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**A Naive Introduction to Quantum Mechanics
**

Written and Illustrated by

Jeffrey F. Gold

Tachyon Publishing Company

Knocking on the Devil's Door: A Naive Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

Written and Illustrated by Jerey F. Gold Created June 7, 1994 Run October 16, 1995 Copyright c 1994, 1995

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it might have been worth the eort anyway. but to. I might learn a lot about myself. which I call Naive Quantum Mechanics or NQM. this particular problem can be overcome. If it is successful. What I am talking about exempli. my naivet concerning e e the subject.Preface Quantum Mechanics seems untenable. If it isn't successful. and just maybe the naivet we all have been harboring of the ace tual underlying principles of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics in its present state. I might learn something about other people. I am currently working on a new approach to quantum mechanics. but the explanation is inadequate to describe the goings-on behind the curtain. then maybe we'll all see it in print. perhaps. When I say quantum mechanics is inadequate. is inadequate. I am in the process of writing this short introduction so as to explain to myself the various underpinnings of quantum mechanics. mean that quantum mechanics gives all the right answers and such. I believe this because it doesn't answer the question Why? in a wholly satisfactory manner (I like asking Why? and What?). but the problem is exasperated by those who cannot teach quantum mechanics. in the great tradition of Paul Halmos' book Naive Set Theory. I. Fortunately. and more importantly. or those who can't teach. period. in my estimation. of course. express my own naivet in starting this project. Many of the concepts that seem contrarian to our common experiences wash quantum mechanics in a dim light. The word naive is not meant to diminish or demean my own work.

es the dierence between a descriptive theory and a prescriptive theory. Gold Salt Lake City September 1995 i . It just seems that nothing of import has been achieved in this basic of sciences since the 1930's. Naive Quantum Mechanics is my attempt to remedy this outstanding problem. And we have had a whole lot of time to do something about it. Wish me luck! Jerey F.

Fore w ord I hate Quantum Mechanics! That's not really true. At . What I dislike is the pedagogy of QM. the lack thereof. but it may have gotten your attention. or what seems to be the case.

rst sight QM is mysterious, and in all seriousness, this is perpetuated by those who understand it, or seem to understand it, anyway. In my short career, the things I've heard said about QM range from \nobody understands it" to \you're not meant to understand it." If they would have said \one is not meant to understand it," rather than (inadvertently?) point the

nger, then maybe I wouldn't have taken oense. I always asked myself though, \if nobody undertands it, then why are they testing me on it?" One might say that QM is just another religion, however, other religions have a redeeming quality in that they tell us that \some day you'll be forgiven and you'll understand everything." Quantum Mechanics just does not make that kind of promise. In Quantum Mechanics there exist what are called non-commuting variables, like momentum and position, or energy and time. I've found that there exist two other non-commuting variables of QM. Much in the same way you can't measure both position and momentum simultaneously, it seems that \you can't both understand Quantum Mechanics and do it at the same time." Beside the amorous connotation here, what is meant is that one of the following hold: either \you understand QM, but can't do it" or \you can do QM, but you just can't understand it." A serious problem with QM lies in the notation that is commonly used. For example, in some texts I have encountered, I've run into equations like X jxi = xjxi (can't you just cancel the jxi's?). I think it's terrible notation, especially for those who are just beginning to grasp the new language. It's just not clear as to what is an operator and what is a scalar. There are many other problems, probably too numerous to mention here. Maybe this naive introduction to QM is what's needed. Maybe not. Jerey F. Gold Salt Lake City November 1992 ii

It is nothing short of a miracle that modern methods of instruction have not yet entirely strangled the holy curiousity of inquiry.Acknowledgements I would like to thank all the people who couldn't explain Quantum Mechanics for making this necessary. Albert Einstein iii .

Contents

Preface Foreword

i ii

Acknowledgements : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : iii Waves : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Wavelength and Wave Number Frequency and Period : : : : : Moving Waves : : : : : : : : : Particles : : : : : : : : : : : : : Waves Acting like Particles : : Particles Acting like Waves : :

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

1

1

Waves and Particles

1 1 2 3 3 3 4

2

Constructing the Schrdinger Equation o

Wave equation for Real Waves : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5 The Schrdinger Wave Equation : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8 o Schrdinger Equation for Non-zero Potential. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 10 o Standing Wave on a String A Free Particle : : : : : : : The Square-Well Potential : Square Well with Potential The Hydrogen Atom : : : :

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

5

3

Applications of the Schrdinger Equation o

12

12 14 14 17 19 22 23 23 23 23

4

Operators

The Momentum Operator : : : : : : : : : : : The Energy Operator : : : : : : : : : : : : : Hamiltonian Operator : : : : : : : : : : : : : Hamiltonian Operator in Higher Dimensions : Hamiltonian Operator in 2 Dimensions : iv

22

**v Hamiltonian Operator in 3 Dimensions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 24 Hamiltonian Operator in n Dimensions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 24 Operator Theory : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 24
**

5 Hilbert's Space

Real Vector Spaces : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 25 Complex Vector Spaces : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 26 Hilbert's Space : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 27

25

Bibliography

28

List of Figures

1.1 The Amplitude and Wavelength of a Sinusoidal Wave. : : : : : : 2

3.1 A 1-dimensional Box. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 15 3.2 The Time-independent Solution of the Schrdinger Equation. : : 18 o 5.1 Argand Diagram. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 26

vi

An example of a sinusoidal wave is illustrated in Fig.Chapter 1 W aves and Particles One seldom recognizes the devil when he places his hand on your shoulder. but that merely represents twice the amplitude indicated here. There is also such a thing as a peak-to-peak amplitude. and so v= = 1=T = . This tells us how many waves . 1. What about the reciprocal v=? This tells us how many waves move past point P in unit time. The amplitude of the wave is A and is measured from the equilibrium position on the x-axis to the point of maximum y-displacement. 62. where is the wavelength. and n = f0. then the time it takes for one wave to move past some point P on the x-axis is T = =v. This is called the frequency and is usually denoted by (or f ). Albert Speer Waves A sinusoidal wave represents a periodic function. Wavelength and Wave Number If the whole function in Fig. Now suppose we form the ratio x=. our choice is arbitrary. : : :g. A periodic function is characterized by f (x+n) = f (x). Sinusoidal just means that the waves we will be describing can be characterized by sine and cosine functions. 61. 1 (supposing it is a rigid structure) moves with velocity v .

t into a length x. tells us the wavelength in terms of some unit length decided by the units used. 1 . Its reciprocal. =x.

