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**A Naive Introduction to Quantum Mechanics
**

Written and Illustrated by

Jeffrey F. Gold

Tachyon Publishing Company

Knocking on the Devil's Door: A Naive Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

Written and Illustrated by Jerey F. Gold Created June 7, 1994 Run October 16, 1995 Copyright c 1994, 1995

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my naivet concerning e e the subject. period. in my estimation. I might learn a lot about myself. this particular problem can be overcome. I might learn something about other people. but the problem is exasperated by those who cannot teach quantum mechanics. which I call Naive Quantum Mechanics or NQM. then maybe we'll all see it in print. I believe this because it doesn't answer the question Why? in a wholly satisfactory manner (I like asking Why? and What?). When I say quantum mechanics is inadequate. Many of the concepts that seem contrarian to our common experiences wash quantum mechanics in a dim light. If it is successful. The word naive is not meant to diminish or demean my own work. Fortunately. mean that quantum mechanics gives all the right answers and such. is inadequate. What I am talking about exempli. I am currently working on a new approach to quantum mechanics. and just maybe the naivet we all have been harboring of the ace tual underlying principles of quantum mechanics. perhaps.Preface Quantum Mechanics seems untenable. of course. If it isn't successful. in the great tradition of Paul Halmos' book Naive Set Theory. I am in the process of writing this short introduction so as to explain to myself the various underpinnings of quantum mechanics. it might have been worth the eort anyway. I. Quantum mechanics in its present state. or those who can't teach. but the explanation is inadequate to describe the goings-on behind the curtain. but to. and more importantly. express my own naivet in starting this project.

es the dierence between a descriptive theory and a prescriptive theory. It just seems that nothing of import has been achieved in this basic of sciences since the 1930's. And we have had a whole lot of time to do something about it. Wish me luck! Jerey F. Naive Quantum Mechanics is my attempt to remedy this outstanding problem. Gold Salt Lake City September 1995 i .

At . or what seems to be the case. the lack thereof. What I dislike is the pedagogy of QM. but it may have gotten your attention.Fore w ord I hate Quantum Mechanics! That's not really true.

rst sight QM is mysterious, and in all seriousness, this is perpetuated by those who understand it, or seem to understand it, anyway. In my short career, the things I've heard said about QM range from \nobody understands it" to \you're not meant to understand it." If they would have said \one is not meant to understand it," rather than (inadvertently?) point the

nger, then maybe I wouldn't have taken oense. I always asked myself though, \if nobody undertands it, then why are they testing me on it?" One might say that QM is just another religion, however, other religions have a redeeming quality in that they tell us that \some day you'll be forgiven and you'll understand everything." Quantum Mechanics just does not make that kind of promise. In Quantum Mechanics there exist what are called non-commuting variables, like momentum and position, or energy and time. I've found that there exist two other non-commuting variables of QM. Much in the same way you can't measure both position and momentum simultaneously, it seems that \you can't both understand Quantum Mechanics and do it at the same time." Beside the amorous connotation here, what is meant is that one of the following hold: either \you understand QM, but can't do it" or \you can do QM, but you just can't understand it." A serious problem with QM lies in the notation that is commonly used. For example, in some texts I have encountered, I've run into equations like X jxi = xjxi (can't you just cancel the jxi's?). I think it's terrible notation, especially for those who are just beginning to grasp the new language. It's just not clear as to what is an operator and what is a scalar. There are many other problems, probably too numerous to mention here. Maybe this naive introduction to QM is what's needed. Maybe not. Jerey F. Gold Salt Lake City November 1992 ii

It is nothing short of a miracle that modern methods of instruction have not yet entirely strangled the holy curiousity of inquiry. Albert Einstein iii .Acknowledgements I would like to thank all the people who couldn't explain Quantum Mechanics for making this necessary.

Contents

Preface Foreword

i ii

Acknowledgements : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : iii Waves : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Wavelength and Wave Number Frequency and Period : : : : : Moving Waves : : : : : : : : : Particles : : : : : : : : : : : : : Waves Acting like Particles : : Particles Acting like Waves : :

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

1

1

Waves and Particles

1 1 2 3 3 3 4

2

Constructing the Schrdinger Equation o

Wave equation for Real Waves : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5 The Schrdinger Wave Equation : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8 o Schrdinger Equation for Non-zero Potential. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 10 o Standing Wave on a String A Free Particle : : : : : : : The Square-Well Potential : Square Well with Potential The Hydrogen Atom : : : :

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

5

3

Applications of the Schrdinger Equation o

12

12 14 14 17 19 22 23 23 23 23

4

Operators

The Momentum Operator : : : : : : : : : : : The Energy Operator : : : : : : : : : : : : : Hamiltonian Operator : : : : : : : : : : : : : Hamiltonian Operator in Higher Dimensions : Hamiltonian Operator in 2 Dimensions : iv

22

**v Hamiltonian Operator in 3 Dimensions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 24 Hamiltonian Operator in n Dimensions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 24 Operator Theory : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 24
**

5 Hilbert's Space

Real Vector Spaces : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 25 Complex Vector Spaces : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 26 Hilbert's Space : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 27

25

Bibliography

28

List of Figures

1.1 The Amplitude and Wavelength of a Sinusoidal Wave. : : : : : : 2

3.1 A 1-dimensional Box. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 15 3.2 The Time-independent Solution of the Schrdinger Equation. : : 18 o 5.1 Argand Diagram. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 26

vi

Wavelength and Wave Number If the whole function in Fig. 61. our choice is arbitrary. What about the reciprocal v=? This tells us how many waves move past point P in unit time. Sinusoidal just means that the waves we will be describing can be characterized by sine and cosine functions. and so v= = 1=T = . A periodic function is characterized by f (x+n) = f (x). 1 (supposing it is a rigid structure) moves with velocity v . The amplitude of the wave is A and is measured from the equilibrium position on the x-axis to the point of maximum y-displacement. This is called the frequency and is usually denoted by (or f ). This tells us how many waves . and n = f0. There is also such a thing as a peak-to-peak amplitude. 62. Albert Speer Waves A sinusoidal wave represents a periodic function. 1. but that merely represents twice the amplitude indicated here. : : :g.Chapter 1 W aves and Particles One seldom recognizes the devil when he places his hand on your shoulder. where is the wavelength. An example of a sinusoidal wave is illustrated in Fig. then the time it takes for one wave to move past some point P on the x-axis is T = =v. Now suppose we form the ratio x=.

