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INDIAN POLICE - Ensemble of articles on Indian Police

INDIAN POLICE - Ensemble of articles on Indian Police

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Published by Praveen Kumar
Comments welcome at pryveen@yahoo.com. This volume is an ensemble of articles on Indian Police authored by one and only Praveen Kumar.

The Hong Kong-based Political & Economic Risk Consultancy (PERC) in a 12-page report on a business survey of 12 economies of Asia released on June 3, 2009 where 1,274 expatriates working in these countries were interviewed showed Indian bureaucracy at the bottom at the 12 position as the least efficient bureaucracy after Philippines and Indonesia in 10 and 11 positions respectively. The report says that working with the country’s civil servants in India is a “slow and painful” process and it continues to report that “They are a power centre in their own right at both the national and state levels, and are extremely resistant to reform that affects them or the way they go about their duties.”

The cause of the malady in reference to Indian Police is analyzed and remedies are recommended in the article, ‘The Crumbling Steel Frame of India’ of this volume. The deterioration is a post-independence phenomenon. The once steel frame of Indian bureaucracy of the British vintage gradually crumbled to its extant putridity under the sad auspice of its corrupt and incompetent UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) and the deterioration trickled fast downwards in the last six decades to bring India to this sad state of affairs.

This volume is a first hand account of the observations, impressions and experiences of the author as an insider. Naturally, most illustrations in this volume are from Karnataka police where the author served at senior levels for nearly three decades. However, this makes no difference to the over all picture of India as situation is not much different elsewhere.

As far as Karnataka police is concerned, in spite of misdeeds of notorious scoundrels like R.S.Chopra, A.R.Nizamuddin and degenerates of the similar ilk, situation is better there than some of the more notorious state police organizations of India. The core weakness in Karnataka police lies in sweepingly conforming to the putrid system and bad culture against conscience to cover own tracks. It is mere cowardice of mediocrity and gross selfish interests of ignobility and nothing more. Yet, no way can Karnataka police be called as an efficient, healthy and responsible bureaucratic setup yet.

Faithful assessment must precede reconstruction. This volume is an effort in this direction. Complacency leads to stagnation and is a dangerous indulgence in a rotten situation like India’s. This volume is intended to breach the vicious indulgence involved and inspire India to its rich potentialities on the way to much dreamed of world leadership.

India is a civilization of diversities and a culture of contradictions. India’s is an inclusive way of life. Along its long history, it saw umpteen falls and rises without losing its innate vitality and always rose from worst quagmires unscathed. This resilience of India underscores its unique heritage spawned by its thoughts and philosophies that perhaps are nearest to the true nature of the universe that the scientific world of today is engaged in to probe, discover and formulate as the Grand Unification Theory (GUT). This is the secret of the eternal strength of India. This resilience of India gives hope. The present fall is not forever. Time of revival shall come. India shall see a better system replace the present corrupt and incompetent UPSC and a healthy administrative system replace the extant inefficient and rogue bureaucracy.
Comments welcome at pryveen@yahoo.com. This volume is an ensemble of articles on Indian Police authored by one and only Praveen Kumar.

The Hong Kong-based Political & Economic Risk Consultancy (PERC) in a 12-page report on a business survey of 12 economies of Asia released on June 3, 2009 where 1,274 expatriates working in these countries were interviewed showed Indian bureaucracy at the bottom at the 12 position as the least efficient bureaucracy after Philippines and Indonesia in 10 and 11 positions respectively. The report says that working with the country’s civil servants in India is a “slow and painful” process and it continues to report that “They are a power centre in their own right at both the national and state levels, and are extremely resistant to reform that affects them or the way they go about their duties.”

The cause of the malady in reference to Indian Police is analyzed and remedies are recommended in the article, ‘The Crumbling Steel Frame of India’ of this volume. The deterioration is a post-independence phenomenon. The once steel frame of Indian bureaucracy of the British vintage gradually crumbled to its extant putridity under the sad auspice of its corrupt and incompetent UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) and the deterioration trickled fast downwards in the last six decades to bring India to this sad state of affairs.

This volume is a first hand account of the observations, impressions and experiences of the author as an insider. Naturally, most illustrations in this volume are from Karnataka police where the author served at senior levels for nearly three decades. However, this makes no difference to the over all picture of India as situation is not much different elsewhere.

As far as Karnataka police is concerned, in spite of misdeeds of notorious scoundrels like R.S.Chopra, A.R.Nizamuddin and degenerates of the similar ilk, situation is better there than some of the more notorious state police organizations of India. The core weakness in Karnataka police lies in sweepingly conforming to the putrid system and bad culture against conscience to cover own tracks. It is mere cowardice of mediocrity and gross selfish interests of ignobility and nothing more. Yet, no way can Karnataka police be called as an efficient, healthy and responsible bureaucratic setup yet.

Faithful assessment must precede reconstruction. This volume is an effort in this direction. Complacency leads to stagnation and is a dangerous indulgence in a rotten situation like India’s. This volume is intended to breach the vicious indulgence involved and inspire India to its rich potentialities on the way to much dreamed of world leadership.

India is a civilization of diversities and a culture of contradictions. India’s is an inclusive way of life. Along its long history, it saw umpteen falls and rises without losing its innate vitality and always rose from worst quagmires unscathed. This resilience of India underscores its unique heritage spawned by its thoughts and philosophies that perhaps are nearest to the true nature of the universe that the scientific world of today is engaged in to probe, discover and formulate as the Grand Unification Theory (GUT). This is the secret of the eternal strength of India. This resilience of India gives hope. The present fall is not forever. Time of revival shall come. India shall see a better system replace the present corrupt and incompetent UPSC and a healthy administrative system replace the extant inefficient and rogue bureaucracy.

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INDIAN POLICE

PRAVEEN KUMAR

PublishAmerica Baltimore

© 2009 by Praveen Kumar. All rights reser ved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the publishers, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in a review to be printed in a newspaper, magazine or journal. First printing

PublishAmerica has allowed this work to remain exactly as the author intended, verbatim, without editorial input.

ISBN: 978-1-44892907-8 PUBLISHED BY PUBLISHAMERICA, LLLP www.publishameric a.com

Baltimo re Printed in the United States of America

DEDICATION PAGE

I’m incomplete, my Love, without you, Hell or heaven, my Goddess, you are my all— This volume is lovingly dedicated to Priya Chaitra Tapasvini— Most charming and most wonderful one Ever born on this world.

OTHER BOOKS OF PRAVEENKUMAR

POLICING FOR THE NEW AGE POLICING THE POLICE UNKNOWN HORIZONS PORTRAITS OF PASSION DIVYA BELAKU BHAVANA PRIYA CHAITRA TAPASVINI INSIDE INDIA LOVE & PRIDE

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Service here is modeled after Priya Chaitra Tapasvini— the sublime paragon of conscience and conscious moral rectitude, most charming and most wonderful creation of pure beauty, devotion, love and sacrifice ever born in this world, most perfect and prettiest in all worlds. This volume of poetry is lovingly dedicated to that exquisite wonder God has ever created. This work would not have been possible without the inspiration and active support of my son, Pratheek Praveen Kumar and wife, Jayashree. Also, my mother, Smt. B.Sarojini, my sister, Pramodini Ganesh, brother, Nishith Kumar, sister, Asha Narasimha and brother, Sushir Kumar stood behind me in this effort. I record my gratitude to all of them. I acknowledge with deep humility that this work would not have been possible without the inspiration of my late father Shree R.D.Suvarna who instilled in me right values and a sense of dignity without which I would not have been what I am now. I would be failing in my duty if I fail to express my gratitude to late Shree A.R.Sridharan, IPS (rtd.), former Director General of Police and former Hon’ble member of the Karnataka Administrative Tribunal for his unstinted support and encouragement to my intellectual exercises. He is a rare oasis of pristine values and dignified restraint in the desert of Indian bureaucracy. P.K

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................... .......................... 11 THE CRUMBLING STEEL FRAME OF INDIA ....................................... 13 THE CORE OF POLICE PROBLEMS .......................................................... 20 POOR ADMINISTRATION AFFECTS POLICE MORALE .................. 25 INDIAN POLICE: WHO WILL BELL THE CAT? ................................... 29 INDIAN POLICE NEED HEALTHY JOB CULTURE ........................... 34 CORRUPTION IN INDIA ................................................................................ 41 POLICE AS SOCIAL SURGEONS ................................................................. 46 NEED OF TOUGH DECISIONS FOR INDIAN POLICE ................... 51 LAW ENFORCERS IN UNHOLY ALLIANCES ....................................... 56 ROLE OF POLICE IN NATIONAL RECONSTRUCTION ................. 61 UNPROFESSIONAL POLICING ................................................................... 66 WHAT AILS PROFESSIONAL POLICING IN INDIA? ......................... 69 INDIAN POLICE NEED COMPETENT BRASS ..................................... 73 RAT RACE AT TOP AFFECTS POLICING ................................................ 77 CONFUSION OF LOYALTIES IN INDIAN POLICE ............................ 82 POLICING UNDER POLITICAL PATRONAGE .................................... 85 CHALLENGES OF THE INDIAN POLICE .............................................. 92

POLICE AND THE UNDERWORLD ......................................................... 98 CAUGHT IN THE VICIOUS CIRCLE OF CORRUPTION ................. 103 ROLE OF POLICE IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE ...... 107 POLICE STRUCTURE NEEDS THE MANAGEMENT TOUCH .... 115 MAN MANAGEMENT IN POLICE ........................................................... 120 WHERE INDIAN POLICE IS HEADING ................................................ 126 POLICING THE POLICE ............................................................................... 132 NEED OF ATTITUDINAL CHANGE IN POLICE .............................. 138 WHAT AILS THE INDIAN SECRET POLICE ........................................ 145 THE ROLE OF POLICE IN A DEMOCRACY ....................................... 149 LAW AND ORDER POLICING IN INDIA ............................................. 157 CHALLENGES OF COORDINATION IN INDIAN POLICE ......... 165 POLICE AS A BACKUP FORCE .................................................................. 171

CORRUPTION: INDIAN POLICE SCENARIO ..................................... 176 CRIME, POLITICS AND THE POLICE .................................................... 183 INDIAN POLICE AT THE CROSSROADS .............................................. 208 HUMANISING THE POLICE ....................................................................... 231 ORGANISATIONAL CHALLENGES OF THE POLICE ................... 242 INTERNAL SECURITY CHALLENGES .................................................. 257 REVAMPING THE INVESTIGATION MACHINERY ......................... 274 COORDINATED APPROACH TO CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM ............................................................... 278 INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES IN POLICING ....................................... 285 VISION FOR THE INDIAN POLICE ........................................................ 288 LOGISTIC REQUIREMENTS OF INDIAN POLICE .......................... 301 TRAINING STRATEGY FOR INDIAN POLICE ................................... 310 POLICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS— DOES END JUSTIFY MEANS? .............................................................. 320 POLITICAL CRIMES AND SECURITY ..................................................... 325 NEED OF REVAMPING INDIAN POLICE ............................................ 335 RESTORING CREDIBILITY TO CRIME INVESTIGATION ........... 338 NEED TO REVITALISE THE POLICE .................................................... 343 INDIAN POLICE NEED VIGOUR ............................................................ 347 PROFESSIONAL PRIDE OF THE POLICE ............................................. 351 PRECEPTS OF POLICE ADMINISTRATION ........................................ 354

KIDNAPPING FOR RANSOM ..................................................................... 365 INVESTIGATION OF ECONOMIC CRIMES ........................................ 369 RECENT TRENDS IN ECONOMIC CRIMES ....................................... 377 INVESTIGATION OF DOWRY DEATH CASES ................................... 384 THE DEADLY PRICE OF POLICE COMPLACENCY ....................... 389 INDIAN POLICE AND SIXTY YEARS OF INDEPENDENCE ...... 393 INDIAN POLICE: COURSE AHEAD IN THE 21st CENTURY ....... 400 ROLE OF POLICE IN THE CAUSE OF SOCIAL JUSTICE .............. 405 ENFORCEMENT OF SOCIAL JUSTICE .................................................. 410

INTRODUCTION
The Hong Kong-based Political & Economic Risk Consultancy (PERC) in a 12-page report on a business survey of 12 economies of Asia released on June 3, 2009 where 1,274 expatriates working in these countries were interviewed showed Indian bureaucracy at the bottom at the 12 position as the least efficient bureaucracy after Philippines and Indonesia in 10 and 11 positions respectively. The report says that working with the country’s civil servants in India is a “slow and painful” process and it continues to report that “They are a power centre in their own right at both the national and state levels, and are extremely resistant to reform that affects them or the way they go about their duties.” The cause of the malady in reference to Indian Police is analyzed and remedies are recommended in the article, ‘The Crumbling Steel Frame of India’ of this volume. The deterioration is a post-independence phenomenon. The once steel frame of Indian bureaucracy of the British vintage gradually crumbled to its extant putridity under the sad auspice of its corrupt and incompetent UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) and the deterioration trickled fast downwards in the last six decades to bring India to this sad state of affairs. This volume is a first hand account of the observations, impressions and experiences of the author as an insider. Naturally, most illustrations in this volume are from Karnataka police where the author served at senior levels for nearly three decades. However, this makes no difference to the over all picture of India as situation is not much different elsewhere. As far as Karnataka police is concerned, in spite of misdeeds of notorious scoundrels like R.S.Chopra,
11

A.R.Nizamuddin and degenerates of the similar ilk, situation is better there than some of the more notorious state police organizations of India. The core weakness in Karnataka police lies in sweepingly conforming to the putrid system and bad culture against conscience to cover own tracks. It is mere cowardice of mediocrity and gross selfish interests of ignobility and nothing more. Yet, no way can Karnataka police be called as an efficient, healthy and responsible bureaucratic setup yet. Faithful assessment must precede reconstruction. This volume is an effort in this direction. Complacency leads to stagnation and is a dangerous indulgence in

12

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a rotten situation like India’s. This volume is intended to breach the vicious indulgence involved and inspire India to its rich potentialities on the way to much dreamed of world leadership. India is a civilization of diversities and a culture of contradictions. India’s is an inclusive way of life. Along its long history, it saw umpteen falls and rises without losing its innate vitality and always rose from worst quagmires unscathed. This resilience of India underscores its unique heritage spawned by its thoughts and philosophies that perhaps are nearest to the true nature of the universe that the scientific world of today is engaged in to probe, discover and formulate as the Grand Unification Theory (GUT). This is the secret of the eternal strength of India. This resilience of India gives hope. The present fall is not forever. Time of revival shall come. India shall see a better system replace the present corrupt and incompetent UPSC and a healthy administrative system replace the extant inefficient and rogue bureaucracy. The nature of the police accurately reflects the quality of democracy entertained by a country. This is true of India and Indian police also. Further, the menace of the current world namely terrorism is increasingly moving the police centre-stage in governance as the sine qua non mechanism for founding peace and safety of the citizens. These factors together render the police and policing the deciding parameter in determining the character of a national life. That is why India must act to bring its police and bureaucracy on right track to fulfill its dream of a regional power and act pronto.

13

THE CRUMBLING STEEL FRAME OF INDIA
The All India Service were once called the Steel Frame that held India, a country which consisted of diverse political systems, comprising British Indian and many other big and small princely States, together. If India is one today — though in truncated form—the efficiency of its vintage, All India Services is as much responsible for this as the might of the British Empire. The credit for India having made impressive progress, both in the domestic and international fields and having survived the uncertain, initial years of democracy, under leaders who had no experience of ruling a country of India’s size and diversity, also goes to the original All India Services —to its traditions and efficiency, that continued to survive for some years even after Independence. The sterling performances of Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel in the unification of India and the brilliant achievements of Jawaharalal Nehru in the international field are as much the success stories of their civil servant secretaries and advisers as of the leaders themselves. The fall in standards of the All India Services, in the values of their officers and in their efficiency and performance, is symbolic of the fall India itself has experienced. The All India Services experienced a setback after Independence. This deterioration was in depth of ideas, quality of performance and honesty of convictions of their officers. With this deterioration, to All India Service are no longer in a class of their own. Its members can no longer claim a distinguished standing in society as the All India Services have been reduced to merely good careers. The Civil Services had inherited, as a result of their
14

exclusive place in the higher levels of administration, high pay packets and good perquisites, attractive service conditions and an awe-inspiring tradition. But since this was not accompanied by superior performance, the consequence is that the reins of democratic India are now in the hands of people who are in no way superior in terms of intellectual

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worth, administrative skill or human qualities. This is a tragedy for a democracy struggling to progress. The British created to All India Services to handle the administration of the country. They recruited talented people, imparted the best possible training to them and invested them with the trust, powers and opportunities to carry out their responsibilities. They took care of all their personal needs, provided them with many opportunities for growth and surrounded them with a halo of exclusivity by endowing them with high social status and providing them with generous creature comforts. Independent India needed brilliant people to handle its complex administrative problems and to implement its developmental schemes. It is tragic that India after independence not only failed to realize the importance of maintaining its Steel Frame and improving upon it, but also positively contributed to its collapse in a very short span of time. Indian leaders wanted the All India Service of independent India to break away from the British model they had originally been based on and they gave expression to this desire by altering the name of the Services. It is ironical that the change in name also initiated a steep fall in the quality of the Civil Services. At present, the Indian Administrative Services is not even a pale shadow of the old Indian Civil Services. The Indian Foreign Service stands nowhere near the brilliant Indian Political Service and the present Indian Police Service lacks the backbone and professionalism of the good old Indian Police. A major cause for the disappearance of excellence from the All India Services of independent India was the secret tendency of the new leaders to look at the All India Services as their rivals in running the country, rather than as the backbone of the State. A subtle fear of the All India Services inherited from British India days accompanied by a sense of awe that the services inspired because of the halo worn by its predecessor, stirred the new leaders who made every
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effort to cut the Civil Services to size and show them their proper place. SORRY STATE OF AFFAIRS This occurred together with a fall in the standards of management of the Civil Services because of the failure to recognize the importance of the Civil Services in administering the nation. This fall succeeded in bringing the All India Services of the post Independence era to its present state. This brought the Services closer to the people of India in a way, while stripping it of all its brilliance, excellence and efficiency to give India a mediocre

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All India Services to handle its administration. And the result of this is the present state of the country. The poor state of the Civil Services attracted people of poor caliber. This led to all kinds of evils including corruption, opportunism and lack of moral strength to stand by one’s values and convictions. This situation led to loss of face and subordinated the All India Services to the ambitions of the political leadership. Its has been a long journey from the bold and awe-inspiring All India Services that existed at the dawn of Independence to the present meek and servile All India Services without any backbone to stand erect and hold its head high. The reasons for the fall and the mechanism that brought about the change are not far to seek. Everything that made the All India Services of the British days a powerful adminicle for the administration was just swept away while its new avatar in independent India was brought into existence. The glory of the old All India Services was built on the 3 basic strengths of faultless recruitment, perfect training and the maintenance of the highest standards of professionalism and character t sustain it throughout. These strengths held the Steel Frame of India together for nearly a century. But independent India just failed to give these factors the importance they deserved while constituting its version of the All Indian Services. The primacy British India gave to the process of selection of people of high caliber to the All India Services is perhaps the single major factor that made the Civil Services among the best in the world. Promising people with maturity and intellectual superiority were selected young through a vigorous and efficient filtering process of a carefully devised elaborate public civil examination process under the guidance, supervision and control of highly qualified professionals in the field. Rarely was anything other than exceptional merit considered in the process of selection and human weakness like nepotism, corruption and parochial considerations rarely interfered in the process, as Britain
18

was not prepared to compromise and accept anyone less than the best in the higher levels of administration. These people were, after all, to sit on equal terms with them and help in administering the country! These high standards in the process of selection and recruitment made the All India Services of British days, a really superior cadre. REASONS FOR DETERIORATION The grand structure of British rule was to be mercilessly demolished later by independent India. Unimaginative and messy selection and recruitment

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procedures, which were poorly conceived and unskillfully executed, became the order of the day. Corruption, nepotism, narrow considerations and caste and economic reservations corroded the foundations of the newly constituted All India Services as time passed. The reasons for this deterioration in the Civil Services are many. The first is the general lack of passion for quality and excellence in the Indian psyche. The agency in charge of the process of such selections, namely, the Union Public Service Commission, unlike in the British period, is unfortunately increasingly being manned by people unequal to the task either in terms of their professionalism, efficiency and passion for brilliance or in their basic characters itself. As the selection of members of the UPSC became politicized, mediocre people came to fill the slots and in the process, selections to the All India Services suffered. Since members owed their memberships or chairmanship to their political leaders, they could not avoid the obligatory quid pro quo. This continues to be the state of affairs today. The Indian Civil Service, which once produced giants like K.P.S. Menon, now produces in its new avatar of the IAS and Allied Services only pigmies without voice or strength of conviction. In this matter, they are like those in the crippled institution of the union Public Service Commission who select them. The Steel Frame of the IAS has nor become a gilded plastic frame with its steel conscience crumbling into a plastic conscience in the present uncertain political atmosphere. A Steel Frame Civil Service would never have permitted such degeneration. The degeneration is manifest at all ranks in all services, whether it is the administrative service, the foreign service, the police service, the forest service, the central services or the specialized services, whether at the sub-divisional or provincial level or at the highest levels of Central Government. The degeneration is uniform everywhere. Whether it is in creative genius, intellectual heights, strength of character, moral values, width of human
20

interests or noble qualities, the Civil Service of the postIndependence era are third rate. It does not have its own voice or any originality. Its members either as Chief Secretaries of State Governments or as Secretaries of various ministries of departments are at best paperpushers and mindless approvers of reports incompetently prepared by subordinates down the line. Imagine people of such caliber presiding over the entire Civil Services. Thus develops a vicious circle that promotes the degeneration of the Civil Services. Sturdy and sterling All Indian Services are indispensable for the survival of democratic and united India. Whether it is a cadre of generalists as the Indian

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Administrative Service is, or cadres of specialists in the fields of judiciary, health care, engineering, economics, Foreign Service, police etc the existence of All Indian Services functions as the basis of governance of India and adds to the emotional bonds binding the country together. Also, as a pool of the cream of the people, it is supposed to bring distinguished and brilliant people to the job of administration of the country and thereby ensure good government to the country. THE REMEDY Any dilution of the high standards of these services is certain to throw the country to the wolves. British India knew this and perhaps, independent India also knows it. But it does nothing to arrest the dangerous fall in the standards of its All India Services. India is preoccupied with myriad issues relating to economic and social development and perhaps the rapid deterioration of its All India Services does not appear to be important in comparison with these burning issues. But such a feeling is wrong. All India Services are a precondition for the survival of India. India must realize this fact and act fast. This brings us to the quintessential question as to how the Civil Services can be brought back to their original standards and glory. How can we get back the original ideas, quality and performances and honesty of convictions that existed earlier? The first and foremost task in this regard is pruning the Civil Services to a small brains trust of brilliance and commitment which will steer the country in the right direction by giving competent advice on statecraft and actually running the administration to political leaders. A TINY SELECT GROUP Merciless pruning of the extant services to create this tiny, efficient and highly responsible core is a priority task. Only brilliance and the highest potential should be the criteria for membership in this nerve-centre. This brains trust must be kept beyond the purview of extraneous constraints like reservation of any kind and
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even age restrictions. The guiding principle here is bringing together the best talents without restraints of any kind, for ensuring best results. The services should not be treated as an employment opportunity for the elite, but as the foundation of the Government. INTELLECTUAL CALIBRE The training programmes for the services have to be made relevant today. Matter taught has to be updated every year by experts and made changing even to the brightest among the new recruits, unlike present training programmes

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which are intellectually impoverished, irrelevant to the times and which in no way help ensuring the right attitudes at the higher levels. Another need is to make the passing of a promotional test, of a very standard, held by the UPSC or a similar Central agency, mandatory for promotion at every level. Only such tough measures will keep the Civil Services fit and productive as is required for the sound health of the administration of the country. TONING UP THE UPSC Overhauling the present mediocre Union Public Service Commission to create an efficient and responsible set-up capable of handling the enormous responsibilities under Article 320 of the Indian Constitution is essential in order to arrest the degeneration that has set in, in the set-up. This has led to blunders in identifying talent and in managing the Civil Services. CREDIBILITY OF THE UPSC In a recent case, three promising officers from the State cadre of a southern State of India were denied selection till retirement by the UPSC to an All India Service for no obvious reason, while their juniors were elevated. The acute frustration and demoralization caused by this led to the break-up of the family and untimely death of one of the promising trio. Violent behaviour by him repeatedly in public led to very embarrassing public humiliations, and ultimately involvement in a murder case that led to his conviction and ultimately untimely death of alcoholism. This is how a reckless and irresponsible UPSC ruined a promising life for no reason at all. However, another of the trio was an officer of enormous inner strength as well as a poet and an intellectual of the highest caliber. He weathered the frustration for the next seventeen years till his untimely retirement only to rise to a very high level in individual achievement and public esteem to the shame of the irresponsible UPSC. The incident created much resentment in the State against the recklessness of the UPSC and considerably
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lowered its credibility. Such transgressions are common these days with the present state of affairs in the UPSC and the overhauling of the organisation should be aimed at preventing such irresponsible actions that can have such tragic consequences. REORGANISATION OF THE UPSC The way to prevent such unprofessional on the part of the UPSC lies in transforming it to a highly efficient outfit managed by people of unimpeachable character and efficiency. This objective can be achieved by suitable amendment to Articles 316 and 317 of the Indian Constitution to ensure that only suitable

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people become Members and Chairman of the organisation and remain in the saddle only as long as they retain their moral and professional caliber. This can be made possible by constituting a committee comprising the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, the Chief Commissioner of the Central Vigilance Commission and the Speaker of Parliament as members. The VicePresident of India should be the Chairman and clear the names for appointment as Members and as the Chairman of the UPSC for a fixed tenure. These people should also be empowered to initiate actions for their removal by an appropriate procedure in fit cases. Appropriate changes to this effect in Articles 316 and 317 of the Indian Constitution are likely to plug the existing loopholes that allow too much political interferences in the process of the selection of Members and Chairman of the UPSC and thereby in its fair functioning.

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THE CORE OF POLICE PROBLEMS
A Country begets the Police it deserves. The Police are the creation of the society it polices. It inherits its values, culture, practices and aspirations from the society to which it belongs. The ambience defines the nature of the Police, the country begets. In this sense, India got a Police system it deserves with all its perversions like corruption, brutality, criminality, inefficiency, and indeed mediocrity. Nothing more can be expected from the fall of value system India suffered after independence. The prime attributes of the Indian Police system of the post-independent vintage are lack of motivation, lack of professional commitment, devastating job culture and the ineffective training system. With the lure of money and the abuse of power as the center of the Indian psyche and appointments and promotions even at highest levels turning to be arbitrary after independence, both talent and government institutions withered in the heath. Indian Police system is one of the major casualties of the Apollyon. Right people are crucial for police and policing. Character constitutes the spine of a Police setup. Police is the real power in the field and constitutes the strength of both the executive and the political system. As an instrument of power, it can be a double- edged weapon; a cornucopia of safety, security and peace while good, and absolutely demoniac while bad. This festinated the aggravation of the situation. All problems of the extant Police system in India flow from this single fact; all talks other than these basic causes like inadequate resources, unscrupulous politicians, legal and political constraints, growing crime rate, inadequate manpower, fractured organisation etc are either sheer misrepresentations to evade responsibility or just manifestations of the basic causes projected above.
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The lever de rideau here is the issue why and who. It is easy to blame unscrupulous politicians, the hors la loi, powerful and rich criminals, the lure of money, the constraints of democracy, legal hurdles, fragile system, fractured organisation, professional constraints, increasingly complex and violent society, rise in crime rate, increasing work pressure and hi-tech crimes. These factors represent the circumstances in which Police is called to work on and show results. They constitute the raison d’etre of the Police and do not constitute excuses for inefficiency, nonperformance and failures. The challenge is to accept the reality

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and show results. The burden is on those at the top-wrung of the Police. It is their failures to adequately plan, organize, execute and control that toppled the Indian Police of the democratic vintage from its high pedestal. Their lack of foresight and vision, lack of brilliance and foremost of all, the love of the UPSC of the mediocrity and its certain degringolade from seventies as a responsible public institution committed to merit and character, combined with the unsavory rat- race among officials to reach the top-wrung, and consequent race to double- bend before the political bosses and the rich and the powerful who count, tore the fabric of the Indian Police to shreds after independence. It is a rebours for the political bosses and the rich and the powerful to turn blind eye to the willing devotion and race of the Police top brass to please and gratify. After all, Gandhis and Buddhas are not born everyday. They perforce take the advantage of the situation and help their acolytes out of turn as a quid pro quo. The blame for this sorry state of affair squarely lies on the Police and those who select and recruit such less than sound character to the Police. The nexus extends even to the rich and powerful and the hors la loi who count. How the criminals as el patron can be policed by these weaklings and law and order maintained? It is preposterous to lay the blame on lack of resources or neglect of the Police by the executive or the paucity of manpower. The truth is that the Police are over- indulged in India by the Law-and-Order-sensitive political and bureaucratic machinery as far as sparse resources of this poor country is concerned. Our Police leaders conduct like spoilt children. Most of the resources made available are squandered and siphoned away to non-operational and non-professional extravaganza or just wasted on unrealistic and foolhardy programmes a grands frais, resulting in no or miniscule returns. Another mendacity of the stock is the clamor about shortage of manpower en face ascensive crime rate and policing responsibilities. Again, it is an attitudinal problem. Effective policing never depends on numbers, more so in
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extant hi- tech age. It is quality, planning, secrecy and surprise that really constitute the bedrock of effective policing. Show of strength is never a forte of good and perficient policing. The truth is that the wastage of human resources and manpower is phenomenal in Indian Police and criminal in proportion. Police leadership is meant to face the reality, assess it, plan with foresight and vision and accordingly remold the system and the organisation. It must set the lead by right job culture. It is here that Police leadership failed. No political boss or executive head from outside can do the job for him for the simple reason that policing is an extremely specialized job and no outsider can have a keek to the intricacies of the Police and policing job.

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Problems and challenges are natural in any setup. It is left to the Police leadership to address them. The problems au fond in Police are lack of motivation, wrong job culture, absence of professional commitment and poor training en arriere of every other problem and issue. While this Achilles’ heel is prevalent in Indian Police cap-a-pie, naturally the issue to be addressed is who to bell the cat. Only public opinion and public pressures can bring about the apotropaic change. But, Police is too a thick-skinned beast to respond to such opinions and pressures. This is the crux of the problem. Right recruitment and sound training alone can save Indian Police from its Avernus by fine-tuning a healthy job culture. The extant police ensemble is marked by lack of human concerns and empathy for the fellow men. This has deprived the elements of heart and compassion from the body of the bureaucracy. Initiatives, novel ideas and creative pursuits are seen as the antithesis of the police. This has deprived the elements of brain and intellect from the corpus of the police system. The result is a deadweightpolice weighing down on the live India and sucking it dry with evils and misuse of the powers invested on it for governing and steering the country ahead. India is an egregious forerunner in the world among countries most corrupt in public life. The root cause of this grave malady is India’s corrupt governance pregnant with inefficiency, indifference and gross temulence of power devoid of human elements. Police measures have become synonymous in popular parlance and perception in India with foolhardy decisions and actions far removed from reality. Lack of accountability is the leitmotiv of governance in India. This is a malengine consciously evolved ab intra to safeguard self-interests. Power sans accountability rendered police in India an evil per se. The evils of policing need not always are directed only against outsiders. Inscience knows no boundaries. Even those within may become cruel victims of its grossly unrealistic and farcical decisions as in the case of a highly talented and multifaceted genius that joined service in a
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Southern Indian state in 1978. He was soon recognized for sheer brilliance and purity of character as a diamond that can fit anywhere and as a peacock among the fowls. Soon the recognition itself turned a noose on his neck. It was assessed by the inscient bureaucracy that his outstanding attributes might prevent him from becoming popular among the seniors and prevent him from reaching higher levels. A two-pronged strategy was devised. He was to be roughed-up and denied promotions to rub-off his superior qualities and the intimidating aura till the detrition by the sufferings forces him down to the ordinary level.

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He was posted to most humiliating posts and harassed endlessly. However, the process got caught in a skein as the infaust officer refused to come down from the pedestal of his immanent and really superior qualities even after two decades of immanity and sufferings while the bureaucracy refused to yield and give up its illegal and unconstitutional stance until the desired condescence to the mediocre levels. The refusal of the officer to approach judiciary against the ill treatment for redressal and his resolve to depend solely on his talents and character helped the establishment to persist with the preposterous process. His morale remained high throughout non obstante serious humiliations and endless grief. He sought refuge in other fields and won nonpareil accolades from everybody by sheer talents. His tormentors followed him there too. The head of the State Intelligence who himself a small-time writer and published a few books in a regional language used esoteric threats in 2000 on the publishers of the accurst officer to discourage them from publishing his books. The publishers who already had published half a score books of the officer returned two manuscripts of the officer in sheer desperation expressing helplessness en face the police interferences. The release of one of his books by the Governor of the state in 2000 was got cancelled by undue promptings and maneuvers on the Governor just a few hours before the release. He was invited by the Bureau of Police Research and Development, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, New Delhi to present three papers on police subjects in 37th All India Police Congress held in Bangalore from June 6, 2006, a rare and unprecedented honour to invite to present three papers. Karnataka police as the host of the event prevented him from presenting the papers and the BPRD looked helpless and resigned en face the insistence of the host of the event regarding its own officer. Envy also played role in this. Fanciful premises bordering madness tout court leading to irresponsible and eristic career plans of that dimensions are possible only in governance utterly lacking in
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accountability and only a sacred country like India can produce such gross grief, sufferings and humiliations eo nomine noble intensions. Lack of transparency makes such atrocities possible and permits its practice for decades as in the case study. The annual assessment of men and officers in the police has become a travesty of what it used to be or meant to be. In no way, under the present circumstances, does an ACR reflect an officer’s qualities or capabilities. It is believed that the department would be far better off without this pernicious evaluation process that breeds corruption and bias. What characterizes the ACR today is a distinct lack of objectivity; it has become a means to personal ends, a medium for the

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advancement of individual interests and even settlement of personal scores. Servility is its inevitable consequence and it would not be immoderate to say that eliminating the ACR altogether would be certainly a step forward. If policing is to be effective in the years ahead, specialization is crucial. I suggest three distinct police services with separate recruitment and training: (1) Regulatory police or uniformed police in charge of law and order and other regulatory duties; (2) Mainstay police in charge of crime investigation and prevention and security and intelligence operation; (3) Social police in charge of prevention and investigation of all social offences and implementation of social legislation. All three wings should have their own individual organisations up to the district level with independent Superintendents and staff as required, functioning in tandem in much the same way as the Army, Navy and Air Force. At the apex, could be a specially constituted body called the State Police Authority with the chiefs of all three wings as members and the Chief Secretary as chairman. All the present maladies emanate from the politicians who are only concerned with winning the next elections. Until the organisation is extricated from the grip of politicians, it cannot hope to rise above the mediocre level, either in proficiency or in character. Such mediocrity is wont to percolate downwards in a democratic setup. An All India Police Authority accountable only to the President of India at the nationallevel with the regional Police Boards in States as independent bodies should be created. A Supreme Court Judge must head the Authority with the Union Home Secretary and the Cabinet Secretary as members and the senior most police officer of the country as the member-secretary. The regional Police Boards must have a High Court Judge at the helm with the Home Secretary and the Chief Secretary as members and the State Police Chief as member-secretary. The arrangement will bring to an end interference of any kind in police affairs, thus enabling the personnel to function in an independent atmosphere. These measures complete with
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the overhaul of the UPSC to bring back all the former gloria of commitment to merit and character may dawn a new era in Indian public life.

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POOR ADMINISTRATION AFFECTS POLICE MORALE
The basic ingredients of good policing are professional pride and good image. A good image boosts professional pride. Good image brings in its wake public cooperation and enhances the social recognition of the police personnel. True policing is impossible in the absence of the strength of pride; responsibilities to society can be discharged only from a position of strength. A weak police cannot do a good job. Pride is linked to morale. Police personnel humiliated in career can never face the people from a position of strength and do good policing. The tragedy lies in police administration. Its vanity belittles the police, breaches its pride and shatters its image. The police administrators in this country refuse to realize the basic psychological imperative of good policing; they crush professional pride whenever and wherever it is seen raising its head. Sadly to meet personal ends. Perhaps staff in no other government department suffers humiliations as in police. This is true at all levels including the highest ranks. Suspensions and disciplinary actions are common; when disciplinary action would include such indecent measures as withdrawal of vehicles, telephone and other facilities, denial of promotions, transfer to humiliating jobs created just for the purpose and keeping the person waiting without a job. This attitude produces a weak and confused police force with a low self-esteem. The police force is a tactical tool that can be of immense help to check the interference of the law. The police are aware of this aspect. They know that nothing works as fear
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does. They know that the advantages of a policeman outweigh the risks of breaking the spine by whatever means and that policemen so reined-in can be made to perform any job even at risks to his own life and honour. This is why the administrators spare no effort and lose no opportunities to beat, terrify and bully policeman of whatever rank, status, and enlightenment, even at the cost of professional pride.

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SCAPEGOAT An upright officer of the rank of Additional Director General of Police of a State and a scholar in diverse fields was known to refuse to bend against his conscience and this fact made him unpopular among his superiors. While he was the Chief of State prisons in 1995, he addressed his government about the tragic security lapses in a major prison in the State headquarters and sent proposals to improve the situation. No action was initiated on the report by the government. In the closing months of 1995, a mafia gang war that ensued in the State capital led to the murder of a gang leader by a prison inmate. The Government ordered an enquiry by the Home Secretary. The latter that found the ADGP a thorn in his flesh found a golden opportunity in the enquiry. The officer was removed from his position and was not given an alternative posting for at least three months. If anybody was to be held responsible for the lapses in the prison, it was the government for not acting on the report of the ADGP. In this case, not only did the ADGP become a scapegoat for the lapses of the government, but also an easy target for police officers that found his integrity inconvenient. Police administrators wield power over the state authorities. Power breeds arrogance. The sweep of arrogance is so strong that it has not patience for rules, laws, and codes of conduct, moral values, natural courtesies and human dignity. An illustration of how low the police administrators of independent India can stoop is provided by this instance, the likes of which can be found anywhere in India. A police chief of a State between 1986 and 1990, who had obtained several sites from the government through false claims in the names of his wife and himself and a spacious house in a posh area of the State capital refused to occupy the police house allotted to him and continued to stay in his own bungalow for the first three years of his tenure till the end of 1989. He shifted to the police house and took up the renovation of his own bungalow just a few
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months prior to his retirement. Rules required that the full guard provided to him at his own bungalow be shifted to the Police House. SELECTION DENIED The Deputy Commissioner of Police in charge of the armed police force committed the serious error of shifting one head constable and four constables from the bungalow to the Police House instead of assigning a new team to the Police House and keeping the old guard in the chief’s house under renovation to keep vigil over the construction materials. This infuriated the police chief so

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much so that the Deputy Commissioner was not selected for the vital All-India Service. The indifference, incompetence and corruption within the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) helped the process. The UPSC in its perverted competence has created a new breed of administrators in the police and other administrative classes. This new breed is interested in nothing beyond meretricious schemes for promoting its career interests. They only think of more perks, creating new posts to improve avenues of promotion and fighting for parity with other services. Thoughts about how the schemes would affect the police structure in the long run never bother these people. Newspapers carry reports of how promptly and actively regional and central IPS associations respond to all the decisions touching their career. We never hear these associations taking up any cause in matters purely professional-law and order, security or crime investigation. The matters are left to the care of those down the line. Administration is a highly specialized field requiring extra-ordinary skills but the state of affairs in the police field is archaic. Actually, there is no administration worth the name. There are no long-term plans. No organizational initiatives. No growth and coordination studies. The organisation takes care of itself depending upon the need factors. As far as morale, motivation and mental well being of the manpower are concerned, the contribution of the Indian police administration is absolutely zero. Threats and suppression form the essence of manpower management. Waste of human resources and man-days is the general rule. Quality, efficiency and character are inconsequential. Assessments are unheard of. Accommodating the desires of the higher-ups in official and political circles and powerful people on a quid pro quo basis is the accepted norm. There is leadership crisis at the administrative level. Reasons for this deterioration are many. The agency in charge of selection, namely the UPSC is now manned by people unequal to the task. Restructuring the UPSC with
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professionals of competence and integrity can tone up public administration. Administration as a service in spirit and governance deals with men, money, materials and machinery through laws, rules, decisions and directions. Administration, for the most part, is human resources management. The distinct culture and service conditions of the police, the stress and strain of policing and the psychological factors throw up problems unique to the organisation. This renders police administration a specialized field to be handled

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by experts having insight into the working conditions and the psychological pressures of policemen. The responsibilities of any administration are two-fold providing the body and shape required fulfilling the objectives of the organisation within the limits of the extant laws and providing the right ambience to boost the morale, motivation and above all the mental well-being of the personnel. The extra-ordinary nature of the police setup and its working conditions render the latter responsibility a sensitive field warranting specialized study and application. The complex psychological factors involving policing in diverse social conditions and social imperatives of a policeman’s life require dexterous handling of affairs to promote morale and right motivation in place of the ruleof-thumb approach adopted now. Unfortunately, the present chiefs of the civil service are unequal to the task. What is required is highly intricate organizational policy imbued with specialized skills and insight of the highest order to inspire, motivate and get the most out of the manpower at disposal. This involves balancing many contradictions inherent in the human psyche. On the one hand, the police force has to preserve its professional pride; on the other, it has to be taught to accommodate in its character the instinct to obey. It has to be tuned to be faithful to authority while its ultimate loyalty must rest with its professional objectives and the rule of law. The police have to be tough and fearsome to criminals and law-breakers, and gentle and friendly with the public. They have to be the model law-abiding citizens even while dealing with hardened criminals. While they are accustomed to the interplay of ranks and status in the rigid hierarchical order of the force, they should learn to treat all as equals and exercise authority over people at the top level in society. In short, the task of balancing these contradictions is the real challenge for the police administration.
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INDIAN POLICE: WHO WILL BELL THE CAT?
Policing, being a specialized job, remains an enigma to outsiders, including administrators and the general public. Its status, somewhere between the armed forces and the civil administration, renders its structure, scope and style of functioning undefined in the monolith of governance. This coupled with the prolate powers to cover all aspects of living, has made the police an awful force to live with. The situation is like one-way traffic wherein the police have a say on every aspect of the life of the people while the latter hardly know anything about the department. This has given the police the unique advantage of dictating what should be what, where and how in policing and the police organisation. This could be a boon if the right man sits at the top. But, sycophants climb the ladder and reach the top to hold the reins and guide the destiny of the police. The result is the Indian police have got what it deserves—a spiritless culture created by incompetent leaders. It has been nearly five decades since independence. The standard expected and observed in the police at the dawn of independence is no more. Belatedly though, it has been realized that self-rule does not mean fraud and tyranny and that the cabals of compatriots are no less pernicious than that of the aliens. Sixty years is a long enough period to realize the need to break away from the webs of corruption in independent India. India and the Indian police thus stand at a crossroads. Policemen are social doctors and policing is a surgical operation to systematically remove cancerous growths from the body of society. What if the band of doctors itself is infested with serious malignant growths? This is the position of the present day Indian police. The
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police, as the enforcers of law and protectors of public interests, wield tremendous powers. Such powers must be invested only in people of high probity and conscience. Otherwise, the powers will ruin the social fabric of the country and usher in anarchy. Powers to search,

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seize, remove, detain, direct, arrest, hit and even kill may prove pernicious, if trusted to wrong hands. How these powers are exercised depends on the work ethics of the organisation. It is those in an organisation who build up its job-culture and vice versa. Even a degenerate character turns honest and efficient in an honest and efficient environment. The work-culture builds and moulds the vitality to meet the general atmosphere around. Also, an honest and efficient person in a degenerate culture is bound to change sooner or later, unless his individual strength conquers the vitiating work-culture of the organisation. Building up a proper jobculture is, therefore, the bedrock of a proficient police organisation. The problem of the Indian police lies in a lack of understanding of the scope and ground rules of its work. This results in the absence of a proper set of standards to approach the call of duty. Consequently, each call of duty is approached subjectively, depending upon the mood and understanding of the police in charge of the situation. All strata of people, unfortunately, accept this. The Indian police never recognize the equality of all and the need to provide security to all citizens of India. Whether it is in matters of protection, maintenance of order, crime control or investigation, the standards of policing applied to a nameless poor farmer in a remote village and say, a former Prime Minister, both of whom have equal rights before the law and the Constitution, do vary. The point is not that the principle of equality should defy ground realities, but policing must have a reasonable set of standards within which the more important and the less important aspects must operate. It will not be so in India until people who place their personal interests beyond everything, including law, justice, fairness, objectivity, righteousness, career pride and professional interests hold the reins at the highest levels of the department. There are two types of approach to policing: The playful approach wherein the police, as players in a football game, play the game within the scope of the
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ground rules to have the ball inside the goalpost without committing a foul. Here, the game is played dispassionately and played because the members are paid to do so. The passionate approach wherein the police break all rules and laws that come in the way to make their task a success. They may even commit crimes in the process. The Indian police oscillate between these two disparate approaches, depending on for whom they work and what would be their personal gain ultimately. Only a few people with money and power to back policing of the passionate genre deserve the passionate approach. Others must remain

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contented with the ‘playful approach.’ A dignified police organisation should shun both attitudes. The former is against the tenets of professionalism and commitment to work. The latter, in spite of its commitment to its goals, is devoid of objectivity, fairness and justice. For, policing by criminal methods cannot be called professional policing. The right approach to professional policing is a synthesis of both the approaches in which the commitment to achieve goals respects the rules and laws of which the police are guardians. Professional commitment implies achieving goals within the parameters of the permitted methods. The professional end of the police is upholding the interests of law and justice. Policing is not an end in itself. It is a tool to serve law and justice. Policing by committing crimes against law and justice is committing crimes against policing. The Indian police are yet to show maturity of professional commitment extending equal attention to all the needy, irrespective of their stature, wealth and position in society. The state of human relations in Indian police does not bring credit to the organisation. The relations are brittle and mechanical without a human touch. The relation between different ranks is soft or hard depending upon the nature of their jobs and mutual advantage. It is rather a donor and recipient relationship while soft and master and servant relationship while hard. There is no genuine human concern and no sense of recognition of the other man as another human being. The other’s human qualities and talents are dismissed as inconsequential trash. This is equally true among officers of the same rank and has led to an atmosphere of mutual suspicion in spite of an outward show of belonging to the single family that the police is. The police chiefs must think hard to decide whether the current model of human relations in the police is conducive to healthy policing or not. A sound police organisation thrives on sound human relations between and within ranks, sustained by genuine concern, mutual respect, recognition, sympathy and understanding. Such relations
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do not perforce go against police discipline and the official command-obedience functions. Instead a sense of belonging and unity of purpose are cultivated. The hierarchical order only defines the relations created in the minds of the people. Good relations strengthen the hierarchical order by making the order willingly acceptable to all and thus facilitating its working. A subtle mental bond that links all men in an organisation is its greatest asset. A sense of recognition from others coupled with the pride of belonging creates a happy atmosphere in the organisation and improves efficiency and output.