CHAPTER 1.

WAVES AND PARTICLES

2

y Amplitude O x JFG Wavelength

Figure 1.1: The Amplitude and Wavelength of a Sinusoidal Wave. Now let's make an analogy of this moving sinusoidal wave function with the rotation of a circle, with the following proviso: the passing of one wavelength corresponds to one rotation of a circle. If we imagine our circle to be a unit circle, that is, a circle with a radius of unit length, then the circumference of the circle is 2. If the wave has moved one wavelength, then our circle has made one complete rotation of 2 radians. Therefore, in our circle analogy, x= represents the fraction of the circumference we have traversed, and 2(x=) represents the total distance (in terms of circumferences in radians) that have been traversed. The latter expression is usually written as kx, where k = 2= is called the wavenumber. It enumerates how many wavelengths

y = A sin(kx) describes the y-displacement for all values of x along the x-axis.t onto the circumference of a unit circle. Note that sin(kx) actually represents a stationary wave. a nonmoving wave. Frequency and Period There is another way of de. that is. We will have to introduce a parameter of time to make the wave move.

ning a wave, and that's in terms of time t. Remember the time it takes for one wave to pass point P is given by T = =v. How many waves pass point P per unit time? The frequency tells us that v= = 1=T = . Again, we will make a comparison of this situation to the unit circle in terms of the parameter of time. One time cycle T of the wave corresponds to one rotation of a circle. The time circumference of the unit circle is 2 time units. If the wave has moved the distance of one wavelength in time T , then our circle has made one complete rotation. Therefore, in our circle analogy, 2=T represents one time unit. The fraction t=T represents the number of unit time periods T the wave has moved in time t. Therefore, 2t=T represents the total number of time circumferences

It counts how many wavelengths (having passed in time t) . The latter value 2t=T is usually written as 2t=T = 2t = !t. WAVES AND PARTICLES 3 that have been traversed in time t.CHAPTER 1. where we have written ! = 2 .

t around the time circumference of the unit circle. Moving Waves Now we are ready to de.

The change in the x-cordinate x is o denoted by x0 = x 6 vt . The momentum of a particle is given by p = mv . as is commonly but incorrectly believed. we will have created a moving wave.2) as kx0 = kx 6 !t : (1. a moving wave. This means that in the time interval t. p2 =2m will appear frequently in our discourse. Particles This section serves as a quick reminder of some concepts from classical mechanics.e.3) t Now. the wave has moved from x to x 0 . The kinetic energy is given by 1 p2 E = mv2 = (1. (1. The latter form. not for the Special Theory of Relativity. sin(kx) ! sin(kx0 ) may be described by sin(kx 6 !t). By changing our x cordinate in o time.4) by the substitution v = p=m. This means that we may rewrite (1.2) x0 = x 6 k since v = =T = = 2=(2=) = !=k. Waves Acting like Particles where m is the mass of the particle and v is its velocity. i.1) or ! t. (1..ne a moving wave. (1.5) 2 2m Waves acting like particles|the photoelectric eect|is the observation for which Albert Einstein won the Nobel Prize. The experiment which con.

and electrons in metal. then one would . and if homogeneous absorption takes place.rmed this postulate concerns light. If photons are targeted at a slab of metal.

the energy of the individual photons is imparted directly to individual electrons. is history. and ~! is the energy of the incident photons. the reader is advised to read Jammer [6].8) . For everyday objects. as we are familiar with them in.7) or p= This suggests that any object exhibiting momentum possesses a characteristic wavelength. electrons were targeted at a nickel crystal. the wavelengths are too small to be measured. This is quite contrary to the notion of light of consisting of waves. what is seen is the following: the number of electrons that are emitted from the metal is proportional to the number of incident photons. This suggests that individual photons are absorbed by the electrons. DeBroglie formulated this by equating the energy terms of Einstein and classical mechanics. In the experiment of Davisson-Germer. Instead. Furthermore. the energies of the expatriated electrons (called photoelectrons) is E = ~! 0 W . the measurement of wavelengths yielded to experiment.6) where W is the work function (energy) required to remove the electrons from the metal. geometric optics. (1. in a textbook example of Koestler's notion of bisociation. This had been anticipated by Louis DeBroglie. ~! = ~ 2 = ~ 2 = ~k : c c (1. who combined the ideas of Max Planck and Albert Einstein. (1. respectively. then diraction patterns inherent to wave phenomena would not have been observed. but for small masses such as electrons.CHAPTER 1. This created the so-called \quanta" notion of photons: rather than disperse the energy throughout the metal like a wave. For a comprehensive history of Quantum Mechanics. to get pc = ~! . for example. E = pc and E = ~!. Particles Acting like Waves In 1927 an experiment was performed which clearly demonstrated that particles exhibit certain wave properties if subjected to experiments which test for wave characteristics. and the rest. WAVES AND PARTICLES 4 expect an electron to emerge from the metal after the entire slab of metal has absorbed the energy equivalent to the energy of one electron's binding energy. If electrons exhibited only a particle behavior. But they were. they say.

in which it seems to play the same part as do the equations established by Newton. in classical mechanics.Chapter 2 Constructing the Schrdinger Equation o This equation has provided the basis of modern Quantummechanics. Max Planck a wave equation from . Lagrange and Hamilton.

One may construct a wave equation. Wave equation for Real Waves I have to qualify the title of this chapter by dierentiating between constructing and deriving a wave equation because there is no method by which to derive The waves described in this section are real (non-complex): sine and cosine functions.1) where k is the wave number. that is. however. sin(x + =2) = cos(x). A wave equation depends on the type of wave you are describing. respectively. from known equations of waves and working the problem backwards. x and t denote position and time. The next two sections exemplify this point. Suppose we have a wave of the form Y = A sin(kx 0 !t) .rst principles. 5 . We will consider a sine wave only because sine and cosine functions dier in phase only. Here. (2. and ! is the frequency of the wave.

