinders apply forces to boom,

arm and the bucket to actuate the mechanism. Depending

on the mechanism position, working pressure and

diameter of the hydraulic cylinders, the amount of

excavation force changes. In practice, boom cylinders are

used for adjusting the bucket position not for digging.

They may be used for lifting purpose. While arm and

bucket cylinder is used for excavation. Thus, calculation

of breakout or digging force must be carried out

separately when arm or bucket cylinder is the active

cylinder [2]. The maximum digging forces are the digging

forces that can be exerted at the outermost cutting point.

These forces are calculated by applying working circuit

pressure to the cylinder(s) providing the digging force

without exceeding holding circuit pressure in any other

**circuit. Weight of components and friction are to be
**

excluded from these force calculations [6].

2. PROBLEM FORMULATION

In the era of globalization and tough competition, the use

of machines is increasing for the earth moving works;

considerable attention has been focused on designing of

the earth moving equipments. Thus, it is very much

necessary for the designers to provide not only a

equipment of maximum reliability but also of minimum

weight and cost, keeping design safe under all loading

conditions [2]. Although excavation is ubiquitous in the

construction industry, most day-to-day operations proceed

on technology that is decades old— technology that has

not kept pace with other industries. A recent trend

towards greater automation of excavation machines

reflects a larger movement in the construction industry to

improve efficiency. Currently, human operators require

ten to fifteen years of experience before they can be

considered experts. Their work is often dirty, strenuous

and repetitive [5]. Autonomous excavation has attracted

interest because of the potential for increased productivity

and lower labor costs. This research concerns the problem

of automating a hydraulic excavator for mass excavation,

where tons of earth are excavated and loaded into trucks.

This application is commonly found in many construction

and mining scenarios. In such applications, fast

operational speed of these machines is desired, because it

directly translates to increased productivity. Much of the

prior research in autonomous excavation has focused on

digging and related topics such as soil modeling and

bucket-soil force interactions. Only a few researchers

***Correspondence Author’s Address: Mechanical Engineering Department, U. V. Patel College of Engineering, Ganpat University,
**

Kherva-384012, Dist. Mehsana, State-Gujarat, India, bppmech@gmail.com

Excess material capacity V for angle of repose 1:1 can be calculated from Fig. dB. PArea is the area bounded by struck plane (blue line) and side protector (red curve). a generalized digging force model developed based on fundamentals of kinematics of backhoe excavator attachment in context of robotics which can be use as a boundary condition (time varying or dynamic) to carry out the dynamic finite element analysis of the proposed backhoe excavator. dD1. the other terms in the figure dA. dF is the sum of bucket tip radius (dD) and the arm link length in mm. According to SAE J1179: Maximum radial tooth force due to bucket cylinder (bucket curling force) FB is the digging force generated by the bucket cylinder and tangent to the arc of radius dD1. Jagdish M.1. The presented research work is on the evaluation of digging forces.02072 m (2) (4) Where DB is the end diameter of the bucket cylinder in (mm) and the working pressure is p in MPa or N/mm2 and other distances are in mm and remains constant. Bucket capacity can be either measured in struck capacity or heaped capacity. To perform an excavation task it is necessary that the digging forces produces by actuators must be higher than that of the resistive forces offered by the terrain.00709 m (3) By using equations (1). 59-66 have looked into the free motion planning problem within the context of the mass excavation task.4(2012) No.02781 m3 = 0. 1 as: V 0. a European standard [2]. pp. BUCKET CAPACITY CALCULATION Bucket capacity is a measure of the maximum volume of the material that can be accommodated inside the bucket of the backhoe excavator. dE. arm crowd force FS. 2 shows the measurement of bucket curling force FB. The rating of these digging forces is set by SAE J1179 standard “Hydraulic Excavator and Backhoe: Digging Forces” [6]. F Fig.2. and it is 66836 mm2. DIGGING FORCES Bucket penetration into a material is achieved by the bucket curling force (FB) and arm crowd force (FS). Digging Force Calculations and Static Force Analysis of Mini Hydraulic Backhoe Excavator. 1 as: V 60 P 0. Now let us determine the maximum radial tooth force due to arm cylinder FS. Also. 1. Parameters of the proposed 3D bucket model to calculate the bucket capacity As can be seen from Fig. Patel. and V is the excess material capacity heaped. V is the struck capacity. In addition. As can be seen from the left side of the Fig. Equation (4) determines the value of the bucket curl or breakout force in N. Moreover. Fig. ISSN 1821-1259. much of the autonomous excavation research has concentrated on functionality. 2. For autonomous excavation task it is very important to evaluate the digging forces.Bhaveshkumar P. where simply digging a full bucket of material is good enough [4]. These rated digging forces are the forces that can be exerted at the outermost cutting point (that is the tip of the bucket teeth). 1 the heaped capacity V can be given as: V V V (1) Where. Prajapati: Evaluation of Bucket Capacity. 4. and dF shows the distances as shown in Fig.1. These forces can be calculated by applying working relief hydraulic pressure to the cylinders providing the digging force.028 m3.1 by following the SAE J296 standards [2]. Vol. Machine Design. dD. Maximum tooth force due to arm cylinder is the digging force generated by the arm cylinder and tangent to arc of radius dF. The struck capacity directly measured from the 3D model of the backhoe bucket excavator for our case as shown in Fig. Globally two standards used to determine the heaped capacity. dC. an American standard (ii) CECE (Committee of European Construction Equipment) section VI. Struck capacity V can be calculated from Fig. and DA is the end diameter of the arm cylinder in mm. 3. which are according to standards of SAE. are: (i) SAE J296: “Mini excavator and backhoe bucket volumetric rating”. (2). F (5) Where. static force analysis carried out by considering the maximum breakout force condition and static force analysis done for the different parts of the backhoe excavator and can be taken as boundary conditions for static FEA. Determination of digging forces Fig. When the assembly of proposed 3D model is placed in the maximum breakout force . and (3) the bucket capacity for the proposed 3D backhoe bucket model comes out to be 0.