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Sadly this is just the reverse in the Indian police. Here, human relations are vitiated. Mutual suspicion and antagonism are the rule. Men in higher ranks revel in hurting the pride of the subordinates while the latter wait for the right time to settle scores. In this atmosphere of hostility and under-cuttings, the organisation and its objects suffer, its entire people suffer and the country suffers. This is where India stands at present. The success of a police organisation depends on its ability to create a sense of pride and dignity in its members including the constabulary, so that they consider themselves as useful and responsible members of the police outfit and endeavor to live up to the image. The goal can be achieved by proper modulation of perks, rewards, praise, good treatment, respect, censure or punishment has been earned by him. This is a far cry from what is actually happening in India. Good work is seldom recognized. Every job is done as a personal favour. Medals and citations are divested of their distinction by being linked to seniority and not merit that is why medals carry no meaning within the organisation. What the Indian police inspire in the public is fear and hatred, not trust, respect and love. This is the greatest single failing of the Indian police. A police force feared and hated is irrelevant in a democracy. The argument that fears are a necessary constituent in policing is not based on the right understanding of human psychology. The police do stand on a different footing from the general public but that status is based on trust, respect, love and a healthy awe, not, fear and hatred. It is healthy awe that inspires in citizens genuine cooperation and willing subjection to police authority. Police is not synonymous with fear. A smiling and helpful police force is a salient feature of democracy. The police are not the enemy of the people, especially in democracy. Policing involves enforcement of order for the good of many that may sometimes mean inconvenience to a few. The job, if performed right, must win the trust, love and respect of the masses. The misuse of power and a
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supercilious approach will alienate the common man and earn his hatred. The exercise of police powers with absolute humility is quite possible. An approach of service to the general public renders the exercise a sensible and delicate task and avoids harshness. It is up to the police to show its good intentions and convince the public about its trustworthiness. Nothing the Indian police do now will help to create this image. It is time serious efforts were made in this direction. The situation can be salvaged by clearing the cobwebs. There is a bunch of self-motivated officers in key positions in the police who have contributed to the downslide of the Indian police in the post-democratic era. They have corrupted

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the police atmosphere, set wrong precedents, encouraged self-indulgence eroded its tough image and reduced it to its present cadaverous existence. These elements should be sidelined to make way for men of probity to refurbish and rebuild the setup. The future of India depends upon the strengths and weaknesses of its police. Defence forces are relevant to the existence of India in so much as defending its borders and protecting its system of government. But the relevance of the police is more meaningful, for, here, the very existence of India as a nation is at stake. The significance of the police is often forgotten somewhere between the width of civil administration and the depth of the defence forces. The police must be powerful. It must be a disciplined and committed force. It saves the country from all disasters; it supports the administration in civil rule and works as its watchdog. It works as a subsidiary force in support of the military during war. If need be, it can run the administration when civil rule breaks down and can function as an armed force if the military fails. The importance of this great tool of governance is yet to be recognized. It is time Indian police is given a fresh lease of life of vitality and strength. Yes, something should be done to save the police. The question is, who should begin the process, and where, when and how? Who will bell the cat to bring it to its senses?

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INDIAN POLICE NEED HEALTHY JOB CULTURE
Policemen are social doctors and policing is a surgical operation of the society to systematically remove cancerous growths from its body. What if the band of doctors itself is infested with serious cancerous growths? This is the position of the present-day Indian police. The police, as the enforcers of law and protectors of the public interests, wield tremendous powers for the public good. Such powers to interfere with the life of the citizens must be invested only in people of high probity and conscience. Otherwise, the powers by themselves ruin the social fabric of the country and bring anarchy. Powers to search, seize, remove, detain, direct, arrest, hit and even kill may prove pernicious in the wrong hands. Powers to decide who has done wrong and how to prosecute them, when invested in dishonest hands, certainly ruin society and the country. How these powers are exercised depends imprimis on the work ethic of the organisation. Though it is the people of an organisation au fond who build the job-culture of the organisation, it is this job-culture of the organisation that creates a person in the organisation at a given point of time. Even a degenerate caractere turns honest and efficient in an honest and efficient environment. The work culture builds and moulds vitality to meet the general atmosphere around. Similarly, an honest and efficient person in a degenerate culture is bound to atrophy sooner or later, unless his individual strength superates the vitiating work-culture of the organisation. Ergo, building up a proper job-culture is the bedrock of a perficient police organisation. India, as one of the foremost and largest democracies of the world, have a great burden on its flabby shoulders to
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prove to the world that democracy as a form of government can stand up to any dissipating influence and hold disparate geographical, racial, ethnical, linguistic, religious, cultural and economic factors united in its pandemic prise of liberal benevolence and serve the cause of the unity of the sovereign country at all odds. The gauntlet India faces in this regard is made kenspeckle by the locus standi or the country in terms of its position as a ranking leader of the developing countries. Human nature being as it is, the

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emerging atmosphere of commercialization and material comforts vis a vis increasing concours for limited resources of the Earth, makes man increasingly self- centered and more and more adventurous and violent in his appropinquation to reach his self-appointed narrow goals. It is true of all social divisions including religions, language groups, ethnic divides, cultural interests and national aspirations. Communal hatred, linguistic barriers, ethnic clashes, cultural bickering and threats to the national security are orders of the day rather than exceptions with the trends betraying the indicia of dangerous chorisis. Democracy, unfortunately, is a fertile ground of such degenerate tendencies because of the trust democracy lays wrongly on the basic nature and general abilities of common man. The trust is wrongly laid for the reason that democracy fails to take into account the reality of the limosis in man which creates all which creates all havocs and assesses man as just a need-oriented simple animal. Liberalization that forms part of democracy, in cahoots with material interpretations of life, in spite of myriad benefit and comforts it brings with it, certainly poison the atmosphere to the extent of comminating the very foundation of the democracy and the unity of the country. This is where the police come to the picture to control the situation and save the democracy from its own vices. The police in a democracy are the watchdog of the democracy. Democracy basically being the rule of the hoi polloi, clash of interests therein is an expected feature. In an atmosphere of self-rule by the self-centered people of the present commercial world, a machinery to show peoples their limits and punishes devious elements in sine qua non. The police form the master-axle that runs this vital engine of the administration. It being the ultimate executors of the laws, rules and regulations that form the chemistry of a rule of law, whatever are the other attributes of an administration, its efficiency, quality and success tout a fait depend upon the merits of the police, the democracy evolves for itself. In the atmosphere of 20 and 21
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centuries’ unified world, like all other social and administrative apparatus, Indian police too have most of its external patterns modeled after the police organisations in other countries rather than evolved ab intra. This is true in pre-independent era as well as in post-independent age. In pre-independent era, because, the then rulers namely the British modeled Indian police on the patterns of their own police back in England. In post-independent age, because, independent India’s new rulers continue with the system left by the British except for spasmodic retouches here and there in response to time to time compulsions of the realities in the fields of crime, security and law and order of the country. Though the retouches made their appearances from the field realities, the ideas

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and models are algate modeled on parallel machinery in other countries. It is true about the gestalts and protocols of India’s own Research and Analysis Wing or Intelligence Bureau or Central Bureau of Investigation or Paramilitary forces or crack-forces or anti terrorist-squads or organisations to fight narcotics and other economic offences or normal police station, district and state police administration. It is not to say that Indian police is tout ensemble alien to Indian situation just because of its tramontane jacket. Far from it. Indian police in its foreign jacket goes perforce Indian in its soul with concomitant advantage and disadvantages of Indian spirit, because Indian police works in Indian situation and ispo facto adapts to Indian needs and spirit. The utility of Indian police to India depends upon the direction and degree to which Indian police have taken to this process of adaptation and also how successfully and efficiently. It is in this perspective, the role of the police in reconstruction of India, expectations from it, actual chevisance, and its import on national life are discussed. India’s experiments in democracy are sui generis and stand apart from similar experiments other where by the non a such characteristics of the country, its people, their aspirations and historical background. Though the process of adaptation to democracy was not guided by any deliberate plan to be different, India’s very own situations dictated terms to the shapes to be molded specific to its values, needs and aspirations. The growth of India’s police remained faithful to these shapes more suo. It is a fact that an organized effort is on in Indian police to force its members to fall in with its line of profile at the cost of individual brilliance and creative height. Indian police are continuously starved of freshness and creative innovations as the result of shutting itself to the creative sparks and other precious attributes of its human resources. Such wastage of available human resources can occur only in a government setup of a developing country like India. What surprises is the extent to which the organisation goes to nip in bud excellences to perpetuate
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the interests of its old, secure world of unquestioning servilities down the line. All loud talks of Indian police leaders on public platforms about the need of infusing excellence and outstanding qualities to the police organisation are shenanigans meant for the consumption of the ignorant public. Most leaders of the Indian police at heart desire continuation of the status quo at the peril of the growth of the organisation so that they and their interests remain undisturbed with unquestioning and dullwitted subordinates down the ladder at their personal beck and call. Any mark of threat to the perceived security? Any brilliance of new concepts or interpretations about the functioning of the police? Lo, most heads come together and join hands in scruple less cabals to undermine

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the source of brilliance. The reason is self-interests. Nothing attract and bind them together so fiercely as the possibility of new thoughts surfacing in the organisation and somebody down the ladder leaving a trail of blaze of brilliance that may cloud their organizational superiority. What ensues is a fight jusqu au bout; it would be a fight sans moral or legal scruples, a fight without a tinge of mercy or sympathy where all fall as one against the lonely prey till it is neutralized. Though courts of law can theoretically protect against such harassments, expenses, time and uncertainties involved and the history of court judgments being dodged or rendered ineffective by administrative sleight, render the protection meaningless and force the upright officer to face all humiliations and losses in silence or yield to the pressures. It is to the credit of Indian police that it has great officers who withstood all slights without yielding to pressures. A distinct case is of a senior police officer of outstanding caliber and excellence from a southern state of India whose uprightness cost him his career prospects. His disinclination towards flexible ways made him unpopular among those higher in the hierarchical ladder. He was though greatly feared and highly respected for his superior and foursquare qualities, most of those senior to him were uneasy at his presence. Repeated attempts were made to discredit him and sully his reputation by any means. Most senior police officers took him as a thorn in their flesh and joined hands to tarnish his image. When his superiors in unholy alliance found that none of their customary methods work with him, they almost declared a war of nerves on him in 1996. He was refused all normal benefits entitled to his rank: his car was withdrawn, telephones were disconnected, his personal staff was harassed and subordinates were encouraged to disobey and even access to office stationeries was denied. While even these measures were not proved feracious in bringing the upright officer to heels and instead the honest officer grew from strength to strength by his distinguished and
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impregnable strength of personality, desperate as they were, the senior officers, against all legal and administrative proprieties, divested him of all his official powers he naturally exercised virtuti officii in an effort to isolate the upright officer tout ensemble. Such harassments are common when a few officers with awakened conscience, honesty, professionalism and probity in public life disturb the immoral indulgence of the corrupt lot in police and related departments. Most consciences do breach, most professional competencies crack and most concerns for probity in public life just disappear under unrelenting pressures from above. Surviving such repressions as above is only a rarest of the rare exceptions.

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It is a tragedy in Indian police that there is no relation between the efficiency and performance of an official and his standing in the organisation. The police officials are so indifferent to the performance of their subordinates and their work turnout that they are absolutely in the dark about the standard of work turned out under their supervision. Another reason for this sad affair may be that they are unqualified to assess. This situation leads to random assessment when a senior is statutorily bound to assess and in the process, talent withers and opportunists overtake high-caliber workers on the hierarchical ladder. A yardstick to measure an organisation is the degree of success of the organisation in meeting its raison d’etre. The responsibilities of the police as an organisation basically is three fold, in that enforcing the rule of law, assisting the judiciary in dispensation of justice and functioning as the watchdog of the internal security of the country. The three responsibilities do widely vary in their scope, functional requirements and appropinquation that while the police function as law enforcers while discharging law and order responsibilities, they may sometimes be called to break laws though surreptitiously as the watchdogs of the internal security of the country. Or while they function only as a fact-finding machine to the judiciary, in enforcing the rule of law in their capacity as the investigating authority, they may be called to enforce laws as enforcers of law and order. In spite of these wide variations in the nature of the works and responsibilities on their bold shoulders, one thing that holds all works and responsibilities of the police together is its importance as the spine of the rule of law. The police are the cutting edge of the administration. It is the watchdog of the administration. This scope of the police often renders it to appear like the odd-job boy of the statecraft. They, as ultima ratio, are the real dispenser of the rule of law as well as the guardian angels of the country. This vital place in the administration of the country makes the police the arms, legs, eyes, ears and noses of the administration, but also the very tool of the country’s well being and survival. The
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police are one of the most important levers required in running the machinery of the statecraft. It is why the blind rush and impatient race among rulers to control this vital lever. The reasons lie in the rulers as well as in the police. In the rulers, because it is natural for anyone to take advantage of the tools that make it available for use and rather preposterous to expect rulers to shut their eyes while the police willingly offer itself for their personal behoofs. And rulers of democratic India douse the police for their personal and party ends to the extent that the first half century after independence has obfuscated the distinction between the national interests and the personal interests of the rulers as far as the use of the police of

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democratic India elected to subordinate its professional and national responsibilities to the gloria and being the handmaid of the politicians in power. Two factors helped the process. One was the wrong type of people at the helm of the organisation as models. Another was the lack of proper understanding of the concepts like obedience and discipline. These two factors together and separately brought about slowly but steadily the degringolade of professionalism in the police of democratic India. The nonprofessional approach of the self seeking police leadership at the helm to sub serve the personal and party interests of the rulers percolated downwards in the organisation as a model and sadly accepted as the general rules of conduct by the maffled police down below at all ranks per procurationem obedience and discipline. The wrong model led Indian police to forget that their primary obedience is to the laws of the country and rulers surface to the front only as the representatives of the laws of the land and ergo secondary to the sacred police responsibilities. The police in new dispensation forgot the cardinal principle that they are subordinate to the rulers faute de mieux and their profession dictates them to exercise policing duties even against those rulers if the laws of the country find them doing wrong. These serious professional lapses not only weakened Indian police, also damaged political system, social values and the credibility of Indian democratic process. Ignorance and lack of interest is part of the Indian public in general and intellectual class in particular in the police system and its time-to-time devious shifts added to the malady in the form of giving free hand to the police to evolve itself sans restraint and sound guidance. Adaptations to political masters as a bargain to secure key posts prove fatal to the dignity as well as professional values of the police setup. A police officer of a state in southern India succeeded in cornering the coveted post of Police Commissioner of the State Headquarters a few years back by the support of politician known in the then political parlance as the “ Father, Mother” of the Chief
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Minister of the state. A few days’ after, the politician in inebriated state was arrested with his associates while fleeing in a car late night after involving in a sex scandal involving a budding film star. The police official who affected the arrest recognized the identity of the person he arrested only after the arrested persons were brought to a nearby Police Station in the city. The police Commissioner was intimated about the developments. The Police Commissioner promptly made his appearance in the Police Station in the night and ensured immediate release of his political godfather. But, the political heavy weight in temulent state was implacable. He caught the uniform collar of the Police Commissioner in front of the shocked lowly officials of the Police Station and shouted at the Police

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Commissioner in his inebriated voice whether he made him Police Commissioner to arrest and bring him to the Police Station through his juniors. The Police Commissioner was seen meekly begging the politician to pardon him. The incident made headlines in newspapers. The scoundrel Police Commissioner later rose to become the Police Chief of the state and retired now. Such incidents abound in circumstances of Police Officers vying for coveted posts a tout prix and as a consequence, the dignity of the posts lowers and the professional qualities of the organisation suffer. Present India does have an adequately large and sturdy framework for the police apparatus in terms of organizational strength and budgetary provisions to sustain it. Only the canvas held by the framework is flabby and limicolous. This predicament per se speaks aplenty about the very cause of it. For one, the fact that an adequately large and sturdy framework or organizational strength and liberal budgetary provisions available for the police setup is clear sign of the willing political patronage to the apparatus; it sine dubio proves that the rulers recognized the import of the police in running the administration. However, the flabby and limicolous canvas ab intra speaks of the nonprofessionalism under the sound political patronage. This adds up to the close links between politics and the police for nonprofessional purposes, possibly with criminal intent as nonprofessional police approach mostly suggests criminal angle in view of the professional police concerns mostly being focused on crime control and crime prevention. Unfortunately, India has passed a long way in this undesirable links to the lengths of being cannot easily retract its path to cleanse the Augean stables of the police organisation now.

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CORRUPTION IN INDIA
The size of India’s parallel economy at 40% of GDP does provide fertile ground for corruption. Lack of deterrence against corruption and importance to wealth begotten by whatever means enormously promoted corruption in India. More important, corruption in India flows from above from the political class under covers like party and election funds, and senior bureaucrats who are seldom investigated or punished, either through conspiratorial silence or through conspiratorial legislative manipulations. Further, political patronage gave an aura of invincibility and respectability to corruption and deprived it of all moral and legal fears. The Central Bureau of Investigation in the Centre and Criminal Investigation Departments in the states and Union Territories have become political tools in the hands of the ruling party and grossly politicized the criminal investigation process in the country. What is worse, the conviction rate is hardly 6% in criminal cases. India was placed 73rd in corruption among the 99 countries rated In the Transparency International rankings for 1999. Corruption flourishes in India because it is perceived to be a low risk and high profit business. Lack of transparency in administration provides an opportunity for public servants to mislead citizens and extract bribes. The Central Vigilance Commission which was set up in the Centre in 1964 and Vigilance Commissions and institutions like Lok Ayukta which were set up in some states as Government agencies and headed by retired public servants or High Court or Supreme Court judges are proved too inadequate to meet the challenges in hand because of again the conspiratorial refusal of the political and bureaucratic leaderships to invest them with
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necessary powers and organizational strength. It is only the Supreme Court in India seems waging a war against corruption. The Government of India converted the Central Vigilance Commission into a statutory body through an executive order in 1998 on the directive of the Supreme Court. It rendered the CVC at least statutorily independent of the political and bureaucratic set-ups.

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Although everybody in every nook and corner of the country knows who are corrupt in the Government set-up and knows every details of their mode of operations, India’s administrative machinery is so devised to ensure that corruption never comes to its official cognizance even while taking place en plein jour in its own corridors and antechambers to the benefits of the key politicians and senior bureaucrats. Power corridors and ministerial antechambers are rendered protected places from anti-corruption moves and converted to safe havens for corruption at high places. Ill-gotten wealth is generally stashed away in the form of black money in foreign accounts and benami bank accounts, property, jewellery and other valuables. It is a common principle in government world-over that if a person is facing a vigilance inquiry, he should not be placed in a sensitive post. However, this practice was not being followed in India. Actually, exactly the opposite is true in India. Only those politicians and bureaucrats who have disposable black money a gogo can afford to buy high public positions in India. Others are mercilessly sidelined as nonconformists or even discredited or destroyed as dangerous outsiders in the big business of bribery. Media and its lack of depth and insight add to the maelstrom while it presumes and glorifies those in key posts as the rare personification of noble virtues and merit while truth is that those posts are invariably cornered these days by those who can afford to illegally pay for that either by kind or other means and therefore grossly corrupt in the world of transfer business. It is not uncommon to media to add its mite to the charges of the vested interests against and question appointment of the senior most officers to the top post of a Government department on the ground that the officer never held charge of a key executive post till then. Media in India is yet to grow to appreciate the point that the denial of venal key posts in spite of seniority in the extant milieu of transfer business per se vouches to the probity and noncorruptibility of the concerned officer. That is how corruption has flourished in the system.
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Endless delays common in India in the conduct of departmental inquiry, investigation and prosecution help corruption to flourish. Delay provides a cover of respectability for the guilty. The significance of corruption as a factor that adversely affects the growth of a country is being increasingly recognized. Corruption, in the words of Indira Gandhi, is a world phenomenon. It exists in developed countries too. Corruption is institutionalized as a part of the democratic process in the USA as lobbying and public relations activities and the country prides in its mushrooming

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lobbying and public relations firms with major foreign governments inter alios as its clients. The firms are nothing but mammoth business houses indulging in legal corruption. This nohow justifies corruption other where. Indian corruption has special characteristics that make it far more damaging than corruption in other parts of the world. First, people in India being poor and largely dependent on the Government for decent living and even survival, and limited by its excessive laws, rules, regulations and largess in almost all activities of life with high rates of taxation on every conceivable items and services, corruption literally sucks life out of their existence unlike those in developed countries whose dependence on the Government is relatively not so deep and prolate. This renders corruption in India an extremely dangerous phenomenon with terminal consequences on the culture, value system and the quality and the content of the life of the people. Second, corruption in India flows down from above. Corruption at the top affects key decisions and policies with sweeping implications while core decisions in developed countries are taken on merit through transparent competition. Third, the wealth accumulated by corrupt means in India as black money of the parallel economy has the habit of disappearing out to safe havens abroad unlike western countries where capital made out of corruption is generally ploughed back into domestic production and investment. Thus, the proceeds of corruption while help to finance business in developed countries, it just adds to foreign accounts in India. Fourth, corruption in India as a general rule leads to promotion and not to prison. It is particularly so about powerful officials hand in glove with the ruling party and those who have money and influence to buy justice and ruling party stalwarts in contrast to developed countries where in a system and process of accountability even top leaders are investigated and prosecuted. The most frustrating aspect of corruption in India is that the corrupt
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are too powerful to go through such an honest process of accountability as causa sine qua non of their ill-gotten wealth and power. Fifth, corruption in India is a process against some of the poorest in the world and against half a billion poor people who are below the poverty line while that in developed countries it is mostly against people with per capita incomes above twenty thousands dollars. While corruption anywhere is reprehensible, it is political dynamite when the majority of the population cannot meet their basic needs and a few make fortunes through corruption as in India and other poor countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America. Corruption there leads to massive

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deprivation of basic needs and extreme income inequalities. Ergo, combating corruption in the milieu of poverty is not only punishing corrupt politicians and bureaucrats, but more important, saving human lives. Corruption was born with the human being and its history is as long and as varied as the history of the mankind itself. Kautilya refers to the invincibility of corruption in public life and the Government of the time in his magnum opus Artha Shaastra. Corruption is a shortcut to wealth and one’s goals and relegation of rightful means to oblivion in preference to ends at the earliest. It is a problem of attitude that highlights selfish ends in preference to higher values and ideals that define noble and dignified life, and pollutes the environment. Corruption is potent of growing exponently by poisoning the environment to the extent of forcing the noncorruptible to fall in line to survive. The milieu compels the society to accept corruption as a means of livelihood imprimis and as a means of accomplishments later. The situation reaches a climacteric while governing system of the country accepts corruption as a way of public life and its leading lights pollute the public life by openly resorting it for short time gains. India has already reached the stage and nothing can save a country from the atrophy save a complete overhaul by the forces of probity, perhaps vi et armis. Corruption is the product of man’s natural greed and contempt for rightful means and constitutes the bedrock of his natural disposition. Therefore, any dream to wipe off corruption from the face of the Earth is too idealistic to be realistic. Corruption perforce dies only with the humankind. What can be done and attempted is its suppression and creating an environment wherein it becomes less lucrative and more dangerous than it is now. The deed warrants mobilization of the increasingly depleting forces of integrity and probity in high places in Government and public life to fight the environment favorable to corruption. It is easier said than done. The temptation of the easy money is too pollent to break through its plexure. Indian
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political system being what it has grown to be in licentious India of the post-independent vintage does not easily let the easy provenance of ill-gotten wealth to slip from its proprietorial grip. So also is the demoralised and easy-laid bureaucracy of the free India. The evil nexus of the two forces need to be breached to loosen the taut prise of corruption on the public life of India. Till then, meaningful amendments to the Constitution, criminal Acts and Rules to make corruption dangerous and less lucrative like decheance of the wealth gained through corruption, institution of Lok Pal machinery to try corruption at highest levels, making such anti-corruption bodies really powerful bodies with extra-ordinary powers and unperstringed independence to tackle corruption cases of any kind and doing away with

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notorious provisions like Single Directives to protect higher echelons of the administration from the corruption charges while it is people in those positions itself are the true springboards of corruption in India are bound to remain empty slogans for the public platform to fool the public and resisted by those who count a tout prix while it comes to the crunch. It is left to those outside the circle to mobilize forces and fight the evils that one day definitely destroys India. If kingship is single-point exploitation, democracy is a license for countless exploitations of who are weaker and more helpless and corruption is the engine that runs the process of the exploitation. The extent of corruption is a clear mark of the degree of exploitation afoot in a given democracy. A democracy is meaningful only when it is expropriated from the evil of exploitation. In other words, corruption as an indicator of exploitation in a country stands for negation of the democratic values of a democracy. Until corruption is extirpated from the face of the democracy of a country and unless India does it piu mosso, brilliant and enlightened youngsters like Saket Rajan in India falling out of the mainstream of the national life to join rebellious anti-exploitation organisations like the Naxal Movement and sacrificing their precious life to police bullets is unavoidable. India can be a true democracy only when it succeeds in bringing corruption in its public life under control.

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POLICE AS SOCIAL SURGEONS
Police deal with social ills as physicians and surgeons deal with physical ills. A surgeon incises parts of the body to set right wrongs and remove dangerous growths from the system to save a person while a police do the same for the society. Police job like the works of a surgeon involves administration of bitter potions, prescription of restrictions and incisions to lay foundation for a sturdy system. Like medical profession, policing is a highly responsible function and ergo needs to be bound by moral ethos lex non scripta to avoid misuse of special rights involved in discharge of duties. Both professions involve independent decisions in handling each case and exercise of infrangible conscience in doing justice to it. The difference lies in the medical profession mostly maintaining its pristine purity as a profession while police as a splinter of bureaucracy being illaqueated by formalities and procedures inherent in government functions at the cost of forthright involvement and commitment immanent to a profession. The ineluctable hierarchical order as the spine of policing and the concomitant interferences from above bring a measure of incertitude and render honest and professional policing nonpossumus by depriving field officers their freedom in handling cases on dictates of the conscience. This perforce adversely affects the effectiveness of policing and ipso facto, the health of the society. It is the reason why in spite of sound presence of the social surgeons, Indian society witnesses the deterioration of its health de mal en pis each passing year. TRUST OF THE PEOPLE Physicians and surgeons have as much potentiality and opportunity to damage as to save health. Because of their expertise and credibility, surgeons have umpteen
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opportunities to use their tools and instruments on people on the claim of restoring health. The whole process is based on trust on the surgeons and their honesty. Imagine the situation when the lot of surgeons is greedy and sans scruples, while the people have no alternative to offering themselves for surgery to their hands in times of need. None can be sure what would happen to an unconscious patient on the operation table in the hands of such surgeons behind the closed doors of the operation theatre. The whole situation becomes hopeless when the whole setup is run by similarly profligate surgeons and the precept that

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birds of the same feather flock together operates to hold them united at the expense of any relief by appeals or complaints. The harm done to the patient to meet the greed of the surgeons would be pro rata to the latter’s immoral propensities. Synergy among them may lead even to venal deals in human organs at the expense of the health of the ignorant people. Their contempt for professional skills and negligent work may tremendously harm the safety of the patients. The situation in the field is certain to wreck the trust of the people on the surgeons. The predicament forces them to rely on the contabescent setup foute de mieux. The hapless position spawns a sense of disillusion in people and they even resign to the situation as helpless subjects. This exactly is the situation of the social surgery by the police in India. The society has to depend for surgery upon an epinosic organisation, which is inefficient, environ with quandaries, mismanaged, enfested with scandals and above all, undependable. The society, for its well being, has to fall on an organisation with which it tends to keep distance and thinks it indignity to associate, its womenfolk consider as an insult on their womanhood to approach and its children see it as an image of fear and silenced by invoking its name to gallow. It is the predicament of the Indian society. On the one hand, the popular image of the police in Indian psyche is that of a devil, of an evil. But, it has to fall on the police for all of its social evils. Though part of the bad image of the police is sheer myth, part in quiddity is the result of wrong people and wrong concepts coming to the centre stage in Indian police from a long time. RELEVANCE OF CRUELTY The similarly of surgeons and police basically is their hard means to achieve the desired end—surgical methods involving incisive tools to cut and remove unwanted growths. It is en regle as far as surgeries and concerned. The tragedy of the police lies in de trop extension of the hard means unlike surgeons to other aspects of life. The difference between a surgeon and a police is that while a surgeon outside the operation theatre is a gentleman every
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farden, unaffected by the ambience, the hard approach renders a police apocryphal at the cost of civil living and basic human nature. This is why the image of the police is very low. The hard methods in police extend even to its policy of human resources management at the cost of neoteric principles of man management. The rule of thumb continues to be the bedrock of handling human resources. Ruthlessness and cruelty are its principal weapons in bringing subordinates and the public to submission. Human dignity is an unknown concept in the police. The result sees motivation becoming a casualty in the bedlamish system.

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SADISTIC PLEASURE The endless affairs with legal matters perhaps insensitise the police to the problems of legality. This is evident in their hors la loi approach to various issues. The police seem to think that end justifies the means. The problems of malfeasance are common in the police. The mode of approach of the police to man management proves this. No scruple is shown in measures meant to bring a subordinate to knees or an accused to confess to the offence, he had not committed. Third degree methods in interrogations are a too familiar issue to discuss here. Though third degree methods are universal in application in police investigations, there are vital differences in their use in advanced and countries like India. While utmost care and discreetness are employed in enlightened police forces of advanced countries in deciding whether a particular individual has to be subjected to serve interrogations, where imminence of the concerned person being an offender is a prime criterion and the methods are used as the dernier ressort, Indian police like their counterparts in backward countries adopt third degree methods in investigation as their staple right over innocent citizens and fall to it in the first available instant like wolves on their preys. It cannot be gainsaid that there is a streak of sadistic pleasure in Indian police. They think that third degree methods are de rigueur in crime investigation. The sadistic pleasure finds expression in severity down the hierarchical ladder at the cost of dignity and self- respect of others down the ladder. It is a free-for-all field. Basic values like mutual respect and courtesies are rare in Indian police. Ruthlessness and cruelty are the ropes Indian police find commodious with. This invidious stria is hardly the desirable attribute to which any decent society wants to submit itself for any treatment. LACK OF COMMITMENT A ken of the extent to which the Indian social surgeons are committed to their work and goals can be had from the fact that in a small department headed by a Director General of Police, deputed from the police department in a
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southern state of India, a criminal case of fraud and forgery involving a huge amount was launched against some staff members of the department in a police station after the misdeeds were unearthed during an audit. The circumstances of the case normally warrant departmental actions like suspension of the officials, departmental enquiries and measures to recover the loss to follow the launching of the criminal case. In this case, the department washed off its hands after launching the criminal case as if it had nothing to do about the fraud and forgery in its own organisation. No suspensions, no departmental enquiries, no recovery processes. Even the criminal case was just a front to save the skin of the people

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at the helm of the organisation. Advice from wellmeaning officers in the department to the DGP in 1996 to take the affairs to their logical ends by initiating essential departmental actions as an apotropaic measure fell on dunny ears. In addition, the police who were investigating the case were surreptitiously advised by the DGP to go slow with the case till the people involved in the case easily retire. This much about the zeal of Indian police as social surgeons in tackling evils. “Surgeon” is an abracadabra; the concept of social surgeon is pregnant with highest ideals human mind can conceive. The application of this concept to recognize the duties of the police is the highest honour the society has invested the police with, and ipso facto lays sublime responsibilities on the rough and tough little shoulders of the police. Unfortunately, police suffer from alexia and fail to read the elevated position in which they are held while recognized as social surgeons. It is position in which they are held while recognized as social surgeons. It is sad to see how the sacred responsibilities are not only frittered away, but abused at will to the chagrin of the hoi polloi. The consequence is that while the police are yet seen and called as social surgeons foute de mieux, they are no more loved and respected as social surgeons should be. On the other hand, they are misprised and distanced for the apostasy; they suffer from their avowed path. Indeed the fear of police is there because of the weapons and the muscle of power they wield. In some parts of the country, even the rear is glidder after the plebeian has learnt the lesson that money can do any tricks with the police. The cause of the degringolade certainly lies in the police itself; in the type of people enter the service, their caliber, their values and convictions and the professional atmosphere created by the service. If the organisation and the people in it cannot rise to the high levels expected of it and prove their raison d’etre, the reason lies in its ephemeral selfinterests ectogenous to the professional values and ideals. Police as social surgeons perforce require single-minded commitment to the cause of well being of the society. It is
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seld or never found in present Indian police. The society whose well being is the responsibility of the police, know it. The police know it. The society is left to itself to mend its problems. Police work only when there is gratification and while people with muscles of money and power need help. This certainly is not characteristic of a social surgeon, but of a social-wrecker. Sadly Indian police is becoming that in oodles, the protector of and tool in the hands of rich and powerful. The preposterous trend has to stop in the interests of the police as an organisation and a profession, the society, the country and the humanity. The key for this change lies in creation of right professional ambience in the police system. The secret of creating right

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atmosphere lies in right leadership and the burden of right leadership lies on right convictions about the importance of police and policing as a profession. The malaise of Indian police lies in lack of right convictions about the importance of policing as a profession. The result is that all types of wolves ab intra et ab extra falling on the system to tear it from all sides and eating it. The wolves within are more dangerous than outside. The ensure that no upright resistance breed ab intra to the detriment of their esurient appetite and no professional pride raises its head to topple their schemes of self-promotion The only response of their greed is wrecking uprightness and professional pride wherever they are traced. Such hawks in higher echelons of the career-ladder succeeded in their schemes and the result is the Indian police in its present wretched state. The salvation of Indian police lies in breaking the vice prise of these arriviste and laying it in the safe hands of the professionals steeped in the foundations of professional pride and uprightness, to make the system acceptable to the society as its protector and ‘social surgeons’ true to the abracadabra.

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NEED OF TOUGH DECISIONS FOR INDIAN POLICE
It is India’s good fortune that its fabric of law and order has withstood the effects of growing complexity of the Indian society for so long in spite of the fragility of its policing system. The fact that the police systems in a few neighboring countries of Asia and Africa are worse cannot be a solace as the political, social and economical structures of those countries have different backgrounds and value systems from ours. India is a crucible wherein the dynamics and relevance of democracy in the third world are being experimented with. The Indian police system must necessarily meet the aspirations of democracy in fulfilling its objective of maintaining internal order and security. This dimension has added to the problems of policing in India. The Indian polity confronts its police with ever greater challenges while giving it an increasingly limited wherewithal to face them. . A minor shift in the style of policing in the country can make a life-and-death difference to myriad people. A wrong turn and the police could inadvertently tear the fabric of the national life to shreds and ruin the country. A right step and an era of perfect security, order and peace may be created. Only an objective analysis of the needs of the time and assessment of the situation would give the insight necessary to make the right choice for police about the course to be pursued. Such an analysis must be carried out by highly competent persons at the highest level who can see things dispassionately and take decisions. They must be people who have an overall view of things and are capable of seeing them against the wider background of
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national interest. It is a responsible job, requiring through knowledge of the nuances of police and policing. The people who do it must be capable of taking hard decisions that may often go against their own interests and may have far-reaching consequences. The Indian police must give serious thought to what it wants to be in the future and may have to take some tough decisions. There is an impression that the Indian police are not what it was before Independence. The pride, toughness and commitment to duty are no more

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visible. On the contrary, the Indian police have become soft humble and easy going. Pressure from all directions has deprived it of its vitality. The police have become a widely abused organisation by the virtue of its submission on the wishes of its masters under false notions of discipline. It is the popular scapegoat for anything and everything that goes wrong in the public life. In the circumstances, a sense of insecurity has developed among the policemen. A natural outcome of this development is taking things easy, with the eyes and ears shut, unless career interests warrant otherwise Commitment to policing is sacrificed in the process. These developments have reduced the police to the level of a toy that moves only when the spring inside unwinds. New entrants who begin eagerly soon after the training period, begin to realize the realities. A serious malady affecting the tough and nonsense image of the police is the interference of people of some standing in society at all levels. An organisation, looking for a serious image, cannot afford this intrusion. Policing must be insulated from public pressures except at the top to which all policing affairs must be accountable. People handling policing should be responsible only to law and their superiors in the department and to none else. The regulation of policies in all details must be controlled and guided by the top. On the other hand, the line authority of the organisation must be all-powerful to guide and regulate policing and police administration. A police organisation, open to public pressures can do no policing worth the name. The very idea of being receptive to pressures and interference indicates a lack of will for objectivity and justice. It is criminal elements that cultivate sources that have put the policing on the wrong rails. Pressure often forces of the police to commit crimes under the veil of authority, either by protecting criminals or more dangerously, by replacing them with innocent people as criminals. The possibility of the police being open to the influence of the rich and powerful deprives it of its credibility. A police force that works at the behest of the rich and powerful can guard their interests only. Does
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democratic India need such a police force that allows tyranny of the poor and the helpless by the rich and powerful? The country has tolerated such a police in the last four decades. The people, however, must now act the demand a police that lives up to the trust placed in it. The lack of professional objectivity is the bane of the police in independent India. The problem was simple in British India where the ruler and the ruled were distinctly identified and the loyalty of the police was defined. Now, the police should do their duty by the public and law. Misplaced loyalty with an individual, a family, a party or an ideology amounts to violation of professional ethics. The

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police, in a democracy are the guardian of public interests and public safety unlike in the Raj where the police protected the interests of the Raj. This distinction is forgotten in independent India where mental fetters are yet to be broken and legacies of the British rule continue inveterate. How can a police that stays loyal to personal, familial or party interests ever discharge its functions objectively to law and general public? What can its locus standi be when a different person or party comes to power? A pliable police force is an asset to any individual or party and no sensible individual or party distances it in the name of professional ethics. It is the duty of the police not to breach the edifice of the organisation and its spirit. A byproduct of this degenerate trend is the rise of opportunists and sycophants to key posts and the fall of honest persons of great caliber. The trend creates a catena of reactions that slowly eats up the vitality of the police organisation and reduces it to a foul bunch of bloodhounds of the rich and powerful few. The shoddy creatures sitting on judgement above men of probity is a dangerous situation. This reverse order of merit is sure to bring frustration and the collapse of the organisation someday. The British were the forefathers of the unified Indian Police. It was a force that met the needs of the time. In an age of rapid changes, the opening up of new vistas and dimensions to life through inventions and discoveries in science and technology, nothing remains constant. The scope, design and objects of the Indian police underwent a metamorphosis with the transfer of government to native hands. The process spawned a phenomenon in which undemanding aspects of both the worlds survived to create a new police culture. The distinguishing traits of the Indian police of the British period such as objectivity, apoliticism, commitment, discipline, quality and high standards were discarded. Traditional Indian values such as a simplicity, charity, wisdom, mutual, respect, and human qualities were given up too. The convenient factors of the
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old and new worlds were chosen to create a new police culture while demands on policing were at the crucial stage in the recent years of independence. The Indian police officers overnight rose to high positions made vacant by the resignations of their senior British officers. The need for creating a new work- relationship with native political leaders was an opportunity to usher in a new police culture in free India. Soon the police became a tool in the hands of the power brokers of free India. How can the police be objective, honest, apolitical, committed and disciplined in such circumstances and how can it uphold the rule of law and justice in line with its professional ethics in such a situation?

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A job culture involves basic beliefs and principles of the organisation, professional ethics and degree of commitment to the aspirations of the organisation. To what extent precedence and practice mould the job culture decides the success or otherwise of the organisation. It is important that only the right people reach the top. A headless organisation is better than one headed by a degenerate weakling. This is why the policy of selection and promotion at high levels plays a vital role in the growth of the organisation. In a democratic age of selfseeking short-term political leadership, where sycophancy is the sole criterion for ascending the career ladder, the policy of recruitment and promotion is far from direct. All those committed to the cause of police and effective policing must break the trend and endeavor to provide a fresh lease of life for effective policing. A serious subculture of the Indian police in Indian hands is committing crimes to prevent and detect crimes and breaking laws to catch law-breakers indeed in the name of showing results. The misplaced stress on results without a concern for organizational and national goals of law and justice only reflects a shallow intellectual commitment to duty on the part of the top brass and the lack of desire to probe the root of the problem. Now, on to third-degree methods in crime detection. Even senior officers tacitly supporting the third-degree methods applied on suspects who may turn out to be innocent at the end, is not uncommon. Crimes are crimes whether they are committed by the police or by the public. What right has the police to inflict suffering on others, merely on suspicion? After all, it is not the agency to pass judgment on crimes. None placed the police beyond the scope of the Indian Penal code. What justification can the police have to commit crimes to collect evidences of other crimes? The sadistic and criminal tendencies of the police are not more justifiable than those of the general public. Discipline is inseparable from police. It governs all
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parameters of the force and makes its hierarchical order meaningful and purposeful, the command- obedience relationship, sharp-edged and functional conduct, meticulous. But these days, it is used as a cover by the people in higher ranks to indulge in wrongdoing and to silence the conscientious few in the lower ranks. It is also a cover to promote the interests of juniors who support their evil deeds by sycophancy and personal loyalty; and to suppress those juniors who are strong, proud, and independent and ask questions. A subtle hatred for superior qualities of the subordinates is inherent in the Indian police force of today. Another act carried out behind the façade of discipline is an officer forcing a subordinate to achieve personal ends. Here, the

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police ranks display exceptional unity in helping a colleague to suppress the subordinate who shows the tendency to go against his senior’s orders. Youngsters in the organisation who drop out weaken the organisation. There are any number of examples of fearless officers who have acted upon their conscience at the cost of promotions and elevations. The Indian police find itself in a blind spot today, at a crossroads from where it should build bridges to the future. It must shed its mental fetters, rise to its feet and learn to be natural. A slip at this stage would be a tragedy while a right move would be a major turning point.

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LAW ENFORCERS IN UNHOLY ALLIANCES
Crime, politics and the police are the three sides of the vicious triangle within which the future of democratic Indian and its free people are trapped. Although wealthy industrial and commercial houses form a fourth dimension, their techniques are as yet limited to manipulative strategies to gain a strangle hold over political power by remote control. It is their wealth that fills the coffers of the troika and helps reduce the normal life of free citizens to a welter of uncertainties and endless misery. Politicians protect criminals from the law while criminals reciprocate by acting as their henchmen. Policemen go to politicians for job protection and strike an understanding with the criminals to make money. Thus works this nexus of vile power brokers, preying on innocent people, bloating itself on the blood of the hapless masses. The trio of manipulators is a dangerous force in the Indian democratic situation. Combined as a tight-knit power-block, they have touched all the facets of public life with the sole intention of garnering all the benefits. The tragedy here is that the vice is perpetrated by those whom the public trust as their benefactors and protectors. The amoral side of this operation does not seem to have affected either the police or the politicians in any way and the abuse against the Indian public goes on unabated. It seems that all actors in this tragic drama think that Indian democracy is a free-forall field to grab to the maximum in a world where all look for themselves and only those who grab the most survive. This approach is certain to undermine not only the democratic setup of the nation, but its very social fabric. When the maintenance of law and order is in the hands of unscrupulous police, queer things may take place. Long
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ago, a dacoity was reported in the house of a person of dubious reputation in a particular district. People who knew the background said that his illegitimate son committed the act after a serious quarrel. Court cases were pending against the son. A case was registered with the local police. The complainant however thought it was best to patch up with the suspect in order to protect his family honour. This was done and the case was

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pursued with an ex-convict being picked up and shown as the accused. Arrest,” recovery” and charge sheet followed a decade after the dacoity. Such developments make criminal administration a mockery. What a serious breach of public trust it was and what a serious crime was committed by the police who involved a person whom they knew did not commit the offence! In another incident that dates back to 1981, a police official in charge of a subdivision in Karnataka picked up a poor goldsmith from a small town for interrogation about receiving stolen properties. He subjected him to torture in a tourist bungalow of the same town for two nights to make the innocent goldsmith confess to something he had not done. The goldsmith died on the second night of torture. The official, who has worked as Circle Inspector in the town until a few months before, had indulged in this activity without the knowledge of the senior police officers of the town. The news of the lockup death, as such deaths are popularly known, was published in local and other newspapers. The wife of the goldsmith filed a complaint before the local court. The District Superintendent of Police and the Range Deputy Inspector General of Police, who had benefited from the flexible ways of the official when he was the Circle Inspector, rose to the occasion to save their protégé. They visited the town and entrusted the investigation to a Deputy Superintendent of Police of neighboring subdivision with oral orders to certify the case as not proved. The Deputy Superintendent complied and sent his repot to the court and that was the end of the case. A police official who with the support of his community, got posted as the police chief of a State in 1986, wanted to favour a fingerprint sub-Inspector, who has been under suspension for long after being arrested in a criminal case of community interests. He summoned the Superintendent of Police in charge of the case and examined the file about the suspension. The Superintendent of Police failed to understand that the
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action was an indication that he was to end the SubInspector’s punishment. Even of he had understood, he could not have acted for, the Sub-Inspector had been suspended by an officer of the rank of the Deputy Inspector General of Police, Moreover the case was pending trial in a court. After a fortnight, the police chief secured the SubInspector’s release, but nurtured a grudge against the young Superintendent. He manipulated the records and made sure that the latter was not selected for the Indian Police Service. The career of a bright officer suffered a severe setback. Such cases of avenging non-cooperation are common these days. The trend is adversely affecting the organisation by weakening its cause for fairness, law and justice.