Remark: A quick reminder. By operating on If we dierentiate (2. the result we got back was our original wave multiplied by some constant 0k 2 .3) is an eigenvalue equation with the eigenvalue 0k 2 .2) dx If we again dierentiate with respect to x. Equation (2. An example of an eigenvalue equation is given by the following: Suppose (1. we get d2 Y = 0k 2 A sin(kx 0 !t) = 0k2 Y . then consider the operator 0 ^ O = 3 01 : (2.CHAPTER 2. 2) is a vector residing in 2-space. CONSTRUCTING THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 6 d our original wave with the operator dx2 . (2.3) dx2 where Y in the last expression is our 2original wave function.1) with respect to x. we .4) 8 dY = kA cos(kx 0 !t) : (2.

we .nd that When the operator operates on the vector (1. 2).

Let me remind you.e. we get 8 > Y = A sin(kx 0 !t) > dx2 = > dx > > > 2 : d Y dY kA cos(kx 0 !t) (2.6) > > < = 0! 2 A sin(kx 0 !t) = 0!2 Y To construct the wave equation we simply equate the last terms from the third rows of (2. we equate d Y dx2 > dt > > > 2 : dY = 0!A cos(kx 0 !t) (2.nd that 3 0 1 = 3 =3 1 : (2.6) and (2.2) by the factor 3.8) . Let's get back to the original problem.7). we have 8 > Y = A sin(kx 0 !t) > > > < = 0k 2 A sin(kx 0 !t) = 0k2 Y Now let's dierentiate Y with respect to time t.7) d2 Y = 0k 2 Y dx2 (2.. i.5) 8 01 2 6 2 ^ The operator O merely rescaled the original vector (1. We will explain more about eigenvalue equations in Chapter ??.

it is usually written as 2 d2 Y = 1dY .14) (2. t). CONSTRUCTING THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 7 (2.8) as and (2.12) (2. k2 dx2 ! 2 dt2 d2 Y k2 d2 Y = : dx2 ! 2 dt2 dx2 v2 dt2 2 2 That's the wave equation for real waves.9) as Equating the two.9) (2.13) (2. operating on some dummy function y = y(x.15) with Let's rewrite (2.16) : The square of the velocity is v2 = dx 2 (2. where we identify the velocity v of the wave as ! v= : k v= dx : dt dt Remark: Another.CHAPTER 2. perhaps shorter. way of (re)constructing the wave equation is by using the following mnemonic: the velocity v is given by (2.17) Now.10) (2. we get or d2 Y = 0! 2 Y : dt2 0 k12 d Y = Y dx2 1 0 !2 ddtY = Y : 2 1 d2 Y = 1 d2 Y . we .11) (2.

18) d dt d2 y d2 y = .nd that v2 = Now.20) which we may rewrite into the form d2 y 1 d2 y = : dx2 v2 dt2 . dt2 dx2 (2. then we may rewrite it as 2 d d 2 d 2 d 2 d2 d2 2 = dx 1 d v = dt = dx = dt = dx = dt2 = dx2 : (2.19) (2. if we imagine v 2 to be a dierential operator.

CONSTRUCTING THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 8 The Schrdinger Wave Equation o We will soon .CHAPTER 2.

22) This means that we can construct sine and cosine waves (real waves) from complex waves. but our mathematical description of waves is dierent.nd out that the Schrdinger equation does not resemble the wave o equation for real waves. Euler's equation tells us that ei = cos + i sin : (2.24) =( z ) = z 2i z : We won't explore this now.23) 2 and the imaginary part is given by 0 (2. We use the complex wave description | a plane wave model given by 9 = Aei(kx0!t) : Remember.21) (2. For a complex function z the real part is given by <( z ) = z + z . (2. Let's dierentiate 9 with respect to x: d9 = ikAei(kx0!t) : d2 9 = 0k 2 Aei(kx0!t) = 0k 2 9 : dx2 If we dierentiate with respect to time t. The procedure of construction will be the same. we . however.

27) We will not need to take the second time derivative for reasons to be explained below. the operators (d=dx.nd d9 = 0i!Aei(kx0!t) : dt Also. d2 =dt2 . because after operating on the function 8. : : :) operating on 8 all represent eigenvalue equations. : : :) and (d=dt.26) (2. Note that all time and position derivatives give eigenvalues. the operators returned the original function 8 modi. So for the wave equation 9. d2 =dx2 . dx (2.25) (2.

ed by some constant factor. From Max Planck we learned that the energy of radiation is given by E = ~! .28) . (2.

CONSTRUCTING THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 9 where ~ = h=2 and ! is the frequency of the radiation.31) d If we identify i~ dt as an operator. and k.32) From DeBroglie and wave mechanics we have learned that p = ~k . let's take a look at the other equation (the other equation you might have forgotten if I hadn't reminded you). is the wave number. we have d9 ~ = 0i~!Aei(kx0!t) = 0i~!9 .30) which we may also write as 0 h d9 = ~!9 . Both will appear in our the distinction between an operator E discussion.27) by ~. then when it operates on 9. i dt i~ d9 = ~!9 : dt (2. the result we get back is the energy eigenvalue of the wave. again.CHAPTER 2. If we solve for k we . where p is the momentum. This means that if we multiply (2. or dt (2. The equation of interest is d2 9 = 0k 2 9 : (2.29) (2. d ^ Remark: We will designate the operator i~ dt by the symbol E . which creates ^ and a scalar E . Now.

more about o zero potential later): ~2 2 (2.nd k = p=~. momentum is de. times the original wavefunction 9. we have constructed the Schrdinger Equation for a free particle (or for zero potential.31) and (2. then the result is just an eigenvalue.34).35) 0 2m d 9 = i~ d9 .32). If we equate (2. Substituting this into (2. 2 d2 9 = 0p 9 : (2.34) to be represented by an operator p2 =2m operating on 9. or scaling ^ factor.33) dx2 dx2 another energy eigenvalue equation! If you imagine the left hand side of (2.31). This is equivalent to the result we obtained earlier in (2. dx2 dt ~2 In mechanics.

ned as p = mv and kinetic energy for a free particle is de.