Its reciprocal. tells us the wavelength in terms of some unit length decided by the units used. =x. 1 .t into a length x.

CHAPTER 1.

WAVES AND PARTICLES

2

y Amplitude O x JFG Wavelength

Figure 1.1: The Amplitude and Wavelength of a Sinusoidal Wave. Now let's make an analogy of this moving sinusoidal wave function with the rotation of a circle, with the following proviso: the passing of one wavelength corresponds to one rotation of a circle. If we imagine our circle to be a unit circle, that is, a circle with a radius of unit length, then the circumference of the circle is 2. If the wave has moved one wavelength, then our circle has made one complete rotation of 2 radians. Therefore, in our circle analogy, x= represents the fraction of the circumference we have traversed, and 2(x=) represents the total distance (in terms of circumferences in radians) that have been traversed. The latter expression is usually written as kx, where k = 2= is called the wavenumber. It enumerates how many wavelengths

Note that sin(kx) actually represents a stationary wave. a nonmoving wave. We will have to introduce a parameter of time to make the wave move.t onto the circumference of a unit circle. that is. Frequency and Period There is another way of de. y = A sin(kx) describes the y-displacement for all values of x along the x-axis.

ning a wave, and that's in terms of time t. Remember the time it takes for one wave to pass point P is given by T = =v. How many waves pass point P per unit time? The frequency tells us that v= = 1=T = . Again, we will make a comparison of this situation to the unit circle in terms of the parameter of time. One time cycle T of the wave corresponds to one rotation of a circle. The time circumference of the unit circle is 2 time units. If the wave has moved the distance of one wavelength in time T , then our circle has made one complete rotation. Therefore, in our circle analogy, 2=T represents one time unit. The fraction t=T represents the number of unit time periods T the wave has moved in time t. Therefore, 2t=T represents the total number of time circumferences

where we have written ! = 2 . WAVES AND PARTICLES 3 that have been traversed in time t. The latter value 2t=T is usually written as 2t=T = 2t = !t.CHAPTER 1. It counts how many wavelengths (having passed in time t) .

Moving Waves Now we are ready to de.t around the time circumference of the unit circle.

sin(kx) ! sin(kx0 ) may be described by sin(kx 6 !t). p2 =2m will appear frequently in our discourse. The change in the x-cordinate x is o denoted by x0 = x 6 vt .4) by the substitution v = p=m. Particles This section serves as a quick reminder of some concepts from classical mechanics. as is commonly but incorrectly believed.5) 2 2m Waves acting like particles|the photoelectric eect|is the observation for which Albert Einstein won the Nobel Prize. (1.2) x0 = x 6 k since v = =T = = 2=(2=) = !=k.3) t Now. The momentum of a particle is given by p = mv .. i. The latter form. This means that in the time interval t. (1. The experiment which con. the wave has moved from x to x 0 . Waves Acting like Particles where m is the mass of the particle and v is its velocity.1) or ! t. we will have created a moving wave. a moving wave. By changing our x cordinate in o time.e. This means that we may rewrite (1. not for the Special Theory of Relativity.ne a moving wave. (1. The kinetic energy is given by 1 p2 E = mv2 = (1.2) as kx0 = kx 6 !t : (1.

then one would .rmed this postulate concerns light. and electrons in metal. and if homogeneous absorption takes place. If photons are targeted at a slab of metal.

and ~! is the energy of the incident photons. then diraction patterns inherent to wave phenomena would not have been observed. is history.8) . ~! = ~ 2 = ~ 2 = ~k : c c (1. This created the so-called \quanta" notion of photons: rather than disperse the energy throughout the metal like a wave. This had been anticipated by Louis DeBroglie. Particles Acting like Waves In 1927 an experiment was performed which clearly demonstrated that particles exhibit certain wave properties if subjected to experiments which test for wave characteristics. If electrons exhibited only a particle behavior. for example. they say. Furthermore. respectively. For a comprehensive history of Quantum Mechanics. in a textbook example of Koestler's notion of bisociation. the reader is advised to read Jammer [6]. In the experiment of Davisson-Germer. and the rest. the energies of the expatriated electrons (called photoelectrons) is E = ~! 0 W . This suggests that individual photons are absorbed by the electrons. For everyday objects.7) or p= This suggests that any object exhibiting momentum possesses a characteristic wavelength. the wavelengths are too small to be measured. but for small masses such as electrons. WAVES AND PARTICLES 4 expect an electron to emerge from the metal after the entire slab of metal has absorbed the energy equivalent to the energy of one electron's binding energy. who combined the ideas of Max Planck and Albert Einstein. But they were. Instead. to get pc = ~! . (1. DeBroglie formulated this by equating the energy terms of Einstein and classical mechanics. as we are familiar with them in. what is seen is the following: the number of electrons that are emitted from the metal is proportional to the number of incident photons. the measurement of wavelengths yielded to experiment.CHAPTER 1. (1. electrons were targeted at a nickel crystal. geometric optics. the energy of the individual photons is imparted directly to individual electrons.6) where W is the work function (energy) required to remove the electrons from the metal. E = pc and E = ~!. This is quite contrary to the notion of light of consisting of waves.

Lagrange and Hamilton. in which it seems to play the same part as do the equations established by Newton. Max Planck a wave equation from . in classical mechanics.Chapter 2 Constructing the Schrdinger Equation o This equation has provided the basis of modern Quantummechanics.

from known equations of waves and working the problem backwards. 5 . Suppose we have a wave of the form Y = A sin(kx 0 !t) . (2. respectively. A wave equation depends on the type of wave you are describing. Wave equation for Real Waves I have to qualify the title of this chapter by dierentiating between constructing and deriving a wave equation because there is no method by which to derive The waves described in this section are real (non-complex): sine and cosine functions.rst principles. Here. One may construct a wave equation.1) where k is the wave number. x and t denote position and time. however. We will consider a sine wave only because sine and cosine functions dier in phase only. The next two sections exemplify this point. sin(x + =2) = cos(x). that is. and ! is the frequency of the wave.