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How subordinates are brought around is another story. A young sub- divisional police officer in a small town known for its speculative business activities conducted a raid on a library, run by a powerful local community. It was actually a gambling house patronized by prominent people of the town. The officer rounded up more than fifty prominent people including rich businessmen, senior government officials and local politicians, with huge stake monies. Though the library had been a gambling den for years, none had dared to raid it in spite of repeated public petitions. As the law requires that the place must first be proved to be a common gambling house, the officer recorded in the station house diary the names of all those who were gambling at the place and let them of with a written warning that cases would be booked if they continued to gamble there. The officer learnt too late that the Superintendent of Police of the district and the Deputy Inspector General of the range patronized the gambling den and the men were their friends. He was transferred to a remote place, with the annual confidential report stating that the public might revolt against the officer if he continued. The library continues to be a gambling den. The DIG at the place of the new posting of the officer wanted him to marry a girl from his circle. His parents however, got him married to a girl of their choice. This antagonized the DIG who, in his next annual confidential report, showed his junior as a liability to the police department. Also he prevailed upon other officers who wrote confidential reports to give adverse remarks. Most of them obliged and the appeals of the junior officer were never allowed to reach the government. It is to his credit that the officer did not break down and continues in service while his far less competent colleagues have overtaken him on the career ladder. Denied selection to the all-India service, he later appealed to the Chief Secretary not to consider him any more for the service. He took this drastic step in utter contempt for the corrupt department heads that sat above him and decided his
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career advances. Is it by design or accident that independent India has raised a criminal outfit to catch criminals? It is in the interest of the police to accept the reality so that remedy could be thought of. Unhealthy practices of myriad variety are found at the highest levels. A recent instance is that of a police chief who, along with his wife, was taken to court on the eve of his retirement in 1990 Karnataka to face trial for defrauding the public and a spastic society in whose name he sold (charity) entertainment tickets. It is a different story that the officer managed to silence the social worker that

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brought up the charges and made sure the case fell through for lack of evidence. To what sad levels could men in high ranks stoop to make a few dirty bucks! The Indian Police Service continues to be an intellectually poor unattractive realm with only the mediocre opting for it. The constabulary which forms the bulk of the service is largely constituted by people from the lower strata of society who are diffident and hence do not exercise their powers against the more enlightened people. The tendency to foul-up superior intellect and excellence is another factor that has adversely affected the police setup. The general reluctance to adopt modern techniques of policing and management, the dogmatic approach to man-to-man and public relations and the lack of understanding of human nature are other factors responsible for the unfortunate state of affairs. Only efficient police leadership at all levels can overcome these problems and only if a semblance of objectivity reasonableness and good judgment touches the core of the police administration. At present, growth is not much more than a spasmodic reaction to stimuli and lacks the benefit of an integrated approach. A permanent cell of organisation experts under the direct control of the police chief to redefine the police organisation is required to make it more meaningful and need-based. This could help in streamlining the hierarchy by eliminating redundant posts, rationalizing workloads, preventing duplication and redefining duties and procedures and thus the rights and responsibilities at each level. Result: police functioning would be made more cost-effective and efficient. The annual assessment of men and officers in the police has become a travesty of what it used to be or meant to be. In no way, under the present circumstances, does an ACR reflect an officer’s qualities or capabilities. It is believed that the department would be far better off without this pernicious evaluation process that breeds corruption and bias. What characterizes the ACR today is a distinct lack of objectivity; it has become a means to personal ends, a
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medium for the advancement of individual interests and even settlement of personal scores. Servility is its inevitable consequence and it would not be immoderate to say that eliminating the ACR altogether would be certainly a step forward. If policing is to be effective in the years ahead, specialization is crucial. I suggest three distinct police services with separate recruitment and training: (1) Regulatory police or uniformed police in charge of law and order and other regulatory duties; (2) Mainstay police in charge of crime investigation and prevention and security and intelligence operation; (3) Social police in charge of prevention and investigation of all social offences and implementation of social legislation. All three wings should have their own individual organisations up to the district level with

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independent Superintendents and staff as required, functioning in tandem in much the same way as the Army, Navy and Air Force. At the apex could be a specially constituted body called the State Police Authority with the chiefs of all three wings as members and the Chief Secretary as chairman. All the present maladies emanate from the politicians who are only concerned with winning the next elections. Until the organisation is extricated from the grip of politicians, it cannot hope to rise above the mediocre level, either in proficiency or in character. Such mediocrity is wont to percolate downwards in a democratic setup. An All India Police Authority accountable only to the President of India at the nationallevel with the regional Police Boards in States as independent bodies should be created. A Supreme Court judge must head the Authority with the Union Home Secretary and the Cabinet Secretary as members and the senior most police officer of the country as the member-secretary. The regional Police Boards must have a High Court Judge at the helm with the Home secretary and the Chief Secretary as members and the State Police chief as member-secretary. The arrangement will bring to an end interference of any kind in police affairs, thus enabling the personnel to function in an independent atmosphere.

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ROLE OF POLICE IN NATIONAL RECONSTRUCTION
The police are the watchdog in a democracy. It forms the axle that keeps the vital engine of the administration running. It is modelled on the British system except for a few changes made in response to the situation regarding crime, security and law and order. That is not to say that the Indian police are alien to the Indian situation. The utility of the Indian police to India depends on the direction and degree to which they have taken to this process of adaptation and also how successfully and efficiently. The responsibility of the police as an organisation is three fold in enforcing the rule of law; assisting the judiciary in the dispensation of justice and keeping an eye on the internal security of the country. The three responsibilities do widely vary in their scope and functional requirements. The police may sometimes be called upon to break laws, though surreptitiously, in order to protect the security of the country. Or, while they function only as a fact-finding machine to help the judiciary enforce the rule of law, they may be asked to enforce laws as enforcers of law and order. In spite of these variations, what gives the police a holistic dimension is their importance as the spine of the rule of law. They are the watchdogs of the administration. The police are one of the most important levers required in running the machinery of statecraft. That explains the impatient race among rulers to control this vital lever. ASPECTS FORGOTTON The very nature of the functions of the police demands that it be insulated from the vagaries of the short-time rules of a democratic setup. Their responsibilities as enforcers of law warrant their allegiance exclusively to the rules and laws of the country; they are beholden to the
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judiciary as the investigating authority while their part as watchdogs of the country’s internal security raises them above political and leadership bickering. Often, these aspects of the police are happily forgotten in India. The reasons lie in the rulers as well as in the police. In the rulers because it is natural for anyone to take advantage of the tools that make themselves available

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for use and it is rather naïve to expect the rulers to ignore it while the police willingly offer themselves to be at their disposal. The rulers of democratic India do use the police for their personal and party ends to the extent that the nearly half a century after Independence has obfuscated the distinction between national interests and personal interests of the rulers in the use of policemen. RESPONSIBILITIESIGNORED The reasons lie in police because the police of democratic India chose to brush aside their professional and national responsibilities and instead preferred to be the handmaid of those in power. Two factors helped the process. One was the wrong type of people at the helm of the organisation as models. Another was the lack of understanding of the concepts of obedience and discipline. The nonprofessional approach of the police leadership percolated down and sadly was accepted as the general rule by the rank and file. The entire force has forgotten that its primary obedience is to the laws of the country and that the rulers and mere representatives of the laws. The police have forgotten the cardinal principle that their profession dictates them to do their duty even if it may be against the rulers if the law finds the latter doing wrong. Serious professional lapses have not only weakened the Indian police, but also damaged the political system, social values and the credibility of the democratic process. Ignorance and indifference on the part of the public in general, and the intellectual class in the police system, have ended up with the police acquiring a free hand to function without restraint and guidance. The country indeed has a sturdy police framework in terms of organizational strength and budgetary provisions. Only, the fabric is in poor shape. That money is liberally made available to the police indicates political patronage. In other words, the rulers have recognized the important role played by the police in running the administration. This leads to a close link between politicians and the police. This is where crime enters the picture. The link is too deep104

rooted to be easily severed. The police have two weak areas—the nonprofessional approach and arbitrary management. Both are interlined and contribute to each other’s existence. The nonprofessional approach has eroded professional commitment and encouraged corruption. Professional pride has been pushed into oblivion. Personal interests have gained precedence over organizational interests. The breaches have helped opportunists to intervene and dictate terms to the police. Matters beyond the realm of the police have gained in importance at the cost of the organization’s credibility.

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The system has undergone a lopsided growth with random spurts of control and workload, unfair selection and recruitment procedures, neglected training, inaccuracies in the assessment of work and people, irregular promotions and transfers, unplanned modernization programmes and funny service rules. Efficient management has been relegated to the background with the whole set up inclined towards a rigid hierarchical order. This trend has told upon the professional qualities of the police—causing decline in its organizational efficiency. BRITISH CHARACTERISTICS India, on the threshold of independence, saw both the positive and negative sides of the British administration. Among the positive attributes was the creation of a sound police system. Other aspects were a sound professional approach, objectivity and toughness in police work, a feeling of pride among the policemen, a sense of commitment and fair play in discharging the work in hand, high morale and respect for a healthy value system. The most glaring among the negative qualities are its disinclination to democratic values, failure to identify with the Indian ethos and failure to appreciate the common man’s aspirations and predicament. An independent India has added to the negative aspects. One of them is corruption. Also, the passage of time has set in motion a process of continuous reconstruction. The police of the British rule has as its prime objective the interests and upkeep of the British Raj in India. In democratic India, in the absence of capable leadership, the system has failed to reset its priorities and formulate its objective. It seems to have failed to comprehend where its loyalty should lie. The fall of the British Raj, may be, left a void and they found refuge in the political leadership. On the one hand, the policemen were unable to think clearly, and on the other, some officers in higher ranks wanted to be close to and in the good books of key political figures to promote their interests. As a result, the system gradually lost touch with its professional objective of being loyal to the Indian Constitution, an objective of establishing the rule
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of the law in the country Power went into the hands of dishonest and criminal elements. EMERGENCY TREND The police acted as the handmaid of the political leadership during the Emergency in 1976, save for a few dignified people. Both the Central Bureau of Investigation and the Intelligence Bureau were extensively used for political ends. Then emerged the custom of providing protection mostly to political leaders and other wellconnected personages at the expense of the public. The trend of the police being committed to political leadership has continued.

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It is an irony that the political leadership that is supposed to take the lead in the reconstruction of India is colluding with the police, who are supposed to be the tool of the reconstruction, and is striking at the foundation of the strength of the country. Every year sees a new phase and a new trend in this nasty collusion among the important players of national reconstruction taking the country nearer to the brink of lawlessness During the Bandh in Bangalore (1991) in connection with the Cauvery water dispute, the police were mute spectators as the agitators indulged in vandalism and violence. In some places, the officers were forced to open fire in selfdefense and all hell broke loose. Dealt with in a professional way, the situation could have been brought under control and the death of several people and destruction of property could have been avoided. Indeed, a commission of Inquiry under Justice N.D.Venkatesh indicted the Police Commissioner for his lapses. However, the officer’s political masters rose to the occasion and soon he superseded a more efficient and down-to-earth senior. It is a different story that the State administration changed hands within a few months and the new Chief Minister restored order by putting people in their places. But the fact remains that the findings of the Justice. N.D.Venkatesh Commission of Inquiry never saw the light of day. SERVING POLITICAL MASTERS The political leaders are wary about the law and the judicial system; and they have to be cautious on their dependence on illegal political funds. They need the help of the police and it is not the other way round. There are many police officers who understand this dynamics and play their cards shrewdly. A police officer in a southern State played it so well that in spite of his publicly proclaimed moderate efficiency, he not an occupied the coveted position of the Police Commissioner of an important city as Inspector General of Police (by removing the holder of the position within six months of the latter coming there), but also managed to be there for many years by getting the post upgraded as and when he was promoted as Additional
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Director General of Police and later as Director General of Police at the cost of all other aspirants. On his retirement from service, the political masters obliged him by constituting a one-man committee for him, supposedly to examine and advice on the reorganization of the police setup of the State, but actually to provide him creature comforts at Government expense. A case of cheating, forgery, falsification of records and misappropriation of over Rs.35 lakh by the officials of the Karnataka Home Guards department was unearthed in 1994 and a criminal case was registered in the jurisdictional police station in December the same year. As the amount involved was huge, a process

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was set in motion to refer the case to the Corps of Detectives for investigation. The then State police chief came to know that one of the accused was his confidant when he was the Commandant-General of the Home Guards the previous year. Suddenly, all activities regarding the criminal case were frozen for the next six months till the police chief retired. Only in July 1995, the case was taken up and handed over to the Corps of Detectives. In the absence of concern on the part of the political and executive wings of the administration in straightening out things, the judiciary is doing exemplary work by taking action to counter the criminal elements. The attitude of the Supreme Court to the Jain hawala case is a case in point. The awarding of jail sentence to senior bureaucrats and police officers of Haryana, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and other states in 1995 for contempt of court and creation of false evidences, and issue of nonbailable warrants and refusal of bail to a couple of former Union Ministers this year for allegedly sheltering mafia dons and engineering anti-Sikh riots in New Delhi are other instances. The scene is not as bleak as it seems to be. The wheel of change is slowly turning. The interest taken by the Supreme Court in the nexus between the politicians, the bureaucrats and the criminals and the Vohra Committee report on the criminalization of politics are found to have their effects.

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UNPROFESSIONAL POLICING
Policemen are executives of law and executors of the rule of law. As professionals, their only interests are the laws of the country and its enforcement at all costs including personal safety and self-interests. This, however, is only an ideal situation. The job culture and peer pressure play a major role in setting the standards in an organisation. This situation is not quite happy regarding the Indian police now. The reason is the general collapse of the professional instinct, caused by the degeneration of values. Society gets the police it deserves. A country of selfseekers naturally has a self-seeking police force and the consequence is lawlessness. This is the malady India suffers from. The symptoms are crime, disorder and insecurity that have kept the country and its people in a stranglehold. An incident that took place in 1982 at Davangere in Chitradurga district of Karnataka will illustrate the kind of professional commitment Indian police pursues. The police raided a gambling den and the owner spoke lowly of the notorious range DIGP whom he said was taking “mamools” from him every month. A local newspaper reported the matter. This infuriated the DIG and the police turned its ire on the newspaper. The Deputy Superintendent of Police of the sub-division in which the range headquarters was situated joined the fight and a gang ransacked the office and the press of the newspaper a week later. Though a case was registered with the local police station and the owner of the newspaper moved heaven and earth to bring the culprits to book, nothing came out of it and the case went undetected. But the people knew who were behind it all. Such episodes shatter the trust of the public who cannot
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look upon the police as the guardian of their rights and interests. Basically, lapses lie more in the concepts than in individuals. The police as a collective force operated to wreak vengeance on the newspaper for factual reporting, though somewhat indiscreet. But going on a rampage, however highly placed the officer in question could be, in nothing but, making a mockery of professional objectives. The most disturbing aspect of the present Indian police is the slow and steady process of replacement of the passion for law, justice and fairness by a singlepointed indulgence of self-seeking tendencies as the drive of the police system. Much more disquieting is the attitude of the public about the development and their

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complete dependence on the police as the protector of their legal rights, provider of security ad dispenser of justice. What is actually happening is a great betrayal. Indeed, the tool, namely the police, is there to enforce law and provide security. But it has become the handmaid of the rich and influential and serves the interests of the people in that stratum of the population. Self-seeking tendencies express themselves at all levels of policing and management of organizational matters. As far as policing is concerned, be it crime prevention or investigation, collection of intelligence or management of internal security or maintaining law and order, self-interest has role to play. Its expression in crime management is too obvious a matter. While intelligence collection is becoming a politically oriented function, internal security operations are no more than providing cover to political bigwigs and other influential people at the cost of more pressing problems of national magnitude. Law and order has become a tool in the hands of the politicians and the policemen make themselves available for such games. In the process, honest policemen suffer and the morale of the system receives a serious setback. The result is lawlessness spawned by the absence of effective policing and wrong models as the protectors of law. The parochial instinct of the police expresses itself in the management and organizational matters. Under the cover of discipline and the need of tacit obedience, the game of favoritism is willfully played on the one hand and any resistance is ruthlessly crushed on the other. Organizational processes such as promotions and transfers are widely used to achieve personal ends. Posts with no job content are created in various ranks primarily to accommodate officers who refuse to fall in line with the higher-ups for reasons of conscience and professional integrity. It an upright officer takes a sinecure posting in his stride and refuses to part with his principles, he is harassed through other means. Recently the commandant of a training
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college pressed his higher-ups and the state Home Secretary for the removal of a functionary of the college from his important position. The latter was accused of involvement in a fraudulent act involving several lakhs of rupees. The Home Secretary and the chief of the unit (in the rank of DGP) ensured that the commandant of the college faced the consequences for recommending action on their favourite official. He was variously harassed. This continued until the officer who found functioning impossible went on leave. He reported back to duty only after he was transferred out. More surprising is that such incidents take place in the open without any attempt to keep it secret or discreet.

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Professional pride is the panacea for the malady of self-interest in professionals. Creating an ambience of professional pride is a sure way of nurturing and promoting high professional standards and efficiency. It is immaterial whether high professional pride creates high standards. The fact is that both are important to create an environment conducive of professionalism. India definitely needs such a professional environment in its police force to strengthen its democratic traditions and the roots of the rule of law. An organized effort is on in the Indian police to force its members to fall in line at the cost of individual brilliance and creative abilities. The policemen are starved of innovative steps. The organisation follows the principle of nipping talent in the bud insisting on unquestioning servitude. The talk of the top brass on public platforms about the need to nurture excellence and the outstanding qualities is a farce. Most leaders prefer status quo at the peril of the growth of the organisation so that their interests remain undisturbed. For administering the medication, first, topmost police leaders of the country need to be convinced that the police of present India are really ailing with serious problems and the system really needs treatment.

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WHAT AILS PROFESSIONAL POLICING IN INDIA?
Discipline, in the case of the police force, is both an advantage and a disadvantage. It is an advantage because, if discreetly employed, it can prevent undue interaction of the police with unwanted elements. It is a disadvantage because the police, with its trained response, may find it difficult to isolate itself from the behests of its political masters. The first and foremost job in this background is to free the police from the unhealthy influence of politicians of all hues by making it accountable to an independent authority with absolute power to take decisions. The authority should be a professional body with men of proven caliber and quality that have reached a stage where they need not sacrifice their convictions to appease those in power. It shall be directly responsible to the legislature and function as an independent authority like the judiciary, the Comptroller and Auditor General or the Election Commission. The recruitment procedure should be overhauled to ensure that really the best from the job seekers are roped in. Any interference in matters of recruitment should be promptly and decisively resisted. Only highly qualified officers of proven probity should be entrusted with the task, the ugly head of bribery ruthlessly crushed and the unhealthy trend of making recruitment a business checked. The infusion of good blood even at this late hour is certain to repair the damage. The jobs should be made attractive with good salaries and satisfactory working conditions that will give the
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resolve to resist the bait thrown by the criminals. Social scientists say that bribery is inversely proportional to the financial strength of a social group. Therefore, better salaries and congenial working conditions will definitely make the police less sensitive to these lures. It has to be ensured that the right man comes to the right job and that honesty is rewarded. An unbiased assessment of the work and character of the personnel will take the organisation in the right direction.

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Those who are empowered to assess subordinates and their work must be made answerable to prevent misuse of this responsibility. The creation of a high- power core group of people adept at assessing men and character may help to create a feeling of confidence and security and inspire the police personnel to discharge their duties fearlessly. This group should be made ultimately responsible for all career decisions, for the development of the police, work assessment, job analysis, recruitment and management of human resources. It is unfortunate that there is no relation between an officer’s efficiency and performance and his standing in the organisation. The officers are so indifferent to the performance of their subordinates that they are absolutely in the dark about the standard of work turned out under their supervision. Another reason for this sad affair may be that they are not qualified to assess. This situation leads to random assessment and, in the process, talents wither and opportunities overtake high-caliber workers on the hierarchical ladder. Arranging motivation courses for police officers about the work they are required to perform, its importance and how to discharge their duties can rectify this. Policemen generally distance themselves from all mental activities. Training must endeavor to break this trait and coax candidates to open up their minds and reflect on all matters before making decisions. In this context, it must be mentioned that often the habit of reading becomes a casualty once a person enters the service. This negative approach to reading and thinking has resulted in poor professional knowledge, particularly at the higher ranks. Work knowledge is generally limited to what is remembered from experience and bits of what has been learnt from books during training decades earlier. The style of supervision in the police should be seen to be believed. All order to subordinates emanate from a perfect void. The best that is done is to hold a meeting of subordinates wherein the latter are allowed to arrive at a course of action to meet a situation and the decision is returned to them as an order to perform. The style of
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ineffective supervision must stop if the aim is to achieve quality. The system of overlapping supervision because of multiple ranks, where none really discharges his role must be scrapped. A thorough overhauling of training and the application of modern techniques would go a long way in mending the situation. Promotion to a higher rank serves no purpose unless it means a more challenging job and a suitable man is, therefore, selected to meet the challenges. But this is not the case. Posts are created to satisfy vested interests. Most of these jobs often serve as places to forget the pressures of family life. However, the same luxury does not extend to the more unfortunate ranks at the lower levels, including the constabulary. While vacancies at the topmost level are filled up by

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promotions effected overnight, promotions at the intermediary levels take weeks and even months, depending on the rank. It is years in the case of the constabulary. There are cases where vacancies of head constables and assistant sub-inspectors or sub-inspectors are not filled up for several years. Many have retired without a promotion. Policing is a job performed mostly at the lower levels with involvement stopping at the level of the Superintendent. Beyond that, it is a supervisory task and in a police force with no supervision to speak of, higher ranks are simply redundant. Any move to expand these ranks cannot be called an honest effort to serve the public. But that is what is happening. The process of recruitment is even worse. Selection has become a misnomer. It is random at best and high business at its worst. This approach may leave governance and public life in jeopardy. Policing is a highly sensitive profession and requires only specially equipped people to handle it. It demands certain specific traits in officers, which cannot be learnt by any amount of training. The most evident symbol of authority and power people trust is the policemen. In the circumstances, the wrong selection can be fatal for the nation. India is deeply caught in mire. There is a price fixed for each rank of the police. How can a recruit who enters service by paying a bribe be expected not to reap returns? What can be his picture of the service that he enters? It is absurd to expect professional policing from such a recruit. The common aim in recruitment now is to complete the job without inviting legal hurdles. Sometimes even rules are overstepped to cut short procedures and do away with cumbersome work. Posts at the lowest level but nevertheless sensitive, like drivers, are filled up arbitrarily. Quality suffers as a result. This is equally so in transfers. Honesty, integrity and hard work have yielded place to personal loyalty and usefulness for personal work. Those who do not come up to the expectations of personal loyalty fall out of favour and are eliminated from the line of command. This is one of the main factors for the slow
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degeneration of the police. The police are a sacred confluence of those who choose policing as their profession and work together transcending their caste, creed, social standing and rank in order to control crime and maintain law and order. But this objective cannot be achieved when there is no common cause and everybody works for personal progress. The general reluctance of the Indian police force to adopt new ideas and the ungainly handling of modernization projects have resulted in it’s losing the race with organized crime and syndicates. Modern equipment is bought, but the

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personnel are not trained to use them. Thus the gadgets gather dust and break down. No government with weak police system can survive whatever its other assets. The police should be extricated from the clutches of criminals and politicians to make it a professional outfit with objectivity and commitment to its task. There is no point in beginning the cleansing operation from the side of the criminals or politicians. It has to begin from the side of the police by insulating it from the vile influences of criminal wealth and political power. Once this is done everything else will fall into place.

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INDIAN POLICE NEED COMPETENT BRASS
Police is one of the most vital instruments of the public administration and works as a link between the executive arm and judiciary. It is the ears, eyes and limbs of the government. No government with a failing police system can survive whatever be its other assets. It is against this background that the glitches bedeviling the present Indian police should be viewed. Any complacency at this stage about the existing police system may prove too costly for the unity and well being of the country and the health of its governance. A job culture involves basic beliefs and objects of the organisation, professional ethics and the degree of commitment to the aspirations of the organisation, as laid down by precedence and practice. To what results precedence and practice mould the job culture decide the success or otherwise of the organisation. The decisions and conduct of those at the helm as the point d’ appui of police circles substruct the lifelines of the organisation. It is important that only right people reach the top. A headless organisation is better than one headed by a degenerate weakling. This is why the policy of selection and promotion at high levels plays a vital role in the growth of the organisation. In a democratic age of self-seeking, short term political leadership, where sycophancy is the sole criterion for ascending the career ladder, the policy of selection and promotion is misdight at best and motivatedly in the reverse gear at the worst, to the detriment of the growth and functioning of the organisation. All those committed to the cause of police and effective policing must break the trend and endeavor to provide a fresh lease of life for effective policing.
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How deeply the police are self-centered even within its own organisation and what care and concern the police leaders show to evolve a perficient and planned police organisation can be assessed by the trend of evolution of the police organisation as an increasingly top heavy setup and the speed with which promotions are effected at different levels. In states where there were only two officers of the rank of Inspector General of Police, for say forty thousand men and officers about 30 years back, there are now nearly 100 officers of and above

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the rank of Inspector General of Police, for say 3, 00,000 men and officers; thereby the last 30 years account for 750% expansion in the lower levels against 5000% expansion at higher levels. What these people at the top do for policing apart from being a drain on the state revenue and a strain to officers down the levels with conflicting instructions of dubious merit? Almost nothing. It is unfortunate that none in the police administration realizes that it is not the rank but the real human stuff inside that decides the height, excellence, merit, intelligence, honesty, integrity responsibility, work knowledge and human qualities of a person. Promotion to higher rank serves no purpose unless the higher rank provides a really higher challenges and job content and a suitable man is perforce selected to meet the increased challenges. This is not the case in present police promotions where sinecures are created to facilitate promotions to satisfy in-group instincts, Most of these jobs are without any job content and responsibility and often are places to relax from the pressures of family life. However, the same courtesy does not extend to the more unfortunate ranks at lower levels including the constabulary. While vacancies at the topmost level are filled up by promotions strictly overnight, promotions at intermediary levels are effected in weeks or fortnights or months, depending on the rank in the police hierarchy. It is years in the case of the constabulary. There are cases where vacancies of Head Constables and Assistant Sub-Inspectors or Sub-Inspectors are not filled up for several years, depriving the constabulary of their promotions. There are any number of instances of men in the constabulary retiring without promotion non obstante their eligibility and seniority for the existing vacancies, which are not filled up from many years. Policing is a job performed mostly at lower levels with decreasing involvement up to the level of Superintendent of Police. Beyond that, it is tout court a supervisory task and in a police force with no supervision to speak of, higher ranks are just de trop. Any move to expand
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these ranks and any undue haste to promote to these levels cannot be called honest decisions in the functional or public interest. Unfortunately, the Indian police are doing just that and there is none to put it back on the right track. DYNAMICS OF CORRUPTION A fall-out of corruption in the police is build-up a dynamics, which promotes the interests of corrupt in the system at the cost of those who retained the pristine value of professionalism. The flexible elements that can be maneuvered to required moulds through the juste milieu of pelf and position are useful assets to people in key position to save their kith and kins’ interests as and when they get involved in criminal proceedings. Such characters in police are always cultivated and posted to key positions so that striking compromises when situation

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warrants becomes easy. This strategy ends up in honest police officers being sidelined and it promotes corruption. The dynamics while helps influential individuals to evade the long arm of law, it harms the interests of the country, its police and the rule of law. Police officers of plastic conscience are preferred to upright professionals to key posts even in national level police agencies like the Central Bureau of Investigation and the Intelligence Bureau. Police officers known for professional approach are spurned and distanced as inconvenient elements. In the situation, competence plays no role in preferences while honesty, integrity and professional commitment play negative roles. A history of bending backward on nonprofessional considerations always becomes a qualification in obtaining preference to more sensitive jobs in important police organisations. The first and foremost job to be done is to free the police from the unhealthy influence of all hues by making it responsible to an independent authority with absolute power to take decisions on matters pertaining to policing and police organisation. The authority should be a professional body with men of proven probity and quality as members, who have reached a stage from where they need not sacrifice their convictions to appease those in power. A working arrangement is to be devised by which the authority is responsible directly to the legislature and functions as an independent authority like the judiciary, Comptroller and Auditor General or Election Commissioner. Creation of a high core group of people who are adept in assessing men and character within the aforesaid police authority may help to create a feeling of confidence and job security and prod them into discharging their official duties fearlessly. This group that oversees the work of police personnel from a distance should be made ultimately responsible for all career decisions. The responsibilities of officers in assessing the work of their subordinates which forms the major embarrassment of the present Indian police must be limited to giving their opinion
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about performance to the core group; the expert core group processes the opinion by its own research, expertise and discretion and takes responsible decisions on its own. The group must be made responsible for development planning of the police, work assessment, job analysis, recruitment and management of human resources, Institution of such a core group to oversee the career development of police personnel without personal bias may bring revolutionary changes by committing the police to its work-ethics and professional ends with due single mindedness. The extant system of selecting the police chief is erratic at best and motivatedly amoral in that it meets political ends of the rulers at worst. A conspicuous example is from a southern state of India where a police officer who was

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sidelined in his career as an inefficient person and degenerate habitual drunkard was given a fresh leash of life in career a l’improviste and posted as the chief of the state police in July 1980, after being promoted as the first Director General of Police of the state to meet the political and personal ends of the new Chief Minister of the state in new dispensation that came to power in the state in elections. Soon, the state found itself engulfed in law and order problems, rise in incident of crimes, indiscipline and discontent in the state police force and dangerous union activities by the police personnel. The new police Chief who was arranged to retire as IGP of the State Vigilance Commission before being awarded the coveted post of the state police chief was known to attend office in inebriated condition and while away time in offence, doing nothing. However, political needs overshadow all such facts in selection to the posts of Police Chief. This is a dangerous trend. Attempts of the Supreme Court of India in its recent order to formulate a system for the selection of the chiefs of important police forces of the country like the CBI is a welcome measure at least in its intent and must spur steps to formulate procedures of the selection of all key police posts to insulate the process from amoral and very dangerous extraneous considerations. This is a must in the interests of the country.

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RAT RACE AT TOP AFFECTS POLICING
The British were the forefathers of the unified Indian police. They created the reticulation of the police force for India with their own designs and objects in sight. It was a force that met the needs of the time. In an age of rapid changes due to the opening up of new vistas and dimensions to life by inventions and discoveries in science and technology, nothing remains quiescent. The scope, design and objects of the Indian police underwent a basic metamorphosis with the transfer of government to native hands. The process spawned a synod wherein undemanding aspects of both the worlds survived to create a new police culture. The distinguishing traits of the Indian police of the British vintage like objectivity, apoliticism, commitment, discipline, quality and high standards were discarded as peregrine and irrelevant in the changed circumstances; and traditional Indian values like simplicity, charity, wisdom, mutual respect, encraty and human qualities were distanced as Indian to the police culture. The convenient factors of the old and new worlds were chosen to warp a new world of police culture while demands on policing were at the crucial stage in the creant years of national independence. The cabal was struck by the Indian police officers who rapidly rose in their career overnight to fill the void, created by the resignations of their senior British officers in the ancien regime on the eve of independence. The demand for creating a new work relationship with native political leaders was a historical opportunity to carve a new police culture in free India. The incompetence of the then police impresarios, their greed, parochial approach and self-interests spawned the wrong type of police culture. They laid mendacious praxis to those lower by bending laws and conscience to aggrate men in
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power with the myopic object of promoting ain career and personal interests. The police became a lithe tool in the hands of the power brokers of free India. How can the police be objective, honest, apolitical, committed and disciplined in such atrophy and how can it uphold the rule of law and justice in line with its professional edict in such a circumstance? A fixation towards political masters at the cost of professional uprightness is the most obvious manifestation of this organizational character of the police setup. The symptoms are deeper at higher ranks and reach their saturation at the

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rank of the chiefs where political selections are crucial in appointments to the levels. Except in rarest of the rare cases, every police officer increasingly obtempers and goes sequacious to political masters as he comes nearer to the coveted selection post. Two distinct types can be marked in this approach. In one, officers take to subordination to political leaders as a convenient policy from the very beginning of their career, and as a policy, make themselves subject to the dictates of all political leaders. The very concept of politics is sacrosanct to them and anybody in it deserves their absolute obeisance. They find the germ of professional rectitude in meeting needs of political masters and other political leaders. Any talk of professionalism in the police ectogenesis to political relevance does not make sense to them. Every state in India has a set of such police officers that are generally meek and very popular with politicians of any colours and succeed in getting favorable postings whichever party comes to power. It is not an accident that these officers often become intelligence chiefs and in most cases succeed to retire as the chiefs of the concerned police organisations because of their easy proximity to politicians and willing readiness to stoop to any level at the behests of their political masters. Politicians in power need such officers in jobs where lawless operations like tapping of telephones and illegal operations are part of the game. There is another set of officers who turn soft to politicians as they reach the stage of being subjected to political scrutiny for being selected to coveted posts like the chief of the concerned police set up. These officers are generally known as strict officers and hailed for their professional uprightness and competence from the beginning of their career, which is marked with erratic rises and falls on political whims. The public marks them as ideal professionals. But changes appear in them as they approach the D-day of their career and they become the best friends of political heads to corner selection posts with the zeal of a new convert. In an annual conference of police officers in a state
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police chief lambasted his Chief Minister and Home Minister in his speech en face for denying him free hand in posting of officers in professional interests. The officer next in seniority to the chief, whose selection as the next police chief was to be decided soon rose to the occasion and against the decorum of a professional meet, contradicted his chief to state that it was the prerogative of the ministers to post officers at their will. This shocked the assembled officers as he did that while he was known as a through professional and strict adherent to professional values and ethics. His apostasy astounded the police officers attending the conference that trusted him to up hold the values of his profession till the end.

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It is a common practice in some states of India to change key officers of the police department when a new dispensation takes over the rule. Changes in key position of the police department following changes in political rule are a common feature in most states. This reflects how the political leadership of the country sees the professional loyalties of its police. This credibility of the professional loyalty of the present Indian police is incredulously low even among the public. Political leadership believes that all those in police are venal commodities, which can be winning over by throwing loaves and fishes. It is convinced that most in the police are loyal to one or the other political groups of the country and its leaders and these factious loyalties within the police setup do make substantial differences to its political fortunes. Ergo, the mad rush to place favourite police officers at key positions tout de suite of taking over the administration. Fractured loyalties of those in the police setup are responsible for this triste affaire. It is natural for any to respond to the state of affair and make hay while the sun shines. While political leaders play some police officers in deliciis and not others, they are only exploiting the Achilles’ heel of the organisation offered to them on a platter and sharing the res gestae. The culprit here is the perverted loyalties of the police. When the police play their priorities well by perspicuously defining their loyalties in favour of professional objectives of the police rather than myopically prevaricating to the mire of personal loyalties against professional dignity, no more the political leadership finds it feasible to keep its avizefull pernoctation over the police to play one against the other. While the police en semble are committed to their professional objectives, there is nothing to the political leadership to choose from. What is termed as political interferences in placements of police department is patently the making of the police by their gratuitous personal loyalties and any blame on the political leadership on this count is assez bien uncalled and due to parablepsis. DEVALUATION OF PROFESSIONAL QUALITIES
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The intelligence unit is the most abused section and its chief is the most willing loyal subservient policeman available to political masters in most of the police forces of India. Intelligence officers have a responsibility to their organizational objectives and they ought to be loyal to it and work towards meeting the objectives. But, misplaced loyalties overturn the scope of intelligence units everywhere in present Indian police. Intelligence units as a consuetude are seen as the political handmaid of the ruling parties and their leaders. The usefulness of the intelligence units as political tools is so pronounced in India that the units are increasingly brought under the direct control of the chief executive of the government from its traditional field of the Home Department and as a

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consectary, intelligence chiefs are increasingly becoming the prime advisers of the chief executive head and shoulder above even the chief secretaries in states and the cabinet secretary in the centre. The out-of-turn importance is a quid pro quo to the lengths to which these officers go and risk their personal and career safety and honour in indulging in all types of illegalities to oblige the political masters, illegalities and unethical practices like telephone tapping and shadowing political rivals of the ruling party leaders are only minor prevarications these loyal police officers indulge in to keep themselves on the right side of their political masters. Assessment of political trends and suitability of various candidates in different constituents during elections and reporting of political and other activities of politicians within and outside and ruling party are now wrongly seen as legitimate functions of intelligence units in Indian police. The zeal of police officers to prove personal loyalty to the ruling political party and its leaders often leads them even further. Though the loyalty of these police officers to their political masters foot the bill for any encomium, it sadly goes against all professional tenets of any police organisation worth the name. But this is inconsequential to these police officers. Professional interests lose all significance to them vis a vis loyalty to powerful per procurationem self-promotions. Where loyalty to right ideals is a basic tenet of the policing, loyalty becomes a venal commodity to these police officers. The intelligence chief of a particular state who was a favourite of the chief minister of the state and retained his position as the chief of the intelligence in additional charge even after promotion and posting to a higher slot, led a huge contingent of intelligence officers and camped in Delhi for several days to help his political masters maneuver for the Prime Ministership during the turbulent weeks of instability after the general election of 1996. The tragedy of such a perverted loyalty is the devaluation of the professional qualities of the policing apart from financial implications of such operations and the block they create in legitimate government works. This is a fine example of sacrificing
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public interests at the altar of self-promotion of few individuals. Political leaders make best use of this Achilles’ heel in the police setup. How low police officials at higher ranks stoop to be in good books of political masters can be seen in some states by the concours among the two important pillars of the state police setup namely the state intelligence chief and the Police Commissioner of the State Headquarters in front of the state Chief Minister’s residence early every morning to have the first private audience of the Chief Minister to themselves. This was a laughing matter in official circles some years back. Though the hard work of these high profile police officers to rise everyday early in the morning to pay their obeisance and report to the chief executive of the state and

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their sedulity to their work in hand have to be respected and appreciated, the issue is cannot they discharge these duties sans breaching the pride and dignity of their ranks and posts and without so obviously expressing their sequacious tendencies? After all, they have a responsibility towards keeping the pride and dignity of their ranks and profession, if not of their individuality. SALVAGING OPERATION Clearing the cobwebs from the entrails of the Indian police can salvage the situation. There is a catena of selfmotivated officers in key positions in the police who unknowingly brought about the degringolade of the Indian police in the post- democratic era. They corrupted the police atmosphere, set wrong precedence, encouraged self-indulgence, pulled down its no-nonsense tough image and reduced it to its present cadaverous existence. These elements should be sidelined to absorb men of probity to refurbish and rebuild the police setup. Only really capable impresarios can pull the Indian police out from its present fix.

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CONFUSION OF LOYALTIES IN INDIAN POLICE
The primary duty of the police is to maintain order, which would include enforcing the law and the prevention and detection of crime. The police ought to be concerned about the interests of the general public, the standard of the law, the administration of justice and the security parameters that ensure it. Loyalty is the foundation on which the police organisation is built up. Loyalty would mean steadfast adherence to what is legal and the law as the word ‘loyalty’ originates from the Latin lex and legalis. Policing, as a profession in a democracy, denotes fidelity to the sovereignty of the people and necessitates upholding the law of the country, keeping up the orderly life of the common man and safeguarding peace and security. This is where the police differ from private armies. Disaster strikes when the police function as the private armies of the ruling political party or any influential member of society. The police in India have fallen into this quagmire, its vitality and professionalism pushed to the background. Loyalty is of two kinds. One is pure and simple fidelity to the master. The other owes its allegiance to certain ideals and principles. This implies allegiance to one’s duties, responsibilities, objectives, profession and the chosen path of life. This commitment raises their loyalty to the status of a mission. The loyalty needed in a profession like that of the police is of elevated nature and it bestows the qualities of nobility and dignity on the organisation. It lifts the police above factional interests and gives them a cosmopolitan vitality. The strength and the trust born out of
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this superior form of loyalty stand the police force in good stead in its hour of risk and crisis. It is tragic that the Indian police prefer to trade this characteristic for trivial and ephemeral benefits. The trend has spread like wildfire to ravage the institution. The genesis lies in the promotion of career prospects and other perks dumb loyalty brings to individuals. Personal loyalty to political masters takes some people to the top, tempting others to follow suit.

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The models created a pattern and the pattern became a part of the system in a setup where individuality and orginality are not sacred. The real threat lies in the possibility of this tendency coming to be accepted as the true character of the police. This may not take long to happen if the present goings on is any indication. The malady is not limited to a particular state or unit. There can be hope of remedy if there is at least one example of the right model. But none seems to be available. Isolated attempts to tread the right path are seen as deviations from the mainstream. This is the beginning of the atrophy of the Indian police. How far the degeneration has spread is evident from the way some important criminal cases of political significance have been handled. A criminal case warrants professional loyalty in its investigation to bring the culprits to book. The political status of the accused and the fall-out are irrelevant to the process of investigation. The misconceptions about loyalty with a slant in favour of the political masters and other powerful influence peddlers have clouded this vital aspect of policing. With the result, the rule of law has suffered and the administration of justice is crippled. The damage already done to the country’s public life cannot be repaired until the police are brought back on the rails of loyalty to their profession. The police, whether it is the Special Protection Group, the Intelligence Bureau, the Research and Analysis Wing or the Central Bureau of Investigation, survive the transient political masters and their political groups in power. In the circumstances, the police ought not to be subservient to the political masters whose future is unpredictable. The police going loyal to transient political interests certainly will damage and debase the system itself. It is a common practice in some States to change key officers when a new dispensation takes over the rule. A recent example is from Tamil Nadu. And this is not an isolated case. It reflects the attitude of the political leadership towards the professional loyalties of the police. Public opinion about the professional loyalty of the police is
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rather low. Politicians believe that all those in the police are commodities that can be bought and “loyal’‘ policemen to make a substantial difference to their political fortunes. Hence the mad rush to place favourite police officers in key positions. Thus politicians exploit the weakness of the organisation. The culprit here is the perverted loyalties of the police. What is termed as political interference is patently the making of the police by their personal loyalties. The intelligence unit is the most abused section and its chief is the most willing tool. Intelligence officers have a responsibility to their organizational objectives and they ought to work towards meeting their objectives. But misplaced loyalties

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restrict the scope of the intelligence units, which are seen as the lackeys of the ruling parties and their leaders. The usefulness of the intelligence units as political tools is so pronounced in India that they are brought under the direct control of the Chief Executive of the Government from the traditional Home Department and the chiefs are the main advisers of the Chief Executive, head and shoulders above even the Chief Secretaries in States and the Cabinet Secretary at the Centre. This importance is a reward for the lengths to which these officers would go risking their personal and career safety and indulge in illegal acts to oblige the political masters. Telephone tapping and shadowing political rivals of the ruling party leaders are only minor prevarications these loyal police officers indulge in to keep themselves in the good books of their political masters. Assessing the political trends and suitability of candidates in different constituencies during elections and reporting the activities of politicians within and outside the ruling party are now wrongly seen as legitimate functions of the intelligence units. Mr. Chandra Sekhar, former Prime Minister, in response to a question on the Jain hawala case during the 11th Lok Sabha election campaign, said the investigation of corruption cases was the job of a Police Inspector and not that of a Minister. That answer would be right in an ideal situation where the police function professionally, with their loyalty fixed to their duties. It has no relevance in a situation where policemen are loyal to individuals or groups in power. The police being the executive edge of the administration, their loyalties make all the difference to the quality of administration. Factional loyalties have the singular potentiality of eroding fairness and impartiality. They make professional loyalty seem meaningless. A mature and sober political leadership can set right the fractured loyalties of the police organisation. In this context, judicial activism, in a periodical review of the progress of investigation of some cases of national
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importance, is a welcome step although in normal circumstances such a judicial review would have amounted to interference in the independent functioning of the investigating authority. The duty of providing the right guidance and direction to the police lies with the political leadership. Ironically, the police force has become an object of ridicule by being asked to investigate certain affairs of the politicians with whom its absolute loyalty lays and who twist policemen around their little fingers.

