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EXISTING LAWS FOR URBAN

AND INDUSTRIAL
EFFLUENTS DISCHARGES

PRESENTED TO:
MR. RAUF
PRESENTED BY:
2011 -CH-229, 233, 258

PAKISTAN NATIONAL CONSERVATION STRATEGY

PAKISTAN DEVELOPED A NATIONAL CONSERVATION STRATEGY


(NCS) IN 1992 IN COLLABORATION WITH WORLD CONVERSION
UNION
NCS PROVIDED DETAILED ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL
PROBLEMS AND BOARD STRATEGY FOR TACKLING THEM.

OBJECTIVES OF NATIONAL CONSERVATION


STRATEGY

THERE ARE BASIC OBJECTIVES

CONSERVATION OF NATIONAL RESOURCES.


SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND
IMPROVED EFFICIENCY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCES .
NCA RECOMMENDED 14 CORE PROGRAMS AREAS FOR IMPLEMENTATION
NCA SETS OUT THE BASIC GUIDELINES FOR PROTECTING THE
ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES OF COUNTRY.

POLICIES UNDER (NCS) TO CONTROL THE POLLUTION


FROM INDUSTRIAL SECTOR

DEVELOP AND ENFORCE EFFECTIVE POLLUTION CONTROL.


PROMOTE CLEAN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES AND RECYCLING.
ESTABLISH INCENTIVES FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY BENEFICIAL
INDUSTRIES.
DEVELOP A POLICY TO SITE INDUSTRIES IN AREAS OF LOWER
ENVIRONMENTAL
SENSITIVITY.
BUILD AWARENESS WITHIN INDUSTRY

PAKISTAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT, (1997)


DISPOSAL OF INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN EFFLUENTS INTO WATER BODIES IS
COVERED IN PAKISTAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT (1997).
THIS ACT PROVIDES THE BASIC ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND SETUP A
MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE FOR POLLUTION CONTROL.
PAKISTAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION COUNCIL (PEPC) HAS BEEN
ESTABLISHED IN THE COUNTRY TO FORMULATE POLICY AND ENSURE ITS
IMPLEMENTATION.
PUNJAB HAS ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DEPARTMENT
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY STANDARDS (NEQS) 1996 COVERS
MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER DISCHARGES.
THE EPA & NEQS COVERS 32 PARAMETERS FOR MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL
WASTEWATER DISCHARGES.

CONT..
THE ACT INCLUDE A PROVISION TO RECOGNIZE THE RIGHT
OF AN INJURED PERSON TO BRING ACTION BEFORE THE
NEWLY CREATED ENVIRONMENTAL DISTURBANCE
THIS ACT ALSO DESCRIBES PENALTIES FOR VIOLATORS OF
NEQS
THIS ACT ALSO PROHIBITS THE IMPORT OF HAZARDOUS
WASTES IN PAKISTAN
GENERATION ,COLLECTION ,TREATMENT, DISPOSAL AND
HANDLING OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE REQUIRES A
LICENSE UNDER THIS ACT

SELF MONITORING AND REPORTING TOOL (SMART)


SELF MONITORING AND REPORTING SYSTEM OF PAK EPA TAKES INTO
ACCOUNT
THE RESOURCES AND INTEREST OF BOTH EPAS AND INDUSTRIES.
IT CLASSIFIES INDUSTRIES INTO THREE CATEGORIES A, B AND C AND
EACH
CORRESPONDING TO SPECIFIED REPORTING FREQUENCY.
1. CATEGORY A INDUSTRY REPORT THEIR EMISSIONS LEVELS AFTER EVERY
MONTH.
2. CATEGORY B INDUSTRY QUARTERLY.
3. CATEGORY C INDUSTRY BIANNUALLY

OBJECTIVE OF SELF MONITORING AND


REPORTING TOOL
THE OBJECTIVE OF THE SELF MONITORING AND
REPORTING SYSTEMS ARE TO MAKE THE COUNTRYS
INDUSTRY OWNERS AND OPERATORS RESPONSIBLE
FOR SYSTEMATIC MONITORING AND REPORTING OF
THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE.