34) 2 dx . This is exactly what we'll need. The latter equation may also be written as 2 E = p2 =2m. (2.33) by 2m : 2 ~2 2 0 2m d 9 = 2pm 9 .ned as E = 1 mv2 . let's divide both sides of (2.

then ^2 ~2 d2 (2. If p2 is really the square p 1 p. If we equate both sides of (2.36) In the equation ~ ^ 0 2m d 9 = 2pm 9 . by eliminating 9. we just end up getting the energy eigenvalue ~! anyway.34) as an operator p. or the negative one? We de. in this case. Perhaps we ^ would like to know what form this operator takes. ^ after E operates on 9. (2.37) we have written the scalar p in equation (2. ^ ^ dx p = 6i~ ^ ~ ^ 0 2m d 9 = E 9 . not the scalar E = ~! although we could have written it that way. 2 dx 2 2 2 (2.39) operator is it? The positive one.37).CHAPTER 2. dx2 2 2 (2. It doesn't really matter which way we write it because. CONSTRUCTING THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 10 which is usually written as ^ where E is an operator.38) 0 2m dx2 = 2pm . then ^ ^ ^ or d2 p 1 p = 0~2 2 .

We de.ne it as the negative one.

the momentum operator is given by p = 0i~ ^ d : dx d .ne it as the negative one so that when you operate on d 9 with the operator 0i~ dx .41) Schrdinger Equation for Non-zero Potential. o Equation (2.40) dx since d=dx operating on itself is d=dx 1 d=dx = d2 =dx2 and (0i)2 = 01. such as a charged particle in the vicinity of a neighboring charged particle or an external electric . If a particle resides in a potential. (2. (This calculation is done in Chapter 4). Which (2.36) we constructed was for a particle in a zero potential. Therefore. or a free particle. then the momentum eigenvalue is positive.

then its total energy is modi.eld.

denoted by V .ed. which we must include in the . It now also possesses a potential energy term.

nal analysis. or in the language of QM.42) 2m . we will write it as ^2 ^ ^ ^ p +V : E+V !E+V = (2. is E + V . The total energy then. for a bound particle.

43) or ~2 2 ^ 0 2m d 9 + V 9 = E 9 : (2. that is to say. the potential operator V reduces to a mere multiplying function. More will be explained about the Hamiltonian operator in Chapter 4.46) . CONSTRUCTING THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 11 ^ It will turn out that in most cases. (2. (2. the potential is not normally an operator.44) dx2 Frequently you will see the latter equation written as ^ ^ H 9 = E9 . ^ and thus V ! V . Now. we may write the complete Schrdinger equation as o ~2 d2 ^ 0 2m dx2 + V 9 = E 9 .CHAPTER 2.45) ^ where we identify the H as the Hamiltonian operator ^ H =0 ^ ^ and E as the energy operator E = 0i~d=dt. ~2 d2 2m dx2 + V . (2.

Werner Heisenberg These are the easiest applications of the Schrdinger equation because of o the contrived mathematical restrictions placed on the problems and the equation. even putting in the mathematical minutiae. rather than worry about . However. these examples introduce the reader to the main concepts here| boundary conditions on partial dierential equations. so that the reader can glimpse the points of interest. and how to avoid them.Chapter 3 A pplications of the Schrdinger Equation o An expert is someone who knows some of the worst mistakes that can be made in his subject. I work the problems from beginning to end.

We will .lling in the missing steps. Let's concentrate on the concepts here|not so much the mathematical formality.

o i. for the problem of a string . the wave equation.e.rst solve the classical analogue of the Schrdinger equation..

o Standing Wave on a String We will apply the wave equation for real waves to the problem of a taut string . This should ease us into the applications of the Schrdinger equation.xed at both ends.

xed at both ends. since we derived the wave equation from the known solutions for real waves. Now.1) dx2 v2 dt2 12 . we need not again solve the equation d2 Y (x. t) 1 d2 Y (x. t) = : (3.

t) = 0 and Y (d. The . These conditions must hold since the string is not be driven at either node.. t). the sites where it is clamped. which represents two waves of diering amplitudes traveling in opposite directions. We include the opposite traveling wave so as to take into account the re ected waves. APPLICATIONS OF THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 13 A possible solution is Y (x. The boundary conditions are Y (0. t) = 0. All we need to do now is place the boundary conditions on Y (x. t) = B sin(kx0 !t)+ B0 sin(kx+ !t).CHAPTER 3. i. where d is the distance separating the two ends of the string. We will also assume that no dampening or any other energy loss takes place.e.

t) as Y (x.2) or that B0 = B . (3. t) = B sin(0!t) + B0 sin(!t) = (B0 0 B ) sin(!t) = 0 .rst condition implies that Y (0.3) Y (x. We expected this to be the case anyway.5) since sin( + . Now we may rewrite Y (x. t) = B sin(kx) cos(0!t) + B sin(0!t) cos(kx) (3. t) = B sin(kx 0 !t) + B sin(kx + !t) : (3. t) may also be written as Y (x. because of our caveat that no energy losses take place upon re ection. since the re ected wave would be of the same amplitude as the incident wave. (3.4) +B sin(kx) cos(!t) + B sin(!t) cos(kx) .

) = sin() cos(.

) +sin(.

) cos() and sin( 0 .

) = sin() cos(.

) 0 sin(.

t) = B sin(kx) cos(!t) 0 B sin(!t) cos(kx) (3.8) This shows that we have separated Y (x.9) where X (x) = 2 sin(kx) and T (t) = cos(!t). t) = X (x)T (t) . ) cos(). Also.7) = 2B sin(kx) cos(!t) : (3. (3. 2. where n = f0. Now we may write k as kn = n=d. t) into two multiplicative terms Y (x. 1.10) which implies that the argument of the sin function must be a multiple of . d : (3. or that kd = n . (3. since sin(0) = 0 sin() and cos(0) = cos(). t) = 2 sin nx d cos(!t) : . : : :g.6) +B sin(kx) cos(!t) + B sin(!t) cos(kx) (3. and X (x) = 2 sin nx Thus.11) (3. Y (x. t) forces X (d) = 2 sin(kd) = 0 .12) Y (x. The remaining boundary condition Y (d.