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POLICING UNDER POLITICAL PATRONAGE
In a blinkered system like ours, where power and wealth are the ultimate virtues, where power and wealth in themselves stimulate mutual growth to the exclusion of all other dimensions of life, it is no wonder, the people of this poor country succumb to the trappings of power and wealth at the cost of all virtues, values, pride, dignity and human decency. In an increasingly competitive and complex world where every day more mouths are added to share limited resources, where the principle of the survival of the fittest operates to its immane logical end and where the basic needs of survival and decency can be assured only with power and wealth, people naturally go all out to ramp the ladder of power and wealth by whatever means and cost. In the process, justice and morality become casualties and criminality raises its ugly head as an instrument to achieve otherwise impossible objects. This is how politics and crime knit together in the fabric of Indian public life. POLICE AND POLITICS The story of the police is somewhat different. As the catchpole of the nation’s administration, the police enjoy tremendous power over vast fields of human activities with responsibilities to life and death of the hoi polloi as well as dignitaries. In this sense, the police are the cutting edge of the state power and its ultimate bearer. No power can be its own sans the police on its side as an executioner and loyal watchdog. This is why politicians felt the need for wooing police to their side in their activities. The police of independent India have become an easy prey to the powerbaits of smarter politicians by the reason of their failing strength of character and talent. They refuse to look
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beyond their political masters with their dispensations of job favors; and so law, justice, righteousness, professional ethics, morality, decency, human dignity, common good of people, national interests and even conscience, otherwise common to any human being, have become invalid nonsense to them. The police, sans sound character and personal integrity, are no more than a country dog, which is what the Indian police have become in free India. The politicians, inebriated with new

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power, smartly brought these weaklings to absolute submission and hold them on a tight leash to be their personal watchdogs and personal gendarmes in requital for favorable job placements, undue promotions and other largition from time to time. Nothing is valued higher than this largess and its dispensers by the new police of India. It is how the police was involved in the conspiracy against decent public life of India. POLICE AND CRIME It was a hop and skip for the police from the plangent world of politics to the mysterious world of crime and the underworld. The police became a weapon of politicians to bring about the subjugation of the crime world to prise their resources for the political ends. They thus made good use of the decreasing strength of character of the police in forging a nexus between the police and criminals in furtherance of their own telos. With a week spine to hold itself and hapless in the face of odds, the police is only too pleased to follow the footsteps of its political masters as the cardinal principle of policing. In changed circumstances, discipline and subordination which form the basic connecting link of the police hierarchy, lost all their shades of meaning and are interpreted as dunny and blind subservience to those who have power, seeking personal interests. And politicians easily led the police to the despicable cul de sac of the nexus with criminals, the very people whom both are supposed to control and bring to book for antisocial activities. With politicians as the custodians of power en arrier to the hilt to support, the police plunged lock, stock and barrel into the lucrative crime world; the consectaneous wealth and comforts were in no way less sweet than the hard earned money of lawabiding society. This is how the nexus between the police and crime world was established. CRIMINALISATION OF POLITICS Whom should we blame for this hapless position? Certainly not the politicians or their auxiliaries like criminals and police who are unfortunate by-products of the grind. They are created by the situation arising from a system
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that is misfit to the people to whom it was devised. The blame lies either on the Indian people who are impair to the democratic system evolved for them, because of their unenlightened and venal consciences which is so dimwitted that virtues like honesty, service, patriotism, quality and excellence can make no dent on is at all, or it lies with the political system devised for them which failed to take their psychological makeup into account and ipso facto led to the problem of maladjustment in national life. Otherwise, how can we explain criminals and goondas winning elections with impunity even while rioting and murders were committed at their behest on the eve of elections itself. The fact is that the chance

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of winning an election often is pro rata to the aura of a tough image built around the candidate. It is these people whom the Indian electorate prefers to invest with powers to safeguard their interests. Obviously, the Indian electorate lacks of foresight and vision to understand the consequences of its irresponsible decision. It is yet too immature to take decisions about the interests of the nation and see how national interests are closely linked to its personal interests. It is yet to broaden its perspective to include the life of the nation as an integral part of its own. Long term and rational decisions are alien to its nature. Immediate selfish interests and a parochial outlook continue to be the driving force of all its actions and decisions, whether it is on the matters of national importance or personal concern. In most parts of India, it is money, arrack, sari, threat, and fear of landlords or the blazoning propaganda of a candidate that influence it to decide as to whom to vote for. How can the future of this country be safe in the hands of such an electorate and its elected leaders? How can an indifferent and irresponsible electorate provide honest and efficient leadership to the nation? This weakness of the electorate has ultimately left Indian politics in the heath of violence and manipulative extortions, with the instruments meant to protect them mowing the field. Saner elements in politics, which found survival difficile, have left the field, giving way to the elements that are more suited to what is required in the field. It is how politics has become a pit of junk from a class of dedicated and virtuous leaders. The credibility which is the pith of any political life is the biggest casualty political institutions and the percentage of the electorate that takes the trouble of going to polling booths to cast votes is steadily decreasing from election to election, It is an open secret that an election is an opening for a candidate to invest money to reap wealth, comfort and power for the next five years. And how he reaps the wealth, comfort and power again is not a mystery at all. It is corruption and misuse of public money. If he is ambitious and intends to promote his career interests, there is no way out in the
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existing system but to resort to pulling strings and pursuing other more deadly methods, often with the active collusion of the officious criminals and police. POLITICAL PATRONAGE The unhealthy nexus often leads to and facilitates other forms of crime. Cases of rioting assault, kidnap, rap and blackmail, involving the supporters or relatives of politicians, criminals and police in furtherance of a political cabal are other usual forms of crime that result from the vicious nexus. Often, criminals and police are employed to create disturbances or inspire sensational crimes in furtherance of political goals. The losses of life and property involved in the wily schemes seld touch the conscience of the politicians, the criminals or the police

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who are responsible for these dastardly acts. The political patronage and the nexus with police desensitize criminals to the process of law and justice; they are thus emboldened to commit more daring and ruthless crimes that endanger the life and property of the plebeians. The police, in its links with politicians on one hand and with criminals on the other, are in its new avatar as the protector of vested interests with no more commitment and passion for law and justice. It has become a discredited force, a willing instrument of power brokers in a ruthless and violent cabal of power-games with no heart for the common man and the common cause. This is the requital, the Indian electorate gets for letting its political system putrefy by its nonchalance and irresponsibility. CHANGED ROLE With the increscent involution of the police with glidder politicians, the conception of the police about its own role has undergone a large-scale change. No more does it look at crime control and maintenance of order as its first duty. With this, the concern for crime control received a setback and crime control and investigation have receded to the last priority except when politicians are interested in them for a specific purpose. Only crimes that disturb politicians foment police to galvanic and meaningful action. Other crimes receive no priority. The very definition of the gravity of crime is adapted to suit the new concept. Those crimes that are tolerated by politicians are no more crimes. The self-image of the police as ‘a fearless arbiter of crime’ is changed to a solicitous servant in attendance at the pleasure of a politician-master. This blunting of the crime card of the police has made it less awe-inspiring and less deserving of respect from the criminals. The police have more and more realized that criminals, particularly those from organized syndicates are personal friends of its political masters and it is no match for the criminals in terms of wealth, influence and social standing. The men of the police see those criminals on equal footing with their political masters and learn to treat them with awe. They find it absurd to act with authority
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against the immarcescible criminals who are too high for the small stature of the police. It is unfortunate that the police of the present days has never realized its infinite stature as a law-enforcing agent vis a vis all others including criminals and politicians whom it is empowered to search, arrest and take to court if they deviate from their rightful path. Sadly, the trifling wealth and the concomitant “big-man” image of others appear to the present police as more appealing than its own awful police authority. POLITICISATION OF POLICE The extant system of selecting the police chief is erratic at best and motivatedly amoral that meets the political ends of the rulers at worst.

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A police chief in a state was taken to court with his wife after retirement in 1990 February for defrauding the public and a spastic society by sale of charity tickets in name of the spastic society and pocketing huge amount of money. This is the standard of people who are chosen by politicians to lead post independent Indian police. A POLITICAL INSTRUMENT In an atmosphere where placements and transfers are decided by the needs and wishes of self-seeking politicians, no police can efficiently function nor can it be free from the vice prise of the politicians. It is not surprising that poweresurient politicians more and more grab powers that are legally and traditionally invested with the police department when the top brass lack the strength of character and conviction. This leads to a position wherein the police department becomes a chessboard on which politicians move their pieces to checkmate their adversaries and win the political game in their favour. In other words, the police sans effective leadership are becoming more a handmaid of politicians by moving away from its sacred role as the guardian of law and justice and protector of the society and the common man. The credit of bringing the police from its height of power to the present level of absolute submission should go to the superior strength of personality of wily politicians who bent the police on their own terms with selective use of stick and carrot. This police are not the police and what it does is not policing in the proud sense of the term. CRIMINAL TENDENCIES A Deputy Inspector General of Police notorious for his degenerate and corrupt activities in 1982 while holding charge of Eastern Range in Davangere in Karnataka desired a young Deputy Superintendent of Police, under him marry a girl from the family of a rich arrack contractor of his range. The parents of the young officer fearing undue pressure got their son married in desperation to a girl of their choice. This antagonized the Deputy Inspector General. His next annual confidential report of young officer
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showed the junior as a liability to the police department and misfit as a sub divisional police officer. He also prevailed year after year upon other officers who wrote confidential reports of the young officer to incorpse similar or more deadly remarks. Most of them obliged and this bright junior officer ended up with a series of unsubstantiated adverse remarks repeated time and again in his annual confidential reports. All his appeals were never allowed to reach the government. It is to the credit of the young officer that he remained unbroken and continues in police service. There is a case of a Director General of Police in charge of Corps of Detectives in 1987 in a Southern State of India as the boss of the Food and Civil

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Supplies Enforcement cell under a Director was accustomed to getting free supply of quality rice, sugar, pulses and other commodities from traders to his house through the latter organisation. New Director of the organisation who took charge in 1987 failed the Director General of Police in this illegal gratification by his principled stand. This enraged the latter to the extent of hounding the young Superintendent of Police and seeking opportunity to publicly humiliate him. He followed the young officer wherever the latter went for raids hoping that he would get some opportunity to fix the latter. When all the efforts failed, the Director General of Police decided as the dernier ressort to play a drama of searching the Superintendent of Police in public before invited press and public in an induced case of trapping on suspicion while the latter was returning from raids in northern parts of the state, depending his calculations entirely on the humiliation engendered by the publicity of such suspicions and searches by a very senior officer coram populo. However, the cabal of the senior officer came to nought and the Superintendent of Police, was saved from the gratuitous humiliation in public while inscience of the welcome set for him on the way by his senior. The Superintendent of Police reached back the state headquarters accidentally through another route that night. It is of interest to note that the degenerate Director General of Police was posted as an advisor to the Governor of North-East state during President’s rule after a few years, subsequent to his retirement from police service. This is the caliber and integrity of extant Indian Police Service. This is the reason why Indian society prefer tolerating social maladies to approaching police manned by such people, devoid of any decency, objectivity and fairplay, both in private and public life. As corruption takes control and spreads to all strata of the force, upright elements in the force become a minority and also forfeit coveted positions in the organisation as inconvenient candidates. They are scorned as removed from ground realities and detested and avoided as moles
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in the mainstream. Their honest and professional approach becomes a disaster and unpopular everywhere. Their courage in face of odds loses character amidst popular sound ad fury of the misinformed. Vested interests inside and outside the police let loose false propaganda and spread distorted versions of events against such officers and suborn character assassination to keep own reputations on right sides. The situation becomes really distressing when superior officers partake in the game on the side of vested interested for consideration and join hands in an unholy alliance to bend and silence the upright among them. Taking recourse to unfair and illegal means to crush upright officers is also not uncommon. Though courts of law can theoretically protect against such harassments, expenses, time

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and uncertainties involved and the history of court judgments being dodged or rendered ineffective by administrative sleight, render the protection meaningless and force the upright officer to face all humiliations and losses in silence or yield to the pressures. It is to the credit of Indian police that it has great officers who withstood all slights without yielding to pressures. It is an irony that the political leadership that supposed to take the lead of reconstructing India is colluding for mutual selfish ends with the police that is supposed to be the tool of the reconstruction and thereby strike at the foundation of the strength and orderliness of the country. Every passing year sees a new phase and a new trend in this nasty connection between the important players of the national reconstruction to take the country by some miracle at the last moment. As the people become more and more attuned to the nefarious nexus and resign to the assuefaction, the players become more and more bold with the passing years and go with their nasty collusion at the cost of the nation’s interest with impunity for mutual relief and benefits by subornation.

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CHALLENGES OF THE INDIAN POLICE
The hazard of the Indian police lies in immobility of its organizational structure. The existing police system is utterly devoid of any adjustment mechanism that keeps it relevant to the zeitgeist. A time-to-time review and concomitant updating of the police organisation becomes sine qua non in the circumstances. A systematic study of the policing in India with an adequate pernoctation to screen the latest researches and findings in relevant fields of social and political systems and science and technology in reorienting the public organisation and administration is an essential parameter in the vital exercise. A police setup worth its salt should meet the specific needs of the policing. The police setup must necessarily be sturdy in its frame to be capable of absorbing the shocks to which it would often be exposed. Secondly, motive factors should be substructed in the body of the organisation as sound motivation alone can make policing a purposeful activity. This should be reinforced with external motive factors that can be infused to the organisation e ra nata. Thirdly, the system should be organized so as to generate optimism and confidence to generate magical entrainment. Another important aspect that should weigh in evolving an effective police organisation is evolving a mechanism whereby every police officer or unit is put in charge of a specific job matching his or its competence and aptitude. An element of entrain should be brought to policing so that the work in hand can be attended to with genuine involvement by each police officer. Another strategic principle of healthy police organisation is having absolute faith and giving full responsibilities to subordinates with a concomitant, reward
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and punishment system that follows at the heels. Any attempt to disturb the balance of faith, full responsibility and reward and punishment system is certain to fell the organisation into desuetude. The extant concept of collective responsibility through a chain of command has gone passe by its propensity to demotivate the real workers due to the corrupt ambitions of those at higher levels in the chain of command. Policing has grown of late to be such independent fields of specialisiation that it is impossible for a mortal being to be proficient in even a single aspect of policing. It is rather a folly to fancy a police officer as being able to handle all aspects of policing. Hence, the need

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of specialization-oriented policing. The present managerial world is increasingly realizing the importance of human resources as organizational inputs. Unless all- out efforts are made to inhaust to police the crème de la crème of the country with exceptional attributes of probity, intelligence and commitment and impart eximious and purposeful training to bring out the best of each, no efforts at updating the organisation can bring about a sempiternal transformation in the setup. The fact that policing can be successful only with popular co-operation focuses the attention of the police organisation on the needs of building up its image. Although efforts are already afoot towards building up the image of the police, the depths of the possibilities are yet to be fully explored and exploited. A scientific approach in this score will make policing tanto uberior. Also, the scope for scholarly and intellectual activities in policing will make policing multi- dimensional and add to its effectiveness. The future police organisation and administration should cater to the need of intellectual activities. The present police organisation and administrative system have to be overhauled in the near future as the ineffectiveness of the extant system becomes increasingly obvious with the flaws in the edifice starting to gape wider. The areas wherein restructuring is desirable and the thrusts sine qua non to fill the gaps to create a healthy police setup that is quite capable of facing the challenges of the future are discussed below. The proclivity of weighing the police with reinforcement of all types of legislations has become a major hazard to effective policing. While the proliferation of legislations in independent India made it impossible even to keep track of their numbers, it is senseless to force the police as being able to enforce them all. The stupendous task of enforcing these legislations adversely affects the effectiveness of the police and corrodes its credibility. This is emphatically so with social legislations which pass out of our legislative houses sans cohibition. These progressive measures are inherently controversial in nature and their
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enforcement by the police weakens its credibility as an agency of serious business and peremptory order. It is plauditory to conceive of the police as a vehicle of progressive measures, but in the process, is certain to put both its credibility and professionalism into jeopardy as the social legislations lack depth and gravity to enforce them and assiduous enforcement may ricochet as an out-cry of harassment and high-handedness. It is not in the interest of the country to expose its police to such civil contecks and suffer it thereby. India can have an independent social policing system under the social welfare ministry to which police officers with a flair for progressive measures may be deputed. The social policing system as a professional enforcement agency of the

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social policing system as a professional enforcement agency of the social welfare ministry can do an effective job in enforcing progressive social legislations with all their nuances, by fully devolving on it while saving the police organisation from the embarrassment of handling issues to which it is not equipped either mentally, professionally or organizationally. This measure will exeme the police organisation from unwarranted pressures and enhances its legitimacy in handling serious security and law and order issues. The growth of police functions as adnated to present lifestyle of increasing complexity is enormous of late with policing slinking to the vitals of all streaks of social and nonsocial living. Policing is slinking to the vitals of all streaks of social and nonsocial living. Policing has become a hi-tech affair these days with scopes for further advancements. Each major activity of policing like maintenance of order, investigation of crimes, collection of intelligence and security operations have assumed such an independent status of non a such expertise and professionalism that these fields being inhered is neither desirable nor feasible. Nor in the circumstances, does shifting a functionary from one field of expertise to the other help his overall performance. Anfractuosity in any one of these fields of specialization for life is becoming a requisite as time goes by. The futuristic policing of India must have its subordinate police as professionals in a given field of specialization, say maintenance of order crime investigation, intelligence collection or security operation with synergy manifesting only at higher levels. So India may have independent law and order police, detective police, special police and security police each separately recruited and trained for professionalism and expertise in their respective fields. Officers from all these specialized fields should be eligible to rise to general policing at higher levels on the basis of a pro rata quota system for promotions. The increased preoccupation of the police with law and
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order and security issues in view of the growing cataclysmic activities in the country has adversely affected effective crime administration of late. Police stations have become registering stations as far as crime administration is concerned. The time of the local police is fordone with immediate issues of law and order and VIP security, and in the process, crime investigation has become a casualty. The process may further deteriorate as security and law and order problems increase in coming years. Neither the crime staff at subordinate levels nor the supervisory staff at district and higher levels, in the melee, has the will or the resources to divert to crime investigation while the crime rate in the country is assuming dangerous proportions.

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Crime investigation should not be allowed to suffer because of disorder and insecurity in the country, as otherwise, a vicious circle may develop wherein disorder and insecurity lead to fall in investigation and flabby investigation in turn, to patulous disorder and insecurity. This triste development may be effectively dealt with by an independent crime setup, parallel to the law and order outfit. An independent crime outfit in district and state may exquisitely behove to a futuristic police setup by giving crime investigation a boost and insuring it against the peracute pangs of organizational maladies of the future. The compulsions of urban policing are strikingly different from those of rural policing. Response time is the hallmark of urban policing where a delay of a few minutes can make a difference between death and life as criminals and terrorists with the most sophisticated communication, and weapon system and hair- raising organizational accuracy overawe the police, pitted against them in the course of their criminal operations. The present police stationoriented policing are incompetent to meet the challenges of the urban criminals either in resources or in organizational ingine. Further complacency in this regard may stifle the very policing system of India. Unity, resourcefulness and speed form the spine of urban policing. The control room-centered policing in urban centers where men and transportation and latest communication facilities that work round the clock in shifts enables galvanic operations to tackle law and order problems. This outfit with unlimited resources at its disposal for launching any type of operation within a few minutes of communication may suffice to meet the challenges of maintaining law and order in urban areas in the new age. In spite of adequate infrastructures available for training police officials of various ranks these centers largely fail to meet the quality required to make a recruit a thorough professional. An overhaul of the extant training facilities in terms of its quality, content and character is inevitable to
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keep the Indian police prepared for future challenges. The training facilities should be made centers of scholarship and research on police subjects with professionals of national reputation in each subject handling their respective subjects. The psychology faculty of the centre should endeavor to build character and infuse right orientation among the recruits. The faculty members of the training centers should be exceptionally well paid so as to inveigle the best in the field to join. Army officers must handle outdoor classes. This model helps in instilling the highest standards and expectations in trainees till they become full-fledged officers and orient them to become professional police officers, apart from distancing them from the moderate influences that are herded to handle police

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training centers in the present setup. The trainees must be exposed to police officers as guest speakers, by inviting very senior police officers of the highest integrity and job standards to deliver talks on specific topics. Separate professional training courses should be available in the training centers for law and order police, crime police, intelligence police and security police with scope for advanced learning with an eye to the latest developments in each respective field. Latest training methods should be adopted with management, computers and advanced psychology inter alia as the common subjects of study for all the courses. The training centers should give the impression of being temples of advanced studies apart from being so. Policing requires commitment and dedication on the part of its operators. The principles of faith and responsibility must run invisus through the vitals of the policing, should it be purposeful and successful. The extant bureaucratic malady that infested the Indian police setup cohibits healthy policing practices. The police organisation should be reoriented to develop a professional approach to its operations with full faith and responsibility as the hallmark of the delegation of power. The present emphasis on procedures should be shifted to commitment and resultorientation within the ambit of the rules. An analytical study of policing, its trends and modern techniques help to bring professionalism in policing. Due encouragement for the study of theoretical aspects of policing and its application in the field through in-service training will be a welcome step in this direction. If police managers succeed in inspiring in police officers an interest, in theoretical aspects of the policing and its latest techniques, it would be a kenspeckle leap in abraiding Indian police to the challenges of the future. Policing as a phenomenon of maintaining order and security in society cannot afford to be oblivious of the flux in the modern lifestyles. As an integral part of civil living, policing must prepare itself to amate the increasing complexities of modern life by modifying its organizational
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and administrative setups to the demands these vicissitudes create. The changes warranted in policing may either be deciduous or peremptory depending on the nature of the transition in society. It is left to police planners to analyze the nature of the flux in the society and locate the areas where decession from the past practices has become sine qua non for policing. This should be an ongoing process if policing is to retain its relevance as the guardian of social discipline. The futuristic challenges of policing would be pro rata to the twists of the future living. The prospects of Indian population reaching the mark of a billion and the concomitant luctation of two billion needy hands to grab a share in the country’s limited resources of food, shelter, water,

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clothing, electricity schooling, employment etc., naturally make life a cut-throat concours and a ruthless adventure devoid of scruple, human values and concern for fellow men. Though the Indian policing system managed somehow to deal with the vicissitudes till now, the geometric acceleration of the flux of the coming years may prove to be too much to the extant police setup. Therefore, it is high time now that we prepare out police organisation and administration for the future challenges.

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POLICE AND THE UNDERWORLD
Behind every great fortune, there is a crime, said Balzac; behind every great crime, there is underworld indulged in making unlimited profits. Might is right there and only the fittest survive. Animal side of man is at its best in this business of organized crimes. Gangs operate in violation of accepted social norms to make fast buck. They are antisocials and threats to the peace and security of the lawabiding society. POWERFUL CONNECTIONS Pollent organisation is both a strength and weakness of crime syndicates. Organisation provides these gangs the benefits of well-oiled management machinery: objectives, targets, data collection, through planning, right recruitments, motivation, coordination, communication system, competent direction, infrastructure, efficient execution, leadership and accountability, and with it, the all important ruthless efficiency. Added to this are the ruthlessness and the enormous wealth of the crime world. The combination is deadly and the result is powerful connections at right places doing right things at right times in their interests. Silence and secrecy are the keys here. Powerful and the underworld complement each other for mutual benefits and the arrangements usually cover politicians in power, top bureaucrats, those high-up in judiciary and enforcement agencies including the police. Enormous ill-gotten wealth amassed by criminal methods brings powerful connections within the reach of crime syndicates to twist the arms of law. Thus develops an axis between underworld and the powerful to the detriment of the country. HAND IN GLOVE Underworld is an independent world per se. It is a world
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of crimes, secrecy, silence, fear, loyalties, dangers, wealth, outlaws, sui generis professional norms, efficiency and wide-ranging infrastructures. Here various gangs coexist with deadly rivalry or alliance and partnership. There is no road in between. Choice in the nether land is between success and imminent death. Though underworld and open world coexist on the surface of the Earth, their objectives, values and norms of action render those worlds word apart. It is only the police from the open world keep avizefull eyes on the underworld. They are the bridge between

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the open world and the underworld and form a protective sheath between the two. This position places them in a pivotal role vis a vis crime syndicate survives without the active backing of the police. The support boosts their confidence and gives strength to their criminal activities. The police get a farthing share in the res gestae as the quid pro quo many times over their salary. Police being hand in glove with the underworld, is a secret known to all. UNDERWORLD DYNAMICS Underworld indulges in extortions, protection money rackets, running vice- dens of gambling, prostitution, cabaret, bars, massage parlors etc, indulging in crimes like smuggling, drug peddling, adulteration of petroleum products, land grabbing, arms shipments, hawala transactions, forgeries in securities, extra- judicial settlement of disputes under threats, production and sale of apocryphal products, kidnappings for ransom and other tricks of making quick money in violation of the rules of the country. Three facts that keep underworld operations distinct are their secrecy, their antinational and antisocial nature and their ability to generate huge money in a short duration. These operations are large-scale illegal enterprises run as a teamwork in secrecy and ergo the need to keep a band of loyal and committed followers. The operations involve risks at every step. Law enforcing agencies and rival organisations are heels to undermine their goals. As a result, members of the underworld are liberally rewarded for their work and loyalty and their families are protected and looked after for life in case of the breadwinner being killed or jailed. Similarly, disloyalty is met with immediate lynching. UNDESIRABLE AXIS Though silence and secrecy are cardinal in underworld operations to help evade proofs and the arms of law, the activities at that scale can hardly go unnoticed by professionals like police. Underworld knows it. It has the option of taking on the fighting the might of the state represented by the police or keeping it contented and in good humour. Being clever and astute businessmen as they
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are and huge profits at stake, the underworld opts for cooperation in sharing a farthing fraction of its res gestae with enforcing agencies like the police. Police conducts prearranged raids under publicity blitz to straighten records once in a way. Here also cases fall through in silence as a rule in courts. The backing underworld receives from the police constitutes its spine in pursuing more and more daring and dangerous schemes. LUCRI CAUSA More often than not, who is who in the underworld and who is behind what is a public knowledge. The underworld operates on the knowledge that mere

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knowledge does not constitute evidence in court of law. All cares are taken to cover anything that constitutes valid evidence to crimes committed. Cutouts are the technique. Silence and secrecy is the method. Heads of crime syndicates operate with remote control. Contract killers are made use. Hi-tech communication systems come to them before it reaches police. Dons guide operations from foreign countries inimical and having no extradition treaty with the host country a la Dawood Ibrahim holed up in Karachi with his many lieutenants operating from Gulf and Far-East countries. An epinosic outcome of Mafioso operating from inimical foreign countries and joining hands with its governments is the misuse of the former’s criminal networks for subversive activities in the host country. The ISI of Pakistan used Dawood Ibrahim in the serial bomb blasts of 1993 in Bombay. The don continues to be at large. His various factions continue to operate in Bombay and other cities of India sans souce. This is while their subversive activities like the serial bomb blasts in Bombay resemble an undeclared war and seriously sabotaged the security and peace of the country! The factions continue to operate with great abandon in their traditional strongholds like Bombay and spread to other major cities like Bangalore sans a trace of remorse. Reason lies in the enormous money the underworld generates and spends. It is public knowledge that top politicians of the country from different political parties including a former central minister were investigated and tried for harboring associates of Dawood Ibrahim. This is only iceberg. India has chief ministers having close links with the underworld. Many rose to powerful positions with the money and muscle of the underworld. Quid pro quo naturally follows. Underworld has become a highly lucrative business in India. GLAMOUR Plush money and wealth make underworld a fatuous world. Members of the underworld are seen in finest dresses, driving costliest cars, frequenting best five star hotels and living in beautiful bungalows in best localities of
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the town. Their ostentatious and comfortable life-style, indulgences in sex and scandals, outrageous adventures etc. tend to fool the hoi polloi to romanticize the underworld. The underworld itself uses masterly propaganda to boost its image in the public eyes. Series of popular films extolling the virtues and lives of mafia dons as heroes, being churned out from Bollywood is a common knowledge. Indian film world in the prise of the easy funds from the underworld help the latter to manipulate the film world to its advantage. In the ensuing publicity blitz, gullible public forget that the underworld is a pack of hors la loi indulging in antinational and antisocial activities. The underworld knows the utility of the

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sympathies of the public. It uses every trick in the book to win over an own following. The Arun Gawli phenomenon in Bombay as an instant political leader and the ascendancy of his Akhila Bharatiya Sena is an extreme manifestation of such a process. EXPANSION Underworld tries to gain a foot-hold wherever there is enormous and instant easy money. It does everything to grow, spread and ultimately take over that. It be hotel business, land deals, film production of construction business, underworld steals a share either as protection money or returns of direct investment. When construction business dried of plush money, underworld turned to the film world in a big way with its easy funds at disposal for investments in the field. Recent series of murders in the film world in Bombay and Bangalore are results of the involvement of mafia in film business. DANGEROUS GROWTH The most dangerous trend of recent underworld phenomenon in India is the rise of a supreme don and his unlimited powers posing threat to the peace and security of the country. More so, while he is holed up in an inimical foreign country and guiding operations in India by remote control. Various factions of Dawood Ibrahim are creating havoc in Bombay. They are now looking outside to grow. Bangalore saw myriad gang wars and murders in recent past as a consequence. Police knew everything and noticed every move. Underworld takes care to keep key figures in police on the right side before forcing into a new region. Bangalore underworld resisted Bombay underworld invading Bangalore. The result was gang wars and murders. Police was vertically split ab intra between the two gangs. Plans of attacks on rivals were plotted in posh hotels and bars and murders were committed in daylight. In spite of the knowledge of the plots and plans, police come to picture after the commission of the crimes. In a recent instance, a key Mafioso arrested was taken to a district headquarters for further investigation. The gangster disappeared from the toilet of a restaurant while police
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officers having his custody were sipping tea in the restaurant. Such a fredaine is not possible without the active backing and cooperation of the police. In another instant in the same city, a police team sent from the state capital to apprehend a budding mafia don entered the place where the gangster was hiding. The gangster was waiting for his friend in a car outside while the team arrived. A senior member of the police team came directly to the car and informed the gangster to leave the place immediately as they had come to arrest him. The gangster immediately drove away from the place. The police team formally conducted search of the place and reported back that the gangster was not traced

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there. This is species of what happens in most actions against Mafioso and the underworld. In most gang wars and murders, friendly police officers from the spot of crime are taken into confidence and informed in advance about the impending plans by the underworld to keep ground ready in their favour. This is the scenario of the axis between the police and the underworld. Underworld can be brought on knees only by breaking the axis between them and the police. While gangsters are the visible body of the underworld, police is its spine. Underworld cannot stand up without the backing of the police. The axis between the two is based on the money and muscle power of the underworld generated by massive illegalities. Underworld is flanked by the laws operating against it on one side and enormous money and muscle power working in its favour on the other. Though police has the responsibility to side with the law, it finds the money on the other side more attractive and desirable. Ergo, the vicious axis between the police and the underworld. This is the crux of the problem of policing the underworld. The problem needs committed police doing professional policing that is nonexistent in extant India. The country is caught in a 22-catch situation. Any attempt to handle the problem of the underworld must begin with the police. Until it is done, underworld is bound to grow from strength to strength to eat up the vitals of the country and render it hollow democratically.

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CAUGHT IN THE VICIOUS CIRCLE OF CORRUPTION
The Tamil Nadu Chief Minister, Mr.M.Karunanidhi, in a scathing attack on the Tamil Nadu police after he assumed charge of the State Government in 1996, said, “Three fourths of the police force, which, to the State, is like liver to human body, has become rotten.” The remark coming from an experienced chief executive of a State distinguished for its efficient police force until a few decades ago indicates the atrophy that has set in, in the Indian police. The department cannot stay untouched while there is marked fall in the standards of diligence and integrity in other walks of life. Indian police adopted and adapted itself to corrupt surroundings. The basic ingredients of corruption in India are money and power. As Government service, even at the higher rungs, has lost its charm in terms of remuneration and status, it has been attracting only the second best among youth who otherwise would be left in the lurch. Professional dignity and integrity have been brushed aside leading to corruption. Priorities in service have been shuffled, the sole objective being money and power. Organizational objectives have been completely lost sight of. Shift in diligence helped to build money-power while shift in loyalties facilitated proximity to powerbrokers. The degeneration spread rapidly with the passage of time as organizational commitments became outdated demode and pragmatism taught that immediate personal interests are for leading a good life. This was the beginning of corruption of Indian police. A major contributing factor has been the gross fall in professional pride among the personnel. Grass and insensitive handing of the policemen and police matters by
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political leaders has eroded the morale and the sense of belonging to the police force. Attempts to suppress and gain complete hold over the bureaucracy and the police in democratic India have affected the police adversely causing a sense of inadequacy. The lack of motivation to achieve organizational goals and show results is a clear manifestation of the fall in professional pride. The police, who once was proud to enforce law, to maintain order and to ensure peace and security, have

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lost all the enthusiasm as these factors became political and lost their importance otherwise. Crimes, criminals and law and order problems were all subject to political convenience. The development shattered the professional pride of the police and struck a blow to their motivation towards organizational ends. No organisation can exist without a driving force to sustain it. When there is a vacuum of a drive to carry it onward, it is filled by corruption. Policing is more a profession than a job. While job involves performing a task entrusted, profession entails dedication and commitment to a cause; in the case of the police upholding the rule of law and safeguarding the security of the country. How dedicated are the police to this cause in India? Simple observation of criminal activities around and police responses to them give clues to the situation. Let us take an obvious example—open sale of smuggled articles in exclusive markets maintained for the purpose in major cities of India. The common justification of the police for allowing such markets to do business is that no hard evidences to prove offence are available. This is unbelievable. If the police, with the resources at its disposals cannot collect evidence against the illegal activities conducted openly on such a large scale, it is not worth being in existence. There is not even a single case anywhere in India of such exclusive markets dealing with smuggled articles being shut down and the illegal activities being brought to a halt by prosecuting the sharks of the smuggling world. The same is true of stolen articles. The footpath vendors in specified market areas trade in consumer goods, running to crores of rupees each day, without paying legal dues to the Government in the form of sales and income taxes and in violation of various rules and laws. The illegal business contributes to the growth of parallel economy of black money in the country. These markets thrive before the eyes of the local police force. Either the police do not have the professional resolve to
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bring the illegal activities to halt or the offenders who indulge in them have the police backing in running the business. In other words, the police are hand in glove with them. The leeway involved in the exercise of power, coupled with the sensitivity of the job, renders the force vulnerable to corruption. Letting gambling dens flourish, backing the manufacture and sale of illicit liquor, overlooking prostitution, black-marketing and drug trafficking, changing the course of investigation to save certain criminals or deciding the process of arrests and seizures to favour certain individuals or parties, make life different for the people involved. On the one hand, elicit business carried out with police patronage or tacit support make huge grist in which the police naturally have a huge share. On

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the other hand, the culprits are prepared to pay any price in order to divert the attention of the police. Huge sums of money change hands either to avoid arrest, search and seizure or to change the very course of investigation. The police can be part of such dirty deals without leaving a clue. A fall-out of corruption is the dishonest thrive at the cost of honest professional. Flexible elements are useful assets to people in key positions to save their kith and kin as the when they get involved in criminal proceedings. Such characters in police are always cultivated and posted to key positions so that compromises can be easily matched. Honest police officers are sidelined. The need for police is limited to the need to have an obedient force at the disposal of the rulers for use wherever they feel like. The existence of such a force gives the common man a feeling of security. The force also helps to absorb the blames heaped on the rulers while things go wrong. While these cardinal goals are met by the mere existence of the police, anything in addition, say professionalism, integrity and honesty become acronyms. The general perception is that an upright police force is always an inconvenience to the people and therefore is not always tolerated and encouraged. Corrupt police is the product of a corrupt society and corrupt police in turn perpetuate corruption in society. This forms a vicious circle. As corruption takes control and spreads to all strata of the force, upright elements in the force become a minority and also forfeit the coveted position in the organisation as inconvenient candidates. They are scorned, detested and avoided as moles in the mainstream. Taking recourse to unfair and illegal means to crush upright officers is also not uncommon. Though courts of law can theoretically protect officers against such harassment, expenses, time and uncertainties involved and the history of court judgments render the protection meaningless and force the upright officer to silently bear all humiliations and losses or yield to the pressures. It is to the credit of Indian police that it has great officers who
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have withstood all slights without yielding to pressure. In the olden days, corruption was confined to the lower strata of officials. The situationhas changed now; it originates from the above and percolates downwards. An intelligence chief may drive his unwilling subordinates to adopt all sorts of illegal methods including telephone tapping, political espionage and other dirty tricks in his attempts to win over his political masters and may even succeed at the cost of more senior aspirants. Now, what about the subordinates once his business is done. His worry is how to use his new position to further his prospects before he retires in a few months. As the date of retirement

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approaches, his perception of right and wrong blurs in the lust to make the most of the position. This is the crux of the problem of corruption. Freeing the police from the grip of corruption is a priority for rebuilding India. A non-corrupt police is the beacon of a healthy society. The police can usher in a healthy social life in the country only by first getting itself rid of the cobwebs of corruption and then infusing professionalism in its work. It must elevate itself to the heights expected of it as the guardian of the rule of law, justice and fairness in the social structure of the country.

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ROLE OF POLICE IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE
Justice begotten at a cost is justice lost. The fact is lost sight of by the present administration of justice. Justice is a natural right. It is the sine qua non and raison d’etre of social grouping. Justice in a social environment has to be as natural as sleep or oxygen to a living being. Free and fair justice is the leges legum of human rights. The proficiency of justice administration has to be assayed with this litmus test and the role of the police in the system has to be judged by its contributions to this goal of the justice administration system. Justice in its basic sense necessitates an integral vision. Justice abstracted from its environment, past, present, future, diverse issues, dramatis personae and related events cannot be justice in the true sense of the word. Justice in parts is no justice that lasts. Justice involves delving deep down to the heart of an issue and delivering justice in reference to all related issues and matters to the rightful entitlement of all. This presupposes a passion for objectivity and justness and above all, selflessness in the arbitrators of justice as well as in those who are in the service of the administration of justice. The role of the police in the administration of justice comes to scrutiny in the context of their non a such part in the investigation of crimes and maintenance of law and order. Police play umpteen roles as grass root executors. They are basically performers, actual doers in the field. Passion is the normal trait of action. Objectivity and justness seldom give company to those who act to show results. Expecting selfless traits in a profession like police is
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waiting for raindrops from white clouds. They do perform duties with normal flair and loyalty while put in service of justice. The tragedy is that the loyalty of the police prefers the interests of the rich and powerful to the abstract idea of justice they are put in service of. Loyalty to justice is a noble cause. It signifies a heightened mind bound to a heightened cause. Loyalty to a value or a just cause is always a great virtue. The same cannot be said about loyalty to individuals of whatever importance. Loyalty by definition signifies loss of freewill and independence of thought. Loyalty is a binding, strong in that, an emotional binding by volition, but a binding

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nevertheless; there is no independence in it. It is a mortgage of the self. Loyalty denotes polarization of the self; devotion to one, and thoughtless opposition to whoever stands up to the object of the devotion. This notion renders loyalty devoid of any sense of justice, which bounces from the springboard of freedom of thought and independent judgment. Ergo, individual loyalty in the service of the administration of justice is self-defeating to the cause of justice. The Achilles’ heel lies in loyalty basically being a faith, a blind faith. Sans stirrings in the conscience. It is an inferior submission to a superior existence, ipso facto subverting per se the very foundation of the cardinal principle of equality among individuals. The only loyalty to conscience, freedom of thought and independent judgment. A policeman with this loyalty can do exemplary job in service of the administration of justice. Police as the cutting-edge of the governance, enjoy enormous powers. Bringing law-breakers and criminals to book is just a part of the gargantuan responsibilities on their shoulders. As the taskmasters of the statecraft, they are invested with diverse rights and privileges. They have a peek to all-private as well as public activities of the citizenry. They can constrain people to perform specific tasks and forbid from doing others in the national and public interests. They prevent, check, prohibit, restrain, regulate, confine or arrest erring people depending on time-to-time needs dictated by the circumstances. They can forcibly break open, enter, search and seize when need arises. They use weapons to hurt and kill. The wide spectrum of powers impinging on the basic rights of the plebeian places the police on a pedestal different from that of the common man as far as the administration of justice are concerned. These extraordinary powers are tools of the police in serving the interests of justice. The police, as the means of justice, are often exempted from the process of justice by the law itself. Human nature being what it is, the need of keeping the police in tight leash regarding exercise of their sensitive powers has become conditio sine qua non for the administration of justice.
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The relevance of the police in administration of justice is two fold; one, fair exercise of their responsibilities in the interests of justice; two, fair exercise of their powers to ensure that no harm is done to the process of justice. As dispensers of justice during investigation of crimes and maintenance of law, police perform highly sensitive tasks capable of undermining the very process of the justice administration, police enjoy unrestricted freedom unbecoming to the sensitivity of their job. Practically, there are no means to force them to comply with the needs of objectivity and fairplay in work save their own interpretations of laws and actions. Subsequent interferences of courts are too little, too late to be

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meaningful. By the time an issue knocks at the doors of courts, damage to the process of justice could have been irrevocably done. Whatever courts do thereafter help only partial recovery from the damage. Innocent people would already have been arrested, charge sheeted and harassed; decent people would have been dishonestly denied rightful dues in the name of maintenance of law; criminals would have been willingly let off the noose; or hors la loi would have been let free to do things in violation of the extant laws as quid pro quo. What police do in the name of dispensing justice are material to the hoi polloi, not what courts deliver, if deliver at all, at some distant future. The fact brings the police centre-stage in the administration of justice. Police unequipped for the crucial role is the crux of the issue. Lack of sound mechanism of supervision and poor position of policeman in society, mediocre education, deviant job culture etc inhibit police from performing at levels adequate for the importance of their responsibilities. It denies them organizational pride. Field orientations distract them from high human values. Weak economic position and easy opportunities for dishonest riches render them prone to corrupt practices. There is nothing tangible in their service to inspire commitment to noble causes. Their job culture does not inspire them to delve deep into diverse nuances of their job. Their service lacks in facilities to enhance professional competence. Consequence is shallow policing, mechanical works en face policing crying for deep, intellectual analyses of its relevance for establishment of a just society and national well being. Shallow policing is responsible for all the mishaps and turbulence of the first half century of independent India. The period saw police distracted to go berserk seeking parochial and selfish ends. A force committed to parochial and selfish interests can hardly do any justice to the administration of justice. Another relevance of the police in the administration of justice is exercise of their special powers without committing wrongs against justice. Police are dangerous fences with their extraordinary powers potential to
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uproot and destroy the crops they are put in charge. Their enormous powers presume special responsibilities on their shoulders to protect innocent people from rash exercise of powers. This is an infinitely more difficile responsibility considering what human nature is and how every man suffers from a blind spot about him. Every person is right for himself. Every criminal is just in his own assessment. Every act, every human being, does has its own logic, reasons and justifications. Nobody ever is wrong to himself. This is true of the police too. Every encounter, every lockup death, every third degree method, every wrongful confinement, every illegal arrest, every excess committed by police has its own police justifications. It is irrelevant how the justifications. It is irrelevant how the

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justifications appear to outsiders. You seld find police confessing to a wrong or an excess committed. We have examples of police commissioners justifying gunning down of innocent citizens by subordinates in broad daylight in a busy street as a bonafide cause of mistaken identity. We have any number of cases of senior police officers colluding with subordinates in destroying evidences of lock-up death cases. Punjab police reveled in hushing up cases of cold-blooded murders through false encounters. Police excesses are justified by the top brass per procurationem of the solidarity of the police force as though the concept is inimical to the interests of justice. Use of third degree methods is excused as the bedrock of policing as if justice is as irrelevant concept as far as police are concerned. The ambience, with the police going berserk with their special powers to establish a just society, is not conducive to the administration of justice. The police are committing wrongs against justice by the very means invested to them to protect the interests of the justice. This is an irony of the relevance of police in the administration of justice. The cause of failure of the police lies more in the systems failure the character of its dramatis personae, deviant job culture and wrong leadership than in the concept of police. Police in inappropriate milieu may turn into a Frankenstein. It is like a herd of tamed elephants in a khedda operation. Lack of direction, weak management and poor organisation turn the tamed rogues on rampage against the organizational goals instead of bringing of knees the ferae naturae. Remedial measures have to be found for the prevarications rather than blaming the police tout a fait. Policing being a specialized job with rare keeks inside by outsiders about measures and decisions taken in disparate circumstances, few outsiders comprehend that the job gives tremendous leeway for work and decisions, be it crime investigation or maintenance of law. This is a dangerous liberty in the system of dispensing justices that warrant preciseness and smug exactitude in the sensitive
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business of balancing justice. The sensitivity is briller par son absence in the present police and policing system. Justice being what it is in the present age of prolate concours making threatening differences, the leeway in policing process gives scope for favors, misuses and corruption. Lack of real supervision and control over the work ab extra is another face of the problem. Beginning from deciding whether a prima facie case is made out in a complaint and whether the case is to be investigated to whether it is to be charge sheeted, at what stage, on whom, with what all evidences, every decision is exclusive police decisions. How an investigation proceeds, at what speed, whom to arrest and whom not, at what stage, whom to release on bail and whom not to, what to search and seize, where,