Equation (2.1) with respect to x. Remark: A quick reminder. then consider the operator 0 ^ O = 3 01 : (2. we . the result we got back was our original wave multiplied by some constant 0k 2 .3) is an eigenvalue equation with the eigenvalue 0k 2 .3) dx2 where Y in the last expression is our 2original wave function.CHAPTER 2. An example of an eigenvalue equation is given by the following: Suppose (1. we get d2 Y = 0k 2 A sin(kx 0 !t) = 0k2 Y . 2) is a vector residing in 2-space.2) dx If we again dierentiate with respect to x. By operating on If we dierentiate (2.4) 8 dY = kA cos(kx 0 !t) : (2. CONSTRUCTING THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 6 d our original wave with the operator dx2 . (2.

2).nd that When the operator operates on the vector (1. we .

Let me remind you.6) and (2. i..5) 8 01 2 6 2 ^ The operator O merely rescaled the original vector (1. we have 8 > Y = A sin(kx 0 !t) > > > < = 0k 2 A sin(kx 0 !t) = 0k2 Y Now let's dierentiate Y with respect to time t.2) by the factor 3.8) .nd that 3 0 1 = 3 =3 1 : (2. we get 8 > Y = A sin(kx 0 !t) > dx2 = > dx > > > 2 : d Y dY kA cos(kx 0 !t) (2.7) d2 Y = 0k 2 Y dx2 (2. We will explain more about eigenvalue equations in Chapter ??. Let's get back to the original problem.7).e. we equate d Y dx2 > dt > > > 2 : dY = 0!A cos(kx 0 !t) (2.6) > > < = 0! 2 A sin(kx 0 !t) = 0!2 Y To construct the wave equation we simply equate the last terms from the third rows of (2.

11) (2.9) (2. perhaps shorter.9) as Equating the two. we . k2 dx2 ! 2 dt2 d2 Y k2 d2 Y = : dx2 ! 2 dt2 dx2 v2 dt2 2 2 That's the wave equation for real waves.16) : The square of the velocity is v2 = dx 2 (2.15) with Let's rewrite (2.13) (2.12) (2. t).CHAPTER 2. CONSTRUCTING THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 7 (2. it is usually written as 2 d2 Y = 1dY . we get or d2 Y = 0! 2 Y : dt2 0 k12 d Y = Y dx2 1 0 !2 ddtY = Y : 2 1 d2 Y = 1 d2 Y . where we identify the velocity v of the wave as ! v= : k v= dx : dt dt Remark: Another. way of (re)constructing the wave equation is by using the following mnemonic: the velocity v is given by (2.14) (2.17) Now.8) as and (2.10) (2. operating on some dummy function y = y(x.

20) which we may rewrite into the form d2 y 1 d2 y = : dx2 v2 dt2 .19) (2.nd that v2 = Now. if we imagine v 2 to be a dierential operator. dt2 dx2 (2.18) d dt d2 y d2 y = . then we may rewrite it as 2 d d 2 d 2 d 2 d2 d2 2 = dx 1 d v = dt = dx = dt = dx = dt2 = dx2 : (2.

CONSTRUCTING THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 8 The Schrdinger Wave Equation o We will soon .CHAPTER 2.

24) =( z ) = z 2i z : We won't explore this now. (2. however. Let's dierentiate 9 with respect to x: d9 = ikAei(kx0!t) : d2 9 = 0k 2 Aei(kx0!t) = 0k 2 9 : dx2 If we dierentiate with respect to time t. For a complex function z the real part is given by <( z ) = z + z .23) 2 and the imaginary part is given by 0 (2. but our mathematical description of waves is dierent. Euler's equation tells us that ei = cos + i sin : (2. The procedure of construction will be the same.nd out that the Schrdinger equation does not resemble the wave o equation for real waves. We use the complex wave description | a plane wave model given by 9 = Aei(kx0!t) : Remember.22) This means that we can construct sine and cosine waves (real waves) from complex waves.21) (2. we .

26) (2.27) We will not need to take the second time derivative for reasons to be explained below.nd d9 = 0i!Aei(kx0!t) : dt Also. d2 =dx2 . : : :) and (d=dt. dx (2. : : :) operating on 8 all represent eigenvalue equations. because after operating on the function 8. So for the wave equation 9. the operators (d=dx. the operators returned the original function 8 modi. Note that all time and position derivatives give eigenvalues.25) (2. d2 =dt2 .

From Max Planck we learned that the energy of radiation is given by E = ~! .28) .ed by some constant factor. (2.

d ^ Remark: We will designate the operator i~ dt by the symbol E . CONSTRUCTING THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 9 where ~ = h=2 and ! is the frequency of the radiation. and k.32) From DeBroglie and wave mechanics we have learned that p = ~k . again. the result we get back is the energy eigenvalue of the wave. which creates ^ and a scalar E . let's take a look at the other equation (the other equation you might have forgotten if I hadn't reminded you). we have d9 ~ = 0i~!Aei(kx0!t) = 0i~!9 .27) by ~.31) d If we identify i~ dt as an operator. or dt (2.29) (2. Both will appear in our the distinction between an operator E discussion. This means that if we multiply (2.30) which we may also write as 0 h d9 = ~!9 . i dt i~ d9 = ~!9 : dt (2. If we solve for k we .CHAPTER 2. then when it operates on 9. Now. The equation of interest is d2 9 = 0k 2 9 : (2. is the wave number. where p is the momentum.

If we equate (2. or scaling ^ factor.34).32).33) dx2 dx2 another energy eigenvalue equation! If you imagine the left hand side of (2. 2 d2 9 = 0p 9 : (2. times the original wavefunction 9.34) to be represented by an operator p2 =2m operating on 9. we have constructed the Schrdinger Equation for a free particle (or for zero potential.31). more about o zero potential later): ~2 2 (2. momentum is de.31) and (2.35) 0 2m d 9 = i~ d9 . then the result is just an eigenvalue. This is equivalent to the result we obtained earlier in (2. dx2 dt ~2 In mechanics.nd k = p=~. Substituting this into (2.

ned as p = mv and kinetic energy for a free particle is de.