NATIONAL ENVIRONNEMENTAL ACTION PLAN,


(NEAP)
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION PLAN WHICH CONTAINS CLEAR
WATER AS
ONE OF THE FOUR CORE PROGRAMME AREAS.
AREAS OF FOCUS UNDER CLEAR WATER INCLUDE POLLUTION FROM
DOMESTIC
AND INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS AS WELL AS THAT FROM PESTICIDES AND
FERTILIZERS.

NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY, (2005)

NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY, (2005) PROVIDES A FRAMEWORK FOR


ADDRESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES INCLUDING POLLUTION OF WATER
BODIES CHALLENGING IN PAKISTAN.
IT RECOGNIZES THE GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF NCS, NEAP AND EXISTING
ENVIRONMENTAL RELATED NATIONAL POLICIES, STRATEGIES AND ACTION
PLANS.
IT PROVIDE THE BOARD GUIDE LINES TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,
PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENTS AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS TO ADDRESS THEIR
ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS AND ENSURE EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF THEIR
ENVIRONMENT RESOURCES.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT ORDINANCE, (2001)

LOCAL GOVERNMENT ORDINANCE, 2001 DEALS WITH THE SUBJECT OF


ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION COVERING THE POLLUTION OF WATER.

OTHER LEGISLATIONS

PAKISTAN PENAL CODE,1860 DESCRIBES PENALTIES FOR VOLUNTARIES


FACTORIES ACT, 1934 OF THE INDUSTRIES DEALS WITH DISPOSAL OF
WASTE AND EFFLUENTS FROM MANUFACTURING PROCESSES AND FINES
FOR POLLUTANTS.
CANAL & DRAINAGE ACT, PROHIBITS FOULING OF CANAL WATER WHICH
MAY BE USED FOR DOMESTIC PURPOSE IN LOCALITIES NEAR BY AN
IMPOSING FINE OF RS 500 OR 1 MONTH IMPRISONMENT OR BOTH
AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES ORDINANCE, 1971, COVERS THE IMPORT,
MANUFACTURE, SALE, DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF PESTICIDES.

EFFECTIVENESS OF ENFORCEMENT
MECHANISM:
INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY: ALTHOUGH A COMPLETE REGULATORY MACHINERY EMERGE
IN THE FORM OF EPAS BUT STILL THEY ARE UNABLE TO IMPLEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL
POLICIES EFFECTIVELY. THEY LACK CAPACITY IN AREAS OF TECHNICAL KNOW HOW PROPER
PLANNING, INFRASTRUCTURE.
SYSTEM HURDLES: OLD AND TEDIOUS DEPARTMENTAL PROCEDURAL DELAYS.
LACK OF AWARENESS: THERE IS NOT MUCH AWARENESS AMONG GOVERNMENT
MINISTRIES AND LINE DEPARTMENTS FORM MAIN STREAMING OF CONSERVATION IN
ANNUAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN.
LACK OF POLITICAL WILL: POLITICIAN HAVE THEIR OWN PRIORITIES AND ENVIRONMENT
HAS NOT BEEN THEIR TOP PRIORITY AGENDA .
INACTIVE LOCAL GOVERNMENT INSTITUTION: LOCAL GOVERNMENTS HAVE REMAINED
IN ACTIVE TO IMPLEMENT EFFECTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STRATEGY.
INDIFFERENT ALTITUDES OD INDUSTRIALISTS: INDUSTRIALISTS ARE OVER
CONSCIOUS
BEFORE ACCEPTING ANY CHANGE FOR BETTERMENT WHICH IS A MAJOR CONSTRAINTS
FOR IMPLEMENTING POLLUTION CONTROL MEASURE IN INDUSTRIAL SECTOR.

CH # 1 LEGISLATIVE AND REGULATORY


CONSIDERATIONS IN EIA

INTRODUCTION
DURING EIA PROCESS, MAIN THING IS TO EVALUATE PREDICTED IMPACTS
OF PROPOSED ACTIVITY
JUDGMENTS ARE BASED ON COMPARISON WITH POLLUTANTS AND
AMBIENT
QUALITY STANDARDS
IN CASE WHERE NO RELEVANT CRITERIA ARE AVAILABLE THEN EXPERTS
OPINION IS CONSIDERED
EIA SHOULD DESCRIBE PERTINENT REGULATIONS USED TO GOVERN
HEALTH AND SAFETY, ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ETC.

