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INT Glossary

Analytical intelligence: The ability to break a problem down into its component parts, solve
problems and evaluate the quality of ideas [1:6] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013,
Sage Publication).
Association for Integrative Studies (AIS): A professional organization whose purpose is to
study interdisciplinary methodology, theory, curricula, and administration [2:37]
(Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Assumptions: Things that are accepted as true or certain [5:109] (Interdisciplinary Studies,
Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Blooms taxonomy: is a classification system used to define and distinguish different
levels of human cognitioni.e., thinking, learning, and understanding. Educators have typically
used Blooms taxonomy to inform or guide the development of assessments (tests and other
evaluations of student learning), curriculum (units, lessons, projects, and other learning
activities), and instructional methods such as questioning strategies
(http://edglossary.org/blooms-taxonomy/).
Boundary crossing: A process of moving across knowledge formations for the purpose of
achieving an enlarged understanding [1:22] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage
Publication).
Capacity: The cognitive or intellectual ability to think, perceive, analyze, create, and solve
problems [2:27] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Cognitive: The most-used of the domains, refers to knowledge structures (although sheer
Knowing the facts is its bottom level) It can be viewed as a sequence of progressive

contextualization of the material (Based on bloom; 1956)


(www.learningandteaching.info/learning/bloomtax.htlm).
Cognitive discord: Disagreement among the disciplines practitioners over the defining
elements of the discipline [3:56] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Cognitive fluidity: The increasing boundary crossing between disciplines [3:57]
(Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Cognitive map: A disciplines cognitive map is synonymous with its overall perspective and its
defining elements, including its assumptions, epistemology, basic concepts, theories, and
research methods [8:192] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Close reading: Careful analysis of a text that begins with attending to individual words, sentence
structure, and the order in which sentences and ideas unfold [2:6] (Interdisciplinary Studies,
Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Common ground: That which is created between conflicting disciplinary insights, assumptions
concepts, or theories and makes integration possible [6:131] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko
A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Common ground theory: (cognitive psychology): Postulates that every act of communication
presumes a common cognitive frame of reference between the partners of interaction called the
common ground. The theory postulates further that all contributions to the process of mutual
understanding serve to establish or ascertain and continually maintain this common ground
(Bromme, 2000, p. 119). This theory applies to both oral and written communication. [11:273]
Communication: The exchange of meanings between individuals through a common system of
symbols (www.britannic.com/ecked/topic/129024/communication).

Complexity: having multiple parts that are connected and interact in sometimes unexpected
(e.g., nonlinear), ways with each other [6:126] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage
Publication).
Complexity: As applies to interdisciplinary research, complexity means that the problem has
several components and that each component has a different disciplinary character [6:152]
(Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Concepts: Abstract ideas generalized from particular instances or symbols expressed in
language that represent phenomena [5:112] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage
Publication).
Context: The circumstances or setting in which the problem, event, statement, or ideas exists
[4:78] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Contextual thinking: The ability to view a subject from a broad perspective by placing it in the
fabric of time, culture, or personal experience [1:9] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013,
Sage Publication).
Contextualization: The practice of placing a text, or author, or work of art into context, to
understand it in part through an examination of its historical, geographical, intellectual or artistic
location (Newell (2001, p. 4), [6:127] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage
Publication).
Creative breakthroughs: Often occur when different disciplinary perspectives and unrelated
ideas are brought together [4:79] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Creative intelligence: The ability to formulate ideas and make connections [1:18]
(Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).

