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Het Tretment by Sir Ishaq

Het Tretment by Sir Ishaq

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These are the complete lecture notes by sir Ishaq abro and i am converting it from ppt to doc....
These are the complete lecture notes by sir Ishaq abro and i am converting it from ppt to doc....

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MEDIUM

Difficult to control surface carbon Required no special content, particularly when carbon Composed by: Aftab Ahmed Laghari furnace equipment; only content must be held below 1%; (07MT38) Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro Solid carbon restriction is that furnace Pack Carburizing e.g. charcoal – coke usually requires individual must be capable of mixture handling of parts requires special operation at required furnaces and atmosphere temperature. generators. Various prepared atmospheres, e.g. H2+CO+CH4

BY: SIR MUHMMED ISHAQUE ABRO Relatively easy control of
surface carbon content; Requires special furnaces and suitable for high volume atmosphere generators. production Classes: 1-2 Tendency for steel to absorb nitrogen as well as carbon, which is sometimes not desired. Requires special salt bath furnace. Not as suitable for volume production as gas carburizing. Disposal of spent salt may be a problem because of poisonous nature.

Gas Carburizing

INTRODUCTION TO SUBJECT:
Relatively easy control of surface carbon content; suitable for high volume Mechanisms: production

Liquid Molten salts Carburizing containing NaCN Strengthening

•Solid Solution Strengthening •Dispersion Strengthening •Work Hardening/Dislocation Strengthening •Heat Treatment/Thermal Treatment

Strengthening Mechanisms (Solid Solution Strengthening):
•Solid solution strengthening is a phenomenon that occurs when the number of impurity atoms in the lattice of the basic element is so small that they are incapable of forming both stable and metastable precipitation phases under any thermal treatment conditions. •Nevertheless the impurity atoms favor improvement of mechanical properties. This can be accounted for the following. –The presence of impurity atoms in the matrix lattice leads to distortion of the lattice because of the difference in size between the atomic radii of the impurity and the basic component. This in turn leads to the appearance of elastic deformation fields, which retard movement of dislocations in slip planes under the action of applied stresses. –In addition, the impurity atoms can inhibit movement of dislocations by forming impurity atmospheres around them. –Grain size refinement also takes place due to addition of some metallic impurities like AL and Cu •All of the above factors play a leading role in solid solution strengthening.

Strengthening Mechanisms (Dispersion Strengthening):
•In the majority of metal alloys, precipitation of supersaturated solid solutions formed during quenching is followed by precipitation of disperse particles enriched in atoms of the alloying components. •It was found that the strength (hardness) of the alloys increases with the precipitation of these particles.

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•The increment in the value of these characteristics increases as the dispersion and volume fraction of the particles increase. •This phenomenon has been referred to as dispersion strengthening.

Strengthening Mechanism ( Work Hardening):
•An important method used to strengthen steels is deformation strengthening. •Strengthening achieved with crystal deformation can be judged from the shape of stress–strain curves.

What is Heat Treatment?
 Heating, Soaking and Cooling
900 800 700 Temeperature 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 10 Time 20 30

Why Heat Treatment is?
•To obtained best combination of desired mechanical properties •For example: –High hardness and strength with low toughness value – High ductility and percent elongation with low hardness and strength value –High hardness and strength with high toughness value.

How?
•By altering: –Heating Temperature –Soaking Time –Cooling Rate –Heating and Cooling Cycles

Composed by: Aftab Ahmed Laghari (07MT38)

Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

Why?
•Metallurgical Characteristics: –Grain size –Microstructure –Precipitation of Secondary Phase –Distortion of Crystal Lattices •are Changing With Heating and Cooling Cycle

Grain Size:

•Garin (Demo_4) •Number of grains per unit area •Coarse grain –Small number of grains (4) per unit area. •Fine grain –High number of grains (18) per unit area.

Grain Boundary:
•The grain boundary is one of the basic structural elements in polycrystalline materials. •The grain boundary represents an interface between two differently oriented crystals. •This is the region of crystal imperfection. •It is capable of moving and adsorbing impurities. •The boundary has a high diffusive permeability. •Movement of grain boundaries controls the process of recrystallization. •Grain boundaries adsorb impurities. •Embrittlement of metal material is connected with enrichment of grain boundaries in impurities. •Grain boundaries may conventionally be divided into two large groups: low-angle and •large-angle boundaries. •Low-angle boundaries (or subgrain boundaries with an angle of less •than 10o) represent networks or walls of dislocations. •The structure of large-angle boundaries is much more complicated.

Composed by: Aftab Ahmed Laghari (07MT38)

Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

Grain Boundary:

Microstructure:
•Solid phases present at micro scale within the metal and its alloys •Nomenclature of these phases is based on Physico-chemical attributes –Solid solution, mechanical mixture, chemical compound –Their orientation (equiaxed, preferred) –Morphology or texture (grainular, spherical, plate, needle)

Microstructures of Steels:
•Ferrite –Solid solution of carbon in BCC Iron.

Pearlite

Ferrite

Microstructures of Steels:
•Austenite –Solid solution of carbon in FCC iron

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Microstructures of Steels:
•Martensite –Supersaturated solid solution of carbon in BCC iron (BCT)

Microstructures of Steels:
 Martensite

Microstructures of Steels:
•Cementite –Chemical compound of iron and carbon (Fe3C).

OR

Microstructures of Steels:
•Pearlite –Mechanical mixture of ferrite and cementite •Leduberite

Composed by: Aftab Ahmed Laghari (07MT38) –Mechnical mixture of austenite and cementite.

Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

Microstructures of Steels:
•Bainite –Mechanical mixture of ferrite and cementite –Upper bainite resembles pearlite and lower bainite martensite.

Class: 3-4

TYPES OF HEAT TREATMENT

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Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

Types of Heat Treatments:
•Ferrous metals and Alloys –Conventional and Non conventional •Non Ferrous metals and Alloys –Age hardening

Heat Treatment of Ferrous Alloys(Steel and Cast Iron): 

Conventional Heat treatment Processes:
•What is Normalizing –Heating above the upper critical Temperature and cooling slowly. •What is Annealing –Heating above the upper critical temperature (Hypo) and lower critical (Hyper) and cooling very slow •What is Hardening –Heating above critical temperature and cooling rapidly. –Martensite rather than Pearlite •What is Tempering –Heating Below Critical temperature and cooling slowly. •Note: –Isothermal transformation in both normalizing and annealing –Athermal Transformation in hardening

Heat treatment:
Normalising: • Heat to Upper Critical Temperature, at which point the structure is all Austenite • Cool slowly in air. • Structure will now be fine equi-axed pearlite. • Used to restore the ductility of cold or hot worked materials whilst retaining other properties. Annealing: • 1.Heat to above Upper Critical Temperature, at which point the structure is all Austenite • 2.Cool very slowly in the furnace.

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3.Structure will now be large-grained pearlite. 4.Used to improve the properties of cast and forged steels prior to machining.

Conventional Heat treatment Process:
Why Normalizing? • –To improve mechanical Properties. (i.e. to develop best combination of mech properties.) • –Fine grain microstructure. When Normalizing? • –After Casting • •To eliminate Dendritic Structure • –After Metal working • •To remove residual stresses. Why Annealing? • –To improve ductility at the cost of hardness and strength. • –Coarse grain microstructure. • –TO relieve residual stresses. When Annealing? • –Before and after metal working • –After casting (Hyper steels).

Annealing Types:
Diffusion Annealing: • Annealing is to eliminate inhomogeneities of the • chemical composition which appear during crystallization of alloys. • This annealing is usually carried out in the range of the solid solution at a temperature of 1100–1300OC. • Diffusion annealing can be used primarily to • smooth out a difference in the content of alloying elements • Differences in microhardness are eliminated simultaneously. • The overall hardness of the alloy decreases because liquation regions possessing high hardness are removed. Some average hardness is obtained. • The success of diffusion annealing largely depends on the steel purity and liquation. This type of annealing is usually used to improve properties of medium-purity steels. Softening Annealing: • It is used to produce the structure of globular pearlite. • This structure is very soft and • readily lends itself to deformation during drawing, cold rolling, etc. • Steels with a low-carbon content become too soft after this annealing treatment. • The globular pearlite structure is favorable in steels with a carbon concentration of more than 0.5%. • Another goal of softening is to produce a uniform fine structure with finely dispersed carbon after quenching.

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Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

The simplest method of softening consists in holding for many hours at a temperature slightly above Ac1. In this case, martensite that is left from the previous treatment is removed and the work hardening caused by deformation (e.g., forging) is eliminated. Carbide plates of pearlite fully coagulate only after a long annealing time. As fine-plate pearlite transforms more easily to globular pearlite.

Annealing Types (Stress Relief Annealing and Recrystallization Annealing):
• • • • • • • Dislocation pile-ups and crystal lattice distortions arising in cold-deformed metals may result in the appearance of macroscopic stresses (stresses of the first kind). Usually these stresses are very high. Changes in properties that occur under cold deformation are rectified by employing stress relief annealing. The greater the degree of deformation, the lower the heating temperature. Depending on the temperature and time of annealing, various structural changes take place in a colddeformed material. The changes are divided into recovery and recrystallization processes. If recovery proceeds without the formation and migration of subgrain boundaries inside the recrystallized grains, it is called restoring. If subgrain boundaries are formed and migrate inside the crystallites, recovery is referred to as polygonization/recrystalization.