APPLICATIONS OF THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 14 A Free Particle Suppose we have a particle of mass m. Since the particle is not in a potential. we .CHAPTER 3.

but we'll solve it formally.13) dx2 which we may rewrite as.19) ~2 0k2 Aeikx + 2mE Aeikx = 0 ~2 2mE 0 k2 Aeikx = 0 . d2 9 2mE + 9=0: (3.17) (3. ~2 which implies that the coecient 2mE=~2 0 k2 = 0.14) dx2 We have already solved this problem (backwards) to derive the Schrdinger o equation.16) (3.nd that the particle must satisfy the Schrdinger equation o ~2 2 0 2m d 9 = E 9 . ~ : If we make the substitution E = p2 =2m. we . (3. Let's try a solution of the form 9 = Aeikx : This means that (3.18) (3. or that k= r 2mE ~2 p .15) (3.2) becomes or (3.

nd the DeBroglie relation k= as expected. if not equivalent (mathematicians would say \isomorphic") to the problem of a taut string . The Square-Well Potential This problem is very similar.

but the wave equation for complex waves|Schrdinger's equation. o Suppose we have a 1-dimensional box in which to con. The dierence is that the wave equation we use in this case is not the wave equation for real waves.xed at both ends.

we apply no potential to the particle. We'll apply the . To make the problem even easier.ne a particle between two impenetrable walls (that's the contrived mathematics!).

APPLICATIONS OF THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 15 V(x) = ∞ x<d v m V(x) = ∞ x>d E x x=d JFG x=0 Figure 3. since the o particle is con. Schrdinger equation for a free particle (that's kind of a misnomer.CHAPTER 3.1: A 1-dimensional Box.

20) 2m dx2 dt will be applied to the complex wave 9(x. t) = Aei(kx0!t) = Aeikx e0i!t : (3. t) = 8(x)e0i!t = 8(x)T (t) : (3.1.24) .ned to the box).23) or ~ ~!8(x) = 0 2m d [8(2x)] dx 2 2 ~2 d2 [8(x)] 2m dx2 + ~!8(x) = 0 : (3. The wave equation d9 ~2 d2 9 i~ = 0 (3. t) into the product of two new functions. We may now write 9(x.22) Let's substitute this equation into (3. An idealized representation of this situation is illustrated in Figure 3.21) This separates the wavefunction 9(x. 8(x) and T (t).1): ~ i~ d9 = 0 2m d 9 dt dx2 2 2 )e i~ d[8(xdt 0i!t ] 2 x) = 0 2~m d [8(dxe 2 2 0i!t ] 0i!t 2 ~2 i~8(x) d[e dt ] = 0 2m e0i!t d [8(2x)] dx 2 3 3 2 ~2 2 i~8(x)(0i!) e0i!t = 0 2m e0i!t d [8(2x)] dx (3.

27) dx2 by making the substitution E = p2 =2m = ~2 k2 =2m.26) or d2 [8(x)] 2mE + ~2 8(x) = 0 . we have the boundary conditions 8(0) = 0 and 8() = 0 which must be satis.25) (3. Since E = ~!. we get (3. dx2 by multiplying through by the factor 2m=~2 . dx2 d2 [8(x)] 2 + k 8(x) = 0 . We do not yet know what form 8(x) takes inside the box . but we do know that 8(x) cannot extend beyond the dimension (!) of the box. (3. that is. this constrains 8(x) to equate to zero at the boundaries x = 0 and x = . APPLICATIONS OF THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 16 We may also write this as d2 [8(x)] 2m(~! ) + ~2 8(x) = 0 .CHAPTER 3.

Since the con.ed.

it has both positive and negative momentum.ned particle may exhibit travel in either x direction.27). Now.29) or 0k2 (Ceikx 0 C0 e0ikx ) + k2 (Ceikx + C0 e0ikx ) (3.. since we can't really expect the two waves eikx and e0ikx to exhibit dierent amplitudes.e. This can be heuristically argued as follows: When the wave (particle) is re ected from a boundary. we get 0k2 Ceikx 0 k2 C0 e0ikx + k2 Ceikx + k2 C0 e0ikx . let's impose the .30) = 0k 2 8(x) + k2 8(x) = 0 : This solution will work. we write 8(x) as 8(x) = Ceikx + C0 e0ikx = Ceipx=~ + C0 e0ipx=~ : (3. i. Note also that we should expect the two constants C and C0 to eventually equate.28) into (3. (3. If we substitute (3. or friction.28) by making the substitution k = p=~. the re ected wave (particle) is of the same amplitude as the incident wave (particle) since no dampening. or any other energy loss takes place.

31) which implies that C0 = 0C . (3.33) = C [cos(kx) + i sin(kx) 0 (cos(0kx) + i sin(0kx))] .rst boundary condition. So.32) 0 kx 0kx = C e 0e (3.34) . now we have 8(x) = Cekx 0 Ce0kx1 (3. This implies that 8(0) = Ce0 + C0 e0 = C + C0 = 0 . namely 8(0) = 0. (3.

CHAPTER 3. : : :g. This means that pd = n . This corresponds to . (3. 2.41) d meaning that the momentum can take on only discrete values pn . This constrains the momentum p to the quantized form n~ pn = . APPLICATIONS OF THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 17 which implies that the argument of the sine function must be a multiple of . (3.40) ~ where n is an integer n = f1. 3.

just like the string .tting half-wave segments or multiples of half-wave segments into the 1-dimensional box.

That is to say. multiples of half-wave segment are the only waves that .xed at both ends.