Creativity: A process that involves rethinking underlying premises, assumptions, or values, not
just tracing out the implication values. Creativity involves iterative (i.e., repetitive) and heuristic
[2:46] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Critical Interdisciplinarity: Questions disciplinary assumptions and ideological under pinnings.
In some cases, it aims to replace the existing structure of knowledge (i.e., the disciplines) and the
system of education based upon it [2:37] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage
Publication).
Critical pluralism: Belief that knowledge can be objective, but not certain and absolute as
dualism assumes [7:142] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Critical reflection: The process of analyzing, questioning, and reconsidering the activity
(cognitive or physical) that you are engaged in [2:42] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F.,
2013, Sage Publication).
Critical thinking: The capacity to analyze, critique, and assess [3:51] (Interdisciplinary Studies,
Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Critical thinking: Review the ideas we have produced, making a tentative decision about what
action will best solve the problem or what belief about the issue is most reasonable and then
evaluating and refining that solution or belief (p.183) Retrieved from The role of criticism The
Art of Thinking A guide of critical and creative thought Its the awakening of the intellect t the
study of itself Ruggiero, V.E., Pearson Education, Inc. 10th Ed. (2012).
Critical thinking: Is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully
conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from,
or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to
belief and action. In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend
subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence,
good reasons, depth, breadth, and fairness (www.criticalthinking.org/pages/defining-criticalthinking/766).
Cross disciplinary: Linking two or more fields of study, a viewing of one discipline from the
perspective of another (www.collinsdictionary.com/english/crossdisciplinary).

Cross-disciplinarily: Engagement focuses on problems with which no single discipline has the
cognitive tools to grapple. Cross-disciplinarily is the lack of integration between the existing
disciple and the borrowed epistemological constructs, that is, no effort is made to create a new
paradigm that can be applied to similar [10:212] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2008,
Sage Publication).
Curriculum: A generally recognized core of knowledge that is subdivided into specific courses
[1:7] (Interdisciplinary Research Process and Theory Repko A.F. (2008) Sage Publication).
Decomposing the problem: Breaking a problem down into its component parts [1:227]
(Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Deductive approach: Calls for the researcher to develop a logical explanation or theory about a
phenomenon, formulate a hypothesis that is testable, and then make observations and compile
evidence to confirm or deny the hypothesis [5:116] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013,
Sage Publication).
Defining elements of discipline: These include the phenomena it studies, its epistemology [i.e.
how one knows what is true]: and how one validates truth, the assumptions it makes about the
natural and human world, its basic concepts, its theories about the causes and behaviors of
certain phenomena, its methods 9th ways it gathers applies, and produces new knowledge), and
the kind of data it collects [5:102] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage
Publication).
Dialectic: Any formal system of reasoning that arrives at the truth by the exchange of logical
argument; a contradiction of idea that serves as the determining factor in their interaction
(www.freedictionary.org/Query=dialetic).
Dialectical thinking: Any systematic reasoning or argument the places opposing ideas side by
side for the purpose of seeking to resolve their conflict. It is a method of determining the truth of
any assertion by testing it against arguments that might negate it [2:46] ((Interdisciplinary
Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Dichotomy: A division into two especially mutually
exclusive or contradictory groups or entities <the dichotomy between theory and

practice>; also: the process or practice of making such a division <dichotomy of the
population into two opposed classes>(http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/dichotomy).
Disciplinarity: The system of knowledge specialties called disciplines [2:30] (Interdisciplinary
Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Disciplinary bias: Favoring one disciplines understanding of the problem at the expense of
competing understanding of the same problem offered by other disciples [3:53] (Interdisciplinary
Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Disciplinary categories: Divisions or colleges or schools or faculties including the natural
sciences: the social sciences: the humanities; the fine and performing arts; the applied fields such
as communications and business; and the professions such as architecture, engineering, law,
nursing, education, and social work [5:93] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage
Publication).
Disciplinary inadequacy: The view that the disciplines by themselves are simply not equipped
to address complex problems comprehensively. (i. e. in a way that takes into account the
perspectives and insights of other relevant disciplines) [6:123] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko
A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Disciplinary jargon: Using technical terms and concepts that are not generally understood
outside the discipline [10:204] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Disciplinary perspective: A disciplines unique view of reality that is like a lens through which
it views the world. A disciplines perspective embraces, ad in turn reflects, the ensemble of as
defining elements that include the phenomena it prefers to study, its epistemology, assumptions,
concepts, and favored theories and methods [5:97] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013,
Sage Publication).
Disciplinary reductionism: Reduces complex things to simpler or more fundamental things
[2:31] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Disciplinary research: Involve choosing from up wars of a dozen or so specialized methods to
study a particular phenomenon [10:199] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage
Publication).
Discipline: A Branch of learning or body of knowledge such as physics, psychology on history
[2:30] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).

