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62201Respiration.

notebook

March07,2015

Unit3
Maintaining Dynamic Equilibrium

Review
STSEoverview
Respiratorysystem
RespiratoryDisorders
Challenge
Conclusions

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HodgkinsDiseaseSTSE
Lymphaticsystem
Humanshavetwocirculatorysystems,one
involvingblood,theotherlymph.
Itiscomposedoftubes,nodes(sacks),andthe
liquid(lymph).
Lymphiscirculatedbybodymuscle
movements.
Lymphisayellowishtransparentliquidthat
containswhitebloodcells.

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62201Respiration.notebook

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HodgkinsDiseaseSTSE
Lymphaticsystemisconnectedtotheblood
circulatorysystematseveralpoints
Whitebloodcellsleavethelymphaticsystem
andentersurroundingtissuetofightpathogens

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HodgkinsDiseaseSTSE
HodgkinsDisease
cancerthatstartsinlymphatictissue
canspreadtootherorgans
810newcasesin2001
63%survivalrateafter15years(but
alwaysimproving)
Treatmentsincluderadiationand
chemotherapy,

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62201Respiration.notebook

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AllergicReactionp.386
Anantigenissometimescalledanallergen
Thepresenceofanallergenresultsinthe
releaseofhistaminewhichcancausethe
symptomsassociatedwithanallergy(swelling,
runnynose,sneezing,coughing).
Sometimesanallergicreactioncanbesosever
thatitcausesanaphylaxisandcanbefatal(eg.
Peanuts,beestings).

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AutoimmuneDisordersp.386
Whenyourimmunesystem(antibodies)
attacksyourbody.
Example:Rheumatoidarthritis
Inflammationofthejointsasaresultofan
autoimmunedisorder.
Antibodiesattackthecartilageandbone.
Causespain,stiffness,swelling
Treatmentincludesasprin,andanti
inflammatorydrugs

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62201Respiration.notebook

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RespiratorySystemp.334351
Whydohumansneedarespiratorysystem?

Forgasexchange.
Eachcellneedsoxygenandneedscarbondioxide
removed.
Humansaretoolargeandthickforrespirationto
bedonebydiffusionalone.
RespiratorySystemHasto:
1.Havealargesurfacearea.Thelargeritisthe
moregasescanbeexchangedatafasterrate.
2.Bewet.Oxygenandcarbondioxidegasmust
beexchangedoverawetsurface.
Apr155:16PM

RespiratorySystem
PartsoftheRespiratorySystem:
1.Nasalcavity
Nose&mouth.
Lininghasalotofcapillaries,warmingairand
increasingmoisture.Hairandmucustrappathogens
andirritants.
2.Pharynx
Thetubesharedbytherespiratoryanddigestive
system.

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62201Respiration.notebook

March07,2015
RespiratorySystem
3.Glottis
Theopeningofthetrachea.
Itisprotectedbytheepiglottis,aflapthat
preventsfoodfromenteringthetrachea.

4.Larynx
Thevoiceboxwhichcontainsthevocalcords.It
isyourAdam'sapple.

5.Trachea
Thewindpipewhichconnectsthepharynxto
thebronchi.
Itislinedwithciliathatproducemucuswhich
trapdustandpathogens.

Apr155:19PM

RespiratorySystem
6.Bronchi
Carryairtothelungs.
Thetracheabranchesintotwobronchi(onein
eachlung).
Theyhaveciliaandmucus.
7.Bronchioles
Branchesofthebronchi.Haveciliaand
mucus.
8.Alveoli
Bronchiolesendinclustersoftheseairsacs.
Wallsare1celllayerthickandarethesiteof
gasexchange.

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RespiratoryDisordersp.343346
1.LungcancerCausesabout1.2milliondeaths
worldwideannually.

Itiscausedbyexposuretoairpollutionand
cigarettesmoke.
Symptomsinclude:coughing,chestpain,and
weightloss.
Treatmentcanincludesurgery,radiationor
chemotherapy.
Thereareabout600,000casesinCanada.
Apr164:06PM

RespiratoryDisorders
2.AsthmaThemainreasonchildrenaresentto
ahospitalinCanada.
Airwaysnarrowandresultindifficulty
breathing.
Thisisoftencausedbysometriggerinthe
environment.
Treatmentinvolvesmedicationandachange
inlifestyle.
Thereareabout3millioncasesinCanada.

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62201Respiration.notebook

March07,2015

RespiratoryDisorders
3.PneumoniaInflammationand/orfluidbuild
uponthelungsoftencausebyaninfection.
Bothsymptomsleadtoshortnessofbreath
andcouldresultindeath.
Casesarefairlycommonthroughoutthe
world.

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Conclusions?

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62201Respiration.notebook

March07,2015

Howarethetwobasicgasexchange
requirementsmetbythemammalian
lung?

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