Conventional Heat treatment Process:
Why Hardening • To improve the strength and hardness of the material/steel.

Tempering:
• •

Tempering : a process of heating a martensitic steel at a temp. below the eutectoid temp. to make it softer and more ductile. Fe3C particles precipitates from the a’ phase → tempered martensite → spheroidite
α ' reheat →α + Fe3C  

Spheroidite

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Tempering Temperatures:

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MARTEMPERING:
• Martempering : a modified quenching procedure used for steels to minimize distortion and cracking upon quenching.

• Austenitizing → quenching in hot oil or molten • salt at a temp. just above the Ms → moderate cooling to Ms

AUSTEMPERING:
•Austempering

: an isothermal treatment which produce a bainite structure in some carbon steels.

Composed by: Aftab Ahmed Laghari (07MT38)

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Classes:5-6

HEAT TREATMENT STEPS
MAIN STEPS OF HEAT TREATMENT: HEATING TO AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE:
Hypoeutectoid steel: • Temperature desired is 50oF above the upper critical temperature. • Reason: To dissolve proeutectoid ferrite, otherwise after quenching soft spots in microstructure would result and hardness will decrease. • • • Heating to Austenitizing temperature Soaking Cooling

HEATING TO AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE:
Hypereutectoid steel: • Temperature in between Acm and A1 is desired. • Reason: To avoid undesirable coarsening of austenitic grains that would cause cracking on cooling. • Reason: T dissolve the proeutectoid cementite one has to heat above Acm like wise ferrite. But since the temperature rise in this area with increasing small content of carbon is so high (steep) that would cause excess heating of cementite grains and would tend excess coarsening of austenitic grains.

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SOAKING TIME (HOMOGENEITY OF AUSTENITE):
• • • Compositional homogeneity of austenite is essential otherwise surfaces cooled fast would transfer to nonmartenitic and cooled slowly would transfer to martensitic structure. Let us think about the composition variation of austenite transformed from hypo eutectoid steel when heated in b/w lower and upper critical temperatures. Austenite formed from ferrite would contain very low carbon whereas that from pearlite would contain higher amount.

SOAKING TIME:
• • • • • • • Let us apply the lever rule to caculate the compostional difference at particular temperature. To avoid this compositional difference we have either: To heat slow Or Soak at desired temperature The second is more practical Soaking time is object- dimensional dependent One hour per inch thickness is desirable to obtained homogenize austenite.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE COOLING RATE:
• Surface condition
• • • • • • • Oxidizing scale thicker than 0.005inch retards the cooling rate (Fig 8.39 page 289 Avener) Scale formation give birth to non uniform cooling, since scale either is non uniform or some times removes during transferring from furnace to quenching medium To protect the scale formation following methods are in practice: Copper plating Protective atmosphere (inert gases like hydrogen, dissociated ammonia) Liquid salts (salts inert for steel) Cast iron ships are the methods and techniques to avoid formation of scale.

• Size and Mass

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Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

Ratio of surface area to mass is important factor in determining the actual cooling rate. This ratio is the function of geometrical shape of the object and largest for spherical shapes. The cooling rate is directly proportional to ratio Surface area of cylinder = pieDL Mass= pie/4 D2Ldensity Ratio=4/D. density This shows that ratio is inversely proportional to dia. Hence with increasing the dia the ratio decreases and the cooling rate too. Experimentally we can demonstrate the effect of dia on the cooling rate via measuring the hardness. Let us take wires of different dia or plates of different thickness and austenite at same temperature and quench in same medium. Finally check the hardness

SIZE AND MASS (EXAMPLE OF MEDIUM CARBON STEEL OF 0.4%C):
• Size and Mass • What this data shows?
• • • Steel bar of 0.5 and 1 inch has actual cooling rate grater than critical cooling rate thus martensitic structure formed. Surface of 2 and 3 inch sample have intermediate cooling rate thus mixture of martensite and pearlite would have formed. Whereas surface of 4 and 5 inch sample received slow cooling thus pearlite and ferrite would be possible microstructure. • • Diameters: 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 RC: 59, 58, 41, 35, 30, 20.

MICROCONSTITUENTS VS. COOLING RATE:
• •

Spheroidite: Spherical “globs” of Fe3C in Ferrite Pearlite: Layers of a ferrite and Fe3C
Course Pearlite Fine Pearlite Bainite: 200 – 500 °C Transformation Martensite: Rapid Cooling • •

• •

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES VS HEAT TREATMENT:

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EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON TENSILE STRENGTH:

EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON FAILURE:

EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON FAILURE MECHANISM:

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HEAT TREATMENTS:
• • • • • •

A – Furnace Annealed – Slow cooled N - Normalized - Air cooled. O - Oil Quenched WQ – Water quenched. WT(370) -Water quenched, tempered at 370°C for 1 hour. WT(705)– Water quenched, tempered at 705°C for 1 hour.

The steels shown in blue on the following slide can be heat treated to harden them by quenching.

Classes: 7-12

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FUNDAMENTALS OF HEAT TREATMENT
FUNDAMENTALS OF HEAT TREATMENT:
• • • • • • • • • • • Phase Diagram Graphical representation of temperature and composition There are about eight basic phase diagrams that encompasses the binary alloy system of ferrous and non ferrous metals. Most common are: Completely soluble at liquid and solid stateè Type 1 Completely soluble at liquid and completely insoluble at solid state è Type 2 Completely soluble at liquid and partially soluble at solid state è Type 3 Allotropic transformation Iron Carbon Diagram TTT Diagram Time temperature transformation diagram

TYPE 1 PHASE DIAGRAM:

TYPE 2 PHASE DIAGRAM:

TYPE 3 PHASE DIAGRAM:

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LEVER RULE:
• Composition: • Amount:
• • • • • • S=mTo/mnx100 S=(60-50)/(60-30)*100 S=33.33% L=nTo/mn*100 L=(50-30)/(60-30)*100 L=66.66% • • S=30%B+70%A L=60%B+30%A

ALLOTROPIC TRANSFORMATION:
• • • • • • • Allotropy is the phenomenon of an element having different crystal lattices depending on the particular temperature and pressure. Iron in the solid state is known in two allotropic states. Lattice constant of α and δ Iron is 0.286 nm whereas that of γ iron is 0.364 nm. At low temperatures, α -Fe exhibits a strongly ferromagnetic character. When it is heated to about 7708C, ferromagnetism vanishes. In accordance with the latest findings, this is because the lattice loses its ferromagnetic spin ordering. The state of iron above 7708C is called β-Fe. The lattice of paramagnetic β crystals is identical to the lattice of α crystals.

• • •

The transformation stages are symbolized by the letter A with subscripts indicating the ordinal number of the transformation. The subscripts 0 and 1 are absent in pure iron but are observed in carbon alloys of iron. The subscript 2 denotes a magnetic transformation of the α-phase, while the subscripts 3 and 4 stand for transformation of α to γ and γ to δ.

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IRON CARBON DIAGRAM:
• The structure of iron–carbon alloys can contain either pure carbon (graphite) ora chemical compound (cementite) as the carbon-enriched component. Cementite is present even in relatively slowly cooled alloys: a long holding at elevated temperatures is required to decompose cementite to iron and graphite. For this reason the iron–carbon diagram is usually treated as the iron–iron carbide diagram. The former is stable, whereas the latter is metastable. The iron–carbon diagram is shown in Figure. Dashed lines stand for the stable Fe–C diagram, and solid lines denote the metastable Fe–Fe3C diagram.

Figure: denoting Iron Iron Carbide Diagram

META STABLE IRON IRON CARBIDE DIAGRAM:
Note: Consider above figure of Iron Iron Carbide Diagram • ABCD liquidus line • AHECFD Solidus line • ES, and GS solvious lines • ECF Eutectic line • PSK Eutectoid line • HB Peretectic line • Ao magnetic transformation line • Solid solutions: • Austenite, ferrite • Chemical compound: • Cementite • Mechanical Mixture: • Pearlite, and Leduberite

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STABLE IRON CARBON DIAGRAM:
Note: Consider above figure of Iron Iron Carbide Diagram • At very slow cooling rates graphite (i.e. pure carbon ) can crystallize directly during cooling. • ABC’D’ liquidus line • AHE’C’F’D’ Solidus line • E’S’, and GS solvious lines • E’C’F Eutectic line • P’S’K’ Eutectoid line • HB Peretectic line • Ao magnetic transformation line • Solid solutions: • Austenite, ferrite • Pure element: • Graphite • Mechanical Mixture: • Pearlite (F+G), and Leduberite (A+G)

STABLE AND METASTABLE IRON CARBON DIAGRAM:
Note: Consider above figure of Iron Iron Carbide Diagram • Depending on the cooling rates it is possible to obtained partially stable and partially metastable phase diagram for iron and carbon alloy system.

MICROSTRUCTURES IN IRON CARBON ALLOY SYSTEM:
• Ferrite:
• • • • • It is ductile. In the annealed state, it has large elongation (about 40%), Its Brinell hardness is 65–130 depending on the crystal dimension It is strongly ferromagnetic up to 7708C (14188F). At 7238C (1338F), 0.22% C dissolves in ferrite, but at room temperature only thousandths of a percent of carbon is left in the solution.