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at what juncture of time, the direction of the investigation to be pursued and what turns to be taken at what phase, police decide on own without reference, supervision, guidance or control from outside. Though laws provide for courts to keep track of the process of investigation, it is rarely the case in the field. The situation is blatantly glidder in the field of maintenance of law sans the mechanism of courts keeping track of the issues unless the matter is filed, before a court of law. The Achilles’ heel is taken advantage of by the rich and the powerful. Police have become willing tools in their hands in warping justice in barter of the crumbs they throw from the res gestae of their unjust deeds. The situation is conspicuous in police bending laws in favour of the people in power to let them out of the noose of laws or crush their enemies or keep Sophocles’ sword hanging on the crowns of their opponents to ease political maneuvers. The degringolade began during the emergency of 1975, saw a rising swing in 1980s and found in excelsis in the early 1990s with courts taking cognizance of the situation and convinced about the need of their interference in the interests of the administration of justice. Public interest litigations became popular. Higher courts ventured into close scrutiny of investigations into cases against people in power. It became public that there was no history of convictions of powerful politicians in independent India in criminal cases investigated by investigating agencies including the CBI and rarely such cases were investigated but on political compulsions. The premier investigation agency and its chief were subjected to strictures in open courts for nonperformance, partisan approach and contempt of court in investigations to cases against people in power. Close scrutiny of the investigations led to arrest, charge sheet and conviction of powerful political leaders. The tragedy of the awakening is that the so-called judicial activism saw itself serving the interests of the political witch-hunt preceded it. This considerably reduced the impact of the alert courts on the national scene. The witch-hunt became a part of the policy of survival of
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United Front government that followed. The use of the CBI and revenue enforcement agencies to bring political rivals to submissions led to the fall of government in April 1997. The state terrorism against political rivals became a perfect art in 1970s with the use of intelligence agencies for surveillance and opening secret, files, and in 1990s with the use of investigation agencies for maneuvering investigations into criminal cases, with the willing cooperation of police leaders in the respective agencies. While the trend strengthened the position of the chief executive of the government, it sine dubio, weakened the political fabric of the country, so essential for a democratic process. In comparison, misuse of investigating agencies

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proved a deadlier assault on the political process of the country. Jain-Hawala case caught the popular attention as nothing before. The case took down its author and his party with his political rivals to the drains. The coalition government that followed used the same ropes to strike a wedge among the leaders of the party that supported it from outside by terrorizing some through the CBI and revenue enforcement agencies and luring others with the crumbs of power. Bofors kickback case got a lease of life. St.Kitts forgery case and Lakhubhai Pathak cheating case were re-enacted and maneuvered to net-in strategic political rivals on flimsy evidences.Rs.133 crores Urea scam and JMM bribery cases loomed large. A key leader was interrogated without sound grounds for possessing wealth disproportionate to known sources of income and later implicated in Tanwar murder case on suspicion. The party was subjected to various enquires by revenue enforcement agencies. The acts nailed the fate of the coalition government to prove that misuse of police often goes counter productive in political maneuverings as did in Tamilnad where erstwhile Chief Minister, Ms.Jayalalitha, found a series of criminal cases stacked against her and her associates, once she fell out of power and popular support. Recent past saw executive heads of government opting for their own men in the police force to head the premier investigation agency of the country and political rivals being investigated and charge sheeted at politically opportune times on flimsiest grounds while cases of national significance on sound footing were dragged on for decades wantonly. Often, ambiguous entries in diaries to prove bribery and old photographs together in public functions to prove collaboration became conclusive evidence to proceed against inconvenient political leaders. It was a scene of every successor hurling criminal cases against his predecessor. Police reduced to a tool of political revenge in this power game. In the process, the police lost its credibility as a nonpartisan player and an invincible tool of establishing justice. It is a pity that the leeway police
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enjoy in policing contributed to its loss of face and spine by its patent sequacious comportment and lack of passion to the case of justice. Opportunities of dispensing favors during maintenance of law are common and aplenty in policing. It be raids on vice dens, issue of licenses, or action on rowdy gangs, decisions of police about whom, when and how, play important role in political game plan. The decisions and concomitant actions more often than not are taken on political convenience rather than as measures of curbing lawlessness. Police act as conduits of partisan measures in favour of the powerful rather than as tools of administering justice to all. Power assumed higher importance to police than justice. Vice dens, criminals and rowdy gangs, bien

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chausse with political patronage or money power, are not only allowed to run trouble-free, but often protected to the hilt by the police. This is how the police in the job of serving justice are stabbing it en arriere. Police patronage to hors la loi is ephhemeral and changes colours with the change of guard in the government. Personal ambitions of some in the organisation lead to patronages ectogenous to political maneuvers in form of cross-political allegiances and subservience to rich and influential segments of the society. In the maelstrom, justice suffers, and the nation, its constitution and the general public to whom the police as the guardians of justice are responsible, suffer. Police is not the odd-job boy of the government. It is not the handmaid of politicians in or out of power. Police is an organisation of professionals committed to the safety, security and well-being of the country. Justice and rule of law are the litmus tests available to achieve these ends. Once police miss the bus of justice and the rule of law, their goals of safety, security and well-being remain a distant dream. They lose the credibility and respect of the public, so essential for effective and perficient policing. The fear the police inspire cannot take it far in absence of credibility, respect and sympathy of the public. Once the police lose their usefulness in political and power game plans consequent to losing public credibility, their political patrons will discard them like used condoms. The best bet for the police is to be professional and committed to their responsibilities towards the administration of justice. Police would forget this need only at their own peril. Doing anything violative of its raison d’etre like sabotaging the course of justice will prove to be fatal to the relevance of the police for the society. The relevance of the police lies in its usefulness to the administration of justice au reste safety and security. Police are the arms of the administration of justice. They are the drive and thrust of the administration of justice. Paralyzed arms crumble the body of the administration of justice. Arms struck by struck by gangrene, poison the whole
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system of the administration of justice. As a vital organ of the administration of justice, police have inherent potentiality to sabotage the interests of justice ab intra in umpteen kinds including blatant mendacity. Inordinate delays in the process of investigations are one. Bartering justice is another. Subjecting justice to the terms of quid pro quo is one more. Inefficient and shallow policing adds to the list. Delivering partial justice adds to the problem. Refusing to act against injustice is another kind of injustice to justice. Making justice a costly affair gives another dimension to the issue. Effectiveness of police lies in its ability in making justice an easily and cheaply dispensable

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commodity. Police are the first line of the means of dispensing justice. Courts come to the scene only in far later stage for restricted number of cases. For the hoi polloi, police is the first and the only easy defence against injustices. Most cases of disputes never cross the thresholds of the police stations. Police do act as arbitrators of justice in criminal as well as civil cases in exercise of the wide spectrum of responsibilities of crime investigations, investigations, maintenance of law, enforcement of order, preventive measures and security duties. They enjoy a key position in the administration of justice. A good police certainly symbolize effective administration of justice more than courts and prosecution department together do. That is why a sound police system is conditio sine qua non for the health and progress of the country and its tenuous social fabric.

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POLICE STRUCTURE NEEDS THE MANAGEMENT TOUCH
A major handicap in police administration is the absence of a tool to assess performance. The problem is, in fact, peculiar to the fields of crime control and security operations. The object of the organisation is preventing crimes and success can be measured only in relation to the extent the efforts pay. As the factors of such an effort are unknown after the crimes are prevented, the effectiveness of policing can never be measured. The results that are tangible, namely the successful protection of a sensitive target or the creation of a crime- free atmosphere during a particular period, can be the outcome for two different reasons; either no crime was attempted, in which case even the least effective police could have produced the same results or an all-out major attempt to commit crime has been prevented, which could not have been achieved by anything less than first class policing. The measurement of the quality of crime investigation and maintenance of order are also equally complex for different reasons. Policing in these fields largely depends upon intangible factors such as luck, surroundings and the willing cooperation of the public. In order to tackle these problems in gauging policing qualities, the organisation compares developments in the same period in the preceding years. But this is an unscientific method and gives unsatisfactory results for various reasons. The crime rate or other policing problems do not remain static over a period of time. These depend upon population, complexity of society, economic conditions, moral values, quality of leadership, political conditions, prices and climate, none of
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which follow any formula. SUBJECTIVE FANCIES The police needs, as a control device, a tool to measure policing quality. Until such a device is invented, the administrators have to rely upon their subjective fancies to measure and control policing and assess the work of their subordinates. Until a scientific device is formulated, the heartburns and frustrations caused by erratic measurement of work and policing qualities, wherein a few mealy-mouthed smart guys always corner accolades at the cost

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of efficient silent workers, will continue to prevail. A sufficiently active tool to measure policing qualities is therefore the first priority in the task of creating a new shape for the Indian police. The success achieved in this field will decide the degree to which the Indian police can shed its shoddy image. The police organisation is being run without requisite management principles. The major lapse lies in the failure to define organisation objectives and formulate a specific set of actions thereon. For example extraneous objectives such as creating employment opportunities often inspire the creation of additional posts irrespective of the organizational needs, which results in the corrosion of job contents and thereby erode the morale of the force. Work, often, is not allocated on the basis of scientific assessment of character and aptitude. Sophisticated equipment purchased under modernization schemes without creating the infrastructure for their operation or analyzing their relevance and their relative merits to the organisation, have resulted in their being dumped a few days after commissioning while even some of the basic needs are yet to be met. MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES The police organisation of India would do well to formulate actions and operations in line with the latest management principles and practices followed elsewhere. It may either constitute an efficient cell of management experts to advice or hire a management consultation firm for guidance. At any rate, the police organisation of the third millennium should be a far smaller unit than now, manned by highly committed and capable officers who are paid and looked after well by the Government. The last three decades have seen a tremendous expansion in the Indian police. For the lack of an organizational plan and the foresight to assess future demands, haphazard growth has resulted. Organizational sensibilities such as workload, unit of control, accountability functional conveniences, span of control and information flow are never given the attention
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they need building an organisation. As a result, while a few posts in the police are overburdened with work, there are many which have no work or accountability. The lopsided growth of the organisation has spawned acute likes and dislikes for various positions. Naturally, probity and objectivity are sacrificed in favour of survival and protection of career interests. Corruption is rampant. This may not be the sole reason for the falling standards of policing. Yet, it is a major cause. Rationalization of the police structure to bring about a balance among the various posts in the same rank would certainly help to ameliorate the situation. It would also help to eliminate the wastage of Government funds on unnecessary posts. The creation of such posts, in order to accommodate unwanted elements,

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cannot be tolerated in a serious department like the police. A systematic growth plan for balanced expansion is essential if the department is to meet the tasks ahead. INSTINCT For the administrators, the knowledge of modern management principles makes policing and related operations cheaper, effective and less demanding in terms of time, place, manpower, equipment and other resources. The instinct to study and plan operations in terms of layout charts, time flow, span of control, methods of programming of operations, motivational aspects, human relationships, information flow, control methods, work analysis and contingencies for emergencies must be inherent in police culture whether it pertains to raids, maintenance of order, crime control, investigation, intelligence collection, security exercises or simply administration. Only the meticulous exercise of management techniques will make police administration meaningful, purposeful and useful in giving the personnel direction and content. The present policing system in India has too much of paper work with hundreds of registers maintained in each station or office with tens of forms filled up at each stage. A detailed study of the need for paper work should be taken up to eliminate its need so that time is saved. Professional knowledge is vital in the field of policing too. What is at issue is not only the knowledge of law and procedures but also a deeper insight into their applications, necessary in diverse circumstances. A mind, alert to its surroundings with an inexhaustible curiosity to know what is afoot and triggers each development and its likely impact on policing in general and the worker at hand in particular, is essential for efficient policing. This entails special efforts to update professional and general knowledge at all levels. There are training programmes, including in-service training, but they lack in substance and quality. They fail to impart the right knowledge to the trainees and induce attitudinal changes in them. The lack of commitment to work, either in actual performance or in
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supervision, is the primary cause of this failing. A healthy police setup, from the constabulary to the ranks of the Director-General must possess sound professional and general knowledge at all levels. The modernization of the police force with the latest communication, transport, weapons and office equipment system and the simultaneous creation of the necessary infrastructure for their operation in advance alone will make the police force rise to the challenge of elite criminals who are armed with sophisticated equipment. India of the third millennium will require its police

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force to be equipped with helicopters as an aide in emergencies. A genuine and effective effort to achieve modernization would be indispensable in the future. A facelift to police stations and offices with the latest office equipment and general facilities will go a long way in boosting the morale of the policemen. INTELLECTUAL ANALYSIS The passion for modernization is not met with an intellectual analysis of the needs for modernization. The result is spasmodic efforts without the logistic support to sustain modernist ion. This has resulted in enormous wasteful expenditure towards the acquisition of gadgets. Indian is yet to develop a system to assess the needs of modernization in the police and to devise techniques to speed up the process. India is yet to make full use of advanced computer facilities for policing; computerization of fingerprints is yet to reach a satisfactory phase. The use of helicopters for policing remains a dream. Distant hearing and night watch devices are also unknown. The response time of the Indian police to a crisis call is unduly long when compared to international standards. Efforts to shorten it, in Delhi and few other places where terrorist strikes made shocking impacts did bring about some improvements. These are only exceptions. Otherwise, no serious though is given to the need for quick response. The modernization programmes that should pave the path for improving the response time, seldom attend to this salient need. The Bangalore city police spent liberally in 1991 on modern communication gadgets; but this did not improve its speed of response. Instances of such wasteful expenditure on modernization are available in other parts of the country also. Though efforts have been made to redeem the image of the Indian police nothing substantial has been achieved thanks to amateurish handling of the affair. The managers have their image development tools limited to issuing occasional press statements when actually image development has become a highly advanced field of
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specialization. CONSTABULARY The constabulary which forms the backbone and cutting-edge of Indian policing and wields real authority over the populace, is a lowly paid, modestly educated, nonelite mass of works in uniform. The authority they wield makes them fearsome while their low status in society stands in the way of their getting empathy and respect. The fearsome authority sans empathy, respect and legitimacy decidedly proves a deadly substructure for an organisation and people certainly resent an organisation with this unhealthy attribute. This foible in the extant setup makes policing more complex.

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The Indian police of the 21-century will require subinspectors with their present scale of education and status in society as the primary unit of policing at the cutting-edge level. Constables up to the level of Assistant Sub-Inspectors of Police should be limited to the duties of assistants without police powers and responsibilities. This will require a huge army of sub inspectors while the constabulary stands to be severely spruced in strength. With the removal of the constabulary from the hierarchy, the sub-inspectors will occupy the lowest rank in the setup. Each police station works under a police inspector assisted by a host of sub-inspectors, performing all subordinate functions including beat patrolling and investigation of minor cases. Diligent efforts at the highest level in the organisation to create a force characterized by integrity, commitment and intelligence may be the foremost need of a police organisation of the future. The prevalence of police administration over general administration in the survival of a nation as a democratic and disciplined country may necessitate changes in the recruitment and service condition rules to attract the best talent. WORK ASSESSMENT The system of assessment of work for promotion has fallen into utter misuse. Subjective assessments of corrupt influences must be replaced with periodical promotions in a time scale of say, 25 years. So every police constable retires at least as an Assistant Sub-Inspector of Police, a Sub-Inspector as a Deputy Superintendent of Police and an Indian Police Service Officer as an Inspector General of Police. The officers of the Indian Police Service may be posted, on first appointment, as Superintendents to make the career more attractive, though not to districts directly. And dual recruitments as in vogue now, have to be stopped to make selection meaningful. Officers, in exceptional cases, may have avenues for special promotions in addition to the two provided in a time scale of say 25 years, on the basis of a written examination and on an overall assessment of their career of
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25 years by high-power committees formed for the purpose. The promotion of constabulary in exceptional cases to the ranks of PSIs and above should be screened by the All-India Police Authority and the promotion of an IPS officer as the Director General of Police and above should be approved by a Central Cabinet Committee headed by the Prime Minister

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MAN MANAGEMENT IN POLICE
Man management is the point d’ appui around which all organisations revolve. Among man, material, machine and money, it is man with his skill and creative ingine, with his wisdom and capacity for ceaseless labour, with his thinking faculty and intelligence, manifests in excelsis in any organisation structure as its real spine. The strength, vitality, quality and real test of any organisation depend upon its human stuff and the process of its man management. For, man in an organisation stands for totality of his motivation to the organizational objectives and totality of motivation a toute force depends upon the grade of man management in the organisation. Ergo, man management is the fulcrum of any organization’s process of survival. This is more so in a police organisation where policing a fond is a human resources orientated profession with boundless need of motivation for successful operation and therefore sub structured tout a fait on the merits of man management. A police organisation sans right man management policy is bound to crumble in a welter of discontentment and demotivation. Salient parameters of a sound man management policy in police organisation though vary e re nata, more prominent of them can be discussed to lay the matter in right perspective. HIGH MORALE The present Indian environment of ruthless competitions impleached with the degringolade of values made human resources management a farce in India. The Wherewithal of human resources management like recruitment, promotions, transfers, rewards, punishment etc, is no more employed for the maximum benefit of the organisation. Self-interests have undermined quality and character and organizational interests are subordinated to
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personal behoofs. Though this proclivity is prevalent in all fields in India of late, its adverse effects are kenspeckle in police organisation as the line-system of the organisation makes the ingenuity of human resources management, a factor having direct bearing on the quality of the policing. While is becoming a dynamic part of the governance in urban areas, with the rise of urban pockets, the damage done by egregious management of human resources in the police cannot be exaggerated. The declension may go

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patulous with the passage of time if frack measures to arrest the depravation in human resources management are ignored. Diligent efforts at the highest level in the organisation to create a force characterized by integrity, commitment and intelligence may be the foremost need of a police organisation of the coming age. The prevalence of police administration over the general administration in the survival of a nation as a democratic and orderly country may necessitate future changes in recruitment and service condition rules to attract the very best talents of the country to the police organisation with extraordinary care to ensure that anything less than the best with clean antecedents does not step into the organisation. WARMING-UP PROCESS The period of initiation is the most important and impressionable period in the career-life of fresh recruits to the police department. The process of warming-up is based on the psychological needs of human nature. New entrants must be handled with utmost care to give them confidence and a feeling of belonging at the incipient stage itself. A sense of confidence and belonging to the organisation and an ingenerate love and respect for the higher-ups are the substruction on which discipline grows. Efforts to inculcate discipline in a void a like waiting for rain from the autumn sky. Indian police impresarios failed to understand such finer nuances of administration when they copied the system of the British Indian police. And so we now have a police system where discipline is insisted on subordinates sans the conditions requisite for the discipline. The recruits, who enter the fold with open sensibilities and high expectations, wither after braving for a while the brusque and insensitive conduct of their higher ranks. These recruits continue thereafter to be constant enemies of the higher ranks and the department for which they must continue to work for the next three to four decades. A police department constituted of such members, thanks to the shabby approach of the insensitive higher ranks in this most impressionable period of the former’s career-life,
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cannot turn out eximious work. It is a tragedy that India neither spawned a police force of its ain superior values nor copied the police force of the British vintage in its entirety with its finer points, but cultivated instead a burlesque of the rough and mediocre aspects of both. WORK PRESSURE All creations in their beginning and the nature’s bounty are kind and tender and elegant. The strains of the environment cause inquietude in nature’s balance and leads to the obfuscation of a few precious sheens from its innards. It manifests in loss of human factors in man and his mental space turns intenible of human qualities by environmental strains such as work-pressures.

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The Indian police are weighed down with an impossible quantum of responsibilities and tasks. This work-pressure adversely affects the mental balance apart from depriving those tasks from the due attention. It is impossible to expect a man bogged down with responsibilities and tasks to spare his time for the niceties of human qualities. An important measure in humanizing the police is to scale down the work- pressure on it to a bearable level. An element of lightness in work makes the work environment dulcet and provides an adequate mental space to devolve on the exuberances of human compotation. HUMAN ASPECTS The human aspect is the fulcrum of policing. Human comportment teethed with authority to compesce the human mass from undesirable activities forms the essence of police activities. Policing essentially is human interaction, latitant in unending luctation to smite criminal and antisocial elements. It is the human quality in the force that determines its effectiveness and vitality. Therefore, human resource policy in a police organisation needs careful and gritty handling at the highest possible level. People can afford the luxury of humaneness when they are insulated from the quotidian diversions of their occupational hazards. A delectable service atmosphere mellows their responses to those around them. They begin to see the world in a better light, in conformity with the atmosphere around them and try to share these pleasant feelings with those they come in contact with. The levity of the environment and the absence of strains from the servicefront facilitate their opening-up to give vent to their latitant human contents. An effort to humanize the police cannot ignore the need to improve service conditions to make the police proud to be enraced in the vocation. The sense of contentment generated by the service atmosphere devolves to the public that interacts with the police. In addition, the public learns to hold the police in esteem in conformity with its improved service conditions and sophistication. The interaction between the police and the public can be a sound substruction for humane policing.
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GOOD LIVING CONDITION A reasonably good standard of living helps the police to rise above the physical and security need-levels to social and higher need-levels in the need- hierarchy outlined by McGregor and have the mental space for wider interests like human concerns of kindness, tenderness, elegance and civility. A low living standard retards the police image and esteem in society. The police organisation functions effectively only when a reasonably good living standard is made affordable to all ranks, so that they can deal with anti-

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social elements from a level of strength and confidence sans the lure of easy booty, thrown en revanche to a letoff. A low living standard retards the police image and esteem in society that are the essentials of successful policing. It is more so in future while more and more of the so-called elite jump into the fray of criminal activities in an increasingly complicated society. It is necessary to make the police financially bein by adequately compensating for the risks and hazard factors of their jobs to attract the best men to its fold apart from securing them against financial distractions. A feeling of condign compensation and contentment is certain to raise the police above physical and security need levels to give free expression to natural human tendencies. It may be necessary to make police officers financially bein in comparison to their counterparts in other services with risk allowance and hazard allowance to compensate job factors. This helps to attract the best to the fold of the police organisation, apart from protecting them from financial distractions. A feeling of condign compensation is certain to boost the commitment and efficiency of the police. HOUSING Policing is a risky profession that draws antagonism and hatred by its very nature. It involves round the clock duties, often at odd hours, at odd places in odd circumstances. Retaliation by criminals is a constant risk under which policemen live. Their work constantly exposes them to danger. The very nature of their duties necessitates their being treated on a different footing to others in the government. The security of housing and other facilities being generously available to them is de rigueur. Indeed the spirit of the ancien regime remains undisturbed in matters of housing facilities for the police. However, a much more liberal attitude in providing housing and other facilities to the police is necessary to strengthen the Indian police and make policing more effective. WELFARE ACTIVITIES Police forces administer welfare funds for the benefit of their members. The current approach of disbursing money
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from these funds to needy applicants needs to arouse a sense of pride and dignity even in receiving help from the establishment. Much thought has to go into this aspect to make the welfare funds useful to them without giving the impression of charity. If the funds go to them as their rightful share, they would be put to better use than as a charitable contribution. A newly structured police for the new age certainly requires a fresh approach to the utilization of police welfare funds. TOUGHNESS The Indian police are not paying sufficient attention to the need for physical prowess, sturdiness and skill in martial art. The need for attention to these factors

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during recruitment, basic training and in-service challenges is tout a fait ignored. A healthy and sturdy police requires healthy and sturdy men and officers, capable of taking up gauntlets and defending themselves when exposed to comminations. The need can be sidelined only at the risk of weakening the organisation. The police are often required to defend it in circumstances when unarmed and undefended. Policing involves performance of tough and physically trying jobs that can only be performed when policemen and police officers are physically and mentally fit. The police, aspiring to a bright future, must attend to this need for its own good health with genuine seriousness. UNIFORM A change in the existing police uniform is an issue to be deeply probed to improve the police image. The present khaki uniform of police inspires resentment, as it is psychologically associated with repression and violence. A change of police uniform to white or pleasant colours may prove to be a measure for the better in removing the negative image of the police. The overall strategy in selecting a new police uniform should be to infuse a sense of oneness and quality among the ranks of police and inspiring a psychological disposition of friendliness, confidence, dignity, respect and healthy fear in the public with a compulsion to see the police as their own people, but invested with the responsibility of a noble task. HUMAN RESOURCES FROM THE PUBLIC The performance of the Indian police in utilizing the services of the public is far from desirable. Most parts of the country are yet to avail of the services of the people as special police officers, as is provided by police regulations to assist in policing. Wherever the services are availed, the potential is not made use of to the full. The system of village police officers also is yet to fledge to take off. The use of people as traffic wardens to assist traffic police is limited to major cities of India. No police can be tout a fait self-contained. Involving the public and obtaining its cooperation in policing is a necessary art that needs to be
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carefully cultivated for making policing a success story in India. There is no shortage of people among the public who would volunteer their services. Only, the police must open its doors to such services and organize a system to make such services really effective and useful. WEAK LEADERSHIP A factor that seriously affects the morale of a disciplined force like the police is weak leadership, often affected by disorders of inferiority complex, in posts from where it can affect the career of subordinates. This is a very serious situation wherein weak and insecure leadership holds reins of the career of thousands of

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subordinates with many at very senior levels. The feeling of insecurity in them colours their interpretation of normal conduct of subordinates from their pusillanimous standpoint to interpret foursquare qualities of subordinates as surquedry; normal reporting or explanation appears like an intrigue and tough posture appears like insubordination. A desire to teach a lesson to the forthright subordinates who make the leadership feel inferior is a natural outcome of this. This makes retaliation an ever-pensile threat to the career of the subordinates. And the threat, sine prole is true in the police. This makes people of sound mind, a must in responsible positions in the police. For an organisation like the police, the need of sound mind is more basic than any other faculty. Should the prodigies of virtues like sufferance, intrepidity and foursquare qualities in face of odds constitute the bedrock of the police organisation, the force make meaningful impact on the society. The basic tenets of man management in police organisation discussed above are that a person happy, contented and proud of himself makes his work situation happy, contentful and something to be proud of, and ipso facto enriches his work and himself; that man au fond is good natured, trustworthy and tends to take responsibility and if he is treated as such, he certainly turns out his best work that if he is convinced that fairness is the rule of the game, he is the easiest social animal to be handled. It is left to the police leaders to infuse these tenets in their man management policy to get most out of the human stuff under their charges. But the conundrum is that the police leaders need to be motivated towards the end, and who is to motivate these police leaders to the task by own man management programmes?

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WHERE INDIAN POLICE IS HEADING
History of Indian police on modern lines dates back to the dawn of the 19th century. East India Company controlled police activities in areas under its charge through Village Police Regulations. Post-sepoy mutiny saw enactment of laws to streamline police organisations at provincial levels. Enactment of the Police Act, 1861 as Central Act V in 1861 is a major step in streamlining police organisations and their activities at the central level. The Act which calls itself as “An Act for the regulation of police” preconises at its Preamble that “…. it is expedient to reorganize the police and to make it a more efficient instrument for the prevention and detection of crime.” The Act seeks to establish one police force under State Government and its Preamble declares prevention and detection of crime as the objective of the force. POLICE UNDER BRITISH CROWN Periods sinsyne saw ascensive use of the police force for suppressing freedom struggle and maintaining law and order au reste prevention and detection of crime. Indian police metamorphosed to a law and order outfit in the next nine decades au contraire to the proclamations of the Preamble of the Police Act, 1861. British Raj ruled India on the strength of police force during the turbulent periods of the independent struggle. In the process, law and order functions came to centre stage in the charter of priorities of the police duties at the cost of the objectives of prevention and detection of crimes. A MAJOR TURNING POINT Indian independence marks a major turning point in the history of its police. The event marks the transition of India police from a colonial heritage to a democratic character. The change has momentous impact on the spirit, character
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and objectives of the organisation. The basic interest of a colonial police is the perpetuation of the colonial rule wherein matters ectogenous to the interests are treated secondary. In a democratic police, the foremost objective is upholding the interests of the country, its people, its democratic heritage and the sanctity of the constitution. This is a formidable responsibility. Maintenance of order, rule of law, security of the people, safety of the national properties and interests, prevention of offences and investigation of crimes sit squarely on the sturdy

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shoulders of a democratic police. Its allegiance shifts from the rulers in a colonial rule to the people, the interests of the country and its constitution in a democracy. The shift is basic to the character, job culture, functional values and the organizational gestalt of the police force. WORLD-WIDE TRENDS The cardinal question is how far Indian police in the democratic ambience worked-out its adaptations to the new situation and zeit geist. Half a century should suffice for a fair and complete assessment. The developments Indian police underwent in this period can either be due to the worldwide developments in the field of policing and police system as a continuing process or due to the adaptation of Indian police from the colonial heritage to the democratic vintage. The evolution in worldwide policing practices and police system in the latter half of the 20th century itself is portentous. National security activities gained primacy neck and shoulder above the crime and law and order functions. With it came the grey areas of clandestine operations across the countries. Police shed their uniforms and threw laws and morals to the wind in pursuit of national security policy. They became international players, hopping from country to country in disguise, committing murders, overthrowing governments, forging passports, shipping weapons, training rebels, spreading, disaffections, organizing violent protests etc in the interests of their own countries. SECURITY CONSCIOUSNESS Indian police could not lag behind. Moving pari passu with the world trend is basic for survival. The consequence was the rising prominence of security activities at the cost of both the prevention and detection of crimes and the law and order functions. A craze for VIP and VVIP security is the Indian manifestation of the new security consciousness. Worldwide rise in terrorism gave way for specialization in anti-terrorist operations all over the world. Crack- forces became the spine of the security police. Antihijack squads were organized as an elite force of the police. Advances in science and technology made national security
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a high-tech field. Satellites, modern communication systems, high- resolution photographics, laser beams, night vision systems, computer technology etc made national security highly advanced and complex operations. The international developments only marginally touched Indian police for lack of will to be a major player in international clandestine warfares. The only real concern of Indian police more suo in the last half century was VIP and VIPs security. Here too, performance did not match the concern as many of its important leaders including those occupied top positions of Prime Minister and

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Chief Minister fell prey to assassins. Indulgence of Indian police in form in lieu of substance, in number in place of efficiency and in display where subtle moves were en regle led to the grave failures. The popular axiom of Indian police to this day is that larger the number, better the security. Motto is countering security threats with counter threats; or better, meeting security gauntlets with the show of muscle power. The approach is the antithesis of modern perceptions and theories of security policing. In Indian ambience, VIP security has become a fanfaronade; a procession of sound, light and motions; a festive assemblage. Tragically, it is happening at the cost of law and order functions and more so, at the cost of prevention and detection of crimes. MUSICAL CHAIR The situation is tardier in law and order functions. Obvious powers and tremendous avenues for ill-gotten money make law and order jobs hotly sought after posts. Politicians and people in power are the bestowers of these jobs on favourite few. Result is the desperate concours of police officials of all ranks to aggrace politicians and people in power to corner right spots in the musical chair. The ragmatical situation leads to law and order functions losing the edge of fairness and objectivity in efforts to keep right people in right side. This is how law and order police become law for themselves or for their political masters against the raison d’etre of a law and order machinery. The situation breeds corruption and encourages partisan policing. Law and order duties being closely interlinked with the everyday life of the people, police on the duties come in contact with them everyday and present the image of the entire police force. The hors la loi image, corruption, inefficiency, meekness before the mighty, insensitivity, arrogance and immanity to the hoi polloi, these are the cornerstones of the epinosic image, the law and order police spawned for the benefit of the Indian police. LOSS OF CREDIBILITY Fences itself grazing the field in law and order policing led to the debasement of moral values in public life. Money
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power became the effective counterpeise against the arms of the law and the state power. Making money by any means became the secret of success. Frauds and corruption became lucrative business. Governance was commercialized and State power became a venal commodity. Administration process became a scelerate and police lost credibility. People were forced to pursue illegal and unwholesome means in their dealings with the State and the police for survival. Laws as means of the state power became loathsome objects for the common man. This spread unrest and protests and violent agitations became the order of the day. The people and the police found

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themselves pitted against each to break the other. Violent protests led to violent suppressions by the police. Hatred spawned hatred and violence begot violence. This is where India stands today. Violence by dalits, attacks by Naxalites, terrorism in Punjab and Kashmir, gang wars in Bombay and Bangalore, lawlessness in Bihar and UP or enlevements by ULF activists speak of the symptoms of the same malady namely lawlessness in the law and order police that divellicate from its raison d’etre. CHARTER OF PRIORITIES The pressure of law and order functions and importance of VIP security sidelined prevention and detection of crimes to a minor responsibility in the charter of priorities of the Indian police. Preventive techniques saw no updating from the mechanical motions of the pre-independent vintage. Prevention is forgotten in the pressure of other works. Indian police come to picture only after a crime is committed for detection. Here again, investigations are hijacked by political and money muscles. CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM Too many cases under investigation with investigators are a serious misease of Indian crime investigation field. Work-pressure leads to cursory investigation. Third degree methods are adopted for easy results. The malfeasance itself is a black-mark on Indian criminal justice system. Corruption and political pressures lead to miscarriage of justice. Cases are taken up for investigation, investigated and charge sheeted according to political conveniences. Bails, arrests, searches, pace of investigation and timings of the charge sheet or final report are subject to the equation between the head of the investigating team and the head of the government. This is the situation at all levels including the premier investigating agency of the country. Case diaries were tampered at highest levels before sent to courts. Intentions of charge sheeting political heavyweights were declared to media before legal compulsions of such a sensitive act was met. Cases of political significance were charge sheeted on flimsy grounds and later acquitted by the court. Inaction in some cases in part of the apex
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investigating agency of the country led courts to monitor investigation of the cases and warn of contempt proceedings for noncompliances. The apex court of the country observed about the conduct of the heads of the premier investigating agency of the country that “there appears to be too many officers bitten by the publicity bug…Inefficiency appears writ larger than performance.” When the head of the agency was removed from his position for misdemeanor, the media of the country fished in the troubled water to sensationalize the issue; the apex court was constrained

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in the matter to observe that his removal should have come earlier. This is the egarement to which Indian police condemned its criminal justice system. INDIFFERENT POLICE ADMINISTRATION There should be a single root for the general fall of standards in Indian police. It is insensitive and indifferent police administration, lacking in all branches of administration, be it planning, organisation, coordination, direction, execution, control or research and development mechanism. The cause of atrophy lies more in negative scheming than in lack of a positive face. Haphazard organizational growth as responses to the time to time pressures sans elements of foresight and detailed planning, corruption in selection and recruitment procedures, sham training practices, non-existent interbranch coordination, apocryphal infrastructure, directionless directions, self-serving decisions, deviant control mechanisms, perverted assessments and farcical research and modernization programmes have all added to the poor standards of Indian police today. Huge budget allocations made for police are want-only frittered away without accountability. Precious human resources are wasted away with frivolous and mischievous games in career planning programmes sans thought or seriousness. The culprits of these shoddy affairs vary from the top brass of the police to the fonctionnaire in the government to the so-called professional outfit, the egregious Union Public Service Commission. Incompetence is writ large in their approach to police administration. Their failures and mischief in managing human resources seriously affect the interests of an organisation based on human resources like the police. GLIMMER OF HOPE Not that all is bad. Occasional good works are there. The role of Indian secret police in liberation of Bangladesh is the tour de force of Indian clandestine operations. So to lesser extents are the successes in containing activities of LTTE cadres and Sikh and Kashmiri militants. India showed
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considerable presence of mind in Afghanistan front also. The fear of law and a semblance f order, the law and order machinery could infuse in a country of India’s size itself is a matter of credit and pride to Indian police. The unshaken trust of the plebeian on the criminal justice system of the country nonobstante the extant maelstrom in the field per se is its apogee and speaks volumes about the utility of police investigation in controlling crime. What is distressing is that what is done is far short of what is expected from Indian police. No country can afford to have an apollyon in its midst in the shape of a corrupt, inefficient and disorganized police force. Right leadership at the top can be the lever de rideau to bring the system to its professional senses. Such a

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leadership in police should rise ab intra from the very womb of the degenerate system by rupturing the womb. The walls of the womb are hard and thick in police. That is why the apotropaic process takes a long time. Till then, Indian police must boil in the broth of its own ignominy.

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POLICING THE POLICE
The work police or policing is derived from the Greek roots polis means city and politeia, Latin politia and French police means polity; its English root is “policy” means statecraft, plan or course of action especially in statecraft or administering the laws. The spectrum of the meanings of the word ‘police’ and ‘policing’ swings from ‘city’ in one extremity to ‘statecraft’ and administering the laws in the other. Police and policing imply administering the laws of the country in the process of the statecraft. Police deal with laws as part of the administration in shape of its enforcement and detection and investigation of its violations. Policing the police is administering laws to police and bringing violators to book selon les regles. It is a measure of fencing the fences to prevent them from themselves looting the crop. The vectors of policing the police rely on the moral convictions of the police force and pro rata decide the effectiveness of policing outside. A law- abiding police is a boon to the country, its administration and policing system as well. The very concept of policing the police is pregnant with the suggestion that police do not necessarily limit themselves to the bounds of the laws, therefore require policing. A protector, guardian and enforcer in one have two facets: he is a master as well as a servant at the same time. This is what is expected of police in regard to laws. The issue is whether police serve the laws in the capacities. They do act as masters in enforcing them. But their role as servants of laws needs deeper probe about how far they are subject to and guided by the laws in force. Policing the police involves self-policing. Internal vigil against lawlessness within in the form of prevention, investigation, enforcement and protection motivated by a
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sense of commitment to law and justice is its pith. Such commitment presupposes professional pride, conditioned by high morale spawned by clean professional culture of high values, sound reputation and standing of the profession in society and the sense of achievement and recognition, the profession induces. The elements of policing the police are embedded in the organizational culture and the managerial dynamics of the police setup. Its value system, objectives, means pursued to achieve them, attainments, strengths and weaknesses, the reticulation of human relationship,

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public image, efficiency of managerial vectors, sense of fairness in assessing performance and granting recognition determine the orientation of a police organisation to rein in itself to the consuetude within the bounds of law, justice and popular acceptability. Their sensitivity to their image and reputation helps to strain every fiber to keep up to public expectations and avoid unfair practices. This is au reste the individual pride in the force about being a worthy member of a worthy institution. The individual and organizational prides interact to create an ambience of high morale and great professional pride to serve as the greatest tool of policing the police from within. Creation of a distinct arm within the police setup to police the organisation a la military police in army is another technique. This is gratuitous in police for the simple reason that police organisation is capable of handling police responsibilities within as effectively as outside. The only block to the process is natural fellow feeling and sympathies to erring colleagues. The issue can be handled through appropriate administrative measures au reste adequate sensitization to the threats of unlawful and criminal activities ab intra. Criminal and other unlawful activities of the lawenforcers destabilize the democratic foundation as well as the judicial system of the country. Police hors la loi while act as harbourers and pillars of support to outside criminals and create havoc in the law-enforcing system, no meaningful policing is possible. They boost the confidence of criminals and help the spread of criminal activities. A true effort to arrest lawlessness in the country must begin with pernoctation against outlaws within the police and drastic measures to snap their connections with outside criminals. This brings the need of policing the police to the forefront. Efforts at policing the police must begin with right recruitment policy to ensure that only right people enter the job. Next important stage is right training. Third stage is creation of right ambience of job culture within the service. Fourth factor is institution of a right system of rewards and punishments on the basis of actual performance. Fifth is
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sensitizing the top brass of the force about the need of policing the police too make policing meaningful and purposeful. An extension of this sensitization is willingness of the police administrators to track down unlawful and criminal elements within the force and efforts to deracinate hem from the system as fast as possible. It is easier said than done in actual practice. Obstacles to policing the police are numerous, ranging from clever use of loopholes in the system and laws to circumvent the arm of legal authority to use of external pressures to extricate from impending disciplinary proceedings. Police is a part of the world outside and cannot exist in complete isolation from

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it. Their close interdependence and symbiosis make them sine qua non for each. In the circumstances, they mutually influence and the lawlessness and criminal tendencies of the society outside seep into the police system to allay its resolve for self-policing, and corrode the process. This allay reflects in recruitment, training, job culture, system of rewards and punishments and resolve to cleanse the system. Concomitantly police lose moral right to policing anywhere. Vigilance organisation does keep tab on all government organisations including the police. The arrangement is simply inadequate to meet the needs of policing the police for the simple reason that the scope of a vigilance organisation is more or less limited to activities related to corruption and that its jurisdiction is so widely spread on all government organisations that it can hardly do any meaningful work to cleanse the police even on the single agenda of rooting out corruption. The pith of such a vigilance organisation being constituted of police personnel, chances of sympathies for criminal colleagues are more than incidental. That is why, vigilance organisation can hardly be an answer for the problem of policing the police. Service and conduct rules that guide the conduct and activities of government servants is too weak an instrument to meet the needs of policing the police. Rules therein couched in procedural hurdles and usual governmental loopholes can scarcely be effective in providing the vigorous drive needed for the efforts of policing the police. It is a fact that these rules achieve no more than keeping the government business going. They are not meant either to inculcate true fear or induce motivation towards any end. Police cannot look to them for sustenance of its need of policing the police. An outside agency that can substitute for the lack of selfregulation in police is judiciary. Both are closely-knit in the cause of the administration of law and justice. Police organisation is functionally subject and subordinate to the directions of the judiciary in the dispensation of justice
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and the rule of law. The ethos of judiciary prevents it from close and day to day scrutiny of the police functions unless it resorts itself to pro-active mode in select cases when warranted by the atrophy set in as in extant India. Judiciary is a disinterested and uninvolved observer of the field trends unless it is forced to interfere in the overall interests of justice. Its ethos prevent it from being an effective tool of policing the police save in rare and far-between circumstances like the recent ones wherein handling of investigations of politically sensitive cases came to public scrutiny and popular condemnation. Further, judiciary lacks the infrastructure required to perficiently police the police. Judiciary is best suited to give jolts once in a way on selective

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basis. This is just about to remind police about what is right and what is expected of them rather than effectively policing the police. Bihar is a distinct example of how police, putrid at the core, add to the atrophy of the public life rather than bringing a sense of discipline there. Police organisation is not only ineffective there; it foots the bill of being a setup of criminals in uniform. The claim of justice Mulla of the Allahabad High Court in 1968 that if there was an organized force of criminals in India, it went by the name of police, perfectly suits the police setup of some major states of North India like Bihar and U.P. Though Punjab police did commendable job in containing terrorism in Punjab the police in the job there at the time were almost sans self- policing. The point is that the same goal could be achieved with better self- policing in part of the Punjab police. Nexus of criminals and police in Bihar is too striking to be ignored. The police of U.P do not lag behind much. The misease is a common phenomenon in India. Politicians hold criminals and police together from above for obvious reasons. In the circumstances, policing the police from below becomes meaningless and purposeless even in the unlikely even of efforts of selfpolicing within the police. The true clavis of policing the police lies in breaking the noxious nexus. Policing must begin from within and spread outward. Self-policing is the primus of the responsibilities of any effective policing setup. It needs higher commitment and resolve as a foundation to meaningful policing other where. Self-policing must constitute the core of activities of a police organisation worth the name. As only a flame within can shed light outside and only a conviction within can spread confidence outside, a clean environment inside only gives strength to cleanse the world around. The conundrum is how to bring it about. Power corrupts; absolute power corrupts absolutely. Police as the arm of the state power structure, enjoy enormous powers. Incidence of corruption is natural in the circumstances. Corruption of police badly affects the hoi polloi and their
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trust in police, judicial system and honesty of the government. A corrupt and lawless police makes lives of plebeian a hell. Policing by a lawless and corrupt police is just a mockery played on hapless people. A cardinal measure in policing the police is making the unlimited power of police accountable. The present provision of protection given for acts done under the colours of office is largely misused. No proper mechanism is evolved to demarcate what to what degree constitute acts done under the colours of office. Anything done in performance of official duties including unlawful acts and often those done outside the ambit of official duties too are carried piggyback under the clause of official protection unless the acts draw the public

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scrutiny and become too hot to be defended by the birds of the same flock in uniform and their godfathers above in government. Police being a closely-knit organisation, its members rarely let down each other as any of them may find himself in a similar situation at any time in the prevailing prolate disregard for law in police. Also, the usefulness of police renders them protected for their misdeeds by the bureaucracy and the politicians. The outcome is a police force with unlimited powers and protection against its misuse without any purposeful accountability. No organisation with such powers, protection and lack of accountability can develop any respect for law. The foremost need is forcing police out of this protection to bring it en plein jour to accountability for every evil committed by it. Protection has to be an exception rather than a rule for actions done in honest discharge of official duties. A suitable machinery manned by disinterested persons of high standing can be instituted to oversee the benefit of official protection is justifiable. Leaving the matter to official superiors from the same flock may only serve the travesty of justice. An important safeguard to strengthen the process of policing the police is insulation of disciplinary and rewards system from outside influences. A sense of exactitude and promptitude has to be injected to the system and objectively is made the abracadabra of the process. A sense of certitude about penal action for a given failure has to develop in the organisation. Punishment has to be pro rata to the gravity of the mens rea and adequate to deflect others in the organisation from pursuing the path in future. More important, nothing from outside should deter the process, so that the feeling of security that one can save him from whatever irresponsible and unlawful act by bringing pressure from outside remains no more available to schemers and wrongdoers. There are informal measures too, like transfers and selections of police personnel for medals and other rewards. Presently these measures are careened towards money and political clout one enjoys which is earned
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always by corrupt, immoral and illegal means. Once weightage is given to right people in the organisation in posting to rewarding jobs and selection for medals and other rewards instead of those with ill-gotten money and political clout, the measure itself works as an enormous boost to the morale of the police force and brings its members on right and lawful tracks. The first step here is bringing an end to the present policy in favour of money and political powers. This step itself helps police force enormously in weakening the prise of money and political clout on the police force. The positive step of encouraging right personnel by proper transfer and rewards policy adds to the benefit. These subtle measures can do wonders to the efforts of policing the police.

