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Overview of Spanish Language

Spanish is one of the global worldwide languages especially in Central and South America in addition
to Spain. Up to now, Spanish is the second well-known languages inferior to English. This Spanish
portfolio has made for readers who want to understand more clearly about Spanish linguistics which
consists of Spanish variaties such as Phonetic, Phonological, Morphological, Syntactical, and Lexical
variations and also includes Spanish consonants and vowel forming in table and chart according to the
believable websites and books.

Spanish Consonants
According to this table below:

Lateral App.





Post alveolar


K g

X y

There are 20 consonants of Spanish that public in phoneme chart and also have 13 phonemes of them
are occurring in both languages (Spanish and English), usually appeared in Dental and Fricative but
remaining 7 phonemes are not a part of English anymore; I x and y. According to the Spanish
phoneme chart, showed that consonants of Spanish are not appearing in Lateral, Rhotic and glide
(manner of articulation) and also glottal is not occurring at this table (Place of articulation). Im trying
to deeply observe about that sound like (me-ya),alveolar and palatal appearing strength.
Spanish has 5 vowel phonemes which are represented by alphabet; a, e, i, o and u, two of them are
round such as /u/ and /o/ and weak sounds, others a, e, and i are strong sounds. There are 5 vowels as
same as English vowels but English can pronounce 12 different ways, Spanish have only one
pronounced way. By the way English vowels are divided by two parts; monophthongs and diphthongs
which is having 15 vowels that exactly different from Spanish vowel. Spanish vowels are having only
one way to pronounce.
Spanish Vowels Chart
According to the chart below on the left side:
1. Spanish have both complex and simple words
Simple words

Meaning in English

Most of common nouns in Spanish are ending with o such as cerdo, perro, and gato
Complex words
Meaning in English
Every Spanish nouns that ending with vowels; a e i o u are usually different from normal that
is not ending with vowels.
Simple words
Complex words
Ending with
Coche = car
Coches = cars
Piscine = pool
Piscinas = pools
Flor = flower
Flores = flowers
Pencil = lpiz
Pencils = lpices
Spanish nouns thats not ending with a vowel, in IPA most of them ending with z such as
- flowers = florz
-pencils = lapisz
2. Tree diagram for 3 complex words
Jardinero = gardener


Uncommon = poco comn


Mainly = principalmente



Mente is suffix that add for change the word to becomes adverb

3. Example of bound/free morphemes.



Love = amar
Peace = paz
Eat = comer
Lover = ama-nte
Eating = com-ida
Peaceful = pa-cfico

4. The plural morpheme in your language

From my observation, I found that most of Spanish nouns that ending with a vowel are
usually different from the words that ending with consonance. Nouns that ending with a
vowel such as a, e, i, o, and u can add s at the end of the words directly such as caballo
(horse) = caballos (horses). In the others hand, the Spanish nouns that ending with a normal
consonance mostly add es or change structure of the words such as flor (flower) = Flores
5. An example of an allomorph in Spanish
el, la, las, los are mean the in English
6. Other examples of morphemes in Spanish
-s (ending with a vowel in every nouns)
Hat = sombrero
hats = sombreros
Pot = olla
pots = ollas
Book = libro
books = libros
Shoe = zapato
shoes = zapatos
-s (ending with a consonance in every nouns)
Sock = calcetn
sock = calcetines
Paper = papel
papers = papeles
First and Second person
Speak = hablar
I speak = hablo
O is representing I or first person (singular)
We Speak = hablamos
os is representing first persons (plural)
You speak = hablas
as is representing second person (single)
They speak = hablaste
aste is representing second persons (plural)