Cementite:
• • • • • • It is brittle and exhibits great hardness (theBrinell hardness is about 800) It is weakly magnetic up to 2108C (4108F) It is a poor conductor of electricity and heat, and has a complicated rhombic lattice. It forms at three stages: Primary cementite, which crystallizes from the liquid at the line CD; secondary cementite, which precipitates from the gama solution at the line ES;

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Tertiary cementite, which precipitates from the a solution at the line PQ.

Graphite:
• • • • It is soft. It is a poor conductor of current but transfers heat well. Graphite does not melt even at temperatures of 3000–35008C (5430–63308F). It possesses a hexagonal lattice with the axis relation

Austenite:
• • • • It is soft (but is harder than ferrite) and ductile. Elongation of austenite is 40–50%. It has lower conductivity of heat and electricity than ferrite, and is paramagnetic. Austenite possesses an FCC lattice.

EFFECT OF CARBON:
• • • • The structure of the steel containing 0–0.02% C comprises ferrite and tertiary cementite (Figure 3.3). A further increase in the carbon content leads to the appearance of a new structural component—a eutectoid of ferrite and cementite (pearlite). Pearlite appears first as separate inclusions between ferrite grains and then, at 0.8% C, occupies the entire volume. Pearlite represents a two-phase mixture, which usually has a lamellar structure (Figure 3.4)

• •

As the carbon content of steel is raised to over 0.8%, secondary cementite is formed along with pearlite. The secondary cementite is shaped as needles (Figure 3.5). The amount of cementite increases as the carbon content is increased.

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At 2% C it occupies 18% of the field of vision of the microscope. A eutectic mixture appears when the carbon content exceeds 2%. In rapidly cooled steels, not all the surplus phase (ferrite or cementite) has time to precipitate before a eutectoid is formed. Alloys with 3.6% C contain ledeburite (a eutectic mixture of carbon solid solution in g-Fe and iron carbide). An electron microscopic image of the carbides is shown in Figure 3.6. The alloys would be more properly classified with hypoeutectic white cast irons.

LOWER CRITICAL TEMPERATURE:
When steel heated, microstructure changes (new grains forms). The temperature where this growth starts is called Lower Critical Temperature, fix for all % of C, 727oC.

UPPER CRITICAL TEMPERATURE:
• • • The temperature where new grains formation completes, (All old grains replaced by new grains) is called Upper critical temperature. This temperature depends upon % of Carbon in steel. Can be taken from Iron-Carbon Diagram .

IRON CARBON DIAGRAM (CRITICAL TEMPERATURE LINES):

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LIMITATIONS OF IRON-IRON CARBIDE DIAGRAM:
• • • Information about transformation of austenite at varying cooling rates is missing. Design of heat treatment for desired properties is not possible. It do not gives the answer of question “How long time is required to start the transformation nor how long transformation take to complete?”

TTT DIAGRAM:
• Time–temperature–transformation diagrams for isothermal transformation (IT diagrams) and for continuous cooling transformation (CCT diagrams) are used to predict the microstructure and hardness after a heat treatment process or to specify the heat treatment process that will yield the desired microstructure and hardness. The use of the either type of diagram requires that the user be acquainted with its specific features, possibilities, and limitations.

CONSTRUCTION OF TTT DIAGRAM:
• • • • • • Take a steel of 0.8% carbon Prepare at-least more than 10 specimens Heat the specimens into furnace set at 800oC. Take out specimen from muffle furnace and put it into salt bath set at 700oC. Leave the specimens in salt bath for different time intervals and then quench it into water. Polish and etch the specimens following the metallographic steps and

Composed by: Aftab Ahmed Laghari (07MT38) determine the %age of microstructure in each sample. Plot the %age of each microstructure against the corresponding time. Repeat the above steps for another set of 10 specimens at 650oC, 500oC,--------200oC.

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• •

TTT DIAGRAM OF EUTECTOID STEEL:

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TTT DIAGRAM OF HYPEREUTECTOID STEEL(1.13 WT %C)

APPLICATION OF TTT DIAGRAM (INTERMEDIATE COOLING):

APPLICATION OF TTT DIAGRAM (SLOW COOLING):

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APPLICATION OF TTT DIAGRAM (FAST COOLING):

APPLICATION OF TTT DIAGRAM:
A. Continuous cooling transition B. diagram for eutectoid steels

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• •

Normalizing : heat the steel into g region → cool it in air → fine pearlite Annealing : heat the steel into g region → cool it in furnace (power off) → coarse pearlite

Classes:13-16

AUSTENITE PHASE TRANSFORMATIO
AUSTENITE-PEARLITE TRANSFORMATION:
• • • • • • • • • • • • Transformation of the FCC lattice of austenite to the BCC lattice of ferrite is hampered due to the presence of dissolved carbon in austenite. Because the austenite lattice has enough space to accommodate carbon atoms at the centers of unit cells. The bcc lattice of ferrite has no such space. For this reason the solubility of carbon is lowered considerably on transition from austenite to ferrite. During the β―α a transformation, almost all carbon precipitates from the austenite lattice. In accordance with the metastable Fe–Fe3C diagram, it precipitates as iron carbide (cementite). This transformation can be described by three interconnected processes: Transformation of the g-Fe lattice to the a-Fe lattice Precipitation of carbon as the carbide Fe3C (cementite) Coagulation of the carbides The briefly transformation can be explained by taking following alloys individually. Hypoeutectoid steel (< 0.8%C) Eutectoid steel (=0.8%C) Hyper eutectoid steel (> 0.8% C)

PEARLITE FORMATION IN EUTECTOID STEEL:
• • The rate at which nuclei of pearlite crystallization are formed depends on: Supersaturation of austenite with carbide, which

Composed by: Aftab Ahmed Laghari (07MT38) increases as the temperature is lowered. • The diffusion rate, which decreases with temperature. • The growth of pearlite islets depends on: The diffusion rate of carbon and iron atoms. Degree of supersaturation The free energy advantage during the ferrite formation. • Pearlite islets grow not only through the formation of new plates but also by way of further growth of old plates in all directions. • Carbide plates grow faster than ferrite plates. • The process can start, however, with the • alternations and cementite plates • and phases lead to the formation of plane-parallel and fan-shaped pearlite plates.

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formation of ferrite nuclei. Multiple of nucleation of ferrite branching of the plates of both

DIFFUSION OF CARBON IN PEARLITE:

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MORPHOLOGY OF PEARLITE:

PEARLITE FORMATION IN EUTECTOID STEEL:
• • • • • • • • • A very significant characteristic of pearlite is the plate-to-plate spacing. (a) coarse pearlite (b) fine pearlite 3000X Strength properties of steel improve with a decrease in that spacing. the pearlite transformation takes place on Pearlite formed at 600–7008C has plate-to-plate spacing equals 0.5–1 mm. Pearlite formed at 650–6008C has the plate-to-plate distance of 0.4–0.2 mm. In this case, the eutectoid is finer pearlite. When austenite precipitates over the temperature interval of 600–5008C an extremely fine eutectoid mixture is formed, where the plate-to-plate spacing equals ~0.1 mm. An important characteristic that influences the properties of steel is the dimension of the pearlite colony. A decrease in the colony dimension is accompanied by a growth of the impact strength and decrease of brittleness. For this relatively high strength pearlite is formed by breaking of ferrite and cementite plates, that leads a high density of dislocations inside the ferrite. Spheroidization of cementite particles and the formation of a polygonal structure by employing suitable heating cooling cycle is in practice.

PEARLITE FORMATION IN HYPO AND HYPER EUTECTOID STEEL:
• In hypo eutectoid austenite transformation proceeds with birth of pro-eutectoid ferrite, where as in hyper eutectoid pro-eutectoid cementite gets birth first.

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Austenite left for eutectoid reaction is very low in both cases. During eutectoid reaction eutectoid ferrite at boundries of pro-eutectoid ferrite leaving the eutectoid cementite free. Vice versa case is true for hyper eutectoid. This eutectoid transformation is referred as abnormal. In normal eutectoid transformation, ferrite and cementite grow cooperatively in the form of colonies with a regular alternation of the two phases. In the case of abnormal transformation, a coarse mixture of ferrite and cementite does not have a characteristic eutectoid structure. Abnormal transformation can be changed to normal with increase in cooling rates. With a rapid cooling and a correspondingly great undercooling of austenite, the abnormal transformation can be suppressed altogether.

PEARLITE FORMATION IN HYPO EUTECTOID STEEL (FERRITE PRO AND EUTECTOID):
• • • • • • • • The ferrite is found in two forms: (Figure 3.7) Compact equiaxial grains (Eutectoid) Oriented Widmannstatten plates (Pro Eutectoid) Compact precipitates of hypoeutectoid ferrite appear predominantly at austenite grain boundaries, whereas Widmannstatten plates are formed inside grains. The Widmannstatten ferrite is observed only in coarse grains of austenite of steels with less than 0.4% C. As the dimensions of austenite grains decrease, the share of ferrite in the form equiaxial grains grows. The Widmannstatten ferrite is formed over the 50oc temperature interval from A3 (i.e. 600 to 550oC). With an increase in the carbon content of steel, the share of the Widmannstatten ferrite in the structure lowers.