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Intelligent employment of conventional stick and carrot method can certainly cleanse the police setup and make policing purposive, meaningful and effective. What is required is willingness to police the police to make the organisation condign of policing responsibilities. The power of police does not lay in its numerical strength or the arms it wields. The real power of police is its moral strength and the image it presents to the outside world. A clean, honest and professional police have galvanic effect on the public as well as law-breakers. They are feared, loved, respected and patronized by everybody. This is an environment, most conducive for perficient policing. Clean and professional police help the cause. A clean and professional police is possible only with an effective tool of policing the police. The major task in reforming and building a new police force to India is restructuring it with an inbuilt mechanism of effective self-policing. How fast it is done, so much easier for the country to build a healthier nation by the time India will celebrate the centenary of its independence.

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NEED OF ATTITUDINAL CHANGE IN POLICE
The major problem that confronts extant police is its attitude to work, responsibilities, profession, organisation, government and the public. It is confounded about its goals, objectives, loyalties, professional ethos, job culture, procedures and practices that carry it forward in the field in attending professional duties. In the wilderness of undefined roads, Indian police grope for perspicacious directions to reach professional ends. Popular phrases like maintenance of order, enforcement of law, prevention of crime, investigation of offences, protection of security interests etc are too generic terms to carry any meaning and significance during the process of actual policing. Perficient policing is possible only in the ambience of wellrounded and clearly defined specific guidelines for action that help molding professional attitude in the organisation. Police develop wrong attitudes in its absence by erroneous interpretation of the situation around. This is what happens to Indian police now: wrong attitudes and concomitant confusion about performing legitimate duties. A profession like police naturally has its own goals, objectives and ideals to pursue. They get clouded in the smog of practical turn-around in the field and ultimately lose their edge in the spin of attitudinal aberrations. The consequence is clashes of loyalties, adoption of immodest vectors in policing, the issue of excesses and inactions, tendency to bend rules and laws to achieve perceived ends in the hour of need of upholding the rule of law, urge to cash-in on the ignorance and weaknesses of the ignorant people around and indulgences in unprofessional works in the name of discharging legitimate police duties. Performance of any profession depends upon three factors:
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professional ideals, job culture and actual practices and procedures. Job culture is spawned of constant interaction of professional ideals and actual practices and procedures in the field. Though basically is a product of the past, it considerably affects the future performance of an organisation. Practices and procedures being the primary vehicle of attitude, they help molding job culture a la immanent attitude in the job. The result is a pollent hold of attitude in deciding the direction of an organisation. A

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profession loses its raison d’etre while attitude in the job prevaricates from professional ideals. Professional ideals of police are rooted in the terra firma of the rule of law, justice, order and the security of the country and its citizens. Police organisation is basically responsible to the constitution of the country and the government constituted and the laws enacted in accordance with the constitution. Police lose its relevance to the country when its professional attitude goes against the cardinal ideals of the profession. The challenge of a police organisation lies in molding professional attitude as required by the ideals of the profession. Wrong attitudes inveterate in extant practices and procedures of policing are shaped by self- interests, misconceptions, ignorance and tendency to pursue easy and shortcut methods: they are hard to be broken and survive under most odds. Only efficient, honest and highly motivated leadership alone can crack the etui encompassing it. Once it is done, building a new set of right professional attitudes is relatively a simpler job to a committed leadership. Basic to these efforts is a realization among the top brass about what constitute right and wrong attitudes. The crux of the problem of Indian police lies here. It is distressing to note that the top leadership of post-independent Indian police is responsible for the prevarication of the organisation from its professional attitude of absolute commitment to public order and safety, justice and rule of law to easy and shortcut avenues of selfish interests. The change percolated downwards. In the rush of Indians replacing the British to sensitive government positions on the eve of independence, men of inadequate caliber and merit occupied key government posts. This happened in police as in other government departments. The result was happened in police as in other government departments. The result was corrosion in leadership qualities, traits of excellence and high personal merits, so essential to run public and national affairs at the top. It was during this period that Indian police lost its track in professional policing and exposed itself to the luxury of dancing to the
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easy and soft tunes of convenience by yielding to pressures of political and other vested interests. Policing powers served as a tool of maximizing self-interests and personal comforts at the cost of professional policing. In the process, the country suffered and police lost its face. A major handicap of the extant Indian police is its dependence syndrome. No more, Indian police realize itself as a master sui juris. For every piece of work under its sphere of decision, it looks for advice, guidance and direction from the political leadership, bureaucracy or the judiciary. It is more a symptom of immanent servilities and lack of spine than anything else. Present Indian police lack of hardihood of professionalism and the selfconfidence ensues from it.

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Policing is not a job dependant on outsiders like politicians and bureaucrats. For one, the latter are not professionals and their advice, guidance and directions in re policing are unlikely to be sound. Secondly, subjecting policing to their advice, guidance and direction while they themselves are subjects to policing discipline is unlikely to be in the best interest of the professional policing. Not that police officers do not know of these facts. They lack the professional resolve to uphold the purity of the principles of policing au reste being unsure of themselves. Tendency is to avoid risky responsibilities of policing while hawks outside are avizefull to make the maximum out of the weakness of the police and pledge policing responsibilities to those who sit above them in exchange for secure career prospects. That is shy meekness and servilities of police officers in India are pro rata to the importance of the posts they hold. Somebody cornered or placed in an insignificant slot has nothing to lose by standing up to his superior and no need to go servile to anybody unlike somebody in a coveted spot and therefore not required to protect his position coute que coute. It is impossible for an upright officer to land in key jobs like chiefs of police forces in states or the centre save in disturbed provinces like Punjab and Kashmir. The result is downward slide in professionalism and perpetuation of servilities and dependence. Policing worth the name is possumus only while the glissade in professional resolve is arrested. But, the vice in which Indian police is caught is too pollent to be breached. The dependence syndrome has to be replaced by professional resolve. This requires change of attitude. The change is not easy to come in present vicious circumstances. Without it coming soon, Indian police has no deliverance. A serious handicap of present Indian police is its noncommittal and causal reliance on mechanical procedures sans passion for professional objectives. Tendency is to show the amount of labour put to a job rather than showing results. There is no true passion to reach goals and achieve professional objectives of safety,
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security, justice and the rule of law. Every attempt is to do minimum required so that the chances of being caught committing mistakes are minimal. Procedures and practices form the staple and there is no spark for creative policing. Policing has become a mechanical process sans substance. It is the minimum common denominator that counts in present policing environment. The passion natural for those in police for public security and order, rule of law and justice is seldom felt in Indian police of the present vintage. Risk-taking that is a common trait of good policing has become a rarity and a scarce commodity. The problem lies in wrong attitude. The atrophy set in, in the field of committed

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policing has become the mainstay of the Indian police. Reversing the trend is the first priority to bring Indian police on the right rails. A manifestation of this wrong attitude is evident in investigation of crimes. The reason for the problem lies in the environment in which investigators function. They are prosecutors of another kind in real terms in Indian police environment and work to collect evidence of whatever merit to prove that the persons accused of crime had committed the crime rather than unearthing truth. Persons under investigation are treated as criminals and harassed. When sound evidences are not available, anything that goes for evidence is trumped up. The infamous Jain Hawala case is a case in point. The case was cold-stored for years. The dependence syndrome of the premier investigation agency of the country prevented it from investigating the case sans clearance from political masters. Once polictical bigwigs calculated that investigation of the case was in their interests, CBI proceeded full-steam to prove the case. When direct evidence was not available, CBI probed for circumstantial evidences. When circumstantial evidence failed to prove anything, CBI went for anything available to feed its fanciful interpretations. Need of corroboration was thrown to the wind. Political leaders were tried on the basis of initials and numbers entered in a diary. Court of law exonerated the politicians for lack of evidence. In the process, many heads rolled on the block of the political game plan. Professional attitude to investigation with a passion for fairplay, objectivity, truth and justice would have saved the country from the quite unnecessary hardships. Politically sensitive cases are taken up for investigation only when people in power decide in favour, and investigated with a particular end in sight and charge sheeted on the basis of whatever little could be gathered in the name of evidence. Professional investigation is not meant to proceed in this fashion where possibility of a prima facie case and quality of evidences precede every thing else and decide the course and pace of the investigation process and charge sheet. Sensitization to
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fairplay, objectivity, truth and justice is the foundation of the professional policing. Professional police display extraordinary scruple in exercise of policing powers like arrests, bails, searches, seizures, interrogations etc so that law bites only the hors la loi and innocent citizens go absolutely unharmed. It is not the case in Indian police now. Investigation has become a one-way track of somehow raising evidences and charge sheeting, truth and justice become tragedies in the process. This basically is a problem of wrong attitude. People caught in the web of criminal laws deserve sympathy and kindness until they are proved guilty beyond doubts. They need to be treated with gentleness and courtesy that behoves to interpresonal relationship in a civilized

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society while the process of investigation continues with all efficiency and ruthless exactitude. Police as investigator is not invested with powers to punish for the crimes committed. Fair chance to persons under investigation to prove their innocence goes a long way in unearthing truth and solving crimes justly. This has to be the attitude of the police during crime investigation. Truth and justice have to be their goal. Indian police lack the maturity and poise. A serious Achilles’ heel of Indian police is its perverted attitude towards rules and laws. Bending rules and laws to suit self-interests is one dimension of the spiel. Another dimension is its blind application sans sense of proportion and discreetness while self-interest is not an issue. It is seen in enforcing laws and maintaining order. Police forget that rules and laws are just tools in the larger cause of peace and order of the society and sadly handle laws for law’s sake. Rules and laws are invested on police like weapons as the dernier ressort while all other avenues are shut. Discreetness is their constraint. Objectives are primary Rules and laws must follow them only as tools to that end. The realization is rarely found in the present police. It operates laws for law’s sake by relegating organizational objectives to oblivion. Professional objectives suffer and police become an object of detestation consequential to this perverted attitude. Mechanical enforcement of gratuitous rules and laws constrict the freedom of people for no specific purpose and weaves an unnecessary web of constraints around them for nobody’s good. The attitude is fatal to fair and professional policing practices and needs to be corrected on priority to make application of rules and laws need-based in reaching professional targets. Another field where police need to change its attitude is its contempt for human values. Policing is just an instrument to the cause of protecting human values. Police oblivious to this fact, subject human values to immane policing methods in the name of policing. Third degree methods are the point. Malfeasances do not behove to the cause of human values. Means are as important as
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ends in policing. Pursuing unjust means for the cause of justice is the spiel of the Frankenstein, the story of an offspring eating its creator. Inviolable commitment to human values and rights is the foundation of good policing. Human touch is sine qua non for professional policing. Human concern is the raison d’etre of good policing. The shift in attitude needs to be from blind and blanket policing for the policing’s sake to discreet and enlightened policing to reach professional objectives. The shift has to be from the use of policing powers to maximize professional goals. The shift must see police taking risks in the interests of the profession and doing intelligent policing rather than indulging in

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maneuvers of personal security. The process warrants massive exercise in attitudinal change. What constitutes perficient exercises of attitudinal change in a massive organisation like the police? Police organisation is a tough and hard-to-crack candidate for any manipulations. It is a no nonsense outfit. The only way to bring it to senses is intensive and extensive appeal to its reason and emotion to convince about the need of change. Police rely on past practices and procedures. It looks for the job culture to aemule. Forcing police away from vicious practices and procedures and undesirable job culture through the attitudinal change is an arduous and timeconsuming exercise even for experts in the field. The exercise has to be a multi-pronged attack on inveterate misconceptions and wrong notions in extant policing by extensive exposures to talks, discussions, seminars, briefings, studies, researches and in-service training involving analyses of policing, its ideals, objectives, methods, means and ends, social relevance, pressures, policing environment, psychological aspects of policing etc. The exercise has to be intended to provoke police personnel to think about their profession without dogma and arrive at desirable conclusions about professional policing and impress them on the ingredients of good policing by constant exposure. A few ideal cases as models have tremendous impact on the cause of creating right attitudes. Studies and researches on policing and policing methods provide a sound foundation to these exercises. A police organisation interested in improving its quality and performance cannot go without sound study centers and research projects on the issues of policing. These attempts provide both inputs and insight to the behavioral pattern of the police in field under different situations and stress patterns as differentiated from what are desired. They bring both gestalts to contrast in terms of their perficiency, professional needs and relevance to the environment of policing to affect attitudinal change in right direction by way of conviction. The immediate need is inducing doubts about the soundness of existing attitudes
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to encourage discussion on the topic. Deliberate guiding through structured mental exercises to desirable end forms the latter part of the task. Indeed, the whole exercise has to be planned and executed in detail by highly efficient leadership in the police. The conundrum is who behoves to handle the highly responsible job while the leadership of the police itself is mired in wrong attitudes to the job of policing. Problem of attitude basically is a problem felt at higherwrungs in top brass of the force. The stiff hierarchical order and command-obedience pattern of functioning make the lower-wrungs irrelevant in matters of job attitude. Those down the ladder are loyal followers and obedient operators in the path and

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policy laid above them. Their attitudes change shape from case to case to meet the demands trickle from above. When the demand is to let out a rich and powerful criminal with royal honors, those down the level do just that with vengeance; when the demand from above is to frame an innocent man and obtain his confession by subjecting to torture, they just do that with dedication for the sake of a well earned pat of their omniscient superiors. It is again a question of ill-conceived job culture and attitude, which needs to be corrected, as it is tangible to the standards of policing as all organisational matters are. The primary target of attitudinal change is the higherwrungs and the top brass. Others follow and fall to place. The key lies in the realization that something is wrong in the present mode of policing. Demolition is the beginning of the construction. Once the realization of wrong dawns upon, reconstruction becomes possible. Police being an extrovert and action-oriented outfit, selfanalyses and inward-looking tendencies do not come easily. While things go wrong, introversion becomes sine qua non for healthy growth. This is what is required in Indian police now.

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WHAT AILS THE INDIAN SECRET POLICE
It is significant that the history of the police of sovereign India begins soon after the turbulent years of the Second World War. The shift saw an expansion in the vista of policing worldwide, the most important being clandestine operations for national security. Covert operation blossomed as a full-fledged institution and was recognized as a tool of statecraft only during and after the Second World War (Germany, the Soviet Union and Britain before and during the war and the U.S. and Israel after it perfected the techniques. The establishment of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the early Fifties from the remnants of the office of Special Services (OSS), with an exclusive division to handle clandestine operations abroad (sometimes domestic operations also) marked a milestone in the history of intelligence. Free India, in spite of its moral values and abiding faith in the Gandhian philosophy of truth and honesty, found covert operations indispensable for survival. Though attempts were scratchy in the beginning India made significant breakthroughs in penetrating, molding and controlling the affairs of neighbors after setting up the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) to handle covert operations in foreign countries. Its operations and performance in Bangladesh, Sri. Lanka and Pakistan and to a somewhat lesser extent in Afghanistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Burma and some of the Gulf countries are equal to the best in the world. Its role in the creation of Bangladesh, containing the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, checkmating Pakistan in Kashmir and controlling the terrorist misadventures of
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international Sikh communities against Indian targets have earned it worldwide accolades. This in spite of the fact that the Indian secret police is a lightweight performer in the arena of international clandestine wars and its overall performance is unimpressive for the size and resources of the country. The reasons are many. The first is the lack of commitment to the national cause and ideologies such as integration, democracy, secularism, nonaligned movement and mixed economy. Another reason is the moral atrophy experienced by the police after

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independence leading to a setback in the professional approach. Postings to the RAW with opportunities for foreign assignments have become an obsession depriving the job of all its substance and spirit. The other reason is political interference in postings and transfers of the RAW officials. It is in fact political connections rather than security screening and clearance and aptitude for clandestine operations that decide the issue. Huge unbudgeted and unaccounted funds at the RAWs disposal make the appointments highly lucrative. This is an extremely dangerous trend in a security apparatus where commitment, trust and absolute secrecy are vital and draw the line between life and death. LACK OF PERSPECTIVE Clandestine operations require highly specialized skills, ignoring this need means compromising and betraying the organization’s operational efficiency and exposing the country to dangerous security threats. Another important reason for the retarded growth of the Indian secret police is the general lack of security consciousness in the country and the inability to see and place the imperatives of a national security policy in the right perspective. These glitches end up in security breaches. India’s approach to national security is always piecemeal, incoherent and casual. It does not have a sound and well-conceived national policy. Security threats are always treated with short-term face-saving responses that never contribute to the real long-term security needs of the country. The people who fought a mighty power to liberate this country from the yoke of foreign rule just half a century ago have not bothered to start a public debate on the subject. Indian security now is left at the mercy of time and it is sheer luck that democracy has escaped the hungry wolves waiting to prey on it. Security policy is the essence and unifying factor behind all the policies of most developed as well as developing countries. Whether in foreign, defence or economic policy, industry, trade and commerce, science and technology or
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human resource development, the policies are all oriented to national security. Most developed countries have exclusive super agencies reporting directly to the head of government to advise it on, oversee and mastermind national security policies and its operations. The U.S. has the National Security Agency (NSA) doing yeoman service as the national security advisor to the President and enjoys more powers than the CIA. Israel and Russia have efficient outfits at the political level to formulate their national security interests. Most developed countries have created their own systems to mastermind matters touching national security with the power to

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override the decision of other departments. India is yet to learn its lessons from these developments. The excessive concern for national security has led to the creation of parallel governments and power centers in some countries. There are instances of black acts being committed against the legitimate policies of countries in the garb of national security. Pakistan is an example of a constitutionally elected government living in the shadow of fear of its secret police. The Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) has indeed taken upon itself the responsibilities of national security. LOYALTY, A POSITIVE ASPECT In the context, a positive aspect of India’s poor concern for secret interests is its clean slate regarding the existence of secret parallel governments and clandestine power centers. It is creditworthy that the Indian secret police has remained subordinate and loyal to its legitimate authorities. The field of operation for the security agencies continues to be confined to traditional methods that ignore the needs of a modern integrated approach in consonance with the national policies and programmes. India cannot afford to treat its security concerns according to the whims and fancies of the people who come to head the Ministries and their political and personal ideologies. India lacks a regimen of long-range security programmes to make its security operations meaningful and purposeful. It is lagging far behind the world standards in hi-tech ultra-secret espionage operations. Its secret police are yet to make proficient use of the country’s impressive strides in satellite launches and other space innovations. Except perhaps in the case of Pakistan, India is yet to fully utilize the service of world-class mercenaries. In short, security is not high on the priority list. The state of affairs is even worse in the special branches or intelligence units of the States and Union Territories. The former have become tools of the ruling parties that spy over their political opponents and the field situations. Law and order is pushed to the background.
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As far as internal security is concerned, they are rather ill-equipped for the task in, manpower resources, hi-tech equipment, expertise, organizational efficiency and motivation factors, save some routine VIP security exercises which do not call for expertise. These exercises are meant just to oblige and gratify political masters. Their contacts with the news media, a vital link in intelligence operations, are few and are mostly confined to local newspapers for the purpose of disinformation and to keep track of news dissemination. Occasionally, these contacts are misused to promote favourite subordinates. The role of these

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special branches in providing skilled recruits to security agencies at the national level has remained a dream. The institution of an apolitical agency with a permanent core group of experts whose integrity is proven alone can change the situation. This nucleus will act as the guide, advising the head of government in national security matters. Efforts made in this direction are rather sketchy, ill conceived and half-hearted. It is high time work was done in earnest to form this comprehensive agency. VIP PROTECTION In India, national security, for all practical purposes, is synonymous with VIP security and the police refuse to look beyond protecting individuals. This is because of the lopsided loyalties and aberrations in understanding professional objectives and responsibilities and a tendency to trade off professional responsibilities and services for promotions. This explains the existence of the Black Cats, National Security Guards, Special Protection Group and so on. While the safety of national leaders is important, it is not the plank on which national security stands. The VIP security has become a public farce with all kinds of people demanding and obtaining security classifications depending on the money and power they have. They get the cover of highly trained police personnel as a mark of their prestige and social standing. All matters concerned with national security are highly sensitive and should be treated as such. It should not be degraded into a mean exercise for the benefit of a few persons, however influential and important they may be. Each VIP visit to a region ends up with the entire law and order wing of the police force drawn out for protection duties, throwing normal work out of gear. With the VIPs busy trotting around the country, it has become a serious threat to routine police work.

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THE ROLE OF POLICE IN A DEMOCRACY
Democracy stands for popular rule. Popular rule implies mass involvement of people in the political process. Mass involvement of people necessitates rules and laws and an agency to enforce it. Here lies the relevance of police in a democracy. The seed of democracy is self-discipline. It involves responsibility to the interests of the country and identifies self-interests with the national interest. In this sense, every person is police for himself in a democracy. This being only an ideal situation, field realities necessitate an external agency per procurationem of the government to enforce rules and laws and police the national interests from the assaults of parochial and anti-social interests lurking in shadows of a democratic rule. This is the police of a democracy. Police is a double-edged sword. Its front is national interests and safety and security of the national life. Its one edge accounts for policing of the people; the other, for policing the process of governance. Though the two functions towards the well being of the country appear intrenchant prima facie, they do make significant difference in the actual process of policing. In one, police police the ruled from the side of the government. In the other, police police the rules from the side of the people as true powerwielders. While in one, it is the will of the rulers that prevails in driving the police to police, in the other, it is the will of the people as expressed through the public media, bind the police to police in a particular way. Police in a democracy are no more than a system driven by the pulls and counter pulls of the government and the public opinion in one hand and the laws in force and the safety and
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security of the national life on the other. For the infaust police, the diverse contradictory pulls and pressures only multiply with the ascensive complexity of the national life. This situation of policing in a democracy makes policing an infinitely more difficult task than otherwise by forcing police to make decisions and take sides. This may be an opportunity for better service in the circumstances of true professional work. It turns to grave mess-up in absence of professionalism probity and genuine national interests.

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The key of policing in a democracy is sensitivity; sensitivity to the needs of the society and the nation. Policing in a democracy involves keeping eyes ears and even olfactory organs open with an argute faculty of conceptualization to understand the fast changing dynamics ’neath the frontal layers of the society and ability for fast responses to handle emergent situations. No society is static. Changes are repaid in a democratic atmosphere with group interests in constant conflict. The kaleidoscope of changing faces of the society is best accounted by the media in diverse forms. Though government is expected to be alert to the needs of the society, factors like inefficiency and corruption more often than not work against social vectors and lead against social sensibilities. Policing under such a government hardly fulfill the needs of the national well-being. An avizefull police can always comprehend the complexity of situation through media and judge the right course of action on its own wisdom. However, media in a democratic ambience is not infallible. Public opinion is more an artificially created venal commodity than a natural phenomenon in a democracy. Media has become a hi-tech business in the age of power through elections. Most tools of creating and arousing public opinion are instruments of propaganda. In the circumstances, blindly relying on opinions artificially trumped-up by the media may not lead police anywhere. Rather, it may mislead police in its pursuit of justice and well-being of the country. Ergo, perpetual pernoctation is the watchword of a democratic police while being sensitive to the needs of the government au reste the ripples of the public opinion with the national interests and its well-being as the litmus test. Police is the ultimate weapon of the rule of law in a democracy. Government, laws and police form a holy trinity in a democracy and each is sine qua non for the other two in the system. The fact is that laws are mutable. They are enacted to meet the challenges of the society from time to time. Laws are collective responses of the legislators to a given situation. Chances are that laws in force are not
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adequate to handle extant challenges in the field. It is a serious problem, police face. Policing is not exactly like a football game wherein rules of the game are paramount and goals are scored selon les regles. Laws are sine dubio paramount. Equally paramount is the safety and security of the national life. Here lies the dilemma of the police. When the two paramount objects refuse to go pari passu, police find themselves in the precarious position of making a choice between the two as in national security decisions. Laws have to be broken in the larger interests of the country while national interests cannot wait for the enactment of requisite laws. The situation leads to human rights violations and popular condemnation of police in some cases. Police have to bear the humiliation with dignity in the

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interests of their professional objectives. The pith of the issue is that what constitutes national interests and what not, and how far police to be trusted in deciding where they can be given leeway to break laws in the presumed interests of the safety and security of the national life. Even while laws provide for action, laws only speak what to do; it is left to police how to do and how much to do. In the polluted atmosphere of criminalization of politics and the politicization of police, neither the police nor the political leadership as the highest layer of governance in a democracy is worthy of a trust of such a magnitude. The need is a sensitive balance between the laws in force and the safety and security of the national life. Police in a democracy need to be perpetually alert to both the needs and find an aurea mediocritas to fine-tune its professional objectives. Police enjoy tremendous leeway in governance in a democracy. The only limiting factor that works on it is pulls and counter pulls. The contradictory pulls and pressures are the clamor of the public for professional and honest policing on the hand and the call of politicians and bureaucrats steeped in personal interests for work as their handmaids on the other. The cardinal issue is where the loyalty of police should lie in the exercise of leeway in pursuit of professional objectives in a democracy. Is it the convenience of the government or the public interests? People in government claim that the first loyalty of the police to government is en regle. Their argument is based on the position that police form a part of the government. The government appoints men and officers of the police force; they are subject to conduct rules, administration and superintendence of the government. The other side claims that the police are responsible only to the laws in force and for nothing else. Such a commitment by police is the foundation of the administration of justice. This is the situation even in England from where India adopted the gestalt of its democratic system. In the famous Blackburn case in England, Lord Denning in reference to police, pronounced,
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“…is not the servant of anyone, save of the law itself. No minister of the crown can tell him that the must or must not keep observation on this place or that; or that he must or must not prosecute this man or that one. Nor can any police authority tell him so. The responsibility for law enforcement lies on him. He is answerable to the law and to the law alone.” The responsibility of the police in a democracy is multifaceted. It must guarantee justice and safety to all strata of people and ensure equitable enforcement of law sine ira et studio. This implies special care and protection to weaker sections en face exploitation from the powerful and involves contranatant stimuli. This is where the sphere of social laws comes to picture. Police has to paramount role in social transformation in a democracy. Resistance is inherent

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and conflict is inevitable in the world of changes. Group dynamics make conflicts pronounced in a democracy. The roles police play in social conflicts have a major say in determining the futuristic pattern of society. The importance necessitates police to be a thinker and a judge in addition to being a cutting-edge executor. A thinking police is a special need of a democracy. Laws only say what to do and what not to do; it is left to police to decide how to do and how much to do. It decides where, when, how and how much invokes what laws. Only a thinking police can handle the responsibility perficiently. It has to deal with a variety of situations of different points of time in enforcement of laws. Failure cripples the evolution of social system to social justice. A special feature of police in a democracy is involving people in policing. People policing themselves are the leitmotiv of in involving people in policing in a democracy. The regular police force is just a skeleton for the true policing efforts of a democracy wherein every citizen is a policeman of his country. The regular police force is just a reticulation with necessary structure, resources and expertise at its disposal towards that end. The potentiality of the citizens to police themselves being fully exploited is an essential ingredient of a successful democracy. No police organisation can succeed in a democracy without people being activity involved. The involvement can be either formal or informal. In informal involvement, services of eligible citizens are enlisted for policing under diverse categories of schemes provided by police Acts like Special police Officers, Additional Police, Traffic Wardens, Village Police or even Home Guards as provided by the Home Guards enactments. The citizens so enlisted help the regular police in various police duties with special rights and privileges under the supervision and superintendence of the police force. The services are normally voluntary. The skill of the regular police lies in making the voluntary schemes attractive and popular and enlisting enthusiastic citizens to its fold in large numbers. Not much is done in India in this area. Nor real efforts are made to activate such
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voluntary schemes provided by the law. The result is that Indian police sweat out without a mass base in a maelstrom and bear impossible burdens on its weak frame to the point of breaking down. The informal involvement covers the use of citizens during the policing. The help the citizens render to police varies from being informers, witnesses and signatories to various panchanamas in criminal cases to patrolling in groups in strife-stricken or dacoity-infested areas at nights. These duties are principal to the success of policing. The skill of the police in enlisting the cooperation of respectable citizens plays an important role in making policing successful. Not much attention is given to this skill in the present scheme of things in police. The

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result is poor policing for lack of involvement of the people. Stock witnesses are the order of the day. Willing cooperation of the public in policing is a rarity. Police are more hated, feared and distanced than respected and helped. Involvement breeds a sense of belonging. It brings police and the public closer. This is a major step towards the relevance of police in a democracy. The sense of participation in policing helps to appreciate the problems of the police and policing. It enthuses citizens to partake in nation building and boosts patriotism. The relevance of police in a democracy lies in the direct interaction between the people and their police. Utility of police lies in its usefulness to the people and the country. A two-way channel between the people and the police makes a democracy really democratic. Periodical meetings between the public and the police at various levels serve the purpose. People from all walks of life of a specific area interact with the police officers of the area in formal meetings held periodically on policing issues. The exercise helps the public and the police know each other better and appreciate mutual limitations in right perspective. It makes better cooperation between the public and the police possible. Informal contacts between the police and the public at different levels also help the process. It boosts mutual confidence to the benefits of both the sides and makes policing cost-effective and efficient. The interactions develop a sense of belonging between the two to the advantage of both the sides as an essential ingredient of good policing in a true democracy. Policing in a true democracy can be extended to a wider scope of experiment a la the Goa Police Bill, 1995. The bill modeled on Singapore police, provides for creation of auxiliary police force by owners of private establishments to safeguard life and property in specified areas apart from being empowered to maintain law and order, preserve public peace and prevent and detect crime within that area. The auxiliary police force enjoys police powers and protections provided by law on par with the regular police.
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It is a welcome experiment in India in democratizing the police of a democracy, provided every act of the auxiliary police force is subjected to effective control, supervision and superintendence of the regular police force to avoid misuse of powers. The idea of people policing the people should not degenerate to a situation where bigger fishes gorge the smaller ones or the fittest only survive. Democracy is not a free- play of powers. It is a balanced exercise of power wherein all people co-exist irrespective of whether they are weak or powerful. Giving them policing powers to police themselves is in line with the highest traditions of the democracy. In the circumstances of the corrupt society, the vigil of the regular police as the symbol

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of the state power is absolutely necessary to make the auxiliary police force behave within the parameters of the law. The same thing can be said about provisions in the Bill to punish uncivilized conduct like spitting, smoking, urinating, throwing garbage etc in public places. They are bound to be appreciated in an enlightened democracy as a measure of cleansing their cities and inculcating decent and healthy practices among them while in an unenlightened democracy like India, there is bound to be opposition to the provisions as an intrusion on their right of doing what they want and irresponsible and sensationmongering Indian media is bound to linger on the protests as an event of national significance. Both sides are the part of the democratic interplay of a democracy. The options before the police in a democracy are often a bundle of non- options. They find themselves in the precarious situation of neither taking a decision nor avoiding it. It is like being caught between the devil and the deep sea. Democracy let loose contradictory forces to pounce on police from all sides. A police not steeped in professional resolve gets seized in the melee and exposes itself to grievous errors. A good example is the case of dreaded underworld don Arun Gawli of Mumbai. The world knows that he is a dangerous criminal with scores of criminal cases pending against him. Mumbai police obviously was helpless in containing his criminal activities. Large sections of the people in Dagdi Chawi, Mumbai and Maharastra idolized and supported the criminal. Democracy dictates respect to the feelings and sensitivities of all sections of the society. Shiva Sena supreme, Bal Thackeray and his party called him as their answer to dreaded underworld don Dawood Ibrahim and tried to promote him and his gangsters. He become a respected figure to Mumbai police under Shiva Sena Chief Minister, once he established his Akhila Bharatiya Sena (ABS) at Mumbai and other places of Maharastra. When he fell foul with Shiva Sena and its supremo, political parties like congress tried to woo him and his muscle of labour organizations to their fold. Then Mumbai police under
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Shiva Sena government realized that Arun Gawli and his criminal activities are security threat to the nation and he was arrested and detained under NSA for a couple of extortion cases and harboring criminals. Nagapur Bench of Mumbai High Court declared the arrest and detention under NSA as illegal. The episode explains all the maladies of policing in a democracy in the ambience of criminalization of politics, politicization of police, lax judicial system, constricting group dynamics and the ability of criminal elements to take advantage of the Achilles’ heel of a system. A flexible police is the centre of all these malaises. People, their group interests and concomitant conflicts are centre stage in a democracy. Police are caught in the web of the dynamics of a democracy. In a

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situation where government and power depend upon the vote banks of groups, the task of police weaving through these groups to police them and bring wrong- doers to book pro bono publico is an unenviable task demanding tact. In the notorious Shivani acid attack case of Jaipur, a 17 year-old girl, Shivani Jadeja on way to school from her residence on April 12, 1997 was attacked with acid, allegedly by the son of the transport minister of the state and his friends; the state police turned impervious to the statement of the victim recorded by them and her letter addressed to the Jaipur Superintendent of Police about the involvement of the minister’s son in the offence. Even public protests and agitations by women’s groups and the interest of the media in the case failed to deter the state police from its inaction against the actual offenders. Even the state police chief gave evasive answers to the media about action against the offenders named by Shivani. This is the quantum of political pressure on policing. It was only after two representations from socially conscious organisations being treated as Public Interest Litigations that Rajastan High Court directed the state government to withdraw the case from the state police and get the investigation done by the CBI. This is the extent of the credibility of the police under political pressure. Police just cannot do justice to justice under the extant democratic pulls and pressures. Every interest group in a democracy is powerful with scores of followers. Police by the very nature of their work cannot please every side and therefore bound to work in an atmosphere of hatred and inimical feelings. In group dynamics of Indian kind, law, justice and propriety make little sense. Even criminals form a pollent group of considerable political maneuverability and strength in a democracy. Any move against the interests of this group is bound to create serious problems to police. A police officer with a commitment to crush crime syndicates and their criminal activities on coming to power meets with dramatic rise in crimes and law and order problems in his area to the extent that he soon realize that he has no alternative to
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keep the underworld on right side were he to save his professional reputation, his new position and peace in his area. A few fools, who fail to read the writings on the wall, get thrown out of their post and avoid any responsible job thereafter on the charge of being incapable of controlling crimes and maintaining law and order. Cooperation of the powerful criminal groups is conditio sine qua non for smooth policing a democracy. The recent example is a state capital in India. Its new Police Commissioner adopted a soft approach to powerful mafia gangs of the city and shut eyes to the flourishing business of cabaret, live bands and nightclubs. The result was a relatively crime-free tenure for him in the city. But, he rubbed the media on the wrong side on the first day of his taking charge in

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the city. As a consequence, he had to bear an unfavorable media throughout. The next Police Commissioner of the city was after stopping the menace of cabaret, live bands and night clubs and containing organized crimes in the city. The immediate response to the new Police Commissioner was inordinate rise in crimes like chain snatching, kidnapping, extortion, gang war, housebreaking and dacoity and law and order disturbances. It was the crime syndicates sending signals to come to terms with their existence and activities. The political pressures the underworld wields au reste the warning shots are capable of bringing a practical police officer to his senses. He is forced to compromise his convictions to retain his position. This is how police is under seize in a democracy. Police derive strength by adhering to law and justice. Once off the track to aggrace political masters. Thus develops a vicious circle that leads police to be perpetually under the beck and call of the politicians in power. The beginning of the collision of politicians and the police in a democracy is always for mutual benefits. Police is a democracy’s spine, its conditio sine qua non. It is an instrument of containment in the ambience of narrow interests trespassing on each other’s interest. Success of a democracy entirely depends on the effectiveness of the police there. It is the only instrument available to bring people to their senses and to the needs of the laws. It is unlike other forms of government, wherein other forms are created to bring the people to submission to the will of the rulers. Private armies in whatever name sans the leash of law, operate as executors of the will of the rulers in non-democracies. Indian police these days with its deep politicization is gradually approximating to the sad state. Mass transfer of police officers at all levels with the change of government, use of intelligence units for political maneuverings, use of investigating agencies to keep political rivals in check etc are just the signs on the surface of this tragic malady. The slant is not in the interests of democracy, for, the strength of democracy is pro rata to the professional resolve of the police. A weakened and
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ineffective police is a sure sign of crumbling democracy. A democracy just cannot stand up without the spine of the police, especially while people are yet to realize their democratic responsibilities. Strengthening the police is the foremost need of firming up democratic traditions. How soon India realizes this, so much good for the country.

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LAW AND ORDER POLICING IN INDIA
Amidst the diverse functions the police perform, the plebeian identifies the police with maintenance of law and order. He sees the police in uniform intervening in the incidents of his everyday life beginning from a simple street quarrel to mob violence. He sees them conducting raids on vice dens and restricting his actions and movements in the name of public interest. He sees their presence in well nigh all state and public gatherings, controlling crowd and maintaining order; in beats and villages, checking historysheeters. As a part of the law and order staff, traffic police in white uniform are visible controlling and regulating traffic during rush hours. The hoi polloi have learnt to see the law and order police as their saviors in hours of need in spite of restrictions involved in the latter’s methods. As far as public deals are concerned, help and support of the law and order police have become sine qua non in the ambience of prolate fruad and unruly tendencies in public life. Non obstante uncivil methods and mouvais ton, ordinary citizens consider the law and order police as a necessary evil and the pith of the public order. It enjoys a special place in the psyche of the people as a hated savior and a constant compagnon in public life. The image of law and order police decides to them the image of the police in general. The law and order police steeped in corruption makes them believe that the police force en semble smell rammish and its good performances earn their unqualified plaudit to the entire force. The strategic position of the law and order police in crime scene is patent from the fact that it comes to picture right in time of a crime to prevent its commission as the true strain of law and order policing while other wings are involved either too early as in the case of security police or too late as in the case of crime police. The
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strategic timing brings them to the centre-stage of crime management in the eyes of common people and wins them their trust and confidence. Furthermore, the law and order police provide a rare praxis of symbion with the law with each limiting and protecting the other unlike security police ectogenic and crime police subservient to it. There cannot be laws sans the law and order police and no law and order police sans the laws. This is the secret of the matchless relevance of the law and order police to the orderly life of the country.

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ABSENCE OF COMMON POLICY Police stations are pillars of the law and order police reticulation with district police offices in districts and police commissionerates in major cities at regional levels and state police headquarters at provincial levels beholden to the responsibility. Intermediary levels like circles, subdivisions and ranges coordinate the work in-between. Armed forces are maintained as reserves at regional and state levels in addition at the centre to assist the law and order police in highly disturbing situations. These are striking forces, specially trained to handle serious lacunae of Indian law and order police is that no special training facility is available for its staff for actually dealing with the quotidian law and order issues. It is rather crude to expect the police to depend on past experiences and untrained personal faculties to meet professional law and order challenges. The lapse leads to arbitrary handling of law and order situations sans sound and uniform policy save peripheral measures to be adopted before and during use of weapons and opening fire. The only help available to an official on the field is the general guidelines of his seniors who are equally ill equipped to handle those situations. This complicates situations during actual actions by depriving the elements of mutual understanding among the police and the subjects as a natural and essential factor of successful policing, and ipso factor creates chaos. The situation can hardly be called as professional policing of law and order. The uncertainties of each law and order issue added to it, make handling of law and order in India, a pure maelstrom. PULLS AND PRESSURES Pulls and pressures are sine qua non in a democracy. Pressures of influential and powerful blocs are an accepted phenomenon of the working of a democratic government. This is patent in the working of Indian police. Police as an agency that limits the liberty of the people pro bono publico and discipline those who prevaricate, occupy a strategic position in the interpersonal and public life of the citizens and makes success and failure or life and death
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differences to them and their ventures. The strategic position of the police is more pronounced in law and order policing. Sadly law and order policing in India imprimis is management of pulls and pressures in the wilderness of rules and laws. Law and order policing has become a contrivement of bending and interpreting rules and laws to the convenience of rich and powerful who can pull strings at right places. This is an irony of democracy. These prevarications go conspicuous in acts of political avatars and subject the police to serve public censure. Otherwise, it is a mute affair as the police algate are on the vocal side of the rich and influential against dumb and helpless plebeian with none to fight the latter’s cause against the risk of the

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wrath of the police save isolated cases of courage and commitment. The situation is to the benefit of the police as the shocks of possible disturbances by the prevarications are always absorbed by the powerful on whose favour the police acted and the interests of the police are safeguarded avec acharnement by them. This is a tacit arrangement between the police and the powerful wherein the police are really lower partners in the highstake game played for the benefits of the powerful bloc. The police with their little statute and easy contentment, trade off their high powers to the mighty people for the limited gains of the easy process of policing, career promotions, peaceful life and lucre. In the process, the police sacrifice the sacred objectives of its profession. UNDUE STRESS ON PLAYING SAFE The current abracadabra of Indian police in managing law and order issues is letting sleeping wolves sleep and avoid further troubles. Who meet the requirement is hailed as the best law and order hands. Sine dubio, management of law and order issues anywhere requires handling situations without inviting gratuitous problems. But, the matter seems overstretched in Indian ambience. Not ruffling feathers unnecessarily is indubitably a priority. But, this should not be in shape of a compromise, at the cost of law and justice, at the cost of professional objectivity like in extant Indian law and order machinery which believes in calm at all costs; those who are adequately insensate to go to that length by placating powerful trouble-makers only win races for coveted law and order posts in Indian ambience. The consequence of the apostasy is that the law and order policing in India has become progressively a nest of playing favoritism with utter contempt for professional character. Those with a sense of objectivity and professional probity self foot the bill as their professional uprightness falls foul with powerful lobbies who in tune with the thoughts and fears of the higher echelons of the law and order police, create troubles to those who dared not to favour them. The sleight leads to a vicious circle that perpetuates the wily interests of the
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powerful at the cost of weak and dumb in the hands of the law and order police by hoisting corrupt and lither elements in key law and order jobs. The conundrum is whether being a part of such a vice system is as inevitable to the law and order police as it appears. The answer definitely is in negative. An understanding of the trickery en train in the system and a little toughness and resolve to stand up to the challenges of the powerful certainly help to solve the riddles. The real question is whether the law and order police really want a solution to the riddles or is it contented with what is there as its own making. All available data point to the fact that the law and order police of India enjoy what is there as its own making that provides them security and patronage.

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INTOXICATING POWERS Important responsibilities of the law and order police include prevention of crimes, enforcement of laws, maintenance of public order, controlling rowdy activities, checking the spread of vide dens, regulating meetings, processions, and other activities in public places in the interests of the maintenance or order, controlling crowds, quelling mob violence etc. The police are invested with a spectrum of powers which include powers to arrest, detain, search seize impound, prosecute, levy collective fines, enter and take possession of private places and buildings, use weapons to hurt and even kill to force compliance etc. Most of these powers save in specified emergent circumstances are circumscribed by the need of obtaining appropriate magisterial orders for exercise. The maintenance of law and order in large cities is facilitated by investing the magisterial powers with police commissioners, often delegated up to the level of DCPs in charge of law and order. The powers enjoyed by the law and order police amate to their enormous responsibilities and perhaps rank first in range and the width vis a vis other wings of the police setup. Unfortunately, the importance and the width of powers of the law and order police per se are its real bane. The dependence of the common man on this wing of the police and the fear, the police inspire prompt him to gratiate the police by all his means. The incessant rush of people on the doors of the law and order police for patronage creates farthing power-centers at lower levels, giving an image of feudal lords to the chiefs of police stations who dare to preside over and pass judgments on small local disputes irrespective of their relevance to maintenance of order and other police duties. Marriages made in Police Stations are not uncommon in states like Karnataka and Tamilnad. Favoritism abounds and rules and laws are sidelined at will in these arbitrary arbitrations. This in itself creates angry frustrations among wronged people and leads to group rivalries and clashes. Thus the police are integrated as an inseparable component of a deteriorating law and order situation.
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TOOLS OF PATRONAGE Powers enjoyed by the police to control and contain vice dens and rowdy activities provide a new dimension to the importance and maneuverability of the law and order police. Powers are two-sided weapons employed for punishment as well as patronage. Human nature being what it is, the police use its wide powers more as tools of patronage than as tools to check rowdyism and vice dens in absence of professional commitment and motivating factors to guide them on right lines. Organized crime syndicates vie inter se for the favour and patronage of the police that ensure the smooth sail of their anti-social activities

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and protection to the gang. The gang that gains upper hand in the race rules the roast till the key figures in the police responsible for the patronage remain in power with the tacit understanding that the gang operates within certain limits to save the police from undue embarrassments plus a subterranean arrangement to share the res gestae. The importance of the police being what it is for the survival of these organized crime syndicates, the importance of having right police officials in key positions for these gangs cannot be overemphasized; this leads to huge amounts changing hands to ensure that particular police officials are posted to particular law and order jobs. The end-result is happy and secure crime syndicates in highly lucrative vice business under police patronage at the cost of unassuming citizens and a contented and richer law and order police running the show without a fluster of major law and order scene. The hoi polloi too are contented because there are no major disturbances and crimes with the underworld crime lords on the right side of the police. Only they do not know how they are looted ab intra and their unsuspecting character is taken advantage of and ravaged by the conspiracy of criminals and criminal-baiters namely the law and order police. LACK OF CONCERTED DRIVE Any shakeup in key positions of the law and order police leads to the problems of maladjustment among the crime syndicates for superiority and between the police and the crime world with gang-wars and ascensive criminal activities creating real problems to the police. Once the police come to terms with the crime gangs again, situation returns to normalcy. Refusal by a four square official in a key law and order slot to cooperate with crime syndicates invariably leads to further disturbances till the official is either brought to heels or transferred out to placate the disturbed powerful gang-lords. It is a rather triste affaire of Indian police that the resolve or the killing instinct to go tough with the crime syndicates that play the police by their little fingers is just not present there. More distressing is how upright officials who choose to fight powerful crime
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syndicates without yielding to the temptations of easy and comfortable life feel isolated when seriously let down and compromised by their own organisation by denying support at the behests of the powerful crime lords on the mendacious plea of maintaining peace. In a case more than a decade old, a young Deputy Commissioner of Police in the port city of Calcutta in West Bengal fell foul with a powerful crime syndicate operating from the port area and patronized by a powerful politician in power in the state. He was lured by the gang to pursue a criminal into the strongholds of the gang in the port area; caught, horrendously tortured in captivity and later lynched. Though criminal cases were registered

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later, nothing came out of the case. This way a living lesson to upright police officers that dare to take on powerful crime syndicates. SIDING WITH THE PRIVILEGED A major cause of law and order disturbances is the absence of objectivity, fairness and sense of justice in the police in handling important issues. The police tend to favour the rich and privileged few in interpretation and exercise of powers to the disadvantage and outrage of the weak and dumb majority. This in the long run, leads to resentment and breeds resistance against the establishment and the system that conspires to perpetuate the weak and unprivileged position by denying just and legal dues. The lex non scripta of the police that whatever the rich and powerful do is right convince the poor and disadvantaged that the extant system is not for them. The situation prompts wronged people to meet the system by its own coin by going rich and powerful by means outside the system to force the system and its police crawl before their riches and power for their pro-rich slant, en revanche. That is why the ranks of rowdy gangs and organized crime syndicates surface almost everyday in India to go rich and powerful at the earliest. They soon learn that riches and powers have no laws and morality and the police bought with it have no weaker legal and moral authority; that the police patronage is pro rata to the riches they earn and share. The notorious Chambal dacoits are the makings of the social evils and the police patronage to its privileged perpetrators. The fact that Indian electorate send ex-dacoits and criminals as their representatives so state assemblies and parliament show the sympathies the criminals enjoy with the people who are in touch with field situations and know how weak and helpless people perforce run away from the society and go hors la loi by the outrageous acts of rich and powerful with the police licking boots at their feet and letting loose brutality on whoever dare to oppose the feudal lords. This by no means is justification of lawless life and meant only to show how police by their greed and irresponsible handling of
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situations add to the growth of crime and lawlessness in the society. Phoolan Devi and her associates from the Chambal valley and UP and Bihar maifa gangs proved that criminality pays in India; it pays wealth and fame as well as political power and love and respect of the people. If there is a reason for this highly deplorable moral degringolade in the country, it is the highly irresponsible and most detestable handling of the law and order situation by its corrupt police, which the hoi polloi find worse than the Chambal dacoits and Bihar and UP mafia gangs.