Discourse: The dominant language (spoken and/or written) used by a community to discuss or
transact business of any kind. The knowledge of a discourse its vocabulary, concepts, and
rules- constitutes power [4.99] (www.webster-dictionary.org/discourse).
Dogmatic: Related to dogma doctrines relating to morals and faith but what it has comets mean
is attitudes that are not only base on unproved theories but are also arrogant in nature; it is the
strong expression of opinion as if they were facts. (www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/dogmatic).
Dualism: Belief that knowledge is objective, certain, and absolute [7:142] (Interdisciplinary
Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Empiricism: Holds that all knowledge is derived from our perceptions (transmitted by the five
senses to touch, smell, taste, hearing, and sight, experience, and observation [5:106]
(Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Epistemic position: Understanding the nature of knowledge and how you determine truth
[7:142] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Epistemological pluralism: Rejects notions of absolute truth and embraces the ambiguity that
arises out of conflict and difference [6:34] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage
Publication).
Epistemology: The study of the nature and basis of knowledge [5:103] (Interdisciplinary
Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Externalizing the problem: Drawing a picture of the problem [11:27} (Interdisciplinary
Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Generalist interdisciplinarians: Understand Interdisciplinarity loosely to mean any form of
dialog or interaction between two or more disciplines, minimizing obscuring, or rejecting
altogether the role of integration [6:131] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage
Publication).
Generative technologies: Those technologies whose novelty and power not only find
applications of great value but also have the capacity to transform sectors of the economy,
develop new sources of wealth, and create new jobs and professions [11:15] (Interdisciplinary
Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).

Hegemony: Leadership or predominant influence exercised by one nation over others, as in a


confederation; influence or control over another country, a group of people, etc., the social,
cultural, ideological, or economic influence exerted by a dominant group (www.merriamwebster./dictionary/hegemony).
Heuristic: An aid to understanding or discovery or learning. The heuristic method places the
student in the role of the discoverer of knowledge with the instructor intervening only to suggest
a certain methodology for approaching the problem [6:138] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko
A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Historical background (of the problem): Along with explaining how and why the problem
developed, the historical background may also include explaining how the disciplines have
approaches the problem overtime and how they developed concepts, theories, and methods to
understand, but how these have failed, to provide either a comprehensive understanding of the
problem or a solution to it, thus necessitating an interdisciplinary approach [7:176]
(Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Holistic thinking: A skill characteristic of interdisciplinarians that involves thinking about the
problem as part of a complex system. Aspects of holistic thinking include inclusiveness that
accepts similarities as well as differences
(www.britannic.com/ecked/topic/129024/communication).
Hypothetico-deductive processes: Involve proposing hypotheses and testing their acceptability
or falsity by determining whether their logical consequences are consistent with observed data
[5:127] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Inclusive: In the context of interdisciplinary research, the term refers not to the quantity of
disciplinary insights but to the quality and diversity of these insights [7:179] (Interdisciplinary
Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).