TRANSFORMATIONS OF AUSTENITE : G → A + FE3C:
• A. Diffusional transformations 1) At slightly lower T below 727 ℃ : DT << • Coarse pearlite : nucleation rate is very low. : diffusion rate is very high. 2) As the Tt (trans. temp.) decreases to 500 ℃ • Fine pearlite : nucleation rate increases. : diffusion rate decreases. Strength : s (MPa) = 139 + 46.4 S-1 S : intermetallic spacing

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MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PEARLITE:
• • Mechanical properties of pearlite are dependent on cementite content , since it is much harder and more brittle than ferrite. Therefore increasing the fraction of Fe3C will make the resulting material harder and stronger and less ductile and tough.

• • •

The layer thickness is also important for the mechanical behavior of the pearlite. Fine pearlite is harder and stronger than coarse pearlite. Coarse pearlite is more ductile than fine pearlite because of greater restriction to plastic deformation of the fine pearlite.

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MARTENSITE:
• • • • • Supersaturated solid solution of carbon in BCC iron (BCT) Very hard & very brittle Diffusionless transformation of FCC to BCT (more volume!) Therefore no compositional change during transformation.

• • • • • • • • • •

The martensite transformation is realized on rapid cooling of steel from a temperature above A1 in, for example, water. In this case, diffusive precipitation of austenite to a mixture of two phases (ferrite and carbide) is suppressed. The concentration of carbon in martensite corresponds to that in austenite. The main difference between the martensite transformation and the pearlite transformation is that the former is diffusionless. Transformation of austenite to martensite starts from the martensite start temperature (Ms).

©2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.

CHARACTERISTICS OF MARTENSITE:

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The Ms temperature is dependent on carbon content of the steel but is independent on cooling rate. Normally rapid cooling rate decrease/suppress the transformation of austenite to pearlite, but in case of martensite cooling rate is ineffective. With the martensite transformation, a certain amount of retained austenite is left. On cooling below Ms, the amount of martensite increases rapidly owing to the quick formation of new plates. The initially formed plates do not grow with time. This feature distinguishes the martensite transformation from its pearlite counterpart; in the latter case new colonies nucleate and old colonies continue growing. The martensite lattice is regularly oriented relative to the austenite lattice. A certain orientation relationship exists between the lattices. With the pearlite transformation, lattices of the phases comprising the eutectoid mixture exhibit a random orientation with respect to the starting austenite grain.

MARTENSITE MARPHOLOGY:
By morphology, martensite can be divided into two basic types: • Plate and massive martensite. • They are different in shape, mutual arrangement of crystals, substructure, and habit plane. • Plate (needle) martensite: • It is found most frequently in high-carbon steels and carbon-free iron alloys. Its texture is shaped as thin lenticular plates (Figure). Its neighboring plates are not parallel to one another. • Massive (lath) martensite: • It can be observed in low- and medium-carbon steels. • Crystals of this type of martensite are shaped as interconnected plates having approximately the same orientation. The habit plane of laths is close to the {1 1 1}A plane. • Plates of massive martensite are separated with low-angle boundaries. •

• •

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MARTENSITE:

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MARTENSITE FORMATION:
• • Time temperature transformation [TTT] diagrams) for isothermal martensite formation show a typical C-curve behavior, indicating that both thermal and athermal characters are present. Athermal or burst martensite formation is observed in steels; whereas isothermal martensite formation is observed only in iron alloys that do not contain carbon.

BAINITE TRANSFORMATION:
• • • • The bainite transformation is intermediate between pearlite and martensite transformations. The kinetics of this transformation and the structures formed exhibit features of both diffusive pearlite transformation and diffusionless martensite transformation. The bainite transformation mechanism involves γ―α rearrangement of the lattice, redistribution of carbon, and precipitation of carbide. Most researchers are of the opinion that ferrite precipitates from austenite by the martensitic mechanism. This is attested to by the presence of retained austenite in alloyed steels, a similarity in the structure of lower bainite and martensite, and the resemblance of upper bainite to low-carbon martensite. Closeness of the bainite transformation to its pearlite and martensite counterparts can be explained as follows. The diffusive movement of atoms of the basic component, iron, is almost completely suppressed over the bainite transformation range. Therefore the γ―α formation of ferrite is difficult because pearlite precipitation is suppressed. However, carbon diffusion is rather active and causes precipitation of carbides. Based on morphology bainite is classed into: • Upper bainite • Lower bainite Upper bainite has a feathery structure, whereas lower bainite exhibits an acicular morphology, which is close to that of martensite The difference in the structures of upper and lower bainites is attributed to a different mobility of carbon in the upper and lower parts of the bainite temperature range.

• • •

BAINITE MORPHOLOGY:
• • • •

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An electron microscopic analysis showed that the a-phase substructure of upper bainite resembles the substructure of massive martensite in low-carbon steels, while the a-phase structure of lower bainite approximates the structure of martensite in high-carbon steels. In upper bainite, carbide particles can precipitate both at lath boundaries and inside laths. This fact suggests that here carbides precipitate directly from austenite. In lower bainite, carbide is found inside the a-phase. This means that carbide is formed during precipitation of a supersaturated solid solution of carbon in the a-phase. Both upper and lower bainites exhibit a high density of dislocations inside the a-phase. Cementite is the carbide phase in upper bainite, and e-carbide in lower bainite. As the holding time is increased, e-carbide turns into cementite. Temperature range of bainite formation 250 ℃ < Tt < 500 ℃, below the nose in TTT diagram • Upper (550-350°C) • Lower (350-250°C) Diffusion rate is very low. Nucleation rate is very high

BAINITE:

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BAINITE:
• Bainitic steels have a finer structure, therefore • • They are stronger and harder than pearlitic ones. They have a good combination of strength and ductility

Class: 17

AUSTENITE GRAIN SIZE CONTROL
AUSTENITE GRAIN SIZE AND GRAIN SIZE CONTROL:
• The austenite grain size produced on heating above the critical points is of significant importance. Because: • A coarse austenite grain determines a coarse plate structure of martensite during quenching or a coarse cellular network of ferrite (cementite) precipitates at the boundary of the

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• • • • • •

• • • •

• • • • •

initial austenite grains during annealing or normalization. The pearlite structure is also the coarser, the larger the pearlite grain. • In result of a coarse-grain structure of steel lower mechanical properties are obtained. For this reason a fine-grain structure of steel is preferable in practice. Since austenite appears during heating of a ferrite–carbide mixture, growth centers of the austenite phase are very numerous. At initial stages of heating austenite grains are extremely small, on the order of 10–20 mm. But with an increase in the heating temperature or holding time in the austenite range, the grains begin to grow intensively. Based on growth rate of austenite grain during heating, steels are classed into: Hereditarily coarse-grained steels. Hereditarily fine-grained steels. The difference is the grain growth kinetics with an increase in temperature. Hereditarily coarse-grained steels. The steel in which grain gradually and rather uniformly becomes larger as the temperature is raised above Ac3 In hereditarily fine-grained steels, fine grains are preserved up to about 950oC. On transition through the coarsening temperature, separate grains start growing intensively and variations in grain size arise. Near 1100–1200oC, grains of hereditarily fine-grained steels may be even larger than those of hereditarily coarse-grained steels. Such differences in the growth of grains in steels are explained by the differences in number and state of disperse nonmetal inclusions such as, , aluminum nitrides, certain carbides, and oxides. These articles retard movement of grain boundaries until temperatures are reached at which the particles dissolve in austenite. The barrier effect of the particles diminishes nonuniformly, which leads to variations in grain size. A standard test can be used to distinguish between the steel classes. • If a noticeable growth of austenite grains is not observed for 8 h after carburization at 925oC, the steel is assumed to be a hereditarily fine-grained one. • Extrapure steels, those produced with a minimum amount of foreign impurities, nitrogen and oxygen, are distinguished by a rapid growth of grains above the critical point Ac3. In the case of the usual commercial steels, a grain 20–25 mm in size corresponds to standard heating for quenching, normalization, or annealing. As the temperature is elevated to 1200–1250oC the grain size reaches 0.1 mm. In large forgings and welds, grains of several millimeters in size occur. In ingots and castings, grains can be as large as several centimeters. On cooling: • Several pearlite colonies are formed in every grain, So an austenite grain is broken into several grains. • This is also true of the ferrite–pearlite structure of a hypoeutectoid steel. But in the latter case a network of excess ferrite is formed at grain boundaries. When steel undergoes quenching: • A large number of martensite crystals appear in every austenite grain.

Classes: 18-21

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EFFECT OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS
EFFECT OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS ON HEAT TREATMENT PROCESSING OF STEEL:
• • • The position of the critical points A3 and A4 and the location of the eutectoid temperature A1 are of great significance in heat treatment because they determine the lowest temperature to which a steel should be heated for quenching, annealing, or normalization. Different alloying elements have different effects on the position of the critical points A3 and A4. Therefore alloying elements are accordingly divided into two large groups, each in turn broken down into two subgroups.

• •

Elements of A group of 1st group (Ni, Co, Mn, Pt, Pd, Rh, and Ir) decrease A3 and increase A4 points, thus broadening of γ phase results. 1st group elements show considerably high solubility in Fe crystals.