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POORLY ORGANISED All said and analyzed, the impact of Indian police on the management of law and order scenario cannot be called satisfactory. The Indian scenario is based on a few ageworn clichés devoid of professional expertise, academic input and creative genius; the methods employed are rude at best and arrogantly provocative at the worst. The whole range of law and order management techniques of Indian police can be formulated in a few crude catchwords like mediations or warnings followed by use of force. Indian police have no in-build advantages of researches to various types of law and order situations, psychological variables of divergent law and order issues their social and political potentialities and group dynamics, law-breaking tendencies and identification of and communication with potential law-breakers, stratified use of police powers at differential situations, application of latest psychological techniques to field situations or rehabilitation vectors. Nor their performances are up to the expectation in traditional contrivances like effective use of weapons, strategies and tactics of operations and techniques of mediation or warning. The riot control weapons used by Indian law and order police are yet age-old lathi and tear-gas shells; such common weapons like water jets and plastic bullets are beyond the reach of police in most parts of India. Nor is there a perficient machinery to gather information and intelligence pertaining to law and order issues. The district and police station level machinery devised for the purpose are ill equipped for the enormous job because of their limited size, resources, expertise and professional training. The law and order police often depend on the state intelligence unit that with a scope different from the local law and order needs may fail the law and order police. The intelligence failures of the law and order police contributed for eruption and spread of law and order disturbances in many instances. A striking example of such a failure of intelligence is the Veerappan case wherein the combined forces of Karnataka and Tamilnad police failed to humble
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and bring to book the notorious forest brigand Veerappan who operated from the forests bordering the two states. Though the operations by no means were easy, the failure of the efforts for nearly two decades till he was finally killed speak volumes about the strengths and weaknesses of Indian law and order police. The most precious aes triplex of a law and order police is its professional honesty and commitment to the objectives of the profession. The selflessness, impartiality and the sense of justness and fairness bred from such a professional commitment endear the police to all including its friends and foes. The trust and

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respect ensue from this, take the police along way to success in its professional endeavor and protect it from enormous professional hazards and risks common to the job. Once this trust and respect are breached by immoral and illegal slants in discharge of responsibilities lucri causa and other selfish causes, the police are exposed to the wraths of the public and the assaults of its foes and those crowds wronged by it. By prevarications, the police are protecting neither their job interests nor the interest of the country and its people; nor are their personal interests protected as no gains made at risk to the life are worth the trouble. Indian police seld book so long and open eyes to look around. Once they stop to shed their professional arrogance and see the minefields underfoot, they realize the bevue they commit and may pursue a path befitting the dignity of their own profession.

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CHALLENGES OF COORDINATION IN INDIAN POLICE
Multitude brings confusion. Multitude breeds rifts. Multitude is the source of contraplex drives, necessitating efforts to forge divergent thrusts into a single mosaic. This is true of police also. India has a multitude of police organisations. Crime and law and order being a state subject, each state and union territory have its independent police force. A host of central police agencies like CBI, IB, SIBs, RAW, CRPF, BSF, CISF, ITBP, SPG, BPRD, NPA, NICFS to name a few operate under the direct control of the central government. The fabric of Indian police is woven with nearly two scores of police organisations, held together by same laws, procedure and the goal of national interests. Various state and UT police organisations reflect the diversity of India while central police agencies, the unitary nature. State and UT police organisations extending from Kerala to Jammu and Kashmir, from Gujarat to Arunachala Pradesh enjoy divergent ethos, environment and professional attitude in spite and uniform police structure and goals. The people of the concerned regions man them at lower and middle levels of the hierarchy though officers drawn from the length and breadth of the country head them at the top. These organisations jealously retain their identity and character and seldom venture out to interact with others though much is made on paper and public platforms about the needs of border meetings, combined operations and sharing of professional expertise and intelligence. Though a deep feeling of fraternity is a reality in police all over the world, it seldom manifests in cooperation and coordination in working for professional goals. Police organisations see each other with suspicion.
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Competition rather than cooperation forms the plane of their mutual relationship. The ingrained thirst for recognition and desire to monopolize accolades and policing is the basic thrust of avoiding anything to do with outsiders. Differences of job culture and environment make cooperation and coordination further difficile. Differences of identity and character add to the problem. As a result, police organisations build barriers around them and work in isolation on common issues of crime, security and law and order, leading

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to duplication of work and wasted efforts en face criminals and hors la loi with their tentacles spread all over the country, taking best advantage of the splintered mosaic. The spiel of central police agencies is quite different. They represent unity in diversity with an amalgamation of men, identities, environment and character, drawn from diverse sources and tested in a single crucible. Their stretch is broad covering the length and breadth of the country with opportunities for interaction inter se and outside. These agencies do depend on state and UT police forces for manpower. They do operate all over the country. Yet, these agencies have their own identity, character and job environment, which do not encourage give and take with state police forces and inter se in any meaningful sense. Again, it is one- upmanship and immanent passion to corner all recognition. Precedence of narrow interests over performance and results in central police agencies is not a wholesome affair. Synergy for better policing is briller par son absence in the mosaic of Indian police. An institutional mechanism for cooperation and coordination between various police organisations is the need of the hour in India. Old habits die-hard. There are instances of such an institutional mechanism being proved ineffective. An apex intelligence coordination committee to bring all intelligence agencies under a single umbrella has not met with much success in independent India. Save routine inconsequential papers and reports, intelligence agencies and elite security and protection groups of the country work in isolation from each other with no coordination to speak of. It is so also with police training and research agencies, working in their own ivory towers abstracted from field requirements, as there is neither the institutional mechanism nor the will to come together, interact and cooperate. Reasons are many for these barriers. Police forces work under different governments and ministries headed by politicians of their own political and ideological agenda. State and UT police forces follow the agenda of their respective governments. Among the central police
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agencies, CBI reports to the ministry of personnel, intelligence agencies to cabinet secretariat and most of the other agencies to the home ministry. Egos of the heads of these governments and ministries come to play in the style of functioning of the police forces. Added to this are the bloated egos of the heads and chiefs down below the line of these organisations. Together, they prove a deadly combination against creating a mosaic of police environment in the country. Each piece works on its own in artificial isolation from the other. This is the tragedy of Indian police.

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Good fences make good neighbors. But, this is not true of organisations forming the splinters of gestalt dedicated to common goal like policing. Cooperation, coordination and synergy for concerned efforts are the needs here. Symbiosis, not fences makes sense here. Organizational goal is the raison d’etre and has to be reached by all means and resources. Every failed opportunity lost to do better signify a failure. Every failed opportunity to interact with a potential source is an opportunity lost to do better. Every wasted mutual relationship signifies a failed opportunity to interact. Every missed beneficial contact is a wasted mutual relationship. Such beneficial contacts being infinite among police organisations, moving towards the same goal of security and rule of law, the dimension of the lost opportunities to do better can only be imagined. This is what is happening in Indian police: police forces failing to pool together their immense potentialities by each going its separate way. Each looking weak sans mutual support in the process. Lack of coordination is not just an inter-organizational challenge. It is an intra- organizational problem too. In the mosaic of state police force under a single police chief, myriad subordinate units pull apart from different sides and defy the compulsions of cooperation and coordination inter se, required in the interests of the organizational goal. District police units and functional units like the crime branch special branch, armed forces, training units, police research and administration units, each function independently and in complete isolation from the other in violation of the call for synergy from above. The tendency of going alone is inveterate in Indian institutional psyche. Ultimately, it is individual performances that is recognized and appreciated. Institutional performances have few takers in Indian environment. Cooperation and coordination though spawns better performance, the prospects of shared recognition and appreciation are deeply resented. Recognition and appreciation get precedence over organizational objectives in the present environment of Indian police. The remedy lies in restoring organizational
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objectives to their rightful place in the ambience of police. The immanent prevarication of the police from the professional path and the ingrained slant to selfagrandisement makes it easier said than done. Border meetings are rare. More than that, often they are meaningless exercises conducted for the purpose of record. Joint operations by neighboring police units are rare to the extent of being unheard of. Resentment to take advantage of the specialized units like crime branch, special branch, training units etc is also evident. The only exception is the services of the armed police in states and the paramilitary forces at the centre. The reason is that the utility of these forces in

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controlling unruly mobs overshadows the problems of ego-clashes and recognition. Mutual indifference is just one side of the problem and simpler in that. The other, more complicated face of the problem is inter-organizational rivalry and attempts to sabotage the works of each other. This manifests in two forms: One, as a self-surviving, instrument and the other, as a result of jealously and one- upmanship. Police in a region collude with law-breakers of the region wherein the law-breakers restrain from creating problems in the region in exchange for trouble-free life from the local police. The criminals are allowed free to operate anywhere outside the jurisdiction of the local police. The arrangements can other passive or active. In a passive collaboration, police, do not actively assist the law- breakers in their nefarious activities outside. Just that the police knowingly shut eyes to the existence of the criminals in exchange for the latter refraining from stirring water at their ponds. Criminals in exchange for the latter refraining from stirring water at their ponds. Criminals use the places for retreat and rest. They serve as hiding places for the criminals. Criminals need such places of retreat and rest to fall back after their activities outside. Bangalore serves as such a retreat for most terrorist groups including Naxalites, LTTE, ULFA, Kashmir separatist and radical Akali cadres. The terrorists avoid striking anywhere in Karnataka and unnecessarily stirring the police there. In return, they in particular use Karnataka in general and Bangalore as a retreat for hiding, rest, medical care and strategic meetings. Sivarasan, Subha and their associates hid in and around Bangalore after assassinating Rajiv Gandhi. Naxalites are often noticed taking medical treatment at various private clinics in Bangalore. So also other terrorist groups. Local police avoid acting against them unless compulsions dictate otherwise, so that dogs in slumber are allowed to continue to sleep. In an active collaboration, both the police and the criminals or one of the parties actively assists the other. The police may assure and actually provide protection from potential troubles. They may leak intelligence about
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outside police organisations operating against. The hors la loi on their part may use their criminal skills to the advantages of the police in sabotaging the interests of the rival police organisations apart from sharing the res gestae of their operations with the police. The police may use the criminals to raise crime rate at particular areas in the neighborhood or create law and order problems there for strategic benefits. Even in case of cooperation and coordination as a state policy, coordination may become a casualty in the absence of purposefulness and commitment. The combined operations of Karnataka and Tamilnad police often with the help of BSF in the forests of M.M. Hills region along the Karnataka-Tamilnad border

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against forest brigand Veerappan is a point. Nine years of combined operations yielded no results. Lack of coordination between Karnataka and Tamilnad police is often stated as a source of the glitch. Approach of the police of the two states to catch the brigand is presumed to be at variance. Tamilnad is considered to be relatively soft to the brigand while Karnataka, that lost many of its officers and men to the guns of the brigand, is after his blood. Au reste, absence of bureaucratic and operational coordination between the police of the two neighboring states and survives in his exploits sans souci. As a strategy, he strikes inside the borders of a state and escapes to the forests of the former state after striking inside the borders of the other state. A perfect coordination between the police of the two states should have made the operation easier and more feracious. But, it is not to be the case. The game is going on and the police of both the states are frustrated on end. The case of Veerappan clearly shows that border areas, where coordination between different police units is called for effective policing, are havens of criminal operations. Absence of coordination in police makes it so. Sabotage of mutual interest is not a problem confined to Indian police only. It is a universal problem and manifested in the police of even enlightened countries like the United States. There are instances available of the CIA and the DIA, the intelligence brethren of the United States government, trying to steal sensitive assets and useful agents from each other’s furrow and undermining them when failed to win over. Such instances in the police of other countries, however, do not make them en regle in Indian police. Lack of professionalism and single-minded commitment to organizational goals is the root cause of the problem. Absence of institutional machinery for affecting coordination and efforts to define the scope of such coordination adds to the problem. The so-called border meeting and occasional seminars and conventions are informal and far-between measures on individual
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inspirations of a few, at best. In the ambience of absence of the spirit of cooperation and coordination, such isolated inspirations seldom make abiding impact. Mutual suspicion builds barriers. The problem can be overcome by two methods; one devising institutional machinery for such cooperation and coordination between different police organisations with a rider of making their use binding in all relevant case. A compulsion brought about by law for cooperation and coordination will go a long way in improving the situation. Second, encouraging and cultivating the spirit of cooperation and coordination in the police culture. Coordination at higher levels in key operations and exposure of the lower levels to their success stories will bring necessary changes in the psyche of the Indian

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police. Careful overhaul of the selection process to absorb right people and a training programme devised to strengthen the characteristics of cooperation and coordination will go a long way in building an environment of cooperation and coordination in Indian police. Work culture in police force must encourage it. Leadership qualities that realize cooperative and coordinated efforts into reality and pave the path for it, have to be made the bedrock of policing and police character. Indian police now is more a collection of splinter groups than a mosaic. There is no rhyme or reason in their mutual relationships. Different police forces do not match with each other. There is discord and cacophony; no concinnous music. Each Police organisation in the tapestry of Indian police works for its own end at its own wavelength, spawning a picture of disorderly melange. How such a motley crowd can perform the job of national interest together? The disharmony cost India a Prime Minister and an ex-Prime Minister in the hands of assassins and terribly suffered the country in the hands of the extremists of Punjab, Kashmir and Northeast. Dacoities are rampant. Threat to peaceful and orderly life is prolate. Security is shaky. Public fund invested on the police goes down the drains. The resurrection of Indian police must be built on the foundation of cooperation and coordination between diverse police forces to make concerted policing possible. A semblance of unity in diversity in the mosaic of Indian police is the need of the hour. A sense of belonging and oneness among all police forces is sine qua non for effective policing. Unless this foundation is laid, the edifice of Indian police is bound to crumble and collapse one day. No attempts to resurrect Indian Police will ever succeed unless this basic need is fulfilled. A fractured police setup as in India now is a dangerous drain on the public exchequer with unimaginably huge money, time, energy and work wasted by seepage through weak joints. Once this problem of cooperation and coordination is fully attended to, the money, time, energy and work saved are enough to take the police to the heights unimagined before
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and infuse new life and vitality to it. Unfortunately, no serious thought was given to this matter of utmost importance in the last five decades of independence. It is high time now that Indian leaders realize the bevue and make up for the lost time by giving their full attention to this nonfeasance. Only that can save India and Indian police from the present maelstrom.

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POLICE AS A BACKUP FORCE
The police basically are a backup force of the state administration. Its primary functions are from en arriere. It is the backbone of the state administration. The police are the enforcer of the rules and laws of the land and safeguard its compliance by all. For this reason, the police can be rightly called as the guardian of the state administration. State administration would be edentate sans the police with none to keep people on the right sides of the rules and laws of the administration and make the state administration more than mere paper work. Even for the hoi polloi, administration is mostly police functions and nothing in state administration holds its attention as much as what the police does. The police are the most visible and the most obvious state functionary for them, by its striking uniform and prim mien in addition to its availability as the dernier ressort of the state administration. The police form the cutting-edge of the statecraft. The police functions as both the enforcer of the country’s laws and as the investigator of the crimes. Ergo, the police both precede and succeed the law enforcement process and ipso facto encompass the whole gamut of the state legal system. The very fact that no folds and rumples of the state administration are excluded from the field of the police reveals that the range and scope of the policing is as wide as the administration itself and often exceeds it. Take away the police, the state administration crumbles and collapses like a messy mass without backbone. The sine qua non of the police in the statecraft is a widely recognized fact among the scholars as well as the plebeian. The inevitability of the police in the statecraft also renders it the most abused setup in the spectrum of the tools of governance. Control over the levers of running the
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police organisation is considered to be a significant privilege in the realm of state administration. This explains the range of influence peddling and prolate pressures on police transfers and keen concours among politicians and others to befriend the police. The significance of the police lies in the lowest nature of the work it does in contrast to the highest degree of awe and weight it commands among politicians, administrators and the general public. The esteem, however, worked only to the detriment of the police organisation. The propinquity to pamper the police while

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helped the growth and expansion of the organization, it certainly spoiled the police setup and crumbled its professional value system. The development is obvious in post-independent era for the simple reason that the propensity to paper the police saw abnormal rise after the country’s reign came to people’s hands and politicking and political cabals became the rule of the game. While friendly police became valuable assets to politicians in the chessboard of the country’s politics, it became the mainstay of the administration with the gradual fall in the skill and acumen of running the administration. The police, who once in pre-independent days was basically a force to keep the freedom fighters at bay and maintain law and order, became the alter ego of the governance sinsyne. THE POLICE AND THE CIVILIAN AUTHORITY The root of the problem lies in the civilian control of the police; this control renders the police liable to function at the pleasure of the civilian authorities against whom also the police are required to proceed as required by its professional ethics relentlessly in case of commission of criminal acts. This is a strange position in a disciplined organisation in which absolute obedience to masters in the most sanctimonious obligation. Thus the police find itself in an unenviable position of being absolutely obedient to its political and civil masters, antilogous to being ever ready professionally to proceed against to put them in the gaol. This is an impossible position for the police and against the tenets of the human nature. But, these impossibly contrarious functions are expected from the police. The problem is overcome by advanced countries like the United Kingdom by strict adherence to the chain of command with the head of the organisation responsible to the laws of the country while civilian authority has to be contented with the administrative control of the police. The safeguard is yet to seep into the police system of democratic Indian. THE POLICE AND THE MAGISTERIAL POWERS However, complete insulation of the police from the civilian control may not be a healthy development per se in
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a democratic rule. Here, the need of check over a function through the bifurcation of operation and control processes in related job a la the bifurcation of accounts and audit functions in accounts department come to the fore. The police au fond is arms and muscle of the administration; it basically is an operational wing of the administration. It is only the watchdog of the administration. This locus standi of the police imprimis denies it any job, related with administrative decisions and assessments. The police are there to obey the orders of the administrative machinery above it to exercise control over it. A watchdog perforce indicates a master to rein in. This nature of the police functions necessitates administrative control over it in the use of

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force and other enforcement activities. This is the backdrop of magisterial powers being denied to the police except where police commissionerates are organized. The demand of the police to invest it with the magisterial powers is a corpus of the ongoing dispute. The matter continues to be a contentious issue between the police and the civil administration and a major source of dissatisfaction in the police force. The civil administration is resisting a toute force any attempts to do away the magisterial powers from its hand in favour of the police, it be in promulgating preventive orders or issuing search warrants or conducting inquest proceedings or initiating externment proceedings or initiating preventive proceedings or ordering the use of force, to name only a few. The argument of the police is that the denial of the magisterial powers that are exercised by officers as low as Tahsildars in the civil administration is a preposterous step sans any rational basis and suggests lack of trust in the police organisation. The denial of the magisterial powers to the police has nothing to do with trust or lack of it a la audit control over accounts function does not suggest lack of trust in accounts. The police have forgotten that the civilian control over the police is in step with well established principles of administration and functions as a safeguard to the hoi polloi against the dangerous overstepping or overzealous use of police powers, potential of bringing destruction including death. Use of force by whomever it be, has a tendency to exceed the limits of requirement and the plebeian has to be protected from such possibilities. Ergo, the magisterial control over the police. It is a professional requirement in sound administration rather than an issue of who is trustworthier. The resistance of the civil administration to the demands of the police for the magisterial powers is justified to that extent. The police commission rates are special organisations for special circumstances requiring intensive policing under the closer scrutiny of the government in charge of civil authorities. Yet, both magisterial powers and the police powers being invested in
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the same hand require lots of explanation to be a convincing administrative arrangement. PROFESSIONALPOLICING In professional terms, insulation of the police only implies insulation from the political control of the police functions. Neither the magisterial control over the police functions nor the administrative control of the police force by the civil authorities comes under the meaning of this concept. The symbion between the magisterial control and the policing functions in one hand and between and administrative control and the organizational buildup on the other hand is essential for a healthy police setup. The symbion should stop here. Nothing more. When it comes to policing by the police per se, when policing operations

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demand professional decisions, it should perspicaciously be professional police decisions sans outside interferences in any form. The police organisation has to be built up as a system to achieve this essential goal to make policing a professional, convincing and creditable job wherein there would be no scope for any outside interferences in policing with the highest authority in the setup being responsible only to the rules and laws framed for the purpose a la the policing system in Britain. JUDICIARY AND THE POLICE The position of the police as the enforcer of the laws of the country gives it an important place in the judicial system of the country in enforcement of laws, preventive measures and investigation of crimes and provides it a strategic relationship with the dispenser of laws namely the judiciary. Though the judiciary has absolutely no say in the organizational matters of the police force, it, if it so desires and have adequate resources to do it, can have absolute control over the police functions as the police au fond is the enforcer of laws and the judiciary is the interpreter and dispenser of the laws and the synergy between the two functions perforce implies absolute subordination of the police functions to the judicial review. However, this may not be the case in practice for several reasons. One is the concept of judicial restraint. Another is the constraints within which the judiciary functions. The other is the disinclination of the judiciary to interfere with the executive functions of the police unless circumstances compel it to do so to discharge its cardinal responsibility of upholding the rule of law and justice in the country. In the spectrum of the state administration, the police enjoy or suffer a rather polemic position defying many principles of the statecraft like the insulation of legislature, executive and judiciary in the machinery of the state governance or the compatibility between the constitutional rights invested with the importance enjoyed by a government organisation in the state administration. The police organisation on the other hand is the best example of the unity of state administration, of the
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synergy of various organs of the state governance. It, as an enforcer of laws, investigator of crimes and an apparatus of state security, share a lever with all the pockets of the statecraft and acts as the spinal chord of the government by coordinating the functions of the legislature, the executive and the judiciary in establishing the rule of law. Its bonds with the executive and the judiciary are equally strong and act as a powerful link between the two powerful wings of the government. It is a string that binds disparate wings and organs of the government together and gives it a sense of oneness and belonging while it remains en arriere. This explains the sine qua non of the police in state

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administration while denying it a ranking place, as a governing body sui juris like many other organs of the state administration. The police as a government agency represent the driving force of the executive and the controlling device of the judiciary. It is the working muscle of the government. It represents the law of the country and therefore ultimately responsible to the laws of the country. While it is part of the executive, its subordination to the judiciary and responsibility towards the law of the country raise it above the scope of the executive functions. While it is part of the judiciary, its position as a handmaid of the executive, spreads its role above the scope of the judiciary. Ergo, the police are a government agency that performs functions both within and above the scope of the executive and judiciary as well as the legislature. The police are a government agency that performs functions both within and above the scope of the executive and judiciary as well as the legislature. The police are part of all these wings of the government and subordinate of each to them while outgrow each of them in professional discharge of its responsibilities. What is required is the realization of this sui generis position of the police and preparing itself mentally to discharge these cardinal responsibilities in compatibility with the professional requirements.

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CORRUPTION: INDIAN POLICE SCENARIO
Mr.Justice B.P.Jeevan Reddy, former law Commission Chairman while talking on the provision of forfeiture of property illegally acquired by public servants under the proposed bill titled the “ Corrupt Public Servants (Forfeiture of Property) Act, 1999" said, “Corruption has been severely affecting the country’s economy, security and administration. To weed out this dreaded disease from public life, we need a bitter medicine.” All previous measures to rein-in corruption in public life failed because nothing mattered as far as the ill- gotten property is safe a huis clos. Situation may change tout ensemble after the proposed legislation becomes law and gallows the corrupt of wiping out the very corpus of the corrupt deeds and striking at the very roots of corruption. Corruption unfortunately has become an accepted phenomenon in extant Indian society. No more it attracts societal disapproval or contempt. Wealth is seen as wealth whether it is begotten by fair or illegitimate means. Nowadays, jobs having means of easy money are sought and bought at all costs. It is why such jobs command high premium in the job market. It is no secret why jobs in select departments in government service are in high demand. And within these departments there are specific posts that command high premium on account of their potentiality to generate enormous wealth by unfair and illegitimate means. Such jobs command money in multiple suitcases in advance to the posting in addition to periodical proffering for keeping the job terms because those payments are proved sagacious investments. Politicians, journalists to the victims of the system while condemning the vicious practice from the public platform accept it as the sine qua non reality of the life. The sterling
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question is whether corruption in any form with the concomitant atrophy in administration and public life should be tolerated to disgorge the vitals of the Indian democratic fabric. It is tragic that the police who are morally and professionally bound to protect the public from the vice of corruption are among the avant coureur in the pernicious race. Sadly, the addiction is uniform at all ranks from Police Constables to Police Commissioners save rare exceptions. The corrupt practices

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take disparate forms in diverse circumstances, but all leading to the same unfortunate end: derailing the rule of law and the loss of credibility of the police. A south Indian state saw in 1998 several wars of attrition between a Police Commissioner and his political boss about posting of their own favorites to key positions, leading to messy and dangerous situations like more than one police officer being posted to the same key post of profit and all of them holding to it fast for months together. Often fighting broke out among the contenders in the same post for the loaves of power and other behoofs and such matters made headlines in newspapers. It is wrong to heap all blames tout a fait on any one side as corrupt. Certainly no side is a paradigm of virtues in the extent rat race for pelf and booty. Corruption in India has become just a rider of the availability of opportunities to share the res gestae of the power. Police is an institution in the service of law and order. Every case of corruption involving the police represents a case of the rule of law and justice harrowed. Imaging the extent of the distortion of the rule of law and justice and the betrayal of the hoi polloi by the police machinery that apportions in some cases a crore of rupees a year to middle-ranking official as the ill-gotten money. The mise en scene is complete with the swarms of police officials of all ranks au reste warring inter se with wads of high denomination notes to corner posts potential of generating unlimited illegitimate wealth. Added to this is that apparatchik at the top making transfers and postings a thriving business. What can be expected from a law and order machinery run with such a symbion, but gross abuse and distortion of the rule of law? That is why police is often called the legalized mafia. Karnataka had a Superintendent of Police in Dharwar district in 1980 that openly encouraged those down the line to take bribes and shared the booty. He used to insist down the line that they were free to allow illegal activities like gambling dens, prostitution, illicit distillation etc. in their respective areas, provided the criminals remain under their
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control and run the activities pro rata to what they proffer to the police. Maffled logic indeed. Naturally, he was very popular among the corrupt subordinates. He left the district in 1981 and thereafter luckily went on central deputation to the Intelligence Bureau only to return to the state in 2001. Corruption has disparate facets. And each has its distorted justification. There is a case of a Police Commissioner whose misuse of the police machinery in the marriage of his daughter in 1998 became a stormy issue in the public eyes after press made it big. The press claimed that the subordinate police officers were forced to man the doors of the marriage hall and escort VIPs visiting the place.

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And police wireless and departmental transport facilities were recklessly made use of in the marriage and its preparations. Soon the issue was hijacked by the subordinate police officers of the city to the media and gave press statements that police officials were allotted duties in the marriage a la police duties in a security operation and expressed fears that those who failed to budge would be victimized and likely to be removed from their coveted posts in the city police. The Police Commissioner openly defended his action in the interview to a private TV channel saying that every father puts his heart to celebrate his daughter’s marriage a grands frais as his parting gift and he was not an exception. CONSCIENTIOUS POLICING Conscientious policing is raised on the bedrock of committed and non- corruptible policing. Serious and committed policing is conditio sine qua non for professional policing and professional policing presupposes duties and responsibilities taking precedence over personal comforts and safety. Being conscientious brings depth and width to the profession and raises policing to nobler heights. Corruption in whatever form is the antithesis of this. It pulls down the police from its elevated position as the national asset and insurance against the atrophy of national values, security and well-being of the hoi polloi. A case of dowry death reported against a retired high court judge and his family in February 1992 was referred to the state investigation agency namely the Corps of Detectives for investigation. The investigation made out a case for charge sheet against the retired judge and five other persons including his wife, son, two daughters and another person The head of the investigating agency in the rank of IGP being egregiously corrupt and close to the retired judge, dragged his feet from further proceedings in the case. The Superintendent of Police who was supervising the investigation of the case wanted to take the investigation to its logical end. But, arrests in the case were prevented and charge sheet was unduly delayed from above. The insistence of the Superintendent of Police, to
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charge sheet the case as the logical step of the investigation process cost him his post and he was transferred in July 1992 to the State Home Guards as the head of its training wing. The case remained frozen sans charge sheet for more than 1 ½ years sinsyne till the IGP was transferred out of the organisation in 1993 to the Central Bureau of Investigation under the central government and held the job till 1997. The case was later charge sheeted in March 1994 with the retired judge and his two daughters dropped from the charge sheet on the basis of the evidences tampered at later stages. The dropped names were later included in the charge sheet on the orders of the judge trying the case.

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PROFESSIONALOBJECTIVITY A police organisation open to public pressures can do no policing worth the name. They very idea of being receptive to pressures and interferences is symptomatic of lack of will for objectivity and justice. Criminal elements take advantage of such opportunities to drive the police and the policing on the wrong rails. Pressures often render the police to commit crimes under the veil of authority either by protecting criminals or more dangerously, by replacing them with innocent people as criminals. The possibility of being open to the pressures of the rich and powerful deprives the police of its credibility. A police force that works at the behest of the rich and powerful safeguards the interests of the rich and powerful only. It would thus be factious and a villain to the hoi polloi. Does democratic India need such a police force to perpetuate the tyranny of the poor and helpless by the rich and powerful? Democratic India tolerated such a police in the last five decades. India and its people must now abraid to the situation and spawn a police that behooves to the trust laid on it. The aberration of professional objectivity is the Achilles’ heel of the police of independent India. The problem was simple in British India where ruler and ruled were distinctly bifurcated and ipso facto the loyalty of the police was perspicaciously defined unlike that of the Indian republic of the democratic genre where people rule themselves through elected representatives. Here the loyalty of police to the public and public law is the professional ethic: misplaced loyalty to an individual, a family, a party or an ideology at the cost of the general public is an apostasy from the inviolable professionalism of the police. The police in a democracy are the guardian of public interests and public safety unlike in the Raj where the police protected the interests of the Raj. This distinction is forgotten in independent India where mental fetters are yet to be broken and legacies of the British rule continue inveterate. How can a police that stays loyal to personal, familial or party interests ever discharge its functions objectively to
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law and general public? What can its locus standi be when a different person or party comes to power? A sequacious police is an asset to any individual or party and no sensible individual or party distances it in the name of the professional ethics. It is the paravant duty of the police not to breach the edifice of the police organisation and its spirit by misprising its professional standards. This infrangible obligation is thrown to the winds in the maelstrom of career advancements by the self-seeking gendarmerie of the Indian republic. In the perverted situation of India where the loyalty of the police to that in power rather than to professional ideals is a reality, none can vouch that police responsibilities would be carried out strictly on merit of each case. Factional

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loyalties have the singular potentiality of blasting fairness and impartiality. It renders professional loyalty meaningless. A mature and sober political leadership can make up for the Achilles’ heel of the fractured loyalties of the police organisation. Indian police needs a sober organisation above to bring it on rails of carrying out its responsibilities. The neoteric judicial activism, as far as periodical review of the progress of investigation of some cases of national importance is concerned, is a welcome step, though in normal circumstances, such a judicial review would have amounted to gratuitous interference with the independent functioning of the investigating authority. CHANGING VALUES Corruption of Indian police quite possibly is consectaneous of the degringolade of values in Indian life of the post-independent era. Indian police cannot stay sequestered from developments around while there are marked falls in standards of diligence and integrity in other walks of life. It adopted and adapted to the corrupt surroundings and the result is extant corrupt police, India finds itself with. The basic lures of corruption in Indian context are money and power. As government service even at higher rungs lost charm in terms of monetary comforts and prestige and power, it attracted only the second bests or the lesser from the crème de la crème of the country’s youth, who in turn were left in lurches in the service to mend themselves. This started a mad rush to the res gestae of pelf and power at the cost of professional dignity and integrity. The situation led to corruption and brought shifts in the concepts of diligence and professional loyalty and rearranged the service objectives with priority to filling the coffers of money and power. Organizational objectives were completely lost sight of. Shifts in diligence helped to build money-power while shifts in loyalties molded proximity to powerbrokers in efforts to maximize individual behoofs after throwing professional ideals to dogs. The degeneration spread in leaps and bounds with
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the passage of time as the organizational commitments became demode and pragmatism taught that immediate personal interests are the center of leading a good life. This was the beginning of corruption of Indian police in a big way. A major factor responsible for the corruption of Indian police is the gross fall of its professional pride since independence. Crass and insensitive handling of the police and police matters by political leaders frustrated the high morale and sense of belonging of the police force. Attempts to suppress and gain complete hold over the police in democratic India affected the force adversely and injected a sense of inadequacy in the force. Once the centripetal force that

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bound the force together was squandered, centrifugal forces took over and dissipating attitudes behaviors and influences ruled the roost to bring the Indian police to the present triste state. Motivation to achieve organizational goals and show results being weakened is the inevitable manifestation of the fall of professional pride. The police which once prided in enforcing law, maintaining order and ensuring peace and security of the hoi polloi, lost all its enthusiasm for these ends as they became factors of politicking and lost importance independent of political relevance as crimes, criminals and law and order and their handling by the police became increasingly tools of political convenience. The development shattered the professional pride of the police and struck a blow to their motivation towards the organizational ends. No organisation can exist sans a driving force to sustain it. The result is a vacuum of a drive to carry the police onward. The vacuum is filled by corruption. Indian police find in corruption a way to sustain itself in absence of any organizational objectives to drive it onward. Myopic and maffled approaches of the police often lead to untold miseries and blatant violation of basic rights of simple individuals. A daughter of an influential man in 1986 eloped with a man against the wishes of her parents and was hiding in the neighboring state of Karnataka. The couple was in their twenties and decently employed. The chief of intelligence of Karnataka was sought assistance to trace the couple and ensure that the daughter rejoins her parents. The intelligence machinery started to work in festinated zeal and the couple was traced in Bangalore and was separated. The man was held in illegal confinement and exposed to umpteen threats while arrangements were made to call the influential man to rejoin his daughter. The man in confinement was set free only after the influential man reached back his home with his daughter. The action of the police in this case perspicaciously is against the law of the land and violated the basic rights of a young couple.
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STRUCTUAL CHANGES The first and foremost job to do to bring back the police on rails is to extricate the police from the unhealthy influence of all hues by making it responsible to an independent Authority with absolute powers to take decisions on matters of policing and police organisation. The Authority should be a professional body of men and women of proven probity and competence, who reached a stage from where they need not sacrifice their convictions to appease those in power as members. A working arrangement is to be devised by which the Authority becomes responsible directly to the legislature and functions independently a la

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the judiciary, the Central Vigilance Commission, the Comptroller and Auditor General or the Chief Election Commissioner. Creation of a Core Group of people adept in assessing men and character within the aforesaid Police Authority helps to create a feeling of confidence and job security in police and prod to discharge duties fearlessly. This Group that oversees the work of police personnel from a distance should be ultimately responsible for all career decisions in the police force. The responsibility of senior officers in assessing the work of the subordinates that forms the major embarrassment of the present Indian police dispensation must be limited to giving opinion about the performance of their subordinates to the Core Group; the expert Core Group must process the opinion by its own research, expertise and discretion and take responsible decision on its own research, expertise and discretion and take responsible decision on its own. The Group must be made responsible for all development plans of the police, work assessment, job analyses, recruitment and management of human resources etc. Institution of such a Core Group to oversee the career development of police personnel without personal bias may bring revolutionary changes in police by committing it to its work ethics and professional ends with single mindedness. Police is not an odd-job boy of the government. It is not the handmaid of politicians in or out of power. Police is an organisation of professionals committed to the safety, security and well-being of the country. Justice and rule of law are the litmus tests available to achieve the ends. Once police miss the bus of justice and the rule of law, their goals of safety, security and well-being of the public remain a distant dream. They lose the credibility and respect of the public, so essential for effective and proficient policing. The fear that the police inspire cannot take it far in the absence of credibility, respect and sympathy of the public. Once the police lose their usefulness in political and power game plans consequent to losing public credibility, their political patrons will discard them like used condoms. The
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best bet for the police is to be professional and committed to their responsibilities towards the administration of justice. Police would forget this need only at their own peril. Doing anything violative of its raison d’etre like sabotaging the course of justice and the rule of law in the cauldron of corruption will prove fatal to the relevance of the police to the society.

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CRIME, POLITICS AND THE POLICE
Crime, politics and the police are the three meiths of the vicious triangle within which the future of democratic India and its free people is inexorably involved. Though wealthy industrial and commercial houses form the fourth dimension of the unfortunate predicament, their techniques are as yet limited to manipulative strategies to gain an increscent hold over political power by remote control in pursuit of their professional interests and seld they jump on the indignity of involving themselves with the vicious triangle of crime, politics and the police. It is that their wealth flows to the spendthrift chests of the troika and operates as catalyst in reducing the normal life of free citizens to a welter of uncertainties and unending hardships. However, their anfractuosity in the process of atrophy is rather distant and indirect unlike the trio of crime, politics and the police. Politicians protect criminals from the grip of the law while criminals reciprocate by acting as their henchmen in handling underground activities. The police go officiously to politicians en revanche for job protection and strike an understanding with criminals to ease personal financial interests. Thus works this nexus of vile power brokers, preying on innocent people, bloating itself on the blood of the hapless masses. POWER AND WEALTH In a blinkered system like ours, where power and wealth are the ultimate virtues, where power and wealth in themselves stimulate mutual growth to the exclusion of all other dimensions of life, it is no wonder, the people of this poor country succumb to the trappings of power and wealth at the cost of all virtues, values, pride, dignity and human decency. In an increasingly competitive and complex world where every day more mouths are added to share
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limited resources, where the principle of the survival of the fittest operates to its immane logical end and where the basic needs of survival and decency can be assured only with power and wealth, people naturally go all out to ramp the ladder of power and wealth by whatever means and cost. In the process, justice and morality become casualties and criminality raises its ugly head as an instrument to achieve otherwise impossible objects. This is how politics and crime knit together in the fabric of Indian public life.