Idea dominance: An idea that governs all the actions and thoughts of the individual; a concept
of reason that is transcendent but nonempirical absolute truth, the complete and ultimate product
of reason; a form by which the phenomena of objective reality are comprehended in thought, a
form that includes within itself a consciousness of purpose and projections of further knowledge
of the world and its transformation in
practice (http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/dominant+idea).
Ideographic theory: Posits a relationship only under specified conditions and ideographic
researchers wish to explain the relevance of a theoretical proposition in a constrained set of
circumstances [8:198] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Inductive approach: Begins with making systematic observations, detecting patterns,
formulating tentative hypotheses as out of these patterns, and then formulating a theory that
explains the phenomenon in question [5:114] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage
Publication).
Informed borrowing: Selecting one path to understanding while bracketing others [4:75]
(Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Insights: Scholarly contributions to the clear understanding of a complex problem, object, or
text. Insights maybe found in published books or articles, or in papers delivered at scholarly
conferences [2:24] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Instrumental interdisciplinarity: A pragmatic conception of interdisciplinarity that focuses on
research borrowing (from disciplines), and practical problem solving in response to the demands
of society [2:38] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Integration: the organization of the psychological or social traits and tendencies of a personality
into a harmonious whole [2:31] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage
Publication).

Integration (interdisciplinary): The cognitive process of critically evaluating disciplinary


insights and creating common ground among them to construct a more comprehensive
understanding. The new understanding is the product or result of the integrative process [6:133]
(Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Integrative field: An effort to explore important dimensions of human experience and
understanding in the spaces between disciplinary boundaries or the places where they cross,
overlap, divide or dissolve [2:30] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage
Publication).
Integration of knowledge: Identifying and blending knowledge from relevant disciplines to
produce an interdisciplinary understanding of a particular problem or intellectual question that is
limited in time and to a particular context that would not be possible by relying solely on a single
disciplinary approach [7:176] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Integrationist interdisciplinaries: Regard integration as the key distinguishing characteristic of
interdisciplinarity and the goal of fully interdisciplinary work [6:131] (Interdisciplinary Studies,
Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Integration mind-set: Cultivating these five qualities of mind: (1) seeking what is useful even if
it is problematic; (2) thinking inclusively and integratively, not exclusively; (3) being responsive
to each perspective but beholden to none (not allowing the student; strength in a particular
discipline to influence the students treatment of other relevant disciplines with which the student
is less familiar); (4) striving for balance among disciplinary perspectives; and (5) maintaining
intellectual flexibility. These five integrative qualities correspond to several of the trails and
skills of interdisciplinaries identified in Chapter 2 [5:130] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko
A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).

Integrative skills: Include (1) familiarity with models of integration, (2) familiarity with
techniques of integration, (3) self-conscious process, and (4) critical evaluation of disciplinary
insights [5:126] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Integrative thinking: A defining characteristic of interdisciplinary learning that is the ability to
knit together information from different sources to produce a more comprehensive understanding
[6:123] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Intellectual autobiography: The story of your academic or intellectual journey told from your
point of view [3:58] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Intellectual center of gravity: That which enables each discipline to maintain its identity and
have a distinctive (but not undisputed) disciplinary perspective [3:57] (Interdisciplinary
Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Intellectual communication: Is possible when the partners of cooperation i.e., the relevant
disciplines or theories find out that they use the same concepts with different meanings, or
that they used different coding (terms, symbol) for similar concepts [11:273] (Interdisciplinary
Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Intellectual dexterity: The ability to speak to (if not from) a broad spectrum of knowledge and
experience [3:52] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Intellectual insight: Produced when the interdisciplinary research process (or some version of
it) is used to create an integrated and purposeful understanding of the problem [1:12]
(Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Intellectual learning: Developing an understanding of the limitations and biases of a discipline,
the benefits and perspective of a discipline, and how a discipline works simply by forcing us to
see one discipline in light of another. Interdisciplinary learning also develops the ability to
integrate disciplinary insights relevant to a problem or question and produce a new and more