In Spain are using a different morpheme that consists feminine and masculine
Rules: Noun + ito/sito (masculine)
Noun + ita/site (feminine)
For examples, cat = gato but kitten = gatito
Book = libro but pamphlet (small book) = librito
Cook = cocinero
cooking = cocina
Act = acto
acting = accin
Translate = traducer
translating = traduccin
Main = principal
mainly = principalmente
Soft = suave
softly = suavemente
1. 3 examples of idioms in Spanish
Estar hecho un aj
- Estar means to be
- hecho means do
- un aj means chili
Estar hecho un aj is literally translates as to be a chili face which is means very angry
because chili represent red face when you are so angry or mad at something.
2. Tener un humor de perros
-Tener means have
-humor means feel funny
-perros means dog
Tener un humor de perros is translates as to be in a bad mood
3. Empezar la casa por el tejado
-Empezar means start
-La means the
-Casa means house
-Por means by
-Tejado means roof
Empezar la casa por el tejado is literally translates as to start the house by the roof
which is means to have things in the wrong order
From my research results, Spanish has been around for a long time. Its created in the 18 th century, at
that time Spanish is one of the worlds most phonetics language. Origin of Spanish come from many
languages includes Latin and English for vocabulary.
Others languages are similar to Spanish:
Many languages derived from Latin includes Spanish, so most of Spanish grammar and vocabulary
are similar to others languages that derived from Latin such as French, Portuguese and Italian. All
these three languages are so easy when its compare with Spanish because base of Vocabulary is come
from Latin but Pronunciation and idioms for Spanish is hard to understand. So Spanish is a useful
language when learner try to learn, they can learn others language at the same time.

Loanwords in Spanish come from many languages. Many English words origin seem similar with
Spanish especially words which is category of food drinks, Sports, music, places, and jobs.
El bsket (basketball)

El ftbol (football)

Breikdans (breakdance)

El bicon (bacon)

Un prking (parking lot)

Un barman (bartender)

Most of them usually add prefix to make it different from English such as Un, and El

I play basketball
I play football
I play tennis
She plays tennis
He plays tennis

Juego al baloncesto
Juego al ftbol
Juego al tenis
ella juega al tenis
juega al tenis

English word order

Play I basketball
Play I football
Play I tennis
She plays to the tennis
Play to the tennis

I eat lunch
I ate pizza
I ate a banana
I ate banana
My friend ate a banana
My friend ate a banana with me

Yo como el almuerzo
Me com pizza.
Me com un pltano
Com pltano
mi amigo se comi un pltano
mi amigo se comi un pltano
Un perro salta en el parque
Un perro travieso saltando en el
Mi perro y yo se estn
ejecutando en mi casa

English word order

I eat the lunch
I ate pizza
I ate a banana
I ate banana
My friend ate a banana
My friend ate a banana with me

A dog jumps in the park

A naughty dog jumping in the
My dog and I are running in my

A dog jumps in the park

A naughty dog jumping in the
My dog and I are running in my

Syntax of Spanish were very similar to English, not just a syntax, but the way to form Spanish
sentence structure is almost the same in English. However, many differences between Spanish and
English syntax has founded such as neglect of subject in Spanish sentences. The subject is not always
necessary, it depends on the pronoun of the sentences. For Example,
I ate banana = Com pltano which is mean eating banana
I ate a banana = Me com un pltano which is mean I ate a banana

Other differences are an adjective because the adjective in Spanish come after the nouns, but English
is clearly opposite to Spanish such as
The red face = la cara roja
A thin girl = una chica delgada
So grammar in Spanish is easier than English because its flexible. In the sentences, the subject is not
important, adjective can come after nouns because Spanish is flexible.
Phrases structure Rules
S = NP + VP
NP = Det. + N
NP = Det. + Adj. + N
N = Adj. + N
N = N + Adj.
NP = N + PP

VP = V + NP
VP = VP + PP
VP = V + VP
VP = VP + Adv.
PP = P + NP

Tree diagrams
A dog jumps in the park = Un perro salta en el parque












My friend eats a banana with me = mi amigo se comi UN pltano conmigo









friend V






I ate pizza = Me com pizza.






Variaties of Mexican Spanish and Spain Spanish

- Geographical Distribution
Spanish is the third most spoken language, around 20 countries can use Spanish as native speakers. In
Europe, Spanish, English, and Catalan are the official languages. Spanish is an official language of the
European Union including Switzerland which had many Spanish migrants in the 20th century, there
are 2.2% who can use Spanish as native languages. In America, Spanish is the majority languages
about 43% of the population which the most parts in the world that use Spanish as native languages.
Northern Morroco in Africa also use Spanish as their second language because Spanish protectorate
were closed to Spain. But for Asia pacific, Spanish isnt a official languages in any those countries in
Asia including Philiphines because Spanish was an official language of the Philippines from the
beginning of Spanish rule in 1565.