This leads to. F (7) This is because while excavating. The working pressure p = 157 bar or 15. While arm cylinder is only active the bucket is made curling inward from the point A2 to point A4. As a result of high penetration force. 5. M sin A A A A A F (8) Now in equation (8) the distance A2A8 is fixed from the geometry of the backhoe excavator as shown in Fig.1.419 N = 4. calculation of digging force must be carried out separately when arm cylinder or bucket cylinder is the active cylinder. DEVELOPMENT OF GENERALIZED BREAKOUT AND DIGGING FORCE MODEL Hydraulic cylinders apply force to boom. so MArm can be given by. Maximum resistive force offered by the ground for the proposed tool dimensions is 3916. ζ 2π ε1 tan 1 A9 A12 A10 A12 A9 A12 2 A9 A12 2 A10 A12 2 A10 A12 2 A9 A10 2 A9 A10 2 (12) Where ε = the major A9A12A3 and it is constant and thus known for us. the amount of excavation force changes. A A A A A A A A A A cos ζ 2 A A 2 A A A A cos ζ (13) By putting these two values of ζ . and the breakout force calculated is 7626 N which is higher than the force required to cut the soil (3916. which is helpful for static analysis. it holds the values of the parameters as: dA = 257 mm.1.7 N). ISSN 1821-1259. Depending on the mechanism position. The SAE J1179 standard provides the bucket curling force FB. Jagdish M. Γ (9) tan The length of the piston rod in the arm cylinder A7A8 can be determined either from the sensors (in case of autonomous backhoe operations) or from the joint angle θ from kinematic equation as: A A δ δ A A A A 2 A A A A cos 3π (10) θ Where. thus this calculated breakout force is adequate and accepted for the job to be performed by the proposed mini backhoe excavator i. arm and the bucket to actuate the mechanism. a backhoe excavator bucket is comparatively easy to load. Vol. DA = DB = 40 mm. and A4A3A11 = η 61 . 59-66 configuration as shown in Fig. firstly the X and the X axes are made collinear (i. A3. From equation (12) ζ can be determined. Machine Design. A1A2A7 = δ1. now the only unknown remained is the Γ . only for the position of the maximum breakout force condition as stated in standards. 3 the digging force from the arm cylinder FArm (acting on the teeth of the bucket in the tangential direction of A2A4 radius) will be the moment created by the arm cylinder MArm divided by the distance A2A4. can be determined from and the arm cylinder force F equation (6). dE = 285 mm. Now moment created on arm MArm will be the product of the force created by the arm cylinder F and the perpendicular distance to the cylinder. From the cosine rule applied to the A A A triangle ∆A A A the angle Γ can be given by. A12A3A2 = η (fixed from the geometry). this can be helpful for better controlling of the autonomous digging operation. Patel. Digging Force Calculations and Static Force Analysis of Mini Hydraulic Backhoe Excavator. and A4 points are collinear points). the higher unit breakout forces allow the backhoe excavator’s economic application range to be extended further into the tougher soils (coral. the moment MArm can be determined from equation (8). dB = 220 mm. 3. and arm crowd force FS.427 KN. dD = 547 mm. In practice. 3. 4. and dF = (547 + 723) = 1270 mm. The combination of the backhoe excavator’s arm crowd force FS and bucket curling force FB give this machine configuration more effective bucket penetration force per mm of bucket cutting edge than is available with other machine types such as wheel and track loaders. 5. A A A A A A 2 A A A A cos θ π (11) In equation (11) all terms are known except the joint 4 angle θ . Now let us determine the length A2A4. Force calculation when the arm cylinder is active Force created by the arm cylinder A7A8 (length of the arm can be found by using its end cylinder cylinder) F diameter and working pressure as described in the previous section. boom cylinders are used for adjusting the bucket position not for digging.e. pp. During the digging operation the digging forces may vary with respect to the position of the bucket configuration therefore it is necessary to develop a generalized breakout and digging force model for digging operation which can provide the breakout and digging forces for all positions of the bucket configurations. If the cosine rule is applied to the ∆A A A one yields. if the length of the piston rod in the bucket cylinder A9A10 is known. ζ . working pressure and diameter of the hydraulic cylinders. but for autonomous application it is important to know the digging forces generated during the entire digging operation. shale. A2. Arm cylinder and bucket cylinder are used for excavating.7 MPa. then the bucket is made to contact with the ground and curled inwards. By using equations (9) and (10). So by using equations (4) and (5) the calculated bucket curl or breakout force FB = 7626.626 KN. F p π 4 D (6) As can be seen from the Fig.4(2012) No.25 N = 7. dC = 181 mm. and A8A2A3 = δ2 are constant for the geometry of boom and arm respectively as shown in Fig.Bhaveshkumar P.7 N [1]. Now by putting this value of ζ into the following equation (13) will give the value of ζ (rest of the terms are known). Thus. light duty construction work. Prajapati: Evaluation of Bucket Capacity. and calculated arm crowd force or digging force FS = 4427.e. limestone) before blasting or ripping is required. This can be determining from kinematic equation. Also.

