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# Kelsey  MacLeod

Karren  Williston
February  24,  2015

Math  Peer  Teaching:  Developing  Concepts  of  Exponents,  Integers  and  Real  numbers

Summary
Up  until  grade  6,  students  focus  on  whole  numbers  in  math.    In  grades  6-­8,  students  start
exploring  positive  and  negative  integers  and  fractions  as  rational  numbers  (positive  and  negative)
which  expands  their  knowledge  and  understanding  of  the  entire  real  number  system.
This  chapter  focuses  on  developing  concepts  of  Exponents,  Integers,  and  Real  numbers,
which  builds  upon  previous  math  concepts.    Exponents  are  a  more  efficient  way  to  express
repeated  multiplication,  are  used  in  algebraic  expressions  and  extends  the  order  of  operations.
The  order  of  operations  are:  brackets,  exponents,  division  and  multiplication  (from  left  to  right),
and  addition  and  subtraction  (from  left  to  right).    Place  value  concepts  are  expanded  when
students  are  taught  how  to  represent  large  and  small  numbers  through  scientific  notation.    The
number  line  (and  operations)  is  extended  from  positive  numbers  to  include  negative  numbers
when  students  learn  about  integers.
It  is  important  as  elementary  teachers  to  expose  students  in  grades  4  and  5  to  the  very
basics  of  these  mathematical  concepts,  especially  exponents  and  integers.  This  way,  when
students  learn  these  concepts  in  middle  school  in  a  more  abstract  way,  they  have  a  background  of
conceptual  understanding  and  meaning  for  the  symbols  they  use,  rather  than  just  memorizing  the
steps  to  solve  equations.

Big  Ideas
● Exponential  notation  is  a  way  to  express  repeated  products  of  the  same  number.
Specifically,  powers  of  10  express  very  large  and  very  small  numbers  in  an  economical
manner.
● Integers  are  the  negative  and  positive  counting  numbers  and  zero.    Positive  and  negative
numbers  are  used  together  to  describe  quantities  having  opposite  directions  or  values
(e.g.,  temperature  above  or  below  zero).
● Whole  numbers,  fractions,  and  integers  are  rational  numbers.    Every  rational  number  can
be  expressed  as  a  fraction
● Many  numbers  are  not  rational;;  the  irrationals  can  be  expressed  only  symbolically  or
approximately  using  a  close  rational  number.    Examples  include  ​  √3  ≈  1.41421  or  ​π  ​
≈
3.14159

Prior  Knowledge
● Understand  number  lines  and  placement  of  whole  numbers  on  the  number  line
● Understand  that  larger  numbers  are  further  right  on  a  horizontal  number  line

● Use  symbols  to  compare  and  contrast  numbers
● Understand  operations  with  positive  numbers

Misconceptions
● Students  may  read  -­5  as  minus  five  instead  of  negative  5.
● Some  students  may  believe  that  negative  five  is  greater  than  negative  1  because  they
relate  this  to  their  knowledge  of  positive  numbers.

Lesson  plan

Teacher(s):

Kelsey  McLeod  and
Karren  Williston

School/District

Math

Subject  Area(s):

Math

6  (introduce  in  4/5)

Date:

February  24,  2015

Lesson  Duration:

45-­60  minutes

GCO:  ​Number  (N):  Develop  number  sense

SCO:  N7:​  Demonstrate  an  understanding  of  integers,  concretely,  pictorially  and  symbolically.
[C,  CN,  R,  V]

NCTM:
● Develop  meaning  for  integers  and  represent  and  compare  quantities  with  them.
● Understand  the  meaning  and  effects  of  arithmetic  operations  with  fractions,  decimals,  and
integers.
● Develop  and  analyze  algorithms  for  computing  with  fractions,  decimals,  and  integers  and
develop  flue

Learning  Objectives:
● Add  and  subtract  signed  integers  using  different  notations  for  the  same  concept.
● Placement  of  integers  on  a  number  line
● Develop  intuition  about  comparing  signed  numbers.
● The  meaning  of  absolute  value

Materials:
coloured  paper  for  number  line  (21  sheets  for  -­10  to  +10)
markers
sticky  notes
Smartboard

Warm-­up​:
Have  students  watch  this  short  video  (1:26  minutes)  about  how  negative  numbers  are  used  in
everyday  life.

After,  have  students  discuss  the  following  questions  using  Think-­Pair-­Share
●  When  have  you  seen/used  negative  numbers?

Proceedure
Activity  1​:  Find  your  opposite  buddy
On  white  board  or  smartboard  have  a  number  line  from  -­10  to  +10.

1)  Give  each  student  a  post  it  note  with  a  positive  or  negative  number  on  it.    For  example
numbers  ranging  from  -­10  to  +10  (include  zero)  for  a  class  of  21  students.
2)  Each  student  has  to  find  their  opposite  buddy  (Example  1  goes  with  -­1,  but  zero  has  no
buddy).
3)  Have  students  link  arms  with  their  buddy
4)  Have  buddies  order  themselves  from  least  to  greatest-­using  positive  numbers.    Order  from
0-­10.
5)  The  buddies  should  have  now  formed  two  parallel  lines.    Ensure  that  one  line  is  all  positive
numbers  (1-­10)  are  in  one  line  and  all  negative  numbers  are  in  the  other  line  (-­10  to  -­1).
6)  Have  buddies  unlink  arms
7)  Have  all  positive  numbers  link  arms
8)  Have  all  negative  numbers  link  arms    (zero  remains  alone)
9)  Have  negative  numbers  pivot  in  a  line,  so  the  two  parallel  lines  become  one  number  line  from
-­10  to  +10.
10)  Have  students  compare  their  humain  line  to  the  number  line  on  the  board
11)  Have  them  put  their  sticky  note  number  on  the  number  line  where  it  should  be  on  the  board.