34) 2 dx . The latter equation may also be written as 2 E = p2 =2m.33) by 2m : 2 ~2 2 0 2m d 9 = 2pm 9 . (2.ned as E = 1 mv2 . This is exactly what we'll need. let's divide both sides of (2.

dx2 2 2 (2. If p2 is really the square p 1 p.39) operator is it? The positive one. CONSTRUCTING THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 10 which is usually written as ^ where E is an operator. Perhaps we ^ would like to know what form this operator takes. not the scalar E = ~! although we could have written it that way. ^ ^ dx p = 6i~ ^ ~ ^ 0 2m d 9 = E 9 .37) we have written the scalar p in equation (2.36) In the equation ~ ^ 0 2m d 9 = 2pm 9 . 2 dx 2 2 2 (2. If we equate both sides of (2. or the negative one? We de. (2. ^ after E operates on 9. then ^ ^ ^ or d2 p 1 p = 0~2 2 . It doesn't really matter which way we write it because.37).34) as an operator p. in this case.38) 0 2m dx2 = 2pm .CHAPTER 2. then ^2 ~2 d2 (2. by eliminating 9. we just end up getting the energy eigenvalue ~! anyway.

We de.ne it as the negative one.

41) Schrdinger Equation for Non-zero Potential. then the momentum eigenvalue is positive. or a free particle.ne it as the negative one so that when you operate on d 9 with the operator 0i~ dx . the momentum operator is given by p = 0i~ ^ d : dx d . (2. (This calculation is done in Chapter 4). o Equation (2. such as a charged particle in the vicinity of a neighboring charged particle or an external electric . If a particle resides in a potential.40) dx since d=dx operating on itself is d=dx 1 d=dx = d2 =dx2 and (0i)2 = 01. Therefore.36) we constructed was for a particle in a zero potential. Which (2.

eld. then its total energy is modi.

denoted by V .ed. It now also possesses a potential energy term. which we must include in the .

or in the language of QM. we will write it as ^2 ^ ^ ^ p +V : E+V !E+V = (2.42) 2m .nal analysis. for a bound particle. is E + V . The total energy then.

the potential operator V reduces to a mere multiplying function.CHAPTER 2. (2. ~2 d2 2m dx2 + V . (2. ^ and thus V ! V .46) . we may write the complete Schrdinger equation as o ~2 d2 ^ 0 2m dx2 + V 9 = E 9 .43) or ~2 2 ^ 0 2m d 9 + V 9 = E 9 : (2.45) ^ where we identify the H as the Hamiltonian operator ^ H =0 ^ ^ and E as the energy operator E = 0i~d=dt. the potential is not normally an operator. that is to say.44) dx2 Frequently you will see the latter equation written as ^ ^ H 9 = E9 . CONSTRUCTING THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 11 ^ It will turn out that in most cases. Now. More will be explained about the Hamiltonian operator in Chapter 4. (2.

Chapter 3 A pplications of the Schrdinger Equation o An expert is someone who knows some of the worst mistakes that can be made in his subject. However. so that the reader can glimpse the points of interest. I work the problems from beginning to end. Werner Heisenberg These are the easiest applications of the Schrdinger equation because of o the contrived mathematical restrictions placed on the problems and the equation. and how to avoid them. these examples introduce the reader to the main concepts here| boundary conditions on partial dierential equations. rather than worry about . even putting in the mathematical minutiae.

Let's concentrate on the concepts here|not so much the mathematical formality. We will .lling in the missing steps.

rst solve the classical analogue of the Schrdinger equation. the wave equation. o i.e. for the problem of a string ..

o Standing Wave on a String We will apply the wave equation for real waves to the problem of a taut string . This should ease us into the applications of the Schrdinger equation.xed at both ends.

since we derived the wave equation from the known solutions for real waves. Now. t) = : (3.xed at both ends. we need not again solve the equation d2 Y (x. t) 1 d2 Y (x.1) dx2 v2 dt2 12 .

t). t) = 0. APPLICATIONS OF THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 13 A possible solution is Y (x. i. The boundary conditions are Y (0. t) = 0 and Y (d.CHAPTER 3. These conditions must hold since the string is not be driven at either node. The . All we need to do now is place the boundary conditions on Y (x. which represents two waves of diering amplitudes traveling in opposite directions.. We will also assume that no dampening or any other energy loss takes place.e. We include the opposite traveling wave so as to take into account the re ected waves. t) = B sin(kx0 !t)+ B0 sin(kx+ !t). the sites where it is clamped. where d is the distance separating the two ends of the string.

t) = B sin(kx) cos(0!t) + B sin(0!t) cos(kx) (3.2) or that B0 = B . t) as Y (x. because of our caveat that no energy losses take place upon re ection. since the re ected wave would be of the same amplitude as the incident wave.3) Y (x. t) = B sin(kx 0 !t) + B sin(kx + !t) : (3. t) may also be written as Y (x. (3. We expected this to be the case anyway.4) +B sin(kx) cos(!t) + B sin(!t) cos(kx) . (3.rst condition implies that Y (0. t) = B sin(0!t) + B0 sin(!t) = (B0 0 B ) sin(!t) = 0 . Now we may rewrite Y (x.5) since sin( + .

) = sin() cos(.

) +sin(.

) cos() and sin( 0 .

) = sin() cos(.

) 0 sin(.

where n = f0. and X (x) = 2 sin nx Thus. 2. t) forces X (d) = 2 sin(kd) = 0 . Y (x. since sin(0) = 0 sin() and cos(0) = cos(). or that kd = n .11) (3. Now we may write k as kn = n=d.9) where X (x) = 2 sin(kx) and T (t) = cos(!t).7) = 2B sin(kx) cos(!t) : (3. 1. : : :g.12) Y (x. The remaining boundary condition Y (d. (3. t) into two multiplicative terms Y (x. t) = X (x)T (t) .8) This shows that we have separated Y (x. (3. ) cos().6) +B sin(kx) cos(!t) + B sin(!t) cos(kx) (3.10) which implies that the argument of the sin function must be a multiple of . t) = 2 sin nx d cos(!t) : . d : (3. Also. t) = B sin(kx) cos(!t) 0 B sin(!t) cos(kx) (3.

Since the particle is not in a potential.CHAPTER 3. we . APPLICATIONS OF THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 14 A Free Particle Suppose we have a particle of mass m.