1. but the dynamic FEA of the backhoe excavator is not the part of the research reported in this paper. . Γ tan 4 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A (18) From the equation (18) the angle Γ can be determined either from the sensors (in case of autonomous backhoe operations) or from the joint 4 angle θ . ISSN 1821-1259. These two forces are the function of the respective joint angles. Digging Force Calculations and Static Force Analysis of Mini Hydraulic Backhoe Excavator. and these joint angles are the function of time while excavating the earth. Patel. MATLAB code also developed for this generalized digging force model. Vol.4(2012) No. Here. (13). Now moment created on bucket MBucket will be the product of the force created by the bucket cylinder F and the perpendicular distance to the cylinder. π (15) 4 D As can be seen from the Fig. In this section. Prajapati: Evaluation of Bucket Capacity. pp. Force calculation when the bucket cylinder is active Force created by the bucket cylinder A9A10 (length of the can be found by using its end arm cylinder) F cylinder diameter and working pressure as described in the previous section. (13) and (12) the length of the bucket actuator A A can be determined. from equations (14). FArm can be determined by equation (7). From the cosine rule applied to the triangle ∆A A A the angle Γ can be given by. 3 the breakout force from the bucket cylinder FBucket (acting on the teeth of the bucket in the tangential direction of A3A4 radius) will be the moment created by the bucket cylinder MBucket divided by the distance A3A4. both the breakout force of bucket cylinder FBucket and the digging force of the arm cylinder FArm have been determined in the generalized form. now the only unknown remained in the equation is the A A A Γ . 3. So equation (7) and (16) provides the generalized digging and the breakout forces as a function of time (dynamic).3. and thus can be used as a boundary condition for the dynamic FEA of the backhoe excavator. This leads to. And by using equation (11) and (8). Backhoe geometrical parameters’ assignment (fixed from the geometry) into the following equation will determine the joint 4 angle θ . so MBucket can be given by. If the joint 4 angle θ is known then by following the reverse procedure of the end of the section in which the arm cylinder is active. and the bucket cylinder force F can be determined from equation (15). the digging force when the arm cylinder is active.2. only the bucket cylinder is active and the bucket is made curling inward from the point A3 to point A4 for the excavation operation to be carried out by bucket cylinder. Jagdish M. and (14) the distance A2A4 can be determined from equation (11). Machine Design. θ ζ ζ π η η ζ (14) So by using equations (12). F p F (16) In equation (16) the length A3A4 is fixed from the geometry of the bucket and thus known to us. M 62 A A sin A A A F (17) Now in equation (17) the distance A10A12 is fixed from the geometry of the backhoe excavator which is shown in Fig. and (18) the breakout force or bucket digging force can be determined in the generalized form from equation (16). Thus by using the equations (17). 5. 59-66 Fig.Bhaveshkumar P.

