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Category of

Comparison

Person Centered
Planning in MedicaidMaryland

Commonalities or
Clarification in
Characteristics

Supported
Decision Making
(overall
paradigm)

Those providing
support- is there
a specific role for
this?

Support Broker role acts
to connect many of the
other roles in the plan,
though they may work
to ensure that support is
generated overall from
all roles.

In SDM, there may be a
primarily supporter, in
PCP within Medicaid,
the Support Broker is
not the only supporter
an individual has, but a
primary one.

Supporters

Relationship of
Roles to the
Individual

Support Brokers can be
volunteers or paid,
family or member of
government agency (ex:
DDA).

Supports within both
have a first resort of
reliance on extant or
natural support
networks of the
individual before
finding other
supporters.

Depends on the
specific
application of
SDM; generally
natural, unpaid
supports are
standard.
Within
Representation
Agreements,
“Representatives,
alternate
representatives,
and the monitor
are entitled to be
reimbursed for
reasonable out-ofpocket expenses
related to
carrying out their
duties.” -From
this link.

Criteria to use?

To be applicable for
DDA services, one must
fit certain criteria within
certain categories; one

Though there may
specific criteria for
DDA services and
therefore for waivers

Supported
decision making,
though a broad
paradigm, is

can be within the
“developmentally
disabled” category, or in
the “supports only”
category (Gscheidle).
Also may need to fit
financial, medical,
locational constraints, or
are ”transitioning from
the DDA Community
Pathways waiver or
identified as a priority
for DDA funding”
(Gscheidle).

that utilize PCP, both
SDM and PCP in
Medicaid here follow a
standard of adjusting to
fit an individual’s
situation.

adaptable to the
individual,
regardless of
extent or type of
disability.

Within New Directions
waiver, one must have
certain essential roles in
their plan, such as the
Support Broker,
Financial Management
Services role, and
Resource Coordinator.
In What Context
is it Used?

Person Centered
Planning is used within
Medicaid as required in
order to receive
services.

Both are used as a
method of improving an
individual’s selfdetermination and
fitting their individual
goals as well as life.

Supported
decision making is
used more broadly
in life planning.

Steps?

There are defined steps
to be taken within the
process of receiving the
New-Directions Waiver
that involve the person
centered planning
process. May include
items such as creating a
service plan, meeting

Both rely on a
reasonable, timely
method or sequence that
will progress an
individual towards their
outcomes.

Certain defined
tools can be used
within PCP,
though not all
models within
person centered
planning have as
defined steps or
methods of

with a support broker.

approaching SDM
as others.

Employment/
Financial
Aspects

Focus on the individual
also learning to be an
employer of members of
their circle. Has a
budget.
“individual/family” also
involved in hiring
process (Gscheidle).

Both prime individuals
for ultimate goals, and
may include or foresee
supports being needed
in finances. There may
be slight reliance on
others to make
decisions within PCP in
Medicaid; not sure of
the extent of this
substituted decision
making and its
influence in-practice.

Financial
supporters or
supports that
enable the
individual to work
with finances with
help exist, not the
same emphasis on
employment.

Oversight

Roles may focus on this.

Not the same emphasis
on oversight in SDM as
in PCP in Medicaid.

Not always a role
for oversight or
management of
SDM, depends on
model. Within
Representation
Agreement Act,
there are
“monitors” who
safeguard the
process.

Overall Focus

Independence, as well
as enabling more
experiences that are
within the whole of
society. Individual areas
person needs to work
with. Definition of
person centered
planning fits with
support decision’s

Overlapping focus; both
ensure that individual is
the prime focus on the
efforts taken, the PCP
in Medicaid may have
more structure to it and
overall goals for each
person within the
waiver program that
uses it.

In accordance
with individual’s
wishes, promote
social model of
disability and
recognition of
equality from
persons with
disabilities to
those who are

making use of the
model.

viewed as “ablebodied”.

Tools Used?

MAPS, PATH,
Essential Lifestyle
Planning, etc.

Organization and
structure

Varying; some
tools are
attempting to be
developed, but
mostly informal
up to now; legal
formalized tools
are indevelopment.

Any Specific
Roles?

Support Broker,
Financial Management
Services, Resource
Service Coordinator.
Go to slide 22 of this
link to see a general
look at PCP roles.
Background check of
roles, certain roles may
receive training.

Both specific and more
abstract roles can be
utilized in both, though
PCP has a reliance on
defined roles within its
framework.

Depending on the
model, roles may
be more defined.
Within the
Representation
Agreements in
British Columbia,
for example, roles
are specified as
supporters
(“representatives
and alternate
representatives”),
those receiving
support, and those
to safeguard the
process
(“monitors”). See
this link for more
information.
Supporters are not
given background
evaluations; no
specific training.

Final Evaluation:
Person Centered Planning in Medicaid in Maryland
According to the resource this researcher evaluated, the PCP process is continually being
modified and has faults within it. The process is hopefully being improved in-process and since
the date of publication of that resource. Though the defined nature of the PCP in Medicaid roles
and process is strong, the limitations it places on the individual may be slightly more restraining
than supported decision making as a paradigm overall.
Note on Supported Decision Making:
Person Centered Planning can actually fit within supported decision making if done properly,
which is part of this evaluation, to ascertain whether it has been done/is recommended to be done
within policy to the standards of legal capacity supported decision making follows.

Works Cited (information within Word Diagram and Chart)
Martinis, J. (n.d.). Applying Supported Decision-Making: Medical Services and Planning
[Microsoft Powerpoint].
Gscheidle, Kim. "Developmental Disabilities Administration Self-Directed Services." 5 Apr.
2012. PDF file.
Nidus Personal Planning Resource Centre. "Representation Agreement Overview Fact Sheet."
Nidus Personal Planning Resource Centre. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.
<http://www.nidus.ca/?page_id=50>.