Mini  Lesson
1) How  far  is  +5  from  0?
2) How  far  is  -­5  from  0?

These  numbers  are  both  the  same  distance  away  from  0,  and  they  were  opposite  buddies  when
we  paired  up.    -­5  and  +5  have  the  same  ​absolute  value​.

1) What  about  if  we  take  the  number  2?
2) What  number  has  the  same  absolute  value  as  +2?
provide  prompters  as  needed
Who  was  +2’s  opposite  buddy?

Absolute  value  is  the  distance  between  that  number  and  0.

What  is  the  absolute  value  of  7?    (7)
What  is  the  absolute  value  of  -­7?  (7)
What  is  the  absolute  value  of  -­1?  (1)
What  is  the  absolute  value  of  +9?  (9)

Activity  2  Lifesize  number  line!
This  activity  has  students  physically  moving  along  the  number  line  to  solve  real-­life  problems.
Model:  Number  line
Context:  Money,  Payments,  and  deposits

Ask  the  students  the  following  questions.    Have  small  groups  take  turns  physically  moving  on
the  number  line.    Ensure  everyone  gets  a  turn.

1)  “You  have  \$7.00  and  you  bought  a  box  of  cookies  for  \$5.    How  much  do  you  have  left?
2)  You  want  to  go  to  the  movies  but  you  have  \$0.00.    A  ticket  costs  \$8.00.  You  ask  your  parents
to  loan  you  some  money.    How  much  money  will  you  owe  them?
3)  Your  friend  borrowed  \$5  from  you  yesterday  to  buy  candy.    How  much  does  your  friend  owe
you?
4)  “You  have  \$3.00  and  you  want  to  buy  a  stuffed  animal  for  your  little  cousin  that  costs  \$6.00.
You  asked  your  parents  for  some  money  to  cover  the  cost.    How  much  did  you  have  to  borrow?
How  much  do  you  owe  them?
5)  “You  have  \$12.00  and  want  to  go  to  the  Frex.    It  costs  \$20.00  for  the  all-­inclusive  package.
You  borrow  money  from  your  parents.  How  much  money  do  you  owe  them?

6)  You  owe  your  parents  \$2  from  buying  a  candy  bar  yesterday.  At  lunch  you  want  to  buy  a
subway  sandwich  for  \$5.  Then  at  snack  you  bought  a  banana  for  \$1.    At  supper  you  bought  pizza
for  \$4.    At  the  end  of  the  day,  how  much  do  you  owe  your  parents?

Wrap-­up
Turn  to  a  shoulder  partner  and  discuss  what  you  learned  today.    Talk  about  the  following:
1) Positive  numbers
2) Negative  numbers
3) Absolute  values

Teacher’s  conclusion:
Positive  and  negative  numbers  are  called  integers.    Positive  numbers  move  up  the  number  line
and  negative  numbers  move  down  the  number  line.    10  is  greater  than  1  in  positives  and  -­1  is
greater  than  -­10  in  negatives  because  it  is  a  mirror  image.    We  also  learned  that  absolute  values
are  the  distance  from  the  number  to  zero.  So  5  and  -­5  have  the  same  absolute  value  of  5.

Assessment:
Formative  assessment  will  occur  throughout,  and  will  consist  of  monitoring  of  students
think-­pair-­share’s,  and  observation  of  the  students’  interaction  /  involvement  with  the    life-­size
number  line.

Differentiation
Before  each  activity  the  teacher  will  relay  the  instructions  for  the  activity  verbally  so  all  students
understands  and  so  that  he/she  can  check  for  understanding  with  the  students.

As  the  activities  planned  are  active  and/or  discussion  based,  all  learners  will  be  able  to
participate  in  the  activities.

Also,  by  including  hands-­on,  interactive  activities  the  students  will  be  more  likely  to  remember
the  instructional  material.

Enrichment:
Students  who  have  grasped  the  concept  of  integers  in  this  lesson  can  use  a  class  laptop  and  ipad.
Individually  or  in  pairs,  these  students  can  go  to  the  following  site  and  answer  questions  about
integers.    This  site  gives  notifies  the  student  immediately  upon  their  response  whether  they
answered  correctly  or  not.

References

CPALMS.  (2014).  ​Understanding  Integers.  Retrieved  from  ​http://www.cpalms.org/Public/
PreviewResource/Preview/48320
Department  of  Education.  (2010).  New  Brunswick  Mathematics  Grade  6  Curriculum  Guide.
Retrieved  from:  http://www.gnb.ca/0000/publications/curric/Mathematics_NB_

Jaeger,  T.  (2011,  July  15).  Negative  Numbers...Where  Are  They?  Retrieved  February  18,

Lanely,  J.  (2010,  January  11).  Living  Math  with  Positive  and  Negative  Numbers.  Retrieved
February  18,  2015,  from
http://jimmiescollage.com/2010/01/living-­math-­with-­positive-­and-­negative-­numbers/
National  Council  of  Mathematics  Teachers.  (2015).  ​Using  an  Elevator  to  Evaluate  Signed
Number  Expressions:  Flipping  for  Integers.  Retrieved  from
http://illuminations.nctm.org/Lesson.aspx?id=4086

Van,  .  W.  J.  A.,  Folk,  S.,  Bay-­Williams,  J.  M.,  McGarvey,  L.  M.,  &  Karp,  K.  S.  (2015).
Elementary  and  middle  school  mathematics:  Teaching  developmentally​.