STATIC FORCE ANALYSIS In this section. and will be used as a boundary condition for static FEA.626 KN acts at the angle 38.1. From all the configurations. Bucket static force analysis Fig. As can be seen the reaction force on the bucket teeth at point A4 due to the breakout force 7.5. 5. pp. Where. Fig. directions and magnitudes of the forces are explained in the next section.23 for configuration of the maximum breakout force condition. Patel. Fgb is the gravitational force acting on bucket (0. arm and boom respectively. All the forces in the Fig.1. 5 shows the free body diagram of the bucket. 8 are in Kilo Newton (KN). l11 is the distance of the bucket hinge point to the idler link hinge point on bucket (181 mm). the maximum breakout force condition is the most critical one as it produces the highest breakout force. which is equivalent to the bucket breakout force FB. The free body diagram of bucket. Fig. Vol. and boom. Jagdish M. calculation for the static force analysis of the backhoe excavator for the condition in which the mechanism produces the maximum breakout force has been explained. arm. Fig. in static analysis one configuration of the mechanism has to be decided first for which the analysis is to be carried out. 7 and Fig. Free body diagram of bucket l4 is the distance of the tool tip of the bucket from the bucket hinge point (547 mm). Unlike the previous section’s flexibility where the force analysis could be done for any of the position and orientation (collectively known as the configuration) of the mechanism from the available breakout and digging forces. F4 is the force acting at bucket tool tip when the bucket approaches to the earth in the maximum breakout force condition as shown in Fig.Bhaveshkumar P. lgb is the distance between the C.235 KN) and F11 is the force acting on hinge point of the idler link on bucket 63 . 4 and Fig. Prajapati: Evaluation of Bucket Capacity. of the bucket to the bucket hinge point (220 mm).4(2012) No.G. Digging Force Calculations and Static Force Analysis of Mini Hydraulic Backhoe Excavator.4. 4 shows the configuration in which the mechanism is producing the maximum breakout force. and thus for this condition the force analysis is done. 5. 59-66 Fig. Maximum breakout force configuration 6. 6. 5. Machine Design.23º as shown in Fig. 6. Static forces on joints can be calculated by considering the summation of forces must be equal to zero and summation of moments equal to zero for equilibrium condition of the bucket. F F · cos ρ (19) F F · sin ρ (20) Fig. Now considering the bucket in equilibrium ΣM = 0. ρ is the angle between the breakout force of bucket and the ground level as horizontal reference surface of 38. ISSN 1821-1259. F ·l F ·l F ·l (21) Where. Firstly the reaction force acting on the bucket teeth (at point A4) is resolved in the horizontal (X) and the vertical (Y) directions by using the following equations (19) and (20). taking moment about the bucket hinge point A3 leads to.