Square Well with Potential ^ The square-well potential with the potential energy term V is very similar to that of the original square-well potential problem. we get 8(d) = D sin pd = 0 . or kn = n2 2 ~ 2 2md2 : n : d (3. this implies that En = p2 =2m. the wavenumber is also quantized by k ! kn = pn =~. this also means that the energies 8(x) are also quantized. 3 o are shown in Fig.43) The solutions to the time-independent Schrdinger equation for n = 1. if we constrain 8(x) to the boundary condition 8(d) = 0.38) where D = 2iC . Since E = p2 =2m.t into the box without destructively interfering with themselves. 2. 3. Now. Schrdinger's equation is o ~2 2 ^ 0 2m d 9 + V 9 = E 9 : (3.2. Since the momentum pn is quantized. or n En = which. because cos(0kx) = cos(kx) and sin(0kx) = 0 sin(kx).42) (3. by the same token.44) dx2 .35) = C [cos(kx) + i sin(kx) 0 cos(kx) + i sin(kx)] (3. is equivalent to 8(x) = C [cos(kx) + i sin(kx) 0 (cos(kx) 0 i sin(kx))] (3.39) ~ Since the momentum is quantized.36) = 2iC sin(kx) (3.37) = D sin(kx) : (3. (3.

and may rewrite this as V ~2 2 0 2m d 9 = (E 0 V )9 : (3. t).e. i.2: The Time-independent Solution of the Schrdinger Equation. we ^ . which means that En 0 V = En = or that the quantized energy En is shifted by the amount V as given by In the case that V is a function of position and time. that is. APPLICATIONS OF THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 18 ∞ ∞ Ψ3 n=3 Ψ2 n=2 Ψ1 n=1 JFG Figure 3.45) dx2 This is just like doing the original square well potential problem.CHAPTER 3. we ^ ! V . V 6= V (x. t). o ^ Since in most instances V is a multiplying function.. V = V (x. except we replace E with the term E 0 V .

Schrdinger's equation reads o 2 ~2 2 ^ 0 2m d 9 + 0 ex 9 = E 9 : (3.47) . the electrostatic potential energy. we get 2x 2 ^ 0 ~ m d 9 0 e 2 9 = xE 9 : (3. than a multiplier.46) (3. Then.48) 2 dx Now we have a problem.49) 2 dx2 n2 2 ~ 2 2md2 + V : n2 2 ~ 2 2md2 .nd that V behaves more like an operator V . suppose V is the potential energy term V = 0 ex2 . For example. If we rewrite the equation. (3.

For example. APPLICATIONS OF THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 19 Solving (3. then x dx 9 6= dx (x9).49) requires a more sophisticated approach. we are indicating that the operator is intended to operate on the variable. This we don't want to do. which we develop later. Remark: The Hydrogen Atom Bohr's idea is an extension of DeBroglie's insight of the wave nature of particles. The placing of variables is very crucial. (3. If we place x after an operator. The left-hand-side is x d9 while the rightdx d9 hand-side is x dx + 9. Quantum particles exhibit a characteristic wavelength given by the momentum relation p = ~k. suppose d d we did this.CHAPTER 3.50) where ~ is the modi. as well as the wavefunction 9.

which we may rewrite as 2 ~ . (3. For a classical particle the momentum may be expressed as p = mv.51) = m indicating an inverse relationship between the wavelength and the mass m. and k = 2= is the wavenumber. What Bohr proposed was to .ed Planck's constant.

by quantizing the angular momentum. where e is magnitude of the charge of the electron and proton. From classical physics. and this is why this type of argument is referred to as semi-classical reasoning. r (3. Substituting (3.t DeBroglie's wavelengths into circular orbits. he also equated the simple Newtonian centrifugal force with the electrostatic term.55) n2 ~ 2 r= 2 : em . (3. He stated that mvr = n~ .54) (3. this gives us the velocity v as v= mv2 e2 = r2 .53) and the relation e2 n~ (3. What this equation says is that the angular momentum is discretized into multiples of ~ by the happy accident that ~ has the proper units of angular momentum.50) into (3. But he did this in an indirect way.52) where n is an integer.51).

APPLICATIONS OF THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 20 The equation for the velocity v allows us to .CHAPTER 3.

56) 2 2~ n and the potential energy by V =0 Thus the total energy E is given as the sum of the two energy terms.55) relating r and n states that ~2 n2 ~ 2 r = 2 = n2 2 = n2 r0 . The sequence of energy levels for the case where n = 1 is the initial state is called the Lyman series.59) em em where we identify r0 = 0:527 2 1008 cm as Bohr's radius. (3. what Bohr had done using this simple model was to eect a derivation of the Rydberg constant R in Rhc = which until now had only been derived empirically by Janne Rydberg. say n0 and nf is given by e4 m 1 Enf 0 En0 = 0 2 2~ n 2 f e2 e4 m = 0 ~2 n2 = 02K : r (3. So the energy of the hydrogen atom can be discretized in terms of the integers n. who expanded on earlier work by Johann Jakob Balmer. The cases n = 3. 4. by the relation 1 e4 m : En = 0 2 (3.58) n 2~ 2 Equation (3. and 5 are called the Ritz-Paschen. Brackett.nd the kinetic energy of the system by 1 e4 m K = mv2 = 2 2 (3. and the case n = 2 is called the Balmer sequence. The dierences in energy for any two n's. The Balmer series is of special interest because the transitions are in the wavelength of visible light (4000{ 7000). and Pfund series.57) 1 0 n2 0 ! : (3. respectively.60) In fact. and equates to E = K + (02K ) = 0K . and thus perhaps the the .

(3. The energy levels of the Balmer series are thus given by 1 1 En = 0R 2 0 : (3.rst to be A A observed in early experiments.62) n 4 e4 m 018 2~2 = 2:1798741(13) 2 10 J .61) .

or Balmer- line. The most prominent spectroscopic line of hydrogen was recorded by ngstrom in 1853. APPLICATIONS OF THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 21 Consisting of a single electron orbiting around a single proton.CHAPTER 3. Observing a pure hydrogen spectrum is dicult because of the diatomic nature of hydrogen and the high energies it takes to dissociate such diatomic molecules. The brightest A line of the Balmer series is a red line known as the H- line. The extended hydrogen lines were measured by Sir William Higgins in 1881 as part of his spectroscopic studies of the hydrogen lines of stars. instead one has to rely on the more energetic means usually provided by a gas discharge method. the hydrogen atom is the simplest atom to study spectroscopically. Its corresponding wavelength is 656 nm. . Mere thermal excitations provided by a simple ame are not enough to break these bonds.

z. 22 . our wavefunc^ p = 0i~ ^ tion: p9 = 0i~ ^ d 1 9 = 0i~ d9 = 0i~(ik)Aei(kx0!t) = ~k9 = p9 . e.. or imperfection. in quaternions. let's verify that this does indeed ^ give us a (positive) momentum eigenvalue. y. whenever it becomes or seems to become necessary to have recourse to x. the momentum operator p extracted ^ ^ the momentum eigenvalue. or rather in the state to which it has been hitherto unfolded.1) dx Since we really derived it from the square p2 . dx dx (4. Sir William Rowan Hamilton (1805{1865) As we have learned in the previous chapter. The Hamiltonian Operator extracts information regarding the total energy of the system. operators help us extract information from the wavefunction. The Momentum Operator In the last chapter we encountered the operator d : (4. and the energy operator E extracted the energy eigenvalue.Chapter 4 Operators I regard it as an inelegance...g. etc. Let p operate on 9.2) which indeed gives us the (positive) momentum eigenvalue.

