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key radio concepts

key radio concepts

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Published by isaac2008
Part 1 of this text, “Key Radio Concepts,” is provided for readers who
are not already familiar with the engineering principles of radio and
how they apply to cellular systems. It also will benefit radio experts
in two ways. First of all, it will help our readers explain these
concepts to people in other fields and to businesspeople. Second,
today’s code division multiple access (CDMA) wireless technology is
built on a series of developments going back over 30 years. It is easy
to be expert in a system and not to know where it came from or to
have an in-depth knowledge of how it works.
Part 1 of this text, “Key Radio Concepts,” is provided for readers who
are not already familiar with the engineering principles of radio and
how they apply to cellular systems. It also will benefit radio experts
in two ways. First of all, it will help our readers explain these
concepts to people in other fields and to businesspeople. Second,
today’s code division multiple access (CDMA) wireless technology is
built on a series of developments going back over 30 years. It is easy
to be expert in a system and not to know where it came from or to
have an in-depth knowledge of how it works.

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Published by: isaac2008 on Apr 20, 2008
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02/01/2013

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Going down the list of MSC functions and resources, there seems to be a pattern.
We seem to be putting more and more work into the packet handlers. Therefore, let
us examine what these packet handlers might be doing and how their capacity is
engineered.

The packet component of the base-station-to-MSC link goes through the packet han-
dler. If the speech is packetized, then the entire base-station-to-MSC link is a packet
link and goes through the packet handler. The voice packets go to the speech coding

306

Capacity and Quality Principles

3

Some telephone companies provide an always-onISDN service that leaves a point-to-point con-
nection permanently in place.

4

In our old Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) days, we had about 1.5 handoffs per call,
and the 1AESS analog switch that could handle 250,000 landline calls per hour only handled
100,000 cellular calls per hour.

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Switching Capacity

components, whereas the subscriber data packets are routed to the landline data net-
work, and SMS packets are routed to the SS7 network.
The packets still may require processing. The base-station-to-MSC link may be a
packet link, but its packets may not be the same format as the speech coder and land-
line data network require. Packets are often encapsulated with an extra header to get
them between the base station and the MSC.
The packet handlers are a queuing system, and we have to know their specific ar-
chitecture to do the queuing analysis in Sec. 23.3. The model tells us how likely a
packet is to wait longer than some specified time tbased on the characteristics of the
packets and the queue. The time tis how long we are willing to wait for a packet to get
through the packet handler.
While this waiting time tmay affect a data subscriber’s Internet performance, the
most important issue in determining tis how quickly packets have to be processed for
the speech coding not to have gaps, assuming that the speech data come by packet. We
can allow tto be longer only at the expense of lengthening the propagation delay of
voice calls in the MSC. If we try to make the speech propagation too short, then we run
the risk of losing too many packets to queuing delay.

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