74 (a) The negative sign shows the force acting in the leftward direction for horizontal component of the force and downward direction for vertical component of the force. 59-66 which can be found by using equation (21) and acting at an angle β of 64º as shown in Fig. Here. 6(a). Jagdish M. 6. at an angle F F · cos β (24) The force F9 is acting on arm through the bucket cylinder. F is the horizontal force component acts on bucket hinge point (A3) of 15. β is the angle made by intermediate link with horizontal reference of 46. F12 is the force acting on intermediate link due to idler link of 7. of arm and arm hinge point (A2) of 194 mm as shown in Fig. force on the bucket hinge point A3 can be found out as shown in Fig. 6(b). Static forces on bucket joints Joint of the bucket A4 Forces (KN) Horizontal (X) Vertical (Y) component component -5. The force F11 can be resolved in horizontal (X) and the vertical (Y) directions by using the following equations (22) and (23). Table 1. 6(a).74 KN as shown in Fig.50º as shown in Fig. l3H is the horizontal distance between the bucket hinge point (A3) and arm hinge point (A2) of 466 mm as shown in Fig. l8 is the distance between the arm hinge point (A2) and arm cylinder front end hinge point (A8) in maximum breakout force condition of 285 mm as shown in Fig. l12 is the distance between arm hinge point (A2) and intermediate link hinge point on arm (A12) of 591 mm as . 6(a). Prajapati: Evaluation of Bucket Capacity.4(2012) No. β is the angle made by force on arm through bucket cylinder with horizontal reference of 53. (a) Geometrical dimensions of the arm (b) Free body diagram of the arm Where. 6(a). 6(a). 5.977 -20. Here.70º as shown in Fig. Arm static force analysis In Fig.5º as shown in Fig. 6 (a) shows the important dimensions and angles for the moments and the resolution of forces respectively.13º as shown in Fig 6(a). 6(b). Here. F F · cos β (26) F F · cos β (27) The force F9 can be resolved in horizontal (X) and the vertical (Y) directions by using the following equations (28) and (29).289 as shown in Fig. Fga is the gravitational force on arm of 0. 4.6. The forces on each of the joints of the bucket are shown in Table 1. lga is the distance between the C. Vol. F8 is the force acting at arm cylinder front end hinge point (A8) which can be determined using the equation (20). F is the vertical force component acts on bucket hinge point (A3) of 15. Fig.716 A11 -9.97 15. pp.456 A3 15.784 KN as shown in Fig.97 KN as shown in Fig.933 4. 6(a).1. 6(b). F F · cos β (28) F F · cos β (29) Considering the arm in equilibrium ΣM = 0 and taking moment about the arm to boom hinge point (A2) leads to.Bhaveshkumar P. 5. F ·l F ·l 64 F ·l F ·l F ·l F ·l (30) (b) Fig.G. The Force (F12) is the force acting on the intermediate link (A10A12) from the idler link (A11A10) of 70. Machine Design. F F · cos β (25) The force F12 can be resolved in horizontal (X) and the vertical (Y) directions by using the following equations (26) and (27). Patel. l3V is the vertical distance between the bucket hinge point (A3) and arm hinge point (A2) of 551 mm as shown in Fig. Digging Force Calculations and Static Force Analysis of Mini Hydraulic Backhoe Excavator. 6 (b) shows the static forces acting at the different points on the arm. at an angle β of 10.2. F F · cos β (22) F F · sin β (23) Considering ΣF = 0. 6(b). ISSN 1821-1259.