Hamiltonian Operator in 2 Dimensions (4. we operate ^ on 9 with E : ~d ^ E9 = 1 9 = i~ d9 = i~(0i!)9 = ~!9 : (4.10) 2 =2m is the kinetic energy and V is the potential energy.7) (4.9) (4.11) . In most in^ where p ^ stances.8) (4. The Hamiltonian for two dimensions is given by ~2 d2 d2 ^ 0 2m dx2 + dy2 + V .4) 2m dx2 + V : If we apply the Hamiltonian operator to the wave function 9 = Aei(kx0!t). Hamiltonian Operator in Higher Dimensions The Hamiltonian Operator in 2 and 3 dimensions is very easy to conceptualize.5) ~2 d2 ^ = 0 2m dx2 (Aei(kx0!t) ) + V (Aei(kx0!t) ) (4. and is also easy to extend to higher dimensions. rather than a function which \operates" on 9.CHAPTER 4. we obtain ~2 d2 ^ ~2 d2 ^ 0 2m dx2 + V 9 = 0 2m dx2 9 + V 9 (4.3) i dt dt Hamiltonian Operator The Hamiltonian operator is given by ~2 d2 ^ ^ H =0 (4. For sake of continuity. OPERATORS 23 The Energy Operator The energy operator was derived in Chapter 2. the operator V is merely a multiplying function. where the wave function 9 is given by 9 = Ae i(kx x+ky y0!t).6) ~ ^ = 0 2m k2 i2 Aei(kx0!t) + V Aei(kx0!t) 2 k2 ^ = ~2m + V 9 p2 ^ = 2m + V 9 2 (4.

each dx22 chooses only the terms i containing xi in the wavefunction 9. Operator Theory Operator Theory is also known by the names Linear Mapping. xn ). xy. then each dimensional component is decoupled from the other dimensional components. Example: We have already seen that the dierential operator d=dx is a linear operator: d d d [f (x) + g(x)] = dx [f (x)] + dx [g(x)] dx d d [f (x)] = dx [f (x)] dx (4. is that for each of the Hamiltonian opd erators.CHAPTER 4. or three. OPERATORS 24 The Hamiltonian for three dimensions is given by ~2 d2 d2 d2 ^ 0 2m dx2 + dy2 + dz 2 + V : where the wave function 9 is given by 9 = Ae i(kx x+ky y+kz z0!t). where the wavenum~ = (k1 .17) (4. be it in two.13) kx where the wave function 9 is given by 9 = Aei(~ 1~ 0!t).15) for some functions f and g and a scalar . Linear Transformation. This means that if there exist no cross terms like x2 y. k2 . ^ O (4. The thing to note here.14) (4. The axioms for linear operators are ^ ^ ^ O ( f + g ) = O (f ) + O (g ) ^ (f ) = O(f ) . x2 . : : : . or xy 2 .18) .16) (4. : : : . or n-dimensions.12) The Hamiltonian for n dimensions is given by d2 d2 d2 ~2 d2 ^ 0 2m dx2 + dx2 + dx2 + : : : + dx2 + V : n 1 2 3 (4. in the case of two dimensions. and Linear Operators. kn ) and the dimension vector is given by ~ = ber is given k x (x1 . Hamiltonian Operator in n Dimensions Hamiltonian Operator in 3 Dimensions (4.

1) . (0. This means that any vector ~ in 3-space can be written in terms of a linear combiv nation of these three vectors. 1. 0) and (0.Chapter 5 H ilbert's Space Physics is much too hard for physicists. 1. Remark: One usually talks of vectors being perpendicular if they are con. 0) + 3 (0. that is ~ = 1 (1. meaning that they are also each of unit length. The basis vectors given above are in fact orthonormal. The term normal just means that the basis vectors are mutually perpendicular. v (5. 1) form a normal basis for 3-space. David Hilbert Real Vector Spaces The vectors (1.1) where i 2 R. 0. 0) + 2 (0. 0. 0. 0. 0).

0) and (0. then v1 and v2 are perpendicular. The ones above are probably the nicest | it is easy to extract information about them and their orthonormality just by looking at them. In terms of our original basis vectors. the extension of this idea to higher dimensions and complex vector spaces is to call such vectors orthogonal or normal or orthonormal (if appropriate).ned to 3-space. The basis vectors (1. 0. we can easily 25 . How do we determine that vectors are perpendicular or normal in other situations? We use the inner product (or dot product). (0. 1) are not unique. If v1 1 v2 = 0. 1. 0). One can construct other basis vectors for 3-space. 0.

it just so happens that the real component of the . 0) 1 (0. see that (1. 3).CHAPTER 5. 1. 2 + i. 1) = 0 (0. HILBERT'S SPACE 26 iy a+ib b O JFG R a R= a 2+ b2 x Figure 5. 0) 1 (0. 0) 1 (0. 0. Note that each entry of the vector is a complex entry. 0.1: Argand Diagram. 1. 0) = 0 (1. 0. 1) = 0 Complex Vector Spaces Suppose we have the vector (i. 0.

What is the length of this vector? Remember the inner product should gives us this information: 2 v 1 v = kv k 0 : (5.3) The length is imaginary. 3): (i. 2 + i. 3) 1 (i. Example: Let's try this instead: (i. 2 + i. 3) 1 (i. 3) = i2 + (2 + i)2 + 32 = 01 + (3 + 4i) + 9 = 11 + 4i : (5. 2 0 i. this doesn't tell us a thing.4) = 0i2 + (4 0 i2 ) + 9 =1+5+9 = 15 . 2 + i. we will multiply the vector v by its conjugate. 3) 1 (. 3) 1 (0i. 2 + i. to get a real. 2 + i. 3) (5. non-negative length.rst entry is 0 and the imaginary component of the third entry is 0. 2 + i. that is. 3) i 3 = (i. 2 + i. 2 + i.2) Let's try this for (i. ) = (i. To remedy the situation. rather than multiply it by itself.