PAKISTAN ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION ACT, (1997)

THIS ACT DEALS WITH ESTABLISHMENT OF PAKISTAN ENVIRONMENTAL


PROTECTION COUNCIL IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY
AND ENFORCING ITS IMPLEMENTATION.
IT ALSO PROVIDE FOR PROTECTION OF SPECIES, HABITAT AND
BIODIVERSITY.

WATER QUALITY

PROVINCIAL/NATIONAL CRITERIA:
PUBLIC HEALTH ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT HAS PUBLISHED AN MANUAL
NAMED REVISED DESIGN CRITERIA FOR WATER SUPPLY,1986
SPECIFIES WATER QUALITY STANDARD FOR DOMESTIC USE.

EFFLUENT QUALITY STANDARDS:

PROVINCIAL/NATIONAL CRITERIA:
IN ORDER TO CONTROL DISCHARGES OF MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL
WASTE WATERS PAKISTAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY HAS
BEEN ESTABLISHED
INTERNATIONAL CRITERIA
WORLD BANK GUIDELINES 1988 DESCRIBES THAT EFFLUENT
TEMPERATURE SHOULD BE NOT
MORE THAN 3 DEGREE C HIGHER
THAN AMBIENT TEMPERATURE OF RECEIVING WATER.

GASEOUS EMISSION STANDARDS:

PROVINCIAL/NATIONAL CRITERIA:
PEPA HAS FORMED NEQS FOR GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM
INDUSTRIES
INTERNATIONAL CRITERIA:
WORLD BANK 1988 HAS PROPOSED GUIDELINES FOR LIMITING CONC.
OF SO2
PARTICULATE MATTER AND NOX.

AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST STANDARDS

PROVINCIAL/NATIONAL CRITERIA:
PEPA HAS ALSO ESTABLISHED NEQS FOR MOTOR VEHICLES EXHAUST
EMISSIONS.

AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARD

PROVINCIAL OR NATIONAL CRITERIA:


STANDARDS ARE YET NOT FORMULATED BY PEPA.
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS:
TO PRESERVE THE ENVIRONMENT MANY COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD
HAVE ENFORCED AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARD. ACC. TO THIS NOX
SHOULD NOT EXCEED 0.05PPM.

NOISE

PROVINCIAL OR NATIONAL CRITERIA:


THERE IS NO PROVINCIAL STANDARD FOR AMBIENT NOISE LEVEL.
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS:
ISO PROVIDE STANDARDS FOR MEASURING NOISE OF DIFFERENT
AREAS. E.G. FOR MOTOR
VEHICLES THE ACCEPTABLE NOISE LEVEL IS 85
DECIBEL.

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH
NATIONAL CRITERIA:
NO QUANTITATIVE STANDARDS HAVE EVER BEEN INTRODUCED IN
PAKISTAN W.R.T OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH.
HOWEVER, SUBJECT IS WELL COVERED IN PAKISTAN FACTORIES RULES
1962. LABOR LAWS ORDINANCE 1972 DEALS WITH GENERAL PROVISION
RELATED TO HEALTH AND SAFETY MATTERS.
FACTORIES ACT 1934 DEALS WITH HEALTH AND SAFETY ASPECTS RELATED TO
PROPER CLEANLINESS, VENTILATION, TEMPERATURE, DUST AND FUMES.
SUBJECT OF NOISE HAS NOT BEEN COVERED IN LABOR LAWS ORDINANCE
(SHAFI 1992)

INTERNATIONAL CRITERIA
ALLOWABLE DAY TIME NOISE LEVEL IN INDUSTRIAL ZONES HAVE BEEN
FIXED AT 65 DB WITH
FREQUENT PEAKS OF 75 DB AND INFREQUENT
PEAKS OF 80 DB (LOHANI 1984)

MEASURES FOR SAFETY OF WORKERS


TRAINING ON HEALTH AND SAFETY MATTERS
PROVISION OF SITE SAFETY HANDBOOK.
SPECIAL TRAINING SESSIONS RELATED TO HAZARDOUS WORK.
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS IN THE FORM OF POSTERS AND NOTICE BOARDS.
FREQUENT AND UNSCHEDULED INSPECTION CHECKS OF SECURITY AND SAFETY
MEASURES.
PROVISION OF MEDICAL FACILITIES.
FULL RECORD OF ACCIDENTS AND INJURIES.
ARRANGEMENTS FOR POSSIBLE FIRE CONTROL AND EXPLOSIONS.