comprehensive understanding of it than would be possible using single disciplinary means [2:43]
(Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Intellectual studies: A process of answering a question, solving a problem, or addressing a topic
that is too broad in complex to be deal with adequately by a single discipline and draws or
disciplinary perspectives and integrates their insights to produce a more comprehensive
understanding or cognitive advancement [1:3] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008,
Sage Publication).
Intellectual understanding: The capacity to integrate knowledge and modes of thinking in two
or more disciplines to produce a cognitive advancement that would not be possible using single
disciplinary means [11:273] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Intellectual question: It should be open-ended and too complex to be addressed by one
discipline alone, it should be researchable, and it should be verified using appropriate research
methods [6:145] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Interdisciplinary research: To study a topic or question that is inherently complex and whose
parts are the focus of two or more disciplines, to integrate their insights, and to construct a more
comprehensive understanding of the topic or question [10:199] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko
A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Interdisciplinary Studies: To [10:199] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage
Publication).
Interrogate in an interdisciplinary sense: Ask critical and probing questions of each relevant
discipline [7:145] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Iterative: Repeating, making repetition, repetitious (www.thefreedictionary.com/iterative).

Knowledge domain: Consist of a body of facts, concepts or ideas and generate theories and uses
methods to produce new knowledge [1:4] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage
Publication).
Knowledge formations: Alternatives to disciplines that are both bodies of knowledge and
processes of coming to know that contain within themselves dynamic pattern from which they
have been generated and by which they will be transformed [1:10] (Interdisciplinary Research,
Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Knowledge society: One in which the development and creative application of knowledge is the
primary engine of economic growth, prosperity, and empowerment of all developing sectors of
society [1:18] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Links: The directional arrows that connect the nodes and indicate the relationships of nodes to
each other [11:228] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Mapping: A metaphor based on the idea that the coving up of knowledge space is like the
practical of cartography or map making. Mapping involves using a combinational or integrative
method to map or display information that is gathered from a variety of sources [1:23]
(Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Mastery (disciplinary): Involves majoring in a discipline for the purpose of practicing it
professionally [8:189] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Metacognition: The awareness of your own learning and thinking processes, often described as
thinking about your thinking [3:57] (Interdisciplinary Studies Repko A.F. (2013) Sage
Publication).
Metaphor: A figure of speech in which a word or phrase, a story, or a picture is likened to the
idea that you are trying to communicate [2:32] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage
Publication).

Method: Concerns how one conducts research, analyzes data or evidence, tested theories, and
creates new knowledge [4:104] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Methods: Particular procedures or processes or techniques used by a disciplines practitioners to
conduct, organize, and present research [5:133] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013,
Sage Publication).
University: An institution of higher learning that provides teaching and research and is
authorized to grant academic degrees [2;32] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage
Publication).
Mode of thinking: The way of thinking and perceiving reality that characterizes a disciplines
in other words, its perspective [1:19] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage
Publication).
Models of integration: Approaches to interdisciplinary work occurring inside and outside the
Academy described in terms of their vision, theory, practice, and primary strength or weakness
[5;126] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Modernist approach: Beliefs in objective, empirically based, rationally analyzed truth that is
knowable [4:98] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
More comprehensive understanding: A cognitive advancement that results from integrating
insights that produces a new whole that would not be possible using a single disciplinary
means[9:19] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Multidisciplinary: The placing side by side of insights from two or more disciplines without
attempting integration [1:13] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Multidisciplinary Studies: Merely bringing insights from different disciplines together in some
way but failing to engage in the hard work of integration. The main difference between

multidisciplinary studies and interdisciplinary studies lies in the mechanism of the research
process and the end product [1:13] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage
Publication).
Multiplicity: The ability to work effectively with several plausible yet contradictory
explanations of the same phenomenon as opposed to one simple, clear-cut, unambiguous
explanation [7:142] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Narrow interdisciplinarity: Focuses on factual situations and structures in need of
modification, not on the rightness or wrongness of the activity which is the realm of the
humanities [5:117] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Nodes: The important concepts or the phenomena under study [11:228] (Interdisciplinary
Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Nomothetic theory: Posits a general relationship among two or more phenomena, and
nomothetic researchers are concerned with showing a broad applicability [8:198]
(Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Peep review: A process in which researchers scrutinize and critique each others work in search
of possible shortcomings or alternative explanations [5:113] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko
A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Perceptual apparatus: a disciplines defining elements [7:148] (Interdisciplinary Studies,
Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Personal bias: Allowing your own point of view (e.g., your politics, faith tradition, cultural
identity to influence how you understand or approach the problem [3:53] ((Interdisciplinary
Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).