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• • •

Elements of B subgroup of 1st group (N, C, Cu, Zn, Au, Re) have considerably limited solubility, therefore at certain concentration of these elements in iron alloys, chemical compounds are formed and eutectic or eutectoid transformations are observed. Thus heterogeneous region results which in turn limit the γ phase region. Elements of A group of 2nd group [Cr, Mo,W, Si, T, Al, and Be (Cr group)] play distinct role from the elements of the first group. Elements entering the second group elevate the point A3 and lower the point A4 as their content in the alloy is raised. This leads initially to narrowing and then to a complete closing of the region of the γ-solid solution as shown schematically in Figure

• • • • • • • • • •

Elements of B subgroup (Zr, Ta, Nb, Ce, etc.) of 2nd group causes the appearance of other phases in the equilibrium diagrams before the g-phase rangeis closed. In this case the narrow range of the γ-phase is limited by adjacent heterogeneous regions The aforementioned division of alloying elements into groups allows one to predict to some extent the effect of the elements on the critical points of carbon steel. For example, considering the diagram lines that correspond to the transition of Fe from one allotropic form to another, it can be expected that: The elements extending the g-phase range (Ni group) will lower the α―γ iron transition point Ac3. While the elements narrowing the γ-phase range (Cr group) will elevate that point. A similar effect of the elements is observed, to a certain extent, in the pearlite transformation Ac1. Figure illustrates the influence of the most important alloying elements on the position of the critical point Ac1. As is seen: The elements narrowing the γ-phase range do raise the critical point Ac1 While the elements broadening the g-phase range lower it.

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• • • • • •

The effect of alloying elements manifests itself in a shift of the critical points with respect not only to temperature but also concentration. Figure illustrates how the content of alloying elements in steel affects the carbon concentration at the eutectoid point. As can be seen from the figure, all the alloying elements shift the eutectoid point to the left, i.e., toward lowering of the carbon concentration, and consequently decrease the carbon content of alloy. In analogy to the shift of the eutectoid point to the left, the addition of most alloying elements in steel is followed by a leftward displacement of the point E in the Fe–C equilibrium diagram, which determines the solubility limit of carbon in austenite. The point E is shifted most by Cr, Si, W, Mo, V, and Ti, All these elements narrow the g-phase range in alloys of the iron-alloying element system.

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• • •

Therefore the introduction of alloying elements into a carbon steel is accompanied by: • Shift of the equilibrium critical points with respect to both temperature and carbon concentration. The greater the shift, the larger the amount of the elements introduced. In commercial alloy steels, which are multicomponent systems, alloying elements can be found • (1) in the free state; • (2) as intermetallic compounds with iron or with each other; • (3) as oxides, sulfides, and other nonmetal inclusions; • (4) in the carbide phase as a solution in cementite or in the form of independent compounds with carbon (special carbides); or • (5) as a solution in iron. As to the character of their distribution in steel, alloying elements may be divided into two groups: • Elements that do not form carbides in steel, such as Ni, Si, Co, Al, Cu, and N • Elements that form stable carbides in steel, such as Cr, Mn, Mo, W, V, Ti, Zr, and Nb

ASSIGNMENT/PRESENTATION:
• • Explain in detail the effect of alloying elements on austenite transformation into pearlite, bainite, and martensite phases. Support your answer with suitable diagrams. Reference “Page # 174 to 186 Steel Heat Treatment Hand Book, 2nd Addition by George E Totten, Ph.D, FASM

Classes:23-26

HARDENABILITY:
• • •

HARDENABILITY

The ability of a steel to increase hardness during quenching is called its hardenability or hardening capacity. The hardening capacity is characterized by the maximum hardness that can be obtained on the surface of a given steel product by quenching, whereas hardenability refers the depth to which maximum hardness is achieved. To achieve maximum hardness it is necessary to observe basic conditions:

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• • • • • • • • •

• • • • •

• The rate of cooling should be equal to or higher than the critical rate at which quenching gives martensite alone (inevitability with some retained austenite, of course, but without bainite); • All carbon at the quenching temperature should be in the solid solution in austenite (the quenching temperature should be above the critical points Ac1 and Ac3 by 30–50oC for hypereutectoid and hypoeutectoid steels, respectively). Although hardening capacity and hardenability are used inplace of each other but have different meaning and different factors are used to control them. The hardening capacity of a steel is determined by the factors affecting the hardness of martensite, while hardenability is determined by those affecting the quantity of the martensite obtained and the hardness penetration depth. Upon quenching, steel can feature high hardening capacity and low hardenability at the same time. Such a steel would correspond to the schematic curve 1 in Figure. If for a work piece of the same diameter D cooled under the same conditions, the distribution of hardness over the cross section is characterized by curve 2; such a steel possesses medium or poor hardening capacity but good hardenability. Finally, steel that corresponds to curve 3 would possess high hardening capacity and high hardenability. Hardenability is an inherent property of the material itself, whereas hardness capacity is a state that depends on other factors as well. Generally hardenability is determined by the distance below the surface at which 50HRC is obtained. The hardenability depends on: • Carbon content. • The amount of alloying elements dissolved in the austenite during the austenitizing treatment. The austenite grain size. Figure shows the hardness distributions within the cross sections of bars of 100 mm diameter after quenching three different kinds of steel [2]. In spite of quenching the W1 steel in water (i.e., the more severe quenching) and the other two grades in oil, the W1 steel has the lowest hardenability because it does not contain alloying elements. The highest hardenability in this case is that of the D2 steel, which has the greatest amount of alloying elements. It is interesting to note that : • when a steel has high hardenability it achieves a high hardness throughout the entire heavy section (as D2) even when it is quenched in a milder quenchant (oil). • When a steel has low hardenability its hardness decreases rapidly below the surface (as W1), even when it is quenched in the more severe quenchant (water).

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HARDENABILITY (GOVERNING FACTOR):
• • The austenite condition (chemical composition, grain size, homogeneity of austenite) prior to quenching has the decisive effect on the hardening capacity and, especially, hardenability of steel. Other factors are secondary or derive from the basic three. These factors are: • The carbon content • Type, and amount of alloying elements at the time of quenching • The quenching temperature (austenitizing temperature). • The holding time at a given temperature. Mainly grain size and composition of steel determines the depth to which martensite zone can penetrate. To improve the hardening capacity and hardenability of steel, the austenitizing conditions should be such as to ensure that a maximum amount of carbon passes from the ferrite–carbide mixture to the solution and, at the same time, no marked growth of grains occurs as a result of overheating, as this would lead to a high brittleness and the formation of quenching cracks. The quenching temperature should be maintained as constant as possible, and the holding time should be just enough to ensure uniform heating of the workpiece and dissolution of carbides. For their complete dissolution in austenite, coarse-plate and coarse-grain carbides need more time than thin-plate and fine-grain ones. Steels alloyed with carbide forming elements should be heated to a temperature considerably exceeding Ac3. Because if small amount of carbides available in the structure impede enlargement of grains and the nuclei of the new phase facilitate transformation of austenite in the pearlite range and increase the critical rate of quenching, thus decreasing the hardenability of the steel. Shape and size of the cross section Hardenability of the material Quenching conditions • Quenching conditions include: i. The specific quenchant ( with its inherent chemical and physical properties), Bath temperature and Agitation rate.

HARDENABILITY (AUSTENITIZING CONDITION):

• • •

FACTORS INFLUENCING HARDENABILITY:
• • •

FACTORS INFLUENCING HARDENABILITY (SHAPE AND SIZE OF THE CROSS SECTION):
• • The cross-sectional shape has a remarkable influence on heat extraction during quenching and consequently on the resulting hardening depth. Bars of rectangular cross sections always

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• • •

achieve less depth of hardening than round bars of the same cross-sectional size. Chart shown in Figure is used to convert square and rectangular cross sections to equivalent circular cross sections. For example, • A 38-mm square and a 25 100-mm rectangular cross section are each equivalent to a 40-mm diameter circular cross section; • A 60 100-mm rectangular cross section is equivalent to an 80-mm diameter circle [2]. The influence of cross-sectional size when quenching the same grade of steel under the same quenching conditions is shown in Figure 5.4A. Steeper hardness decreases from surface to core and substantially lower core hardness values result from quenching a larger cross section.

• • •

The influence of hardenability and quenching conditions are shown in Figure Figure shows that an unalloyed (shallow-hardening) steel and an alloyed steel of high hardenability is quenched in (a) water and (b) oil. Figure conceives that: • The critical cooling rate (Vcrit) of the unalloyed steel is higher than the critical cooling rate of the alloyed steel. • Only the cross section that have been cooled at a higher cooling rate than Vcrit could transformed to martensite and attained high hardness. • In unalloyed steel water quench give birth to martensite to limited crosection whereas oil quench could not formed martensite. • In case of alloyed steel oil quenching provided cooling rates higher than critical within a quite large depth, whereas water quench produced martensite

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DETERMINATION OF HARDENABILITY: DETERMINATION OF HARDENABILITY (GROSSMANN’S HARDENABILITY TEST):
• • • • • • Grossmann’s method of testing hardenability uses a number of cylindrical steel bars of different diameters hardened in a given quenching medium. After sectioning each bar at midlength and examining it metallographically, the bar that has 50% martensite at its center is selected, and the diameter of this bar is designated as the critical diameter (Dcrit). The hardness value corresponding to 50% martensite will be determined exactly at the center of the bar of Dcrit. Other bars with diameters smaller than Dcrit have more than 50% martensite in the center of the cross section and correspondingly higher hardness, While bars having diameters larger than Dcrit attain 50% martensite only up to a certain depth as shown in Figure. The critical diameter Dcrit is valid for the quenching medium in which the bars have been quenched. If one varies the quenching medium, a different critical diameter will be obtained for the same steel. • • • Grossmann’s Hardenability Test Jominy End-quench Hardenability Test Hardenability Bands

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DETERMINATION OF HARDENABILITY (JOMINY HARDENABILITY TEST):
• • • • • The end-quench hardenability test developed by Jominy and Boegehold is commonly referred to as the Jominy test. It is used worldwide, described in many national standards, and available as an international standard. This test has the following significant advantages: It characterizes the hardenability of a steel from a single specimen, allowing a wide range of cooling rates during a single test. It is reasonably reproducible.