Now.1. square each of them. HILBERT'S SPACE 27 Why does this work? It works because each entry is simply the sum of the square of the length of the real part and the square of the imaginary part. and then add them the same way you would to . To see this. return to the idea of anq Argand diagram. For the vector a + bi. the real component is a and the imaginary component is b.CHAPTER 5. 5. as shown in Fig.

But how does one de. Functions may be normal (or orthonormal) as well. Hilbert's Space The idea of vector spaces is extended to functions.nd the square of the hypotenuse using Pythagoras' theorem.

we de.ne this? In the vector spaces with which we feel most comfortable.

ned the inner product as v1 1 v2 . and this we used to test the orthogonality condition. In a Hilbert space we simply de.

(5.ne the inner product of two functions f (x) and g(x) by Zb hf (x)jg(x)i f 3 (x)g(x)dx . as explained in the previous section. b]. a . We do this simply because Hilbert's Space includes complex functions and because we want a non-negative value of the inner product. Here f 3 (x) means the complex conjugate of the function f (x).5) over some interval [a.

28 .

Introductory Quantum Mechanics. Dubuque. The Meaning of Quantum Theory. Iowa. [4] French. Reading. John Wiley & Sons. W. 705 (1927). Brown Publishers. David. 1962. [3] C. Inc.W. A. [5] Goswami. SpringerVerlag. Richard. Physical Review 30. [12] Kafatos. Rhinehart & Company. [8] Bohm. 1990. New York. Atomic Age Physics. 1959. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. [7] Libo. Harvard University Press. Quantum Mechanics and Experience. J. [11] Ikenberry. Cambridge. Dover Publications. The M.. Diraction of Electrons by a Crystal of Nickel. Davisson and L. Howard. David Z. [9] Baggott. Vibrations and Waves. Norton & Company. Introductory Physics Series. [6] Jammer. Germer.. H. New York. [10] Semat. Inc. Quantum Mechanics for Mathematicians and Physicists. C. Wm. Oxford. 1970. 1987.I. New York.. Oxford University Press. P. Quantum Theory. Ernest. 1971. Linear Algebra. 1992. The History of QM. 29 . Henry and Harvey E. The Quantum Physicists and an Introduction to their Physics. Amit. [13] Albert. New York.T. William H. 1992. Massachusetts. Inc. The Conscious Universe. 5th Edition. New York. New York.Bibliography [1] Anton. 1959. Max. Quantum Mechanics. 1992. Oxford. [2] Cropper. Menas and Robert Nadeau. 1980. Jim. Oxford University Press. White. Oxford University Press.

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Preface
Quantum Mechanics seems untenable. Many of the concepts that seem contrarian to our common experiences wash quantum mechanics in a dim light. Fortunately, this particular problem can be ov...

Preface

Quantum Mechanics seems untenable. Many of the concepts that seem contrarian to our common experiences wash quantum mechanics in a dim light. Fortunately, this particular problem can be overcome, but the problem is exasperated by those who cannot teach quantum mechanics, or those who can't teach, period.

I am in the process of writing this short introduction so as to explain to myself the various underpinnings of quantum mechanics. I am currently working on a new approach to quantum mechanics, which I call Naive Quantum Mechanics or NQM, in the great tradition of Paul Halmos' book Naive Set Theory. The word naive is not meant to diminish or demean my own work, but to, perhaps, express my own naivete in starting this project, my naivete concerning the subject, and just maybe the naivet e we all have been harboring of the actual underlying principles of quantum mechanics. If it is successful, then maybe we'll all see it in print.

If it isn't successful, it might have been worth the effort anyway. I might learn a lot about myself, and more importantly, I might learn something about other people. Quantum mechanics in its present state, in my estimation, is inadequate. I believe this because it doesn't answer the question Why? in a wholly satisfactory manner (I like asking Why? and What?). When I say quantum mechanics is inadequate, I, of course, mean that quantum mechanics gives all the right answers and such, but the explanation is inadequate to describe the goings-on behind the curtain. What I am talking about exemplifies the difference between a descriptive theory and a prescriptive theory. It just seems that nothing of import has been achieved in this basic of sciences since the 1930's. And we have had a whole lot of time to do something about it. Naive Quantum Mechanics is my attempt to remedy this outstanding problem.

Wish me luck!

Jeffrey F. Gold

Salt Lake City

September 1995

Quantum Mechanics seems untenable. Many of the concepts that seem contrarian to our common experiences wash quantum mechanics in a dim light. Fortunately, this particular problem can be overcome, but the problem is exasperated by those who cannot teach quantum mechanics, or those who can't teach, period.

I am in the process of writing this short introduction so as to explain to myself the various underpinnings of quantum mechanics. I am currently working on a new approach to quantum mechanics, which I call Naive Quantum Mechanics or NQM, in the great tradition of Paul Halmos' book Naive Set Theory. The word naive is not meant to diminish or demean my own work, but to, perhaps, express my own naivete in starting this project, my naivete concerning the subject, and just maybe the naivet e we all have been harboring of the actual underlying principles of quantum mechanics. If it is successful, then maybe we'll all see it in print.

If it isn't successful, it might have been worth the effort anyway. I might learn a lot about myself, and more importantly, I might learn something about other people. Quantum mechanics in its present state, in my estimation, is inadequate. I believe this because it doesn't answer the question Why? in a wholly satisfactory manner (I like asking Why? and What?). When I say quantum mechanics is inadequate, I, of course, mean that quantum mechanics gives all the right answers and such, but the explanation is inadequate to describe the goings-on behind the curtain. What I am talking about exemplifies the difference between a descriptive theory and a prescriptive theory. It just seems that nothing of import has been achieved in this basic of sciences since the 1930's. And we have had a whole lot of time to do something about it. Naive Quantum Mechanics is my attempt to remedy this outstanding problem.

Wish me luck!

Jeffrey F. Gold

Salt Lake City

September 1995

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