Perspective in an interdisciplinary sense: Refers to a disciplines unique view of that part of


reality that it is typically most interested in [4:79] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013,
Sage Publication).
Perspective taking (interdisciplinary: The intellectual capacity to view a complex problem,
phenomenon, or behavior from multiple perspectives, including disciplinary ones, in order to
develop a more comprehensive understanding of it [3:50] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F.,
2013, Sage Publication).
Polemical: A controversial argument, as one against some opinion, doctrine, etc.
(www.dictionary.reference.com/browse/polemic).
Post modernism: offers a revolutionary way of understanding society by its questioning the
validity of modern science and the notion of objective knowledge. Post modernism discards
history, rejects humanism, and resists any truth claim. The postmodern challenge radiates across
the disciplines [4:99] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Potentially relevant: A discipline is considered potentially relevant when the problem falls
within its research domain but it is not known whether the disciplines experts have written about
the problem [11:221] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Practice intelligence: The ability to apply an idea in an effective way whether in business or in
everyday life [1:16] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Problem-centering approach: Also known as the instrumental approach to integration that uses
issues of public debate, product development, or an intervention such as one designed to improve
health and well-being as focal points for making connections between disciplines and integrating
their insights [9:186] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Problem focused research: Distinct from what is called basic research (e.g. laboratory
experiments or surveys) or pure theoretical research because it focuses on societal needs and

practical problem solving [10:212] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage
Publication).
Recursive: Pertaining to or using a rule or procedure that can be applied, repeatedly, or, relating
to or constituting a procedure that can repeat itself indefinitely (www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/recursive).
Reductionism: The Strategy of dividing a phenomenon into its constituent parts and studying
them separately in the expectation that knowledge produced by narrow specialties can be readily
combined into the understanding of the phenomenon as a whole (Newell (2004) p.22) [6:124].
Relativism: Belief that there is no such thing as objective knowledge and those beliefs, theories,
and values are inherently relative, contingent, and contextual [7:142] (Interdisciplinary Studies,
Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Relevant: A discipline is relevant to the problem if the disciplines experts have produced one or
more insights into the problem [11:222] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage
Publication).
Research: The process of gathering information to understand how some aspect of the natural or
human world functions [10:197] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Researchable in an interdisciplinary sense: When expert from two or more disciplines have
written about the problem [1:15] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Revolutionary insights: Those ideas that have the capacity to transform how we learn, think,
and produce now knowledge [1:15] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage
Publication).
Rubic: An explicit set of criteria for evaluating a particular type of work or activity [10:206]
(Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).

Scope: Refers to the parameters of what is included or excluded from the study [10:203]
(Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Service learning: A teaching and learning strategy that integrates meaningful community
service with instruction and reflection to enrich the learning experience, teach civic
responsibility, and strengthen communities (www.servicelearning.org [3:60]
Silo perspective: The tendency to see the university and the larger world through the narrow
lens of a given disciplinary major [1:9] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage
Publication).
Simplistic epistemic positions: These positions, such as dualism and relativism, rest on the
assumption that are already knows what is true about a given subject [7:142] (Interdisciplinary
Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Skewed: Refers to the degree to which an insight reflects the biases inherent in the disciplines
perspective and thus the way an author understands the problem resulting from the author[s
deliberate decision or unconscious predisposition to omit certain information that pertains to the
problem [12:248] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Social content of disciplines: the community of scholars who engage in the work of the
discipline [5:88] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Sophisticated epistemic position: that of critical pluralism which sees multiple and conflicting
perspectives as partial understandings of the subject under study [7:143] (Interdisciplinary
Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Social Science Research Council (SSRC): is an independent, international, profit organization
founded in 1925. It fosters innovative research, future new generations of social-scientists,
deepens how inquiry is practiced within and across disciplines, and mobilizes necessary
knowledge on important public issues (www.ssrc.org).