15) (3. we .nd that the particle must satisfy the Schrdinger equation o ~2 2 0 2m d 9 = E 9 . d2 9 2mE + 9=0: (3. or that k= r 2mE ~2 p . but we'll solve it formally. Let's try a solution of the form 9 = Aeikx : This means that (3.14) dx2 We have already solved this problem (backwards) to derive the Schrdinger o equation.2) becomes or (3.16) (3.13) dx2 which we may rewrite as. ~2 which implies that the coecient 2mE=~2 0 k2 = 0. (3.18) (3. ~ : If we make the substitution E = p2 =2m.19) ~2 0k2 Aeikx + 2mE Aeikx = 0 ~2 2mE 0 k2 Aeikx = 0 .17) (3.

if not equivalent (mathematicians would say \isomorphic") to the problem of a taut string .nd the DeBroglie relation k= as expected. The Square-Well Potential This problem is very similar.

but the wave equation for complex waves|Schrdinger's equation.xed at both ends. The dierence is that the wave equation we use in this case is not the wave equation for real waves. o Suppose we have a 1-dimensional box in which to con.

ne a particle between two impenetrable walls (that's the contrived mathematics!). To make the problem even easier. we apply no potential to the particle. We'll apply the .

1: A 1-dimensional Box.CHAPTER 3. APPLICATIONS OF THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 15 V(x) = ∞ x<d v m V(x) = ∞ x>d E x x=d JFG x=0 Figure 3. since the o particle is con. Schrdinger equation for a free particle (that's kind of a misnomer.

1.24) . The wave equation d9 ~2 d2 9 i~ = 0 (3.1): ~ i~ d9 = 0 2m d 9 dt dx2 2 2 )e i~ d[8(xdt 0i!t ] 2 x) = 0 2~m d [8(dxe 2 2 0i!t ] 0i!t 2 ~2 i~8(x) d[e dt ] = 0 2m e0i!t d [8(2x)] dx 2 3 3 2 ~2 2 i~8(x)(0i!) e0i!t = 0 2m e0i!t d [8(2x)] dx (3.ned to the box).23) or ~ ~!8(x) = 0 2m d [8(2x)] dx 2 2 ~2 d2 [8(x)] 2m dx2 + ~!8(x) = 0 : (3.22) Let's substitute this equation into (3. t) = Aei(kx0!t) = Aeikx e0i!t : (3. We may now write 9(x. 8(x) and T (t).21) This separates the wavefunction 9(x. t) into the product of two new functions. An idealized representation of this situation is illustrated in Figure 3. t) = 8(x)e0i!t = 8(x)T (t) : (3.20) 2m dx2 dt will be applied to the complex wave 9(x.

that is. we have the boundary conditions 8(0) = 0 and 8() = 0 which must be satis. dx2 d2 [8(x)] 2 + k 8(x) = 0 . Since E = ~!.26) or d2 [8(x)] 2mE + ~2 8(x) = 0 . this constrains 8(x) to equate to zero at the boundaries x = 0 and x = .CHAPTER 3. but we do know that 8(x) cannot extend beyond the dimension (!) of the box. APPLICATIONS OF THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 16 We may also write this as d2 [8(x)] 2m(~! ) + ~2 8(x) = 0 . dx2 by multiplying through by the factor 2m=~2 . we get (3.27) dx2 by making the substitution E = p2 =2m = ~2 k2 =2m. We do not yet know what form 8(x) takes inside the box .25) (3. (3.

ed. Since the con.

we write 8(x) as 8(x) = Ceikx + C0 e0ikx = Ceipx=~ + C0 e0ipx=~ : (3. since we can't really expect the two waves eikx and e0ikx to exhibit dierent amplitudes. the re ected wave (particle) is of the same amplitude as the incident wave (particle) since no dampening. i. let's impose the . or friction. Now.30) = 0k 2 8(x) + k2 8(x) = 0 : This solution will work. If we substitute (3.28) by making the substitution k = p=~. This can be heuristically argued as follows: When the wave (particle) is re ected from a boundary.29) or 0k2 (Ceikx 0 C0 e0ikx ) + k2 (Ceikx + C0 e0ikx ) (3.. Note also that we should expect the two constants C and C0 to eventually equate. it has both positive and negative momentum. (3.27).ned particle may exhibit travel in either x direction. we get 0k2 Ceikx 0 k2 C0 e0ikx + k2 Ceikx + k2 C0 e0ikx . or any other energy loss takes place.e.28) into (3.

rst boundary condition. This implies that 8(0) = Ce0 + C0 e0 = C + C0 = 0 . So. (3.33) = C [cos(kx) + i sin(kx) 0 (cos(0kx) + i sin(0kx))] . namely 8(0) = 0.34) .31) which implies that C0 = 0C . (3.32) 0 kx 0kx = C e 0e (3. now we have 8(x) = Cekx 0 Ce0kx1 (3.

(3. 2. 3. APPLICATIONS OF THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 17 which implies that the argument of the sine function must be a multiple of . This constrains the momentum p to the quantized form n~ pn = . : : :g. (3. This corresponds to .CHAPTER 3.40) ~ where n is an integer n = f1. This means that pd = n .41) d meaning that the momentum can take on only discrete values pn .

tting half-wave segments or multiples of half-wave segments into the 1-dimensional box. just like the string .

multiples of half-wave segment are the only waves that . That is to say.xed at both ends.

42) (3. or n En = which. Schrdinger's equation is o ~2 2 ^ 0 2m d 9 + V 9 = E 9 : (3. or kn = n2 2 ~ 2 2md2 : n : d (3. is equivalent to 8(x) = C [cos(kx) + i sin(kx) 0 (cos(kx) 0 i sin(kx))] (3.37) = D sin(kx) : (3. 3 o are shown in Fig. Now.44) dx2 .38) where D = 2iC . this implies that En = p2 =2m. (3.t into the box without destructively interfering with themselves. because cos(0kx) = cos(kx) and sin(0kx) = 0 sin(kx). the wavenumber is also quantized by k ! kn = pn =~. 3. Square Well with Potential ^ The square-well potential with the potential energy term V is very similar to that of the original square-well potential problem.39) ~ Since the momentum is quantized.35) = C [cos(kx) + i sin(kx) 0 cos(kx) + i sin(kx)] (3. 2. by the same token. if we constrain 8(x) to the boundary condition 8(d) = 0.36) = 2iC sin(kx) (3.2. Since E = p2 =2m. we get 8(d) = D sin pd = 0 .43) The solutions to the time-independent Schrdinger equation for n = 1. Since the momentum pn is quantized. this also means that the energies 8(x) are also quantized.