Spanish spoken in the United States, darker shades of green indicate higher percemtages of Spanish speakers.

For Mexican Spanish, Mexican Spanish is language that modified of Spanish spoken in United States,
especially in the northern part of New Mexico and the sounthern parts of the state of Colorado. So
United States is the most part in the world where the Mexican Spanish and Spain Spanish exist.
- Phonetic and Phonological Variation
Phonetic Variation:
In Mexican Spanish, there are has more consonant than Spain Spanish. For the Affricates, Mexican
Spanish has a voiceless alveolar affricate and a lateral alveolar affricate which called adoption of the
affricates "tz" and "tl. In another hand, classical Spanish does not have these affricates such as
Atlntico [attntikoo] and atleta [alntikoo]. Fricatives in this language mostly use domestic words
especially the [] sound have been found in Nahuatl or Mayan languages such as Xola [ ola]. Its
spelling can represents two pronunciations such as Jalapa/Xalapa [xa lapa]. But in Spain Spanish
language, the alveolar and affricated pronunciation of /tr/ almost reaching [ ]. In Spanish /z/ is mostly
pronounced like a voiceless (th) in English.
The phoneme // is a voiceless dental fricative as in English thing which is changed by a majority of
Spain's population in the northern and cenral parts of Spain. In Southern Spain, // is merged with /s/.
Grammar of Spanish and Mexican Spanish.
For the Phonological variable /r/, dialects of Spanish have the flap phoneme which the vibrant simple
in Spanish. The fricative /s/ can undergo deletion, aspiration, and voicing. The processes of deletion
and aspiration, mentioned above, do not occur in the dialect of Mexican Spanish. The sound in the
Mexican Spanish are very strange, they have no standard patterns to make a constant sound because
everyone in Spanishs ear are routine and familiar with each others which extremely different from
Vowels in Mexican Spanish language also different from others, Mexican Spanish have 5 vowels
which two high vowels, two mid vowels, and one open vowel. The Mexican Spanish features are
usually high rate of unstressed vowel reduction and elision such as / t asts/ = (trastos, 'cooking
- Morphological Variation
There are an interesting prefixes and suffixes in Mexican Spanish. For example, suffixes of simo
which means very grande" means big and grandsimo means very big and aother example is -ote
(to make nouns in Mexico have more powerful such as larger, bigger, taller). In this language, we can
replace the consonant of c-/s- with ch- to form diminutives such as Sin Muelas can be Chimuela.
But for Spanish, suffixes give additional meaning to words. Adding a suffix to a word may require its
spelling to be altered. There can separate into two common forms, diminutives which are used to
convey smallness importance such as -illo/-a / , -ito/-a /, and -uelo/-a. for example, bolso which
means bag, so we added suffixes to bolsillo which means pocket. And another form is augmentatives
which are used to describe largeness, ugliness or greater importance such as -azo/-a /, -n(a) /, -ote/a. for example, cuchara which means spoon, add suffix to becomes cucharn which means ladle.
- Syntactical Variation
Syntax in Mexican Spanish is hard to learn, but not for native speaker because they used it as usual
for routine. For example, "no" is the meaning in English of "hasta" (until) which Mexican Spanish, it's
make the reader confused because hasta can be no and until and people don't know how to used as
speakers. The difference in pronunciation is in the pronunciation of z's and soft c's. In Spain, z's and
soft c's are pronounced like the English "th" sound, and are thus distinct from the s's. For Spanish, the
syntax and semantics of markers such as como in sentences like como que va a llover.
- Lexical Variation
Across different countries or continents that share the same language. Spanish has fewer Nahyatl
elements than Mexican Spanish and American dialects, but it has more words of mayan origin tha
Mexican Spanish.

- Other (Optional)
In Mexican Spanish, they have many different regional varieties especially loan word from America
or words that loan from different areas in Spanish. Most of vocabularies in Mexican Spanish are the
names of food, plants, and animals such as camote which means sweet potato.
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