Procedure: • Normally the steel test specimen (25 mm diameter 100 mm) is heated to the appropriate austenitizing temperature and soaked for 30 min. • It is then quickly transferred to the supporting fixture (Jominy apparatus) and quenched from the lower end by spraying with a jet of water under specified conditions as illustrated in Figure A. • The cooling rate is the highest at the end where the water jet impinges on the specimen and decreases from the quenched end, producing a variety of microstructures and hardnesses as a function of distance from the quenched end. • After quenching, two parallel flats, approximately 0.45 mm below surface, are ground on opposite sides of the specimen and hardness values (usually HRC) are measured at 1/16 in. intervals from the quenched end and plotted as the Jominy hardenability curve (see Figure B). • When the distance is measured in millimeters, the hardness values are taken at every 2 mm from the quenched end for at least a total distance of 20 or 40 mm, depending on the steepness of the hardenability curve, and then every 10 mm. • On the upper margin of the Jominy hardenability diagram, approximate cooling rates at 700oC may be plotted at several distances from the quenched end.

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• •

4340: Very hardenable, More expensive l1040: Less hardenable, Less expensive

• •

The Jominy end-quench test is used mostly for: • Low-alloy steels for carburizing (core hardenability) • Structural steels, which are typically through-hardened in oils and tempered. The Jominy end-quench test is suitable for all steels except those of very low or very high hardenability, i.e., D1< 1.0 in. or D1>6.0 in.

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The standard Jominy end-quench test cannot be used for highly alloyed air-hardened steels. These steels harden not only by heat extraction through the quenched end but also by heat extraction by the surrounding air. Thiseffect increases with increasing distance from the quenched end.

ASSIGNMENT:
• Jominy Test procedure used for hardenability determination of shallow steel is little bit different than alloyed steel. Describe it according to ASTM A255 standard. • Reference Page# 231 to 233. Steel Heat Treatment Hand Book, 2nd Addition by George E Totten, Ph.D, FASM What is hardenability bond. How it is used for determination of hardenability. • Reference Page# 237 to 240. Steel Heat Treatment Hand Book, 2nd Addition by George E Totten, Ph.D, FASM

Classes:27-32

CASE HARDENING:
• • • • •

CASE HARDENING

Case hardening is a simple method of hardening steel. It is less complex than hardening and tempering. This techniques is used for steels with a low carbon content. Carbon is added to the outer surface of the steel, to a depth of approximately 0.03mm. One advantage of this method of hardening steel is that the inner core is left untouched and so still processes properties such as flexibility and is still relatively soft. This is a very common process that is used to harden the outer surface of parts such as: • Gear teeth, Cams, Shafts, Bearings • Fasteners, Pins, Tools, Molds, Dies etc Reason • Above types of components normally works under the dynamic forces conditions where i. High fatigue ii. High toughness iii. And high friction resistance • Is required This is only achieved best by case hardening Most of these processes are used to case harden steel and other iron alloys, including low carbon steels, alloy steels, tool steels etc.

APPLICATION:
• •

• •

TYPES:
• There are several types of case hardening:

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• • •

• Carburizing • Nitriding • carbonitriding • Chromizing • Bronizing • Cyaniding or carbonitriding • Induction hardening • Flame hardening In first five cases chemical structure of the metal surface is changed by diffusing atoms of an alternate element (doping agent) which results in alterations to the micro-structure on the crystals on the surface. In last two methods doping agent is not required therefore the steel must contain at least 0.3% C The basic method is fairly simple: • Heating • Dipping in the atmosphere containing “doping” substance either in gasseous or liquid state. • Heating to diffuse dopant into the surface. The duration and temperature control the concentration and depth of the doping. STAGE ONE: The steel is heated to red heat. It may only be necessary to harden one part of the steel and so heat can be concentrated in this area. STAGE TWO: The steel is removed from the brazing hearth with blacksmiths tongs and plunged into case hardening compound and allowed to cool a little. The case hardening compound is high in carbon. STAGE THREE: The steel is heated again to a red colour, removed from the brazing hearth and plunged into cold, clean water.

PROCESS:

CASE HARDENING STAGES:
• • • • • •

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PROCESS VARIABLES:
• The process variables normally fixed in specifications for a carburized part are: • Case depth. • Hardness of core, and case. • Case carbon content. • Post Heat treatment. • Material For design purposes, the variables of greatest concern are: • case depth • case hardness. Case depth is described in two ways: • Total case depth • Effective case depth. Total case depth refers to the total depth of carbon penetration and is ordinary determined by metallographic examination or by chemical analysis of successive layer of the case. Effective case depth is the depth below the surface to which a specified hardness is exceeded, commonly the depth of 50 HRC is considered as effective case depth Total case depths of greater than 0.075 inch (1.8mm) are rarely used in production because of the excessive time required to develop deep cases. Approximately 9 hr at 1700oF (912oC) are required for producing a 0.075-inch (1.8mm) case.

CASE DEPTH:
• • • • •

CASE CARBON CONTENT:
• • • It depends on: • Mechanical properties and relative microstructure desired. High carbon content would give birth to retain austenite. High carbon content at surface is required when high wear properties are required.

POST HEAT TREATMENTS:

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CARBURIZING:
• • • It is oldest and cheapest methods of case hardening It is applicable of steel containing 0.1% to 0.2%C steel. Heating to 1700oF in carburizing (CO) atmosphere. • Fe + 2CO ====è FeC + CO2 • FeC represents dissolved carbon in Fe.

CARBURIZING TYPES:
• Pack carburizing • Heating of charcoal, coke, and barium carbonate (energizing compound to enhance carbon pick up character of steel) with sample in a closed packed chamber. • It is efficient and economical for small lots of parts or of large massive parts. • Main disadvantage is that it is not suitable for thin cases. • Minimum case depth 0.03inch with 0.01 inch tolerance. Gas carburizing • Uses propane (C3H8), methane (CH4), natural gas (87% methane), and carbon monoxide. in a sealed furnace. • Gas carburizing allows quicker handling, closer quality, and greater flexibility of operation in comparison with pack carburizing. Liquid carburizing

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Used sodium cyanide (NaCN) and other salts (BaCl2) Thickness 0.005 in. to 0.030 in.

PROCESS STEPS OF GAS CARBURIZING:
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Formation of CO. Absorption of C. Diffusion of C. CH4 ==è C + 2H2. CO2 + H2.==è CO + H2O. CH4 + H2O ==è CO + 3H2 Formation of H2O is causing decarburization. Some times CO2 may also takes place Fe + 2CO. ==è Fe(C) + CO2. Fe + CH4 ==è Fe(C) + 2H2 Fe + CO + H2 ==è Fe(C) + H2O Formation of CO2 and Water can be minimized by further addition of CH4, other wise carburization process will not proceed, since CO2 and H2O are decarburizing agents. CH4 + CO2 ==è2CO + 2H2 CH4 + H2O ==è CO + 3H2 Fick’s first law

ADSORPTION OF CARBON:

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Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

• • •

J = - D ¶c/¶x. Where: • J is flux, or amount of diffusing substance that passes through unit cross sectional area per unit time. • D is the diffusion coefficient. • ¶c/¶x is the concentration gradient of the diffusing substance. The transport of carbon in austenite depends on: Diffusion coefficient values. The carbon concentration gradient

CASE DEPTH:
• • d = j ét Where d is case depth and j is constant proportionality coefficient, t is time

DECARBURIZATION:
• • • It is reversal of carburization and is the problem in high carbon steels and tool steels Depletion of carbon left the soft skin and case do not transform to martensite on subsequent hardening Endothermic environment is the key to avoid decarburization.