V 6= V (x. which means that En 0 V = En = or that the quantized energy En is shifted by the amount V as given by In the case that V is a function of position and time. we ^ . APPLICATIONS OF THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 18 ∞ ∞ Ψ3 n=3 Ψ2 n=2 Ψ1 n=1 JFG Figure 3. that is. we ^ ! V .e.2: The Time-independent Solution of the Schrdinger Equation. and may rewrite this as V ~2 2 0 2m d 9 = (E 0 V )9 : (3.. t). i. o ^ Since in most instances V is a multiplying function.45) dx2 This is just like doing the original square well potential problem.CHAPTER 3. V = V (x. except we replace E with the term E 0 V . t).

than a multiplier. For example.46) (3.nd that V behaves more like an operator V .48) 2 dx Now we have a problem. (3.49) 2 dx2 n2 2 ~ 2 2md2 + V : n2 2 ~ 2 2md2 . If we rewrite the equation.47) . we get 2x 2 ^ 0 ~ m d 9 0 e 2 9 = xE 9 : (3. Schrdinger's equation reads o 2 ~2 2 ^ 0 2m d 9 + 0 ex 9 = E 9 : (3. the electrostatic potential energy. suppose V is the potential energy term V = 0 ex2 . Then.

which we develop later. Remark: The Hydrogen Atom Bohr's idea is an extension of DeBroglie's insight of the wave nature of particles. we are indicating that the operator is intended to operate on the variable.49) requires a more sophisticated approach. as well as the wavefunction 9. then x dx 9 6= dx (x9).CHAPTER 3.50) where ~ is the modi. If we place x after an operator. This we don't want to do. The left-hand-side is x d9 while the rightdx d9 hand-side is x dx + 9. For example. APPLICATIONS OF THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 19 Solving (3. suppose d d we did this. (3. Quantum particles exhibit a characteristic wavelength given by the momentum relation p = ~k. The placing of variables is very crucial.

What Bohr proposed was to .ed Planck's constant. For a classical particle the momentum may be expressed as p = mv. and k = 2= is the wavenumber.51) = m indicating an inverse relationship between the wavelength and the mass m. (3. which we may rewrite as 2 ~ .

Substituting (3. (3. and this is why this type of argument is referred to as semi-classical reasoning.53) and the relation e2 n~ (3. From classical physics. But he did this in an indirect way.54) (3. by quantizing the angular momentum.50) into (3. where e is magnitude of the charge of the electron and proton. What this equation says is that the angular momentum is discretized into multiples of ~ by the happy accident that ~ has the proper units of angular momentum.51). r (3.t DeBroglie's wavelengths into circular orbits. he also equated the simple Newtonian centrifugal force with the electrostatic term.52) where n is an integer. He stated that mvr = n~ .55) n2 ~ 2 r= 2 : em . this gives us the velocity v as v= mv2 e2 = r2 .

CHAPTER 3. APPLICATIONS OF THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 20 The equation for the velocity v allows us to .

who expanded on earlier work by Johann Jakob Balmer. The Balmer series is of special interest because the transitions are in the wavelength of visible light (4000{ 7000).59) em em where we identify r0 = 0:527 2 1008 cm as Bohr's radius. 4. and thus perhaps the the . and equates to E = K + (02K ) = 0K . and the case n = 2 is called the Balmer sequence. say n0 and nf is given by e4 m 1 Enf 0 En0 = 0 2 2~ n 2 f e2 e4 m = 0 ~2 n2 = 02K : r (3.55) relating r and n states that ~2 n2 ~ 2 r = 2 = n2 2 = n2 r0 . and 5 are called the Ritz-Paschen.58) n 2~ 2 Equation (3. what Bohr had done using this simple model was to eect a derivation of the Rydberg constant R in Rhc = which until now had only been derived empirically by Janne Rydberg. Brackett. So the energy of the hydrogen atom can be discretized in terms of the integers n. respectively.nd the kinetic energy of the system by 1 e4 m K = mv2 = 2 2 (3.56) 2 2~ n and the potential energy by V =0 Thus the total energy E is given as the sum of the two energy terms.57) 1 0 n2 0 ! : (3. by the relation 1 e4 m : En = 0 2 (3. The sequence of energy levels for the case where n = 1 is the initial state is called the Lyman series.60) In fact. The cases n = 3. and Pfund series. (3. The dierences in energy for any two n's.

(3.62) n 4 e4 m 018 2~2 = 2:1798741(13) 2 10 J .61) . The energy levels of the Balmer series are thus given by 1 1 En = 0R 2 0 : (3.rst to be A A observed in early experiments.

The brightest A line of the Balmer series is a red line known as the H- line. Mere thermal excitations provided by a simple ame are not enough to break these bonds. Observing a pure hydrogen spectrum is dicult because of the diatomic nature of hydrogen and the high energies it takes to dissociate such diatomic molecules. or Balmer- line.CHAPTER 3. . The extended hydrogen lines were measured by Sir William Higgins in 1881 as part of his spectroscopic studies of the hydrogen lines of stars. The most prominent spectroscopic line of hydrogen was recorded by ngstrom in 1853. APPLICATIONS OF THE SCHR ODINGER EQUATION 21 Consisting of a single electron orbiting around a single proton. instead one has to rely on the more energetic means usually provided by a gas discharge method. Its corresponding wavelength is 656 nm. the hydrogen atom is the simplest atom to study spectroscopically.