F01 and F02 are the forces acts on swing cylinder front end hinge points of A01 and A02 respectively through swing cylinders 1 and 2 of 30.057 A8 -44. 7(b). The force F5 can be resolved in horizontal (X) and the vertical (Y) directions by using the following equations (34) and (35). Patel. Prajapati: Evaluation of Bucket Capacity.26 KN and 7. F F · cos β (34) F F · cos β (35) ' (a) Considering ΣF = 0. F9 is the force acting on arm through bucket cylinder of 22. l2H and l2V are the horizontal and vertical distances of point A2 form boom hinge point A1 of 1301 mm and 348 mm respectively as shown in Fig. The force F7 can be resolved in horizontal (X) and the vertical (Y) directions by using the following equations Forces (KN) Horizontal (X) Vertical (Y) component component A2 -52. Considering ΣF = 0. Static forces on arm joints Joint of the bucket Forces (KN) Horizontal (X) Vertical (Y) component component A3 -15. 7 (a) shows the important dimensions and angles for the moments and the resolution of forces respectively. 6(b).963 A7 44.963 KN respectively as shown in Fig.032 70. Fgbo is the gravitional force acts on boom of 0.Bhaveshkumar P. Table 2. force on the bucket hinge point A1 can be found out as shown in Fig. 7 shows the free body diagram of the boom. 7(a). 4. 7(b). 7 (b) shows the static forces acting at the different points on the boom. The forces on each of the joints of the arm are shown in Table 2.7. 8 shows the free body diagram of the swing link. and lgbo is the horizontal distance between C.444 A1 -77. Here.432 KN as shown in Fig. Swing link static force analysis Fig. ISSN 1821-1259. Table 3.G. Static forces on boom joints Joint of the boom (b) Fig.3.1. and l9 is the distance between arm hinge point (A2) and the bucket cylinder end hinge point (A9) of 294 mm as shown in Fig. The force F6 is acting at point A6 of boom cylinder end hinge point through the boom cylinder which is equal to the force F5 but opposite in direction. 7(b). force on the arm to boom hinge point A2 can be found out as shown in Fig. (a) Geometrical dimensions of the boom (b) Free body diagram of boom Fig.646 A9 13. The forces on each of the joints of the boom are shown in Table 3.58º as shown in Fig.26 7. Vol.407 6.4. 65 . 4. l5 is the distance between bomm hinge point and boom cylinder end hinge point on swing link of 218 mm as shown in Fig. These forces can be finding out by using the equation (36). 7(a). F2H and F2V are the horizontal and vertical components of the force acting at point A2 of 52. F ·l F ·l F ·l F ·l F ·l (33) Where.4(2012) No. 59-66 shown in Fig. 4.264 18. Machine Design.827 KN. force F5 is the acting at point A5 through boom cylinder which is acting at angle β at point A5 of 45.196 0 A5 -69. The force F7 is the force acts by arm at point A7 through arm cylinder which is same as the force F8 but direction is opposite. F F · cos β (31) F F · cos β (32) Considering the boom in equilibrium ΣM = 0 and taking moment about the arm to boom hinge point (A1) leads to.97 -15.358 5. of boom and boom hinge point A1 of 524 mm as shown in Fig. in which Fig.74 A12 -5. 6(b). Boom static force analysis (31) and (32). 4.033 78. Digging Force Calculations and Static Force Analysis of Mini Hydraulic Backhoe Excavator. 7(a).196 0 A2 52.26 -7. β is the angle made by force on boom through arm cylinder with horizontal reference at point A7 of 0º as shown in Fig. l7 is the vertical distance between arm cylinder end hinge point A7 and boom hinge point A1 of 633 mm as shown in Fig. it shows the resolved forces in horizontal and vertical directions at each joint of the swing link.405 KN as shown in Fig. pp. The Fig.949 6. 7(b). Jagdish M.