FORMATION OF H2O AND CO2 DURING CARBURIZING AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES:

MICROSTRUCTURES:
• • • • At surface microstructure would be pearlite with cementite network and at core pearlite with ferrite network (figure 8.7 avener). The amount of ferrite will increase towards core. The carbon gradient from case to core is shown in figure 8.71. The relation between time and temperature to case depth is shown in figure 8.72

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Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

CYANIDING AND CARBURIZING:
• • • • • • • • • • Cyaniding: Surface hardening using liquid salt baths Carbonitriding: Surface hardening using C and N gas atmosphere (carbonitriding). The temperature used is lower than carburizing (b/w 1400 to 1600oF) This technique is used for producing thinner cases. Up to 0.01in for cyaniding Up to 0.03 in for carbonitriding The process in which the carbon and nitrogen gases are used directly the source of hardening agent. It is the modified carburizing. The most descriptive term would be nitrocarburizing The process is also know as dry cyaniding, gas cyaniding and nicarbing. The gases used in the process is the mixture of: • Carrier gas (mixture of N, H, CO). It is used at +ve pressure to prevent air infiltration and act as diluent for active gases (hydrocarbon and ammonia) thus making the process easy to control. • Enriching gas (usually propane and natural gas) the main carburizing agent source. • Ammonia NH3. At operating temperature the NH3 dissociates to provide N to surface of steel. The endothermic generator is used for production of CO. Nitrogen is diffused in the surface of special alloy steels at temperatures around ~510 to 600°C. Suitable for low carbon alloy steels containing Al, Cr, Mo, V, Ni that can form nitride compound Mechanism: NH3è N +3H Surface hardness achieved: up to 1000 VHN Case Depth: 0.1 to 0. 6 mm Applications: Gears, valves, cutters, sprockets, pump

CARBONITRIDING:

NITRIDING:
• • • • • •

Composed by: Aftab Ahmed Laghari (07MT38)

Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

• •

boring tools, fuel-injection pump parts. Depending on case depth, nitriding time normally range upto 120h 0.038% is the maximum solubility of nitrogen at standard pressure and austenitizing temperature (810oC)

Composed by: Aftab Ahmed Laghari (07MT38)

Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

• •

Assignment Define and differentiate the types of nitriding process shown in table

SURFACE HEAT TREATMENTS:
• • • • Carburizing -> HRC 60, Thickness: 0.025 – 4 mm Nitriding -> HRC 70, Thickness: 0.025 – 0.05 mm Carbonitriding -> HRC 70, Thickness: 0.07-0.5 mm Chromizing and Boronizing -> HRC 70

HEAT TREATMENT WITH GASEOUS ATMOSPHERE:
• The absorption of material from a gaseous atmosphere occurs in several steps • Processes in the gaseous atmosphere: i. Formation of transportable gas molecules and transfer of these molecules through the gas phase onto the surface of the metal with subsequent physical adsorption of the gas molecules • Processes in the interface:

Composed by: Aftab Ahmed Laghari (07MT38)

Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

• • •

i. Dissociation of the gas molecules and chemisorption of the gas atoms, penetration of the atoms through the surface of the metal with transition of the atoms from the state of chemisorption to the interstitially solute state in the solid solution • Diffusion of the atoms from the surface into the core of the material Independent of the composition of the initial gases, the gaseous atmospheres used in heattreating at processing temperatures consist of the elementary molecules: • carbon monoxide CO, carbon dioxide CO2, hydrogen H2, water vapor H2O, oxygen O2, ammonia NH3, and sometimes also methane CH4, All of which are able to react with one another and with the catalyzing surface of the component (and the furnace wall), thus releasing or absorbing • carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen. Reactions among the constituents of the gas are described as homogeneous reactions; reactions between elements of the gas and elements of the component surface are described as heterogeneous reactions. The heterogeneous reactions that take place in the interface between gaseous atmosphere and component surface are chemophysical processes and responsible for the mass transfer.

FLAME HARDENING:
Demo-3

INDUCTION HARDENING:
Demo_4

CHROMIZING: BROMIZING:
• • Performed on tool steels, nickel and cobalt based alloy steels. When used on low carbon steels, corrosion resistance is improved. • • Diffuse chromium into the surface 0.001 – 0.002 in. Pack the parts in Cr rich powders or dip in a molten salt bath containing Cr salts.

Classes:34-39

DIFFUSION:

DIFFUSION

Diffusion is process of substance (solid, liquid or gas ) transport to an other substance.

Composed by: Aftab Ahmed Laghari (07MT38) • • •

Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

• • • •

IMPORTANCE OF DIFFUSION:

It is temperature and time dependent. The rate of diffusion is dependent on: Type of substance to diffuse. • Temperature • Time • Concentration gradient. Examples of gas diffusion: diffusion of perfume in air, diffusion of smoke in air, etc. Examples of liquid diffusion: diffusion of syrup in water Example of Solid diffusion: Solid solution of carbon in BCC or FCC iron, porosity movement, inclusion movement. Path of diffusing substance is concentration dependent. • At low concentration diffusing path is random, zigzag and unpredictable • At high concentration there could be systemic flow. Diffusion plays a crucial role in… • Alloying metals => bronze, silver, gold • Strengthening and heat treatment processes i. Hardening the surfaces of steel • High temperature mechanical behavior • Phase transformations i. Mass transport during FCC to BCC • Environmental degradation i. Corrosion, etc.

DIFFUSION DEMO:
• • • •

to

Glass tube filled with water. t1 At time t = 0, add some drops of ink to one end of the tube. t2 Measure the diffusion distance, x, over some time. Compare the results with theory. t3

1 HOW DO ATOMS MOVE IN SOLIDS ?o WHY DO ATOMS MOVE IN SOLIDS ?

x

x

x2 x3

• • • •

Diffusion, simply, is atoms moving from one lattice site to another in a stepwise manner • Transport of material by moving atoms Two conditions are to be met: • An empty adjacent site • Enough energy to break bonds and cause lattice distortions during displacement What is the energy source ? • HEAT ! What else ? • Concentration gradient !

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Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

TYPES OF DIFFUSION:
• • Self Diffusion • In pure and perfect metals the atoms do not exist at any defined position. Their location is constantly changed by intersinck property/character of metals. Inter diffusion • Self diffusion in an alloy. • Interdiffusion means the diffusion of one component through lattice of other. • Ferrite. Diffusion of carbon in BCC lattice of Fe. Volume diffusion • Diffusion in bulk quantity. Grain boundary diffusion • Atomic migration along grain boundaries. Surface diffusion • Diffusion of vapor/gas in solid Self-diffusion: In an elemental solid, atoms also migrate.

• • •

DIFFUSION:

Interdiffusion: In an alloy, atoms tend to migrate from regions of high conc. to regions of low conc

Interdiffusion: In an alloy, atoms tend to migrate from regions of large concentration.

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Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

DIFFUSION MECHANISMS: DIFFUSION MECHANISMS IN SOLIDS (I):
• • Gases & Liquids – random (Brownian) motion Solids – vacancy diffusion or interstitial diffusion

ACTIVATION ENERGY:
• • Energy required to diffuse; energy required to pull the atom away from its present neighbors Activation energy is dependent on: • Size of atom • Type of atom ( eg tungsten atom is more closely bounded than Fe atom)

DIFFUSION MECHANISMS IN SOLIDS (II):
• Interstitial Diffusion

Composed by: Aftab Ahmed Laghari (07MT38)

Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

Much faster than vacancy diffusion, why ? Smaller atoms like B, C, H, O. Weaker interaction with the larger atoms. More vacant sites, no need to create a vacancy !

DIFFUSION MECHANISMS IN SOLIDS (III):
Substitutional Diffusion: • • • applies to substitutional impurities atoms exchange with vacancies rate depends on: • number of vacancies • activation energy to exchange.

increasing elapsed time

PROCESSING USING DIFFUSION (1):
• Case Hardening: • Diffuse carbon atoms into the host iron atoms at the surface. • Example of interstitial diffusion is a case hardened gear.

Result: The "Case" is hard to deform: C atoms "lock" planes from shearing. hard to crack: C atoms put the surface in compression.

Composed by: Aftab Ahmed Laghari (07MT38)

Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

PROCESSING USING DIFFUSION
• • Doping silicon with phosphorus for n-type semiconductors: o Process: 1. Deposit P rich layers on surface.

0.5 mm

magnified image of a computer chip light regions: Si atoms light regions: Al atoms

2. Heat it. 3. Result: Doped semiconductor regions

DIFFUSION LAW:
• • How do we quantify the amount or rate of diffusion? o Ficks Law (Steady state and Non steady State) Measured empirically o Make thin film (membrane) of known surface area o Impose concentration gradient o Measure how fast atoms or molecules diffuse through the membrane

MODELING DIFFUSION: FLUX

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Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

CONCENTRATION PROFILES & FLUX

CONCENTRATION GRADIENT:

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STEADY STATE DIFFUSION:

DIFFUSION AND TEMPERATURE:

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Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

SIZE IMPACT ON DIFFUSION:

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Smaller atoms diffuse faster

FICK’S SECOND LAW ; NON-STEADY STATE DIFFUSION:
• In most practical cases, J (flux) and dC/dx (concentration gradient) change with time (t).

Composed by: Aftab Ahmed Laghari (07MT38)

Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

o Net accumulation or depletion of species diffusing How do we express a time dependent concentration?

NON-STEADY STATE DIFFUSION:

SUMMARY:
• STRUCTURE & DIFFUSION:

Classes:40-43

Composed by: Aftab Ahmed Laghari (07MT38)

Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

AGE HARDENING:
• • • • •

AGE HARDENING

Principally there are two methods of increasing the strength and hardness of the alloy. o Work hardening o Heat treatment The most important heat treatment process for non ferrous alloys are age hardening/ Precipitation hardening The alloys that could be age hardened should have partial solubility at solid state. The alloy composition that could be hardened should cross the solvus line. There are two stages in age hardening o Solution treatment o Aging Process

SOLUTION AND AGING STEPS:

©2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.