. whenever it becomes or seems to become necessary to have recourse to x. y.Chapter 4 Operators I regard it as an inelegance.. z. etc.g. e..2) which indeed gives us the (positive) momentum eigenvalue. the momentum operator p extracted ^ ^ the momentum eigenvalue.1) dx Since we really derived it from the square p2 . in quaternions. our wavefunc^ p = 0i~ ^ tion: p9 = 0i~ ^ d 1 9 = 0i~ d9 = 0i~(ik)Aei(kx0!t) = ~k9 = p9 . or rather in the state to which it has been hitherto unfolded. let's verify that this does indeed ^ give us a (positive) momentum eigenvalue. and the energy operator E extracted the energy eigenvalue. The Momentum Operator In the last chapter we encountered the operator d : (4. The Hamiltonian Operator extracts information regarding the total energy of the system. dx dx (4. 22 . operators help us extract information from the wavefunction. Sir William Rowan Hamilton (1805{1865) As we have learned in the previous chapter. or imperfection. Let p operate on 9.

3) i dt dt Hamiltonian Operator The Hamiltonian operator is given by ~2 d2 ^ ^ H =0 (4. Hamiltonian Operator in 2 Dimensions (4. where the wave function 9 is given by 9 = Ae i(kx x+ky y0!t).10) 2 =2m is the kinetic energy and V is the potential energy.6) ~ ^ = 0 2m k2 i2 Aei(kx0!t) + V Aei(kx0!t) 2 k2 ^ = ~2m + V 9 p2 ^ = 2m + V 9 2 (4.8) (4.9) (4.11) .7) (4.4) 2m dx2 + V : If we apply the Hamiltonian operator to the wave function 9 = Aei(kx0!t). The Hamiltonian for two dimensions is given by ~2 d2 d2 ^ 0 2m dx2 + dy2 + V . For sake of continuity. the operator V is merely a multiplying function. OPERATORS 23 The Energy Operator The energy operator was derived in Chapter 2.5) ~2 d2 ^ = 0 2m dx2 (Aei(kx0!t) ) + V (Aei(kx0!t) ) (4.CHAPTER 4. we operate ^ on 9 with E : ~d ^ E9 = 1 9 = i~ d9 = i~(0i!)9 = ~!9 : (4. In most in^ where p ^ stances. we obtain ~2 d2 ^ ~2 d2 ^ 0 2m dx2 + V 9 = 0 2m dx2 9 + V 9 (4. Hamiltonian Operator in Higher Dimensions The Hamiltonian Operator in 2 and 3 dimensions is very easy to conceptualize. and is also easy to extend to higher dimensions. rather than a function which \operates" on 9.

The thing to note here. be it in two.15) for some functions f and g and a scalar . Example: We have already seen that the dierential operator d=dx is a linear operator: d d d [f (x) + g(x)] = dx [f (x)] + dx [g(x)] dx d d [f (x)] = dx [f (x)] dx (4.CHAPTER 4. OPERATORS 24 The Hamiltonian for three dimensions is given by ~2 d2 d2 d2 ^ 0 2m dx2 + dy2 + dz 2 + V : where the wave function 9 is given by 9 = Ae i(kx x+ky y+kz z0!t). x2 . xn ). kn ) and the dimension vector is given by ~ = ber is given k x (x1 . : : : . The axioms for linear operators are ^ ^ ^ O ( f + g ) = O (f ) + O (g ) ^ (f ) = O(f ) . ^ O (4. then each dimensional component is decoupled from the other dimensional components. Operator Theory Operator Theory is also known by the names Linear Mapping. and Linear Operators.18) . each dx22 chooses only the terms i containing xi in the wavefunction 9. Hamiltonian Operator in n Dimensions Hamiltonian Operator in 3 Dimensions (4. or three.16) (4.14) (4. xy. or n-dimensions. k2 .13) kx where the wave function 9 is given by 9 = Aei(~ 1~ 0!t). or xy 2 . in the case of two dimensions. where the wavenum~ = (k1 . This means that if there exist no cross terms like x2 y. Linear Transformation.12) The Hamiltonian for n dimensions is given by d2 d2 d2 ~2 d2 ^ 0 2m dx2 + dx2 + dx2 + : : : + dx2 + V : n 1 2 3 (4. is that for each of the Hamiltonian opd erators.17) (4. : : : .

David Hilbert Real Vector Spaces The vectors (1. 0. 0. 0) and (0. 0). The basis vectors given above are in fact orthonormal. 0) + 2 (0. 0) + 3 (0. 1. This means that any vector ~ in 3-space can be written in terms of a linear combiv nation of these three vectors. 1) . The term normal just means that the basis vectors are mutually perpendicular. 0. that is ~ = 1 (1. 1. (0. v (5. 0. 1) form a normal basis for 3-space. Remark: One usually talks of vectors being perpendicular if they are con. meaning that they are also each of unit length.Chapter 5 H ilbert's Space Physics is much too hard for physicists.1) where i 2 R.

(0. How do we determine that vectors are perpendicular or normal in other situations? We use the inner product (or dot product). 0. One can construct other basis vectors for 3-space. then v1 and v2 are perpendicular. 1. The ones above are probably the nicest | it is easy to extract information about them and their orthonormality just by looking at them. The basis vectors (1. 1) are not unique. the extension of this idea to higher dimensions and complex vector spaces is to call such vectors orthogonal or normal or orthonormal (if appropriate). If v1 1 v2 = 0. 0). In terms of our original basis vectors. 0) and (0.ned to 3-space. 0. we can easily 25 .

1. see that (1. 0. 1. 1) = 0 Complex Vector Spaces Suppose we have the vector (i. 0. 3). 0. 0. 1) = 0 (0. 0) 1 (0. 0) 1 (0. HILBERT'S SPACE 26 iy a+ib b O JFG R a R= a 2+ b2 x Figure 5. it just so happens that the real component of the . Note that each entry of the vector is a complex entry. 2 + i. 0) = 0 (1.1: Argand Diagram.CHAPTER 5. 0) 1 (0.

3) = i2 + (2 + i)2 + 32 = 01 + (3 + 4i) + 9 = 11 + 4i : (5.2) Let's try this for (i. that is.3) The length is imaginary. rather than multiply it by itself. 3) 1 (0i. 3) 1 (i. 2 + i. 2 + i.rst entry is 0 and the imaginary component of the third entry is 0. 3) (5. To remedy the situation. Example: Let's try this instead: (i. non-negative length. 2 + i. 2 + i. 3) 1 (. ) = (i.4) = 0i2 + (4 0 i2 ) + 9 =1+5+9 = 15 . this doesn't tell us a thing. to get a real. 3): (i. 3) 1 (i. 2 0 i. 3) i 3 = (i. What is the length of this vector? Remember the inner product should gives us this information: 2 v 1 v = kv k 0 : (5. 2 + i. 2 + i. 2 + i. 2 + i. we will multiply the vector v by its conjugate.