Stakeholder: A person or entity outside the academy who is interested in and may have a
material stake in the outcome of a particular societal issue [1:15] (Interdisciplinary Studies,
Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Strong sense critical thinking: Directing your attention inward, causing you to examine the
assumptions and promises you have used to construct the logical argument present in your work
[3:58] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Subdisciplines: Branches of or specialties within disciplines [5:89] (Interdisciplinary Studies,
Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Symbolic interactionism: A major theoretical perspective of sociology that focuses on the use
of signs and symbols in interaction among people [3:69] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F.,
2013, Sage Publication).
System: Any group of interacting components or agents around which there is a clearly defined
boundary between it and the rest of the world, but also clearly definable inputs from the world
and outputs to the world that cross the boundary [6:152] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F.,
2008, Sage Publication).
System thinking: The ability to break a problem down into its constituent parts to reveal internal
and external factors, figure out how each of these parts relates to the other and to the problem as
a whole, and identify which parts different disciplines address [1:8] (Interdisciplinary Research,
Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Taxonomy: Grouping things according to their common characteristics [5:93] (Interdisciplinary
Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Theory: A generalized scholarly explanation about some aspect of the natural or human world,
how it works, and how specific facts are relates, that is supported by data and research [5:112]
(Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).

Theory-based insights: Those insights that are informed by or advance a particular theoretical
perspective [10:225] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Theory of conceptual integration: Explains the innate human ability to create new meaning by
blending concepts [6:132] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Theory expansion: An integrative technique that may involve merely adding a factor or factors
(e.g., a variable or variables) from any of the sources of alternative perspectives, including
different fields within the same discipline, different disciplines, schools of thought that cut across
disciplines, interdisciplines, or even folk knowledge [11:281] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko
A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Theory of conceptual integration: Explains the innate human ability to create new meaning by
blending concepts [6:132] (Interdisciplinary Studies, Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Theory-based insights: Those insights that are informed by or advance a particular theoretical
perspective [10:225] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Traditional interdisciplinarity: Focus on the classical and secular ideals of liberal culture and
education while holding to the notion of general education as the place where all the parts would
add up to a cohesive whole [2:35] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage
Publication).
Transdisciplinary: The cooperation of academics, stakeholders, and practitioners to solve a
common complex societal or environmental problem of common interest with the goal of
resolving it by designing and implementing public policy [2:36] (Interdisciplinary Studies,
Repko A.F., 2013, Sage Publication).
Traditional study: The focus on a mega and complex problem or theme such as the city or
sustainability that requires collaboration among a hybrid mix of actors from different

disciplines, professions, and sectors of society [1:15] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F.,
2008, Sage Publication).
Triangulation of research methodologies: A predominantly social science approach to research
that involves using multiple data-gathering techniques (usually three) to investigate the same
phenomenon. In this way, findings can be crosschecked, validate, and confirmed [8:209]
(Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
Unifying knowledge: Blending differences out of existence in subservience to an overarching
idea [1:20] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).
University: An institution of higher learning that provides teaching and research and is
authorized to grant academic degrees [2;32] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage
Publication).
Wide interdisciplinary: an integrative approach that enables interdisciplinary practitioners from
the sciences and the humanities to work together to identify, solve, or resolve normative
problems, both practical and theoretical, having to do with the satisfaction of human needs
[5:118] (Interdisciplinary Research, Repko A.F., 2008, Sage Publication).