bucket specificationns and diggin ng forces shows that by kippping slightlyy less or same s link dimensions the reqquired digginng force of proposed backhoee attachment is reduced tto 7626 N. pp i. pp. 3. PA 15213. [2] ME EHTA GAURA AV K. [5] SAN NJIV SINGH H. The forces on eacch of the jointts of the swinng linkk are shown inn Table 4. Vol.. bucket speecifications annd digging forrces K Komatsu Hitachi Proposeed Modell PC-09 Zaaxis8-1 ABEAC C10LD Arm length 684 7000 723 B Boom length 1357 Overall height 2100 21150 1996 Capacity (m3) 0.0332 -70. Ph.8. buccket specificaations and diggging forces of o the designeed prooposed backhooe excavator with w the standdard excavatorrs. Teech. pp 1.7 N [1] for ligght duty connstruction work. and the digg ging force (when the arrm cylinder is active) models are developed as a functioon of time an nd can be used as a boundary coondition for thhe dynamic FEA F of the backhoee excavator. Patel. M. pp 3831-3837. 400 Com mmonwealth Drive. Tabble 4.7 MPa. PA. A geeneralized breakou ut force (whenn the bucket ccylinder is acctive). [6] SAE E INTERNA ATIONALS. Ph.Bhaveshkumaar P. 3 3 3 W Weight (kg) 15 155. The SAE standards only prrovide the breakout b andd digging forces f for maximu um breakout force f conditioon but for au utonomous application it is impoortant to undeerstand and to o know or predict the digging forces for aall position of o bucket configurration.D. The comparrison of the different backhoee excavator models in context of physical dimensions. Equipmentt Analysis: Indiia Backhoe Looaders. M. The Robotics Insttitute Carnegiie Mellon Unniversity.4(2012) V No. PRA AJAPATI. May 2008.. In nstitute of Tecchnology. Thee breakout force caalculation is done d by follow wing the stan ndard SAE J1179 and a comes outt to be 7626 N. thesis. SSAE J1179: Hydraulic H Exccavator and Backhoe D Digging Forrces. pp 9. Thesis. D Warrenndale.407 A6 69. Ann Excavation force calcula ations and App plications: Ann Analytical A Approach. which w are enough and more thaan resistive foorces offered by b ground 3916. Comparrison of physical dimensionns. Free body diiagram of swinng link (36)) Whhere. Static forces fo on swingg link joints JJoint of the Swing link Forces (KN N) A1 Horizonttal (X) compon nent 77. [4] PAT TRICK SEAN N ROWE. pp 1. D. andd p is the working pressurre of the hydrraulic circuit of o 15. Prajapatti: Evaluation of Bucket B Capacity. Tabble 5.8227 0 7. PA ATEL.8227 0 A02 -30. Intternational Jourrnal of Enggineering Scieence and Teechnology (IJE EST). This bu ucket specificcation is thee most superrior when compareed to all thhe other staandard mini hydraulic excavato or models available in thee market.0022 0. 59-66 8. Jagd dish M. ultimateely the operatinng cost gets reeduced. N 5. CON NCLUSION N Fig. U Pittsburgh. Ahm medabad-3824481. May 20011. No. Synthesis of Tactical Plans P for Rob botic Excavation. D is thee swing cylindder end diameeter of 50 mm m.028 N of Teeth No.028 m3. 199 90. Pennssylvania 15213. which is presented hhere by develo opment of the gen neralized breaakout force model.75 103300 7626 Name of Manu ufacture M Model Name Physical dimensions d Bucket Sp pecifications Diigging force (N) 66 REFER RENCES D Description 1347 [1] BHA AVESHKUM MAR P. Adaaptive Motion n Planning for Autonomous A M Mass Excavattion. The Rob botics Instituute Carnegiee Mellon University. . The T static forcee analysis perfformed by considerring the maxximum breakoout force con nfiguration and can be used as a boundary b conndition for stattic FEA of the bacckhoe parts. Thesis. DR.444 A01 -30. which requires less pressuree and power to actuate thee backhoe mechaniism for digginng task and fuuel consumptiion is less. COMPARIISON OF BACKHOE EXCAVAT TOR MODE ELS The cap pacity of the bucket b has beeen calculated according to the sttandard SAE J296 and com mes out to be 0. Tabble 5 shows the comparisson of physiccal dimensionns. January 1999. 500 00 Forbes Aveenue Pittsburggh. Marchh 2008. January 1995 5.025 0. Vol. [3] OFF F-HIGHWAY Y RESEARCH H. Digging Force Calculations C and Static Force Ana alysis of Mini Hydraulic Backhhoe Excavator. pp 2. ISSN 1821-125 59. Designn & Developm ment of an Exccavator attachhment.11. J. Niirma University of Scieence and Tecchnology.0333 Vertical (Y) V c component -78.6 17 --- 1 10545. Machine M Design.

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