Composed by: Aftab Ahmed Laghari (07MT38)

Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

AGE HARDENING STEPS:

• • • • • • •

Solution treatment o -heating to a single phase region o Quench to TR à precipitation is slow, insignificant precipitates Aging Heat the supersaturated solid solution to an intermediate T Diffusion of Cu in Al à fine dispersion The alloy is cooled to room temperature Aging at elevated temperature to facilitate/speed up the precipitation of trapped element Precipitation speed is temperature dependent.

AGING PROCESS:

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Figure indicates the optimal temperature Natural Aging alloys o Precipitation at room temperature b/w 4 to 5 days. Artificial aging alloys o Which require reheating to elevated temperature. Refrigeration retards the rate of aging o At 32oF beginning of the aging can be delayed for several hours in case of Al Alloys. o Dry ice (-50 to -100oF) retards aging for extended period. Al alloy rivets which age at room temperature are kept in deep-refrigerator to retard their aging process until they are driven Precipitation of excess element as fine submicroscopic particles at slip plane. Distortion of lattice structure that interfere with movement of dislocation. Distortion of lattice is the key factor behind the hardening than precipitation of submicroscopic particles. Mag can dissolve 46% Lead at eutectic temperature and 2% at room temperature. Although precipitation is high but with less distortion so no significant hardening takes place On the other hand copper beryllium alloy shows 2.2% solubility at eutectic temperature and 0.2% at room temperature. Since excess distortion in lattice is involved so significant increase in hardness and strength is reported. The most quoted age hardening curve is that for Al-Cu alloys performed in the late 40s. Keep in mind that age hardening was known empirically (Alfred Wilm) as a technologically useful treatment from the early days of aluminum alloys. Higher Cu contents result in higher maximum hardnesses because larger volume fractions of precipitate are possible

MECHANISM OF AGE HARDENING:
• • • • •

AGE HARDENING CURVES:

AL-CU PRECIPITATION SEQUENCE:
• • The sequence is: a0 ® a1 + GP-zones ® a2 + q“® a3 + q’® a4 + q The phase are: an - fcc aluminum; nth subscript denotes each equilibrium

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Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

GP zones - mono-atomic layers of Cu on (001)Al q“ - thin discs, fully coherent with matrix q’ - disc-shaped, semi-coherent on (001)q’ bct. q - incoherent interface, ~spherical, complex • body-centered tetragonal (bct).

AL-CU PPT STRUCTURES:

AL-CU MICROSTRUCTURES:
• This tableau shows which of the different ppt types are associated with which part of the hardening curve.

AL-CU DRIVING FORCES:
• Each precipitate has a different free energy curve w.r.t composition. Exception is the GP zone, which may be regarded as continuous with the alloy (leading to the possibility of spinodal decomposition, discussed later).

Composed by: Aftab Ahmed Laghari (07MT38) • •

Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

P&E fig. 5.27 illustrates the sequence of successively greater free energy decreases and also successively greater ∆G*. P&E fig. 5.28 illustrates the point that the nucleation barriers are much smaller for each individual nucleation step when the next precipitate nucleates heterogeneously on the previous structure.

AL-CU PHASE RELATIONSHIPS:
• The explanation of age hardening depends on understanding the metastable phases that can appear.

NUCLEATION SITES, REVERSION:
• • • • • The nucleation sites vary depending on circumstances. q“ most likely nucleates on GP zones by adding additional layers of Cu atoms. Similarly, q’ nucleates on q“ by in-situ transformation. However, q’ can also nucleate on dislocations, see P&E fig. 5.31a. The full sequence is only observable for annealing temperatures below the GP solvus. Any of the intermediate precipitates can be dissolved, reverted, by increasing the temperature above the relevant solvus, fig. 5.32 The age hardening curve has the same double peak as for the Al-Cu series, but the separation is more pronounced.

AL-AG: EXAMPLE 2:

TYPICAL P-H ALLOYS:
• Al o 2014 o 2024 Forged Aircraft Fittings, Al Structures High strength forgings, Rivets

Composed by: Aftab Ahmed Laghari (07MT38) o 6061 o 7075 • Cu o Beryllium Bronze Mg o AM 100A o AZ80A Ni o Rene' 41 o Inconel 700 o Udimet 500 Fe o A-286 o 17-10P High Temperature up to 1800F Sand Castings Extruded products

Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

Furniture, Vacuum Cleaners, Canoes Aircraft Structures, Olympic Bikes Surgical Instruments , Non sparking tools, Springs, Nuts, Gears

• •

High Strength Stainless

AGE HARDENING IN STEEL:
• Ferrite has a very low solubility for carbon and therefore age hardening (also called quench hardening) occurs here too. To avoid it, the soluble carbon levels must be reduced, which is a common objective of the IF or interstitial-free steel grades. These have additions of carbide formers such as Ti or Nb to sequester the C.

Classes:44

DISTORTION_ HEAT TREATMENT DEFECT:
• • • • • Distortion is a term that is very familiar to all that are involved with thermal processing techniques especially in the field of heat treatment. No matter how careful one is, distortion cannot be avoided. It is important to at least understand the basic causes of the distortion problem. Distortion describes the movement of a metal during its heat treatment process. The distortion will manifest itself in one of two forms, or a combination of both: o Shape distortion o Size distortion Shape distortion can occur as a direct result of one or any combinations of the following: o Forging o Rolling

HEAT TREATMENT DEFECT

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Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

• • • • • • • •

o Casting o Machining stresses induced due to manufacturing operations o Grain size o Variations in homogeneity of the material o Incomplete phase changes Size distortion occurs as a direct result of changing the surface chemistry of steel, whereas change in surface chemistry only takes place in surface heat treatment. The outstanding importance of steels in engineering is based on their ability to change mechanical properties over a wide range when subjected to controlled heat treatment. For unalloyed carbon steels, for example, the hardness can be increased by up to 500% just by changing the cooling rate from the austenitizing temperature from extremely slow to extremely fast. However quenching at a rate faster than in still air does not only determine the desired mechanical properties but also induce formation of thermal and transformational stresses that lead to changes in size and shape and thus may result in quenching cracks that damage the workpiece Transformational stresses are caused due to change in microphases, whereas change in microphases cause the change in volume. For example: o Austenite phase has the smallest volume, Untempered martensite phase has the largest phase. If there are mixed phases, any residual austenite will transform to martensite over time or with the application of heat. This will cause a dimensional change in the steel.

COUPLING EFFECTS AMONG THE THREE DIFFERENT CHARACTERISTICS:
• • • Figure schematically represents the coupling effects among the three different characteristics of quenching: o cooling rate, metallic structure, and internal stresses. The cooling rate influences the phase transformation of the metallic structure, whereas the latent heat due to structural changes affects the cooling rate. All phase transformations of austenite during quenching are accompanied by volume expansion. As a consequence, locally and temporally different changes of structure and temperature cause nonuniform volumetric changes in the quenched part that can result in transformational and thermal stresses. These stresses accelerate or hinder the phase transformation and influence the volume expansion. While the phase transformation brings out a defined metallic structure, the volumetric dilatation and thermal and transformational stresses result in deformation and residual stresses. At room temperature, both characteristics influence the material properties.

• •

Composed by: Aftab Ahmed Laghari (07MT38)

Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

Classes:45-46

COMMON QUENCHANTS:

QUENCHING AND QUENCHING MEDIA

• •

The most common quenchants in ardening practice are liquids including: o water o water that contains salt, aqueous polymer solutions o hardening oils. Inert gases, molten salt, molten metal, and fluidized beds are also used. Quenching techniques used for liquid media are: o Immersion quenching. o Spray quenching. Immersion quenching o The part is submerged into an unagitated or agitated quenchant, o It is the most widely used technique. Spray quenching o It refers to spraying the liquid through nozzles onto those areas of the hot workpiece where higher cooling rates are desired.

• •

QUENCHING MEDIA:
Four commonly used quenching media: • Brine – the fastest cooling rate • Water – moderate cooling rate • Oil – slowest cooling rate • Gas – used in automatic furnaces, usually liquid nitrogen, can be very fast cooling. Too rapid cooling can cause cracking in complex and heavy sections.

HEAT REMOVAL STAGES:
• • • • • During quenching in liquid media with boiling temperatures far below the initial temperature of the body, three stages of heat removal occur. These are referred as The film boiling or vapor blanket stage. The nucleate boiling stage. The convection stage. In the film-boiling stage the surface temperature of the workpiece is sufficiently high to vaporize the quenching liquid and form a stable film around the part.

Composed by: Aftab Ahmed Laghari (07MT38) • • • • • • •

Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro

The vapor film has an insulating effect; therefore the cooling rate during film boiling is relatively slow. The temperature above vapor blanket occurs is called the Leidenfrost temperature after Johann Gottlieb Leidenfrost. When surface temperature is less than the Leidenfrost temperature, the vapor film collapses and the nucleate boiling begins [11]. In this stage, the liquid in contact with the hot surface evaporates, and immediately the vapor bubbles leave the surface. This causes strong convection, which results in a high rate of heat transfer from the metal to the fluid. Upon further cooling, the surface temperature becomes less than the boiling point of the liquid, and the surface is permanently wetted by the fluid. The cooling rate is low and determined mainly by the rate of convection and the viscosity of the liquid quenchant.

ASSIGNMENT:

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