For the vector a + bi. HILBERT'S SPACE 27 Why does this work? It works because each entry is simply the sum of the square of the length of the real part and the square of the imaginary part. return to the idea of anq Argand diagram. the real component is a and the imaginary component is b. To see this. square each of them.CHAPTER 5.1. and then add them the same way you would to . 5. Now. as shown in Fig.

But how does one de.nd the square of the hypotenuse using Pythagoras' theorem. Functions may be normal (or orthonormal) as well. Hilbert's Space The idea of vector spaces is extended to functions.

we de.ne this? In the vector spaces with which we feel most comfortable.

and this we used to test the orthogonality condition.ned the inner product as v1 1 v2 . In a Hilbert space we simply de.

as explained in the previous section. Here f 3 (x) means the complex conjugate of the function f (x). b]. a .5) over some interval [a.ne the inner product of two functions f (x) and g(x) by Zb hf (x)jg(x)i f 3 (x)g(x)dx . We do this simply because Hilbert's Space includes complex functions and because we want a non-negative value of the inner product. (5.

28 .

1970. 1962. Introductory Quantum Mechanics. David Z. P. Diraction of Electrons by a Crystal of Nickel. New York. Vibrations and Waves. Inc. Oxford. New York. Harvard University Press. New York. 1959. Dover Publications. John Wiley & Sons. Richard. Quantum Mechanics and Experience. Germer. H. The Quantum Physicists and an Introduction to their Physics. [8] Bohm. W. Linear Algebra. Ernest.. 1959. [4] French.. The Conscious Universe.I.. SpringerVerlag. Oxford. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Physical Review 30. Max. Cambridge. New York. 1992. [7] Libo. Massachusetts. [6] Jammer. The M. Oxford University Press. Davisson and L. A. Quantum Mechanics. White. Dubuque. 1992. [3] C. 705 (1927). Menas and Robert Nadeau. 1987. Norton & Company. Inc. Iowa. J. [5] Goswami. 1971. [12] Kafatos. The History of QM. Jim. [2] Cropper. C. [10] Semat. Oxford University Press. Reading. 1990. Introductory Physics Series.Bibliography [1] Anton. [9] Baggott. Howard. Brown Publishers. [13] Albert. Atomic Age Physics. Inc. The Meaning of Quantum Theory. Wm. Rhinehart & Company. 1992. 29 .T. Henry and Harvey E. Amit.W. Quantum Theory. Quantum Mechanics for Mathematicians and Physicists. [11] Ikenberry. 5th Edition. New York. David. Oxford University Press. New York. William H. 1980.

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Preface
Quantum Mechanics seems untenable. Many of the concepts that seem contrarian to our common experiences wash quantum mechanics in a dim light. Fortunately, this particular problem can be ov...

Preface

Quantum Mechanics seems untenable. Many of the concepts that seem contrarian to our common experiences wash quantum mechanics in a dim light. Fortunately, this particular problem can be overcome, but the problem is exasperated by those who cannot teach quantum mechanics, or those who can't teach, period.

I am in the process of writing this short introduction so as to explain to myself the various underpinnings of quantum mechanics. I am currently working on a new approach to quantum mechanics, which I call Naive Quantum Mechanics or NQM, in the great tradition of Paul Halmos' book Naive Set Theory. The word naive is not meant to diminish or demean my own work, but to, perhaps, express my own naivete in starting this project, my naivete concerning the subject, and just maybe the naivet e we all have been harboring of the actual underlying principles of quantum mechanics. If it is successful, then maybe we'll all see it in print.

If it isn't successful, it might have been worth the effort anyway. I might learn a lot about myself, and more importantly, I might learn something about other people. Quantum mechanics in its present state, in my estimation, is inadequate. I believe this because it doesn't answer the question Why? in a wholly satisfactory manner (I like asking Why? and What?). When I say quantum mechanics is inadequate, I, of course, mean that quantum mechanics gives all the right answers and such, but the explanation is inadequate to describe the goings-on behind the curtain. What I am talking about exemplifies the difference between a descriptive theory and a prescriptive theory. It just seems that nothing of import has been achieved in this basic of sciences since the 1930's. And we have had a whole lot of time to do something about it. Naive Quantum Mechanics is my attempt to remedy this outstanding problem.

Wish me luck!

Jeffrey F. Gold

Salt Lake City

September 1995

Quantum Mechanics seems untenable. Many of the concepts that seem contrarian to our common experiences wash quantum mechanics in a dim light. Fortunately, this particular problem can be overcome, but the problem is exasperated by those who cannot teach quantum mechanics, or those who can't teach, period.

I am in the process of writing this short introduction so as to explain to myself the various underpinnings of quantum mechanics. I am currently working on a new approach to quantum mechanics, which I call Naive Quantum Mechanics or NQM, in the great tradition of Paul Halmos' book Naive Set Theory. The word naive is not meant to diminish or demean my own work, but to, perhaps, express my own naivete in starting this project, my naivete concerning the subject, and just maybe the naivet e we all have been harboring of the actual underlying principles of quantum mechanics. If it is successful, then maybe we'll all see it in print.

If it isn't successful, it might have been worth the effort anyway. I might learn a lot about myself, and more importantly, I might learn something about other people. Quantum mechanics in its present state, in my estimation, is inadequate. I believe this because it doesn't answer the question Why? in a wholly satisfactory manner (I like asking Why? and What?). When I say quantum mechanics is inadequate, I, of course, mean that quantum mechanics gives all the right answers and such, but the explanation is inadequate to describe the goings-on behind the curtain. What I am talking about exemplifies the difference between a descriptive theory and a prescriptive theory. It just seems that nothing of import has been achieved in this basic of sciences since the 1930's. And we have had a whole lot of time to do something about it. Naive Quantum Mechanics is my attempt to remedy this outstanding problem.

Wish me luck!

Jeffrey F. Gold

Salt Lake City

September 1995

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