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POLICE AND POLITICS The story of the police is somewhat different. As the catchpole of the nation’s administration, the police enjoy tremendous power over vast fields of human activities with responsibilities to life and death of the hoi polloi as well as dignitaries. In this sense, the police are the cutting edge of the state power and its ultimate bearer. No power can be its own sans the police on its side as an executioner and loyal watchdog. This is why politicians felt the need for wooing police to their side in their activities. The police of independent India have become an easy prey to the power baits of smarter politicians by the reason of their failing strength of character and talent. Their greed, unsound social background, lack of commitment to good values and failure to comprehend police virtues in the right perspective make them willing partners in whatever politicians do or intend to do. They refuse to look beyond their political masters with their dispensations of job favors; and so law, justice, righteousness, professional ethics, morality, decency, human dignity, common good of people, national interests and even conscience, otherwise common to any human being, have become invalid nonsense to them. The police, sans sound character and personal integrity are no more than a country dog that is what the Indian police have become in free India. The politicians, inebriated with new power, smartly brought these weaklings to absolute submission and hold them on a tight leash to be their personal watchdogs and personal gendarmes in requital for favorable job placements, undue promotions and other largition from time to time. Nothing is valued higher than this largess and its dispensers by the new police of India. It is how the police was involved in the conspiracy against decent public life in India. POLICE AND CRIME It was a hop and skip for the police from the plangent world of politics to the mysterious world of crime and the underworld. The police became a weapon of politicians to bring about the subjugation of the crime world to prise their resource for the political ends. They thus made good use of
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the decreasing strength of character of the police in forging a nexus between the police and criminals in furtherance of their own telos. With a weak spine to hold itself and hapless in the face of odds, the police is only too pleased to follow the footsteps of its political masters as the cardinal principle of policing. In changed circumstances, discipline and subordination which form the basic connecting link of the police hierarchy, lost all their shades of meaning and are interpreted as dunny and blind subservience to those who have power, seeking personal interests. And politicians easily led the police to the despicable cul de sac of the nexus with criminals, the very people whom both are supposed to control and bring

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to book for antisocial activities. With politicians as the custodians of power en wrier to the hilt to support, the police plunged lock, stock and barrel into the lucrative crime world; the consectaneous wealth and comforts were in no way less sweet than the hard-earned money of lawabiding society. This is how the nexus between the police and crime world was established. DANGEROUS NEXUS The trio of manipulators is a dangerous force to reckon with, in the Indian democratic situation. Cohered as a tightknit power-block, they have permeated into all conceivable facets of Indian public life with the sole intention of garnering all the benefits and pilferages of the inefficient public administration, for sharing among themselves in line with the proverb that one who dines well in a whore’s house is wise. Those whom the public trust as their benefactors and protectors perpetrate the vice is the tragedy here. The amoral side of this operation does not seem to have affected either the police or politicians in any way and the vile cabal against the Indian public goes on unabated. It seems that all actors in this tragic drama think that Indian democracy is a free-for-all field to grab to the maximum in a world where all look for themselves and only those who grab the most survive. This approach is certain to undermine not only the democratic setup of the nation, but also its very social fabric. The blame for this sad end should squarely be borne by the ugly troika of politicians, criminals and the police. DILEMMA OF INDIAN POLITICS Not that politics is all bad. It is, by definition, governance of state through popular leadership. The malaise of the present Indian politics lies in its tilt to popularity at the elimination of ‘leadership’ and more dangerously, ‘popularity’ being made a serious business proposition to be attended to by spending hard cash as an investment to earn returns in multiple proportions. How popularity can be won by investment remains a mystery of the democracy. However, sine dubio, popularity is won on the field pro rata to an investment in Indian situation. It is res judicata that
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nothing means as much to the Indian electorate as the money and power to prod them to cast their votes for a particular candidate. The history of independent India makes it patent that honesty, patriotism, quality, service, excellence and even charisma have become casualties vis a vis money and power on the Indian election stage. In this situation, a vicious equation is formed wherein political power is equated with electoral popularity, which in turn is equated with money and power, which can be had only through political patronage. The vicious circle has helped to create a block of manipulative extortionists as divided from the passive common public. Politics too has its honest and patriotic people who are committed to the commune bonum. But, sadly, they are caught in the grind

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of a system which does not let them surface to prominence unless they come to terms with it and adopt the venal proposition of winning elections to make money to win the next election. Only those who correctly grasp the inner dynamics of this and adapt to its mechanics can hope to make headway. Others are bound to sink. When the system itself made the election a venal mechanism, corrupt practices that rope in criminals and police cannot remain far away from the scene. CRIMINALISATION OF POLITICS Whom should we blame for this hapless position? Certainly not the politicians or their auxiliaries like criminals and police who are unfortunate by-products of the grind. They are created by the situation, arising from a system that is misfit to the people to whom it was devised. The blame lies either on the Indian people who are impair to the democratic system evolved for them, because of their unenlightened and venal conscience which is so dimwitted that virtues like honesty, service, patriotism, quality and excellence can make no dent on it at all; or it lies with the political system devised for them which failed to take their psychological makeup into account and ipso facto led to the problem of maladjustment in national life. Otherwise, how can we explain criminals and goondas winning elections with impunity even while rioting and murders were committed at their behest on the eve of elections itself. The fact is that the chance of winning an election often is pro rata to the aura of a tough image built around the candidate. It is these people who win elections and rule this country! It is these people whom the Indian electorate prefers to invest with powers to safeguard their interests! Obviously, the Indian electorate lacks the foresightedness and vision to understand the consequences of its irresponsible decision. It is yet too immature to take decisions about the interests of the nation and see how national interests are closely linked to its personal interests. It is yet to broaden its perspective to include the life of the nation as an integral part of its own. Long term and rational decisions are alien to its nature.
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Immediate selfish interests and a parochial outlook continue to be the driving force of all its actions and decisions, whether it is on the matters of national importance or personal concern. In most parts of India, it is money, arrack, sari, threat, fear of landlords or the blazoning propaganda of a candidate that influence it to decide as to whom to vote for. How can the future of this country be safe in the hands of such an electorate and its elected leaders? How can an indifferent and irresponsible electorate provide honest and efficient leadership to the nation? This weakness of the electorate has ultimately left Indian politics in the heath of violence and manipulative extortions, with the instruments

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meant to protect them mowing the field. Saner elements in politics, which found survival difficile, have left the field, giving way to the elements that are more suited to what is required in the field. It is how politics has become a pit of junk from a class of dedicated and virtuous leaders. The credibility, which is the pith of any political life, is the biggest casualty in Indian politics. People are more and more disillusioned with the extant political institutions and the percentage of the electorate that takes the trouble of going to polling booths to cast votes is steadily decreasing from election to election. It is an open secret that an election is an opening for a candidate to invest money to reap wealth, comfort and power for the next five years. And how he reaps the wealth, comfort and power again is not a mystery at all. It is corruption and misuse of public money. If he is ambitious and intends to promote his career interests, there is no way out in the existing system but to resort to pulling strings and pursuing other more deadly methods, often with the active collusion of the officious criminals and police. POLITICAL MURDERS Political murders are common features these days in India. When a political adversary grows to be an irritant, he is seen to be eliminated. No career politician wants to stain his name with a murder case and get his name registered as a criminal in a police station. He does the work through his faithful underworld henchmen whom he keeps in good humour always for being available for such a need, by providing them political support and protection. For this, he keeps the police at his side. Intervening in police postings easily does this and helping to get early promotions for favored ones. BOOTH CAPTURING A candidate for an election may even resort to booth capturing through his criminal aides to facilitate his victory. This operation requires thorough planning and training of the men involved, apart from the willing cooperation of the police. An attempt at booth capturing can succeed only with the intrenchant nexus between politicians,
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criminals and police for synergy. POLITICAL PATRONAGE The unhealthy nexus often leads to and facilitates other forms of crime. Cases of rioting, assault, kidnap, rape and blackmail, involving the supporters or relatives of politicians, criminals and police in furtherance of a political cabal are other usual forms of crime that result from the vicious nexus. Often, criminals and police are employed to create disturbances or inspire sensational crimes in furtherance of political goals. The losses of life and property involved in the wily schemes seld touch the conscience of the politicians, the criminals or the police

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who are responsible for these dastardly acts. The political patronage and the nexus with police desensitize criminals to the process of law and justice; they are thus emboldened to commit more daring and ruthless crimes that endanger the life and property of the plebeians. The police, in its links with politicians on one hand and with criminals on the other, are in its new avatar as the protector of vested interests with no more commitment and passion for law and justice. It has become a discredited force, a willing instrument of power brokers in a ruthless and violent cabal of power-games with no heart for the common man and the common cause. This is the requital the Indian electorate gets for letting its political system putrefy by its nonchalance and irresponsibility. POLITICISATION OF CRIME The over world is just the tip of the real, raw world. There are more things hidden in this world than there are seen. Opportunist Indian politicians who seize the first available instance to enlist the support of criminals and underground operators for their nefarious designs soon realize this. This in turn is a god-sent benison for criminals to restore their lost credibility and social standing with the help of their association with the custodians of power, apart from the security and protection from the police that ensues from the association. They promptly grab the opportunity to their advantage and show how useful they can be to politicians in their career-promotion designs and wreaking of personal vendettas. The experience and professionalism of criminals is handy to politicians to execute their nasty operations without attracting the stigma attached to them. The vast army of criminals has become a ready resource to them for use whenever need arises. This has given a sense of confidence and security to politicians, who are otherwise vulnerable in their highly uncertain, challenging and competitive environment. Often politicians have so much relied on criminals that the latter have became their most trusted lieutenants, even getting elected to legislature houses with their help and blessings.
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There have been instances in India, where prominent politicians have refused to disown their notorious criminal friends in public even after reaching the vertex of their political career. This shows the sway held by criminals over politicians in the Indian situation. It is a fact that no syndicate of organized crime in small and big cities anywhere in the world can survive even for a day without political patronage. Ergo, all syndicates of organized crime and their menace are the direct outcome of the intrenchant nexus between politicians and criminals, indeed with the police as bystanders. PLACE OF CRIME WORLD No criminal can take lightly the need for political patronage in running his crime syndicate. Be they smuggling syndicates, gambling houses, narcotics

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dealers or plain hoodlums, the only way to survive is to have comfortable political protection at the right levels. The crime syndicates en revanche, pay a good percentage of their criminal gain to the protectors. Thus, it is an arrangement to mutual advantage. The crime world also provides hoodlums as volunteers to perform challenging tasks during the election campaigns of their political patrons, apart from liberally financing these campaigns. How can a politician, after he gains power with the help of a criminal, ever let down the criminal? This symbiosis of politicians and criminals that has emerged from the extant Indian political system is the root cause of all the complications discussed until now. The very fact that politicians are prepared to risk their reputations rather than distance themselves from the crime world shows how highly the world of crime is regarded by the politicians in their scheme of things. Politics and crime have become the two faces of the same coin in the present state of affairs and a saying goes that there cannot be politics without crime and no crime without politics. In the present Indian situation, it is true that the lotus of politics can blossom only in the offal of crime. IMPORTANCE OF VIOLENCE The need for organized violence is so high on the priorities of the Indian politics that all political parties have created youth and volunteer wings to accommodate young hoodlums as a fighting and street-smart force to further the interests of the political party in street-fights and gang wars. Those who stand out among the recruits to these wings for their exemplary courage and toughness are provided with fast promotional avenues to reach the top and the fact that a very high percentage of ministers in Indian Governments are the fighters from this arena gives a glisk to the high priority of violence and crime in the present Indian political setup. CRIMINALISATION OF POLICE It is an irony that politicians, whose patronage criminals sought to ease them from the straints of the police, brought the latter closer to each other, building a bridge between
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them. The understanding reached between criminals and the police goes a long way in criminalizing Indian public life and blunting the effectiveness of the policing. Though the nexus between criminals and the police is not a new phenomenon, that what was an exception once has become a rule now and what was a rule once has become an exception. The criminals overawed the weak police with their connections with powerful politicians on one hand and lured the police with easy money and comfort on the other and thus tilted the balance to their advantage from the mouse and cat disadvantage they once suffered not long ago. Though criminals played their political cards with

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adroitness, their real target a tout propos was easing themselves from the pressures of the police. This, they achieved with little cost by deftly flaunting their political connections to a weak and crumbling police. Criminals did business with officious police for huge grist to their coffers of professional interests without giving away anything substantial in return, save trifling throw always. This itself, however, was an unimaginable bonanza to the lowly police of all ranks who had never seen life with open eyes outside their regimens. CRIME AND INDIAN POLITICS If some are born criminals, some choose the path consciously and some others are constrained to follow the path. While faulty financial and social policies forged by unenlightened politicians are responsible for forcing several helpless people to the path of criminality on the one hand, their opportunistic, politically motivated demarche more often drives sensitive people on the path of revolt to inclip the fold of terrorism and violence. Naxalism, Sikh terrorism, the ULFA movement, Kashmir separatism, Hindu and Muslim militancy and even sympathy in India for the LTIE cause are direct outcomes of the nonchalant political handling of the national issues. India has seen isolated political attempts in the past to lure people out of the clutches of the crime world and rehabilitate them; these, however form exceptions. The famous Chambal experiment initiated by the late Sri. Jayaprakash Narayan had some success in spite of discordant vibes raised by the machinations of certain politicians in the area. POLITICAL KIDNAPPING Political kidnapping is an international phenomenon that comminated the world of diplomacy in excelsis in the 1970’s. The menace trickled onto the Indian scene though slowly, decisively in the 1980’s. The realization that political ends can be easily met by the malengine of the kidnapdrama opened up an aboideau to the terrorists who were desperate to meet their political targets. The increase in terrorist activities in India, perchance, as an outcome of
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the suspected “balkanisation of India” policy adopted by some foreign countries, made political kidnapping a ubiquitous reality on the Indian political scene from the latter half of the 1980s. The terrorists of Kashmir and Punjab set the tone in India that was picked up by the People’s War Group and the ULFAs in the 1990s. The inexperience of Indian political leaders in tackling the problem complicated the matter. While most countries around the world explicated a policy of stubborn refusal to yield to kidnappers’ demands under straints a tout prix the Indian leaders goofed by displaying their weaknesses while people close to them were abducted, in

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yielding to demands as a quid pro quo in releasing a large number of dangerous terrorists who were arrested at huge cost and loss of lives. The situation has been further complicated by adopting a policy of double standards in sacrificing the lives of lesser mortals in some other cases. It is obviously sending a wrong depeche to the would-be terrorists that the closer the proximity of the kidnapped to a political leader, the bigger is the chance of meeting their political ends. The publicity attached to the kidnap-drama and the arousal of the public interest in the developments that follow is another dimension of the political kidnapping that brings an identification and gives an image to a terrorist outfit as nothing else can. It has become the fashion to initiate a terrorist outfit with a kidnapping operation. This chevisance in the inchoate drama proves the strength and resourcefulness of the new outfit and its locus standi among such other outfits, in the way that the murders committed by a recruit decide his place in the Mafia. The finesse displayed in executing the operation to a successful end decides the future of the organisation apart from the advantages of the ransom money and release of compatriots. Interestingly, the first experiment of political kidnapping in the Indian scene was conducted in a foreign country in the form of the egregious abduction and killing of Mr. R.H. Mhatre, a junior diplomat in the Birmingham consulate in the first week of February 1984 by JKLF militants. Political kidnapping and murder is tout court the most heinous crime that often involves the cold-blooded murder of absolutely innocent people for political ends. The mental agony and subsequent destruction involved to the maledict hostages and their near and dear ones because of the misguided entrainement of a handful of greenhorns naturally make kidnapping an infructuous political tool at the end. The considerable fall in the incidences of political kidnapping on the international scene of late is an indication of the increasing realization of this fact. Crime
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scarcely survives in the situations of haute politique like diplomacy and relations between nations. High thinking by enlightened people functions as a catchpole to check the criminal tendencies from being perpetuated. Political kidnapping on the Indian scene is also bound to be a temporal phenomenon as seen other where in the world. A disturbing trend in political kidnapping is the possibility of professional criminals like smugglers and drug peddlers resorting to political kidnappings at the hest of their illegal profession in the guise of political kidnappers. The increasing dependence of terrorists and professional criminals on each adds to the complexity. This unhealthy situation is already true in India as it is in many

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other countries, a pernicious cohabitation that’s a commination to peaceful international order. The kidnapping of Romanian charge d’ affaires in India, Liviu Radu on October 9, 1991 on his way to office by the Sikh militants is the first instance of a high ranking foreign national of diplomatic corps being kidnapped by Indian militants to meet domestic political goals. This succeeded, a series of similar kidnappings of Indian and foreign officials by the People’s War Group, the ULFA and the Kashmir militants. The abduction of Mr. K. Doraiswamy, a senior director of the Indian Oil Corporation by the JKLF militants and his later release in exchange for nine arrested Kashmir militants hit headlines in Indian newspapers by the reason of the ‘Stockholm syndrome’ noticed in the hostage after his release. His empathy with his captors and their cause and sympathetic references to Azad Kashmir, liberation struggle, misguided boys etc. after his release rather than a degout to them were explained in the language of the cooperative behaviour se defendendo of the pusillanimous hostages of a bank robbery in Stockholm in 1973, and is indited in psychology texts as “Stockholm syndrome.” The tendency of a diffident hostage to cooperate sans gene as the only dernier ressort and even aid his captors at the dumdum of seity may well nigh turn out to be a malengine in the hands of resourceful criminals to force a change in political attitude in the symbiotic world of the criminals and politicians. The salutary references of Mr. K. Doraiswamy to his captors also throw light on the possibility of his being conducted well, non obstante his other where political affiliations, ipso facto suggesting that political criminals more than often are gens de bien of high principles and a selfless goal to achieve. It is why these criminals come under a distinct class and command furibund aficionado from specific sections of the society, it be Subha and Sivarasan of the LTTE or Sukhadev Singh (Sukha) and Harjinder Singh Jinda of the Sikh militants of yore. POLICE AS A LINK It can be categorically said that the business of crime
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cannot survive anywhere if politicians and the police join hands to bring the crime world to heel as is expected of them. Alas, it is not to be in a world of opportunist politicians and muticous, weak police, both with an eye on the spoils of the crime world. The police, actually, are the weak link in the troika of power brokers. It is just a significant link between the major players of the drama, namely politicians and criminals, and functions as an instrument of politicians to bring criminals to their grip and to tighten the prise. The role of the police as a lawenforcing agency and its consequential hold on criminals makes it a handy instrument for politicians.

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POLITICISATION OF POLICE The police are imprimis an executioner and odd job boy of the government. This image of police is effectively made use by politicians for all conceivable personal and official purposes. While low-ranking police are put to use as body guards, gunmen, messengers, watchmen and odd-job attendees, high-ranking police are put to the travails of the same odd jobs in higher forms. It is a triste commentary on the present police that while low-ranking police do the job as an unavoidable duty, high-ranking officers compete and fight among themselves to get and attend to the odd jobs of their political masters. This they do, even while they are fully aware of the criminal antecedents and police histories of some of their benefactors. Where is the passion of our police for law and justice, the fighting spirit against crime and lawlessness that should be the cardinal professional emotions at all levels? It is just that our police have no more commitment to justice and social cause and nothing seems worth the effort, save career promotions and creature comforts. Not that the police force is devised to be the personal handmaid of the politicians. It is to be the ultimate powerbearer, the moving force of power on the field. This necessitates discretion and exemplary personal dignity to be its primary traits. It has to be a cornucopia of strength of caractere and probity and stand up as a model to less fortunate people of the country. This beau ideal is also relegated to oblivion in current Indian policing where all-out self-promotion by devious methods is the norm. SUBSERVIENCE IN POLICE The present police, particularly at higher levels, condescend to any mean level, even at the cost of personal pride, human decency, individual dignity, social standing and professional ethics, just to get a pat from its political masters. There are instances wherein police officers of higher rank exposed their careers and lives to deadly risks by pursuing deviant methods to please politicians. The mishandling of the Bangalore Bandh on December 13, 1991 wherein violence was let to spread and
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intensify till it went out of control in the evening is a point in issue. These facts only make out a point that a normal man, once he enters the police service, somehow unconsciously assumes to role-play the canine nature and gives a go-by to human instincts, conscience and such noble traits, which are exclusive to the human animal. The question is should the police be so? Is it imperative to shed human qualities and assume canine instincts to join the police service? Is it true that policing can be effective only with the canine instinct of blind loyalty and instinctive obedience, deprived of all individuality, conscience and rational judgment? The answer is a categorical ‘no.’ On the other hand, policing

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can be genuine policing only with the strength of character, tempered with rational judgment and healthy exchange of ideas at all levels. VOICE OF REASON IS SILENCED It is not as if all people who join the police are always weaklings. Saner elements made up of stronger fiber too once in a way enter the police. However, numerically superior leeway swimmers with their stronger positions, by courtesy of officious politicians, strangle the reasonable voice of the enlightened few who enter the service. If some among such a minority are found to be implacable and refuse to be illaqueated, they are easily crippled by murky malengines that bring mayhem on their career prospects. The police display an extraordinary unity of purpose in executing the telos of eliminating the common enemy of its personal ends, though, otherwise, it is as polarized as any conteck-ridden organisation. Career-long enemies become friends and most inefficient officials become thorough professionals in fulfilling this task. Most of the righteous few yields to the straint and fall in line with the majority pursuits. This success has made the police think that its weapon is inviolable, though foul and dangerously wrongful. However, sadly, it has forgotten that all are not the same and that there are exceptions for everything. It is quite possible that none of such unethical methods affect the few exceptionally strong-willed, noble individuals, but obsign their resolution not to yield to the pravity and fight out a tout prix. CASUALTY OF INDIVIDUALITY A police official who commits his time to the services of his favored politician is aware of his weak position that it may embarrass him when the concerned politician loses his power. This consciousness sensitizes him to the need of garnering support from all around, including subordinates, colleagues and seniors. Any source of plain speaking among subordinates is taken with serious apprehension and everything possible, either legal or illegal, is plotted to keep such a source in place. It is ruthlessly hit in its most sensitive parts to bring it to its
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senses. This approach has led to a myriad number of casualties: really bright, outstanding, conscientious and foursquare officers who inadvertently joined the police. Either they are made to blunt their sensitivities and caliber to adapt to the ground reality or pack-up right away. The travails of ploughing the field for a fresh approach are not only not allowed, but even the thought of such experimentation is roughed up. Is the police department doomed to be the cold storage of musty, old skeletons without room for resilience? Those who reached the top with the support of opportunistic politicians think so.

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A POLITICAL INSTRUMENT In an atmosphere where placements and transfers are decided by the needs and wishes of self-seeking politicians, no police can efficiently function nor can it be free from the vice prise of the politicians. It is not surprising that poweresurient politicians more and more grab powers that are legally and traditionally invested with the police department when the top brass lack the strength of character and conviction. This leads to a position wherein the police department becomes a chessboard on which politicians move their pieces to checkmate their adversaries and win the political game in their favour. In other words, the police sans effective leadership are becoming more a handmaid of politicians by moving away from its sacred role as the guardian of law and justice and protector of the society and the common man. The credit of bringing the police from its height of power to the present level of absolute submission should go to the superior strength of personality of wily politicians who bent the police on their own terms with selective use of stick and carrot. This police are not the police and what it does is not policing in the proud sense of the term. CHANGED ROLE With the increscent involution of the police with glidder politicians, the conception of the police about its own role has undergone a large-scale change. No more does it look at crime control and maintenance of order as its first duty. With this, the concern for crime control received a setback and crime control and investigation have receded to the last priority except when politicians are interested in them for a specific purpose. Only crimes that disturb politicians foment police to galvanic and meaningful action. Other crimes receive no priority. The very definition of the gravity of crime is adapted to suit the new conception. Those crimes that are tolerated by politicians are no more crimes. The self-image of the police as ‘a fearless arbiter of crime’ is changed to a solicitous servant in attendance at the pleasure of a politician master. This blunting of the crime card of the police has made it less
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awe-inspiring and less deserving of respect from the criminals. The police have more and more realized that criminals, particularly those from organized syndicates are personal friends of its political masters and it is no match for the criminals in terms of wealth, influence and social standing. The men of the police see those criminals on equal footing with their political masters and learn to treat them with awe. They find it absurd to act with authority against the immarcescible criminals who are too high for the small stature of the police. It is unfortunate that the police of the present day has never realized its infinite stature as a law-enforcing agent vis a vis all others

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including criminals and politicians whom it is empowered to search, arrest and take to court if they deviate from their rightful path. Sadly, the trifling wealth and the concomitant “big-man” image of others appear to the present police as more appealing than its own awful police authority. REVERSAL OF FUNCTIONS The very possibility that policemen trade off their awful authority lucri causa is an astounding phenomenon. Undoubtedly, the poor salaries and inadequate working conditions have brought about this sad state of affairs. The hafthas and such periodical shares of the spoils from criminal activities often are the mainstay of the well-being of many police families. This triste glissade has unfortunately permeated even to the highest levels in the police as reported in a shameful case from Karnataka sometime back in 1990 wherein a IPS man and his wife on the day of the former’s retirement were taken to the court of law by the public on the complaint of defrauding the public by selling tickets in the name of a spastic society charity show and collecting money eo nomine. The event made big news with bold headlines splashed across newspapers at the time. That apart, the importance of various police jobs is determined in police circles on the basis of the potential of the posts for attracting illegal money from the crime world. And jobs with potential for such gains are most sought after and the concours for such jobs is so high that often postings to such jobs are bought by paying money in lakhs of rupees. Indeed, the investment is made with the esperance of making it back several times over within a short period thereafter in synergy with the crime world. It is the reason why law and order posts, traffic policing, postings in the food enforcement cell and even certain vigilance jobs outside the police as in the KEB for instance are known as jobs to be earned by beating out cutthroat competition while many other jobs are known to be punishment postings and are largely detested. It goes without saying that judging jobs on the basis of the gauntlets they provide or on the opportunity of service is now a matter of yore. It is the crime world with the wealth it
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appropriates to each job that decides the importance or otherwise of the police jobs and ipso facto controls the type and caliber of officers in each job. In other words, it is the criminals who invisibly control the police ab extra rather than the police controlling the criminals. This reversal of functions has lots to do with the low morale of the present Indian police. Its members find themselves at the mercy of criminals whom they are supposed to trammel and bring to book. The police are no more confident that it is mentally and organizationally equipped to treat criminals in malam partem.

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WEAKENED POLICE The increasingly powerful and modernized crime syndicates vis a vis the age- old police force have made crime control a misnomer in the Indian context. The decreasing percentage of the police presence due to its failure to keep pace with the population growth in the face of the increasing crime density, the disadvantage of the police in re the speed of communication, transportation and weaponry before the ultra-modern machines of the crime world, the advantage of criminals in terms of the choice of time and place of operation and concomitant superior numerical strength and ability to produce surprises and the highly skilled and motivated cadres of the criminal world pressing down a demoralized and indifferent police give criminals an edge over the police in their encounters. Consequently, police fatalities in such encounters are increasing. This holds good for terrorist groups, too. Ergo, the police in India are no longer keen to actively interfere with the activities of the crime world. The understanding between the criminals and police is that both confine themselves to their respective fields and avoid embarrassing each other. The police are duly paid for its silence while stray troublemakers who jump in medias res are silenced. The Indian police are sane enough to quickly realize that its interests are safe in silence while an uncalled-for tangling with the crime world may invite a host of complications and comminate individual job security and lives. POLICE LEADERSHIP The albatross of the atrophy of the present Indian police solely rests on the incompetent police leadership of independent India rather than on anything else. Unimaginative organizational planning, uninspiring operational guidance and control and lack of leadership conviction in modem police leaders has led to utter chaos, resulting in a random chorisis of the organisation without any conceivable planning or application of mind to the needs of effective supervision and control mechanisms; dangerously ineffective recruitment, ineffective training,
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misuse of the facilities of confidential assessment of subordinates and the degeneration of control and supervision machinery are symptomatic organizational maladies. The present Indian police force is utterly demodulated from its professional objectives and police jobs are considered only as devices that provide rank, power, social status, sundry comforts and a comfortable job to fall upon when an urge to work arises. How can the people of India depend upon a police force of this sorry state of affairs for their security, protection and orderly living? ORGANISATIONAL GROWTH How deeply the police are self-centered even within its own organisation and what care and concern the police leaders show to evolve a perficient and planned

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police organisation can be assessed by the trend of evolution of the police organisation as an increasinglyly top-heavy setup and the speed with which promotions are affected at different levels. In states where there were only two officers of the rank of Inspector General of Police, for say forty thousand men and officers about thirty years back, there are now nearly hundred officers of and above the rank of Inspector General of Police, for say three hundred thousand men and officers: thereby the last thirty years account for 750% expansion in the lower levels against 5000% expansion at higher levels. What these people at the top do for policing apart from being a drain on the state revenue and a strain to officers down the levels with conflicting instructions of dubious merit? Almost nothing. It is unfortunate that none in the police administration realizes that it is not the rank, but the real human stuff inside that decides the height, excellence, merit, intelligence, honesty, integrity, responsibility, work knowledge and human qualities of a person. Promotion to higher rank serves no purpose unless the higher rank provides a really higher and challenging job content and a suitable man is perforce selected to meet the increased challenges. This is not the case in present police promotions where sinecures are created to facilitate promotions to satisfy in-group instincts. Most of these jobs are without any job content and responsibility and often are places to relax from the pressures of family life. However, the same courtesy does not extend to the more unfortunate ranks at lower levels including the constabulary. While vacancies at the topmost level are filled up by promotions strictly overnight, promotions at intermediary levels are effected in weeks or fortnights or months, depending on the rank in the police hierarchy. It is years in the case of the constabulary. There are cases where vacancies of Head Constables and Assistant SubInspectors or Sub- Inspectors are not filled up for several years, depriving the constabulary of their de jure promotions. There are any number of instances of men in the constabulary, retiring without a promotion non
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obstante their eligibility and seniority for the existing vacancies, which are not filled up from many years. Policing is a job, performed mostly at lower levels with decreasing involvement up to the level of Superintendent of Police. Beyond that, it is tout court a supervisory task and in a police force with no supervision to speak of, higher ranks are just de trop. Any move to expand these ranks and any undue haste to promote to these levels cannot be called honest decisions in the functional or public interest. Unfortunately, the Indian police are doing just that and there is none to put it back on the right track.

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MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES The position is worse in recruitment. Selection has become a misnomer. It is random at best and high business at its worst. This approach to recruitment may turn out to be a highly dangerous situation for both the governance and public life of India. Policing is a highly sensitive profession and requires only specially equipped people to handle it. It demands certain specific traits in its officers, which cannot be learnt by any amount of training. The police being the ultimate power-bearer on the street, the public look to it as a model and its mien decides public trust in the government. In the circumstances, the wrong selection to the police is bound to be fatal to the national life. India is deeply mired in such a dangerous situation now. There is a price fixed for each rank of the police. How can a fresh recruit who enters service by paying a bribe be expected not to reap returns from his large investment? What can be his mental picture of the service he enters? It is absurd to expect professional policing from such a recruit. Those who permit such nasty doings in the police or involve themselves to bring the organisation to its painfully slow sphacelus are the butchers of a great tradition. Even when there is genuine scope for proper selection in recruitment, nothing is done to rope in the really competent. It is either because none bother much to have a really competent person in the slot or because of the incompetence of the persons entrusted with the job of selection. The common aim of the police in recruitment now is to complete the job without inviting legal hurdles at the best. Sometimes, even rules are overstepped to cut short procedures and do away with cumbersome work. Even sensitive posts at the lowest level like police drivers are filled up arbitrarily and quality suffers as a result. This is equally so in matters of transfers as discussed in detail elsewhere. LINE OF COMMAND Everything is not right in the spine of the police organisation namely the hierarchical order-itself. The
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importance of honesty, integrity, hard work and excellence is replaced with personal loyalty and usefulness for personal odd jobs. This is the outcome of the natural devolution of personal loyalty to politicians at higher levels on the ladder. Those who do not come up to the expectations of personal loyalty, fall out of favour and are eliminated from the line of command as persona non grata. This pravity has a more demoralizing effect in a force of line of command than meets the eye. This trait in the organisation results in the deflection of brighter, proud and foursquare officers to insignificant jobs to the advantage of the opportunistic ones who are insecure and ergo tend to

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make up their famishment with personal loyalty to those in power. It is the main contributing factor for the slow degeneration of the present Indian police. QUALITY IS SUPPRESSED There are some unwanted under currents in the Indian police that make pride, efficiency, excellence, originality and such superior qualities the objects of fear and hatred. Perhaps, these superior qualities do not go pari passu with the line of command by the reason of the insecure feelings, these superior qualities rouse higher in the line. The fear is not based on reality in a disciplined force like police where the line of command functions a tout propos without reference to personal traits. The question is why this fear surfaces in the modem police while the pre- independent police with all its better manpower could run without it. The possible answer is that the line of command is a perfect mechanism in a disciplined force when the force indulges in de jure professional duties. However, the line of command becomes increasingly strained when it is used for personal ends as of late. Ergo, ultimately, it is a vicious circle wherein poor leadership leads to elimination of quality and that in turn results in poorer leadership that slowly blights the police organisation to its triste logical end. POLICE BROTHERHOOD The police are a sacred confrerie of those who choose policing as their profession. It is here, as brothers irrespective of caste, creed, social standing, rank or personal traits, they live as one, in the interests of the common objective of crime control and maintenance of law and order. How can this ideal which was once a strikingly kenspeckle reality survive in changed circumstances where there is no common cause except personal advancement at the cost of everything? Consequently, groupism is abounding in the police force and jealousy has become a characteristic feature of the ranks. There is no mutual warmth among police personnel. The police force, once a smooth silk fabric, is now in shreds with each group pulling on opposite sides to the detriment of the unity, essential to
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its survival in view of the natural job hazards. Indifference to the other’s predicament is a rule in the police these days. Often, those in the police contribute to each other’s misfortune because of accidental bad blood or just fun. No confrerie is patent anywhere in the present Indian police. LACK OF PLANNING The police, by the nature of its jobs, are required to walk hand in hand with modem advancements to keep it fit and functionally effective. The general reluctance of the Indian police to adapt to new ideas and the ungainly handling of modernization projects have resulted in its falling en wrier in terms of modem machines and organizational techniques in comparison to the syndicates of

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organized crime which keep themselves pari passu with neoteric findings and inventions to keep themselves in excelsis of the effectiveness. En attendant, modem communication, information, transport, office and armament gadgets are bought for the police on the advice of some sales agents without creating the adequate infrastructure or trained personnel for their use and without assessing the real need of such equipments in the existing police situation. As a result, the gadgets so bought fall apart with desuetude after the initial entrainement cools down. Such a light-hearted approach to modernization results in the police becoming more and more an obsolete unit, apart from putting an unproductive burden on the state exchequer. The police are one of the most vital instruments of the public administration and works as a link between the executive arm and judiciary. It is the ears, eyes and limbs of the government. No government with a failing police system can survive whatever be its other assets. It is against this background that the glitches bedeviling the present Indian police should be viewed. Any complacency at this stage about the existing police system may prove too costly for the unity and well- being of the country and the health of its governance. PROFESSIONALPOLICING The police of India imprecise should be extricated from the clutches of criminals and politicians to make it a professional policing outfit with objectivity and commitment to its task as the cardinal gospel. Both criminals and politicians have stakes in the style of functioning of the police and neither of them, the criminals with their easy money and the politicians with their easy power, let the police slip from their grip. There is no point in beginning the cleansing operation from the sides of the criminals or politicians. It has to begin from the side of the police by insulating it from the vile influences of criminal wealth and political power. If this bifarious object is fulfilled, all others fall into place by themselves. Once the vile shadows of the criminals and politicians are removed from the face of the
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police, it is certain to resile to its old professional self-a highly committed, motivated and efficient force. But the golden question is how to achieve this end and save the police from these two debilitating influences. INDEPENDENT POLICE In a free society like India with a democratic political system in the saddle, interaction between various strata of society is a natural phenomenon and efforts to raise barriers between blocks are bound to be infructuous. Yet the gauntlet of saving the police from dangerous influences should be courageously taken up in the national interest. The fact of the police being a disciplined force is both an advantage and disadvantage in this stupendous challenge. It is an advantage

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because the weapon of discipline, if discreetly employed, can be used to block the police from undue interaction with unwanted elements. It is a disadvantage because the police with its trained response may find it difficult to isolate itself from the personal behests of its political masters. It is left to police leaders to devise appropriate techniques to make the best use of the existing advantages in this sacred and patriotic task. To begin with, somebody among the police leaders should decide to bell the cat. Who can do that while all of them are willing partners in creating the vested nexus that helps them to ascend to their present high positions in the hierarchy? Yet, the world is not as bad it is painted. There have to be exceptions for everything and thus, good people among the police too, who by the quirks of dextro tempore avoid the long arms of Satan and survive to reach the place where they rightfully belong. These breaches in the otherwise swarth layers of clouds throw rays of hope upon the future of Indian police. POLICE AUTHORITY The first and foremost job to be done is to free the police from the unhealthy influence of all hues of politicians by making it responsible to an independent authority with absolute power to take decisions on matters pertaining to policing and police organisation. The authority should be a professional body with men of proven probity and quality as members, who have reached a stage from where they need not sacrifice their convictions to appease those in power. A working arrangement is to be devised by which the authority is responsible directly to the legislature and functions as an independent authority like the judiciary, Comptroller and Auditor General or Election Commissioner. CORE GROUP Overhauling the recruitment procedure and investing utmost care to ensure that really the best from the job seekers are let in to the service can undo the damage already done to the police by the ancien regime. Any interference in matters of recruitment should be promptly and decisively resisted. To make recruitment an efficient operation, only highly qualified officers of proven probity
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should be entrusted with the task with the absolute authority to take decisions within the framework of law. The ugly head of bribery in recruitment should be ruthlessly crushed and the unhealthy tendency of making recruitment a business should be curbed tout a fait. Infusion of good blood at least at this late hour is certain to undo the damage done till now and bring the ancien regime yet extant inside to its senses. Indeed, the recruitment should be followed with a sound training that sensitizes the recruits to their professional ethics and motivates them to their sacred duties and responsibilities.

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CONTENTED POLICE PERSONNEL Police jobs should be made attractive with good salaries and satisfactory working conditions that give the strength to resist the bait thrown by the criminals. It is proved by social scientists that the incidence of bribery is inversely proportional to the financial strength of a social group. Therefore, better salaries and eximious working conditions definitely make the police less sensitive to these lures. This would be a major step in breaching the hold of criminals over the police. The measure must be closely followed by a perficient and strictly professional policy of placements to ensure the right man comes to the right job with merit and honesty being duly rewarded. Measures to ensure an unbiased assessment of the work and character of subordinates strengthen and place the police organisation on sound footing. Those who are empowered to assess subordinates and their work must be made answerable therefore and any unscrupulous and random discharge of their duties should condemn them forever for the misuse of this sacred responsibility to the future of the organisation. FAIR PLAY Creation of a high power core group of people who are adept in assessing men and character within the aforesaid police authority may help to create a feeling of confidence and job security and prod them into discharging their official duties fearlessly. This group that oversees the work of police personnel from a distance should be made ultimately responsible for all career decisions. The responsibility of officers in assessing the work of their subordinates which forms the major embarrassment of the present Indian police must be limited to giving their opinion about performance to the core group; the expert core group processes the opinion by its own research, expertise and discretion and takes responsible decisions on its own. The group must be made responsible for development planning of the police, work assessment, job analysis, recruitment and management of human resources. Institution of such a core group to oversee the career
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development of police personnel without personal bias may bring revolutionary changes by committing the police to its work ethics and professional ends with due singlemindedness. MENTAL QUALITY It is a tragedy in the current Indian police that there is no relation between the efficiency and performance of an official and his standing in the organisation. The police officials are so indifferent to the performance of their subordinates and

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their work turnout that they are absolutely in the dark about the standard of work turned out under their supervision. Another reason for this sad affair may be that they are unqualified to assess. This situation leads to random assessment when a senior is statutorily bound to assess and in the process, talent withers and opportunists overtake high-caliber workers on the hierarchical ladder. This tragic melange can be brought to order by exposing police officers periodically to motivation courses where they are taught about the work they are required to perform, its importance and how to discharge their duties. There is an innate trait in the police that makes people entering it shut their minds and distance themselves from all hues of mental activities. Police training must endeavor to break this trait and coax trainees to open their minds and reflect on all matters before making decisions. Often, the habit of reading becomes a casualty, once a person enters the police. The police are in no way antipodean to mental and scholastic pursuits. It is a mystery what there is in the police that bind its men to let their minds and hearts languish by desuetude. Police researchers must look to this matter to mould the police into an organisation that acts and thinks before resorting to action. Before this happens, police training has a major role to make a recruit a thinking animal with a heart to feel and an intelligent instinct to follow. PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE This negative approach to reading and thinking has resulted in poor professional knowledge in the police, particularly at the higher ranks. Work knowledge is generally limited to what is remembered from previous work experience and bits of what is learnt from books during police training, decades before. Their defective conception about supervision compounds the situation by depriving them of the benefit of learning new things during supervision of work. The style of supervision in the police should be seen to be believed. All orders to subordinates emanate from a perfect void. The orders warrant subordinates to feed them what is to be done in a given
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situation and the reply received is returned to the same subordinate as an order to perform. The best style of supervision in the police is no more than holding a meeting of subordinates wherein the latter are allowed to arrive at a course of action to meet a given challenge, and the decision is returned to them as an order to perform. This style of ineffective supervision must stop if quality is required in police work. The system of overlapping supervision because of multiple ranks, where none really discharges his supervisory role must be scrapped to make the police a meaningful organisation. A thorough overhauling of police training programmes and application of modem organisation techniques to bring in

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effective check and control mechanisms would go a long way in ameliorating the ground realities in the police. UNIVERSALITY OF CRIME On ultimate analysis, crime is a universal phenomenon. All living beings are criminals in varying degree. Criminal thought is a part of the natural function of a healthy mind as is the moral restraint that prevents the criminal thought from being acted upon. External restraints brought about by the fear of law, custom and adverse reaction reinforces the inner restraint to prevent the committing of crime. However, as the force of external restraints weakens for diverse reasons and the proportion of gain to be made in committing a crime overweighs the risks involved in the balance sheet of the operation, the lure of crime increases and the deed is done. It is the social situation that controls the external restraints to make committing a crime an asset or a liability and thereby decides the proliferation or suppression of crime with human nature being what it is always. Criminals are criminals because society gives them easy openings to thus meet their needs. Politicians love to befriend criminals rather than bring them to book because the society they live in makes their lives comfortable with criminals as friends rather than as adversaries. Policemen find the crime world sweeter because it is how things stand for them. The remedy for the proliferation and endearment of crime lies in changing the social dynamics to make crime a liability to criminals and criminals a liability to politicians and the police. In the existing nexus of politics, crime and police, crime is an asset to criminals and criminals are an asset to politicians and police. Criminals should not be construed as a separate block of citizenry. They are a cross-section of people from all fields of life who have moved beyond a commonly accepted degree in their criminal tendencies. Criminality may be prolific in certain civilized fields like commerce and industry in the form of tax evasion, violation of foreign exchange regulations, hoarding etc; such crimes are generally not taken seriously in spite of the public awareness of the crimes, with the social standing of the criminals remaining unaffected.
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Government servants too come under this category of criminals because of the unconfined corruption in public life. It is a fact that Indian public life is a vast fields of criminal activities and politicians and police, though the custodians and protectors of the Indian public life, form part of the crime world. However, knowledge of the involvement of politicians and police in this nasty world stirs the public conscience, for the reason that they are supposed to be the people on whom the public relies to save them. But, it cannot be because they are also part of the society that makes public life a nasty affair and nourishes it.

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CRIME AND NATIONAL ECONOMY A word about the effect of the nasty nexus between politics, crime and police on the national economy. Unity gives strength. It is true about the nasty nexus also. The only telos of the nexus is gain by synergy, the synergy that brings confidence and courage to the troika in its nefarious activities, thereby inducing it to more daring and innovative criminal activities. This results in proliferation of crime, apart from affecting the quality of crime by opening up new avenues for operation. As the ultimate end of all crime is illegal gain and the incidence of crime is directly related to increase in black money in the national economy, the proliferation of crime invariable results in inflation and the weakening of the national economy. More dangerously, it results in a polarization of the society into criminal rich and honest poor and destroys the country’s moral fabric. The increscent incidence of easy money, material comforts and political power of the criminal rich ultimately leads to internal strife, emeute and popular terrorism. SOCIAL POLARIZATION The indulgence of the rich and powerful in crime popularizes criminal activities by bringing an aura of status to them and negating all inhibitions in the popular mind. Society easily accepts the example of the wealthy and powerful for making an easy buck to lead comfortable lives in the world where life is becoming increasingly difficult because of the spurt in black money, caused by the proliferation of crime. While decent life becomes impossible by honest methods, the need of survival forces honest citizenry to accept crime as a way of life as the last resort. This would be where politicians, criminals and police lead the country. Easy money and easy wealth have a tendency to inflate. Criminals tend to spend lavishly. This ends up in a spurt in prices of land, building and essential commodities while honest men have to toil hard for an extra quarter. Crime begets money and money begets more money and more money begets power, comfort and everything. In the crush,
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honest man is lost forever. The ocean of criminal wealth around him that is beyond even his wildest dreams frustrates him and ravages his sense of morality and righteousness. It turns him violently against all human values and decency, leading him to a world of crime and violence. It is what we see in Punjab, Kashmir, Assam, in far away Srilanka or even in Naxalism where it is hidden in the guise of political ideology. It is an irony that politicians and the police, who create the demons, eat their own pies by falling to the bullets of the grievously hurt, selfrighteous, once innocent people. It is said

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that even the dacoits in Chambal are symptomatic of this social and economic malady. It is true that crime cannot be eliminated from any society, as the tendency to commit crime is ingenerate in human nature. However, crime can be suppressed by appropriate straints. What straints and how they are to be applied are ironically decided by politicians and the police. If they come out of their indulgent interests to commit themselves to their professional objectives, they can certainly save India from the present predicament. Not that every politician and every policeman can come out to achieve this noble task, but there certainly are noble elements yet surviving as exceptions among them, who should take up cudgels in favour of the Indian polity and sacrifice their lives and careers, if necessary, to make the renaissance of Indian police and Indian public life possible. The question yet to be posed is whether the inveterate vested interests will let these sacrifices bear fruit. Let us hope for the best.

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Policing is a reaction of the society to its warped situations. The process of policing is always in a state of flux to keep a la hauteur de rapidly evolving nature of the social complexities. In this sense, the police are a reflection of the face of the national life. Stability in the national life slows down the process of policing; a volatile situation strings police to high tension and energizes it. Growth or retardation in social progress accordingly reflects the style of policing. When the nation stands at the crossroads, the police also find itself on compita: at the intersection of a reneging past and a converging future. This is where India and its police stand now after four decades of becoming a republic. As with old generations that saw life, society and politics prior to the independence give way to new generations in national life and old passions and values atrophy before the gust of speed, smartness and a garish way of life, the police too find itself in a peregrine role with no past for continuity and no future for creativity. The police find itself rising from a claut to pave the new path; it must blindly choose from alternatives, it thinks available to it. There is no past experience to fall upon, no future guidelines to pursue. Yet, it must walk with time to fulfill its raison d’etre. The Indian police find itself in this blind spot today, at the crossroads from where it should build bridges to the future. The immanent swither of the compita is like the new freedom of a caged animal. It must acclimatize and warm up to the new situation, shed us mental fetters, bring strength to its legs and learn to move au naturel. A slip at this stage would be a sempiternal tragedy; a right move here would be a lucky rise forever. At this stage in its evolution, the possibilities are endless. The Indian police now stand at this momentous juncture.
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IMPORTANCE OF POLICE IN NATIONAL LIFE The police and policing are larger than an individual and his self-interests. The police are an institution that is constituted of man, machinery and ideas. Man is just a minute constituent of the monolith that is the police. An institution of the police organization’s dimensions naturally has defacements at places that in no way affect the overall view of the structure. Ergo, minor casualties are common in such a mammoth edifice. Only when the defacements have an impact on the overall mien of the structure and distort its face, do corrective measures become

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comme il faut. The police should be continuously watched for such vital distortions, for its health or otherwise has a serious bearing on the national life. A minor shift in the style of policing in the country can make a life-and-death difference to myriad people. It is in this perspective that decisions regarding policing should be taken. The decisions become sensitive when the police reach crossroads and forces further decisions on the course of its passage. A wrong turn? The police may inadvertently tear the fabric of the national life to shreds and ruin the country. A right step? An era of perfect security, order and peace. Only a selfless analysis of the needs of the time and assessment of the future would give the insight necessary to make the right choice about the course to be pursued. Highly competent persons at the highest level who can see things dispassionately and take decisions must carry out such an analysis. They must be people who have an overall view of things and are capable of seeing them against the wider background of the national interest. It is a very responsible job, requiring thorough knowledge of the nuances of the police and policing. The people who do it must be capable of taking hard decisions that may often go against their own interests and may have far-reaching consequences. This book is an obvious effort in this direction. The Indian police must give serious thought to what it wants to be in future and take tough decisions. MISHANDLING OF POLICE IN INDEPENDENT INDIA There is an impression that the Indian police are not what it was before Independence. The previous pride, toughness and ferocious commitment to duties are no more patent. The Indian police have become soft, humble and easy- going in post-independence days. Humility and pressures all round deprived it of its vitality. The police have become a widely abused organisation by the virtue of its conticent submission to the wishes of its masters under false notions of discipline. It is the popular scapegoat for anything and everything that goes wrong in the public life. In the circumstances, a sense of insecurity has developed
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in the police that comminates career-life. A natural outcome of this fix is, taking things easy with eyes and ears shut, unless career interests warrant otherwise. Commitment to policing is sacrificed in the process. These developments have reduced the police to a toy that moves only when the spring inside unwinds. New entrants to the police who begin to run left and right with nascent entrainement in the first few months, soon realize the realities on the ground when the wounds on the body of their career dehisce, looking fatal and ready to gorge their esperance for the future. This is the triste spiel of the Indian police now.

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OUTSIDE INTERFERENCE IN POLICING A serious malady affecting the tough and no-nonsensical image of the police is the interference of people of some standing in the society with the quotidian policing at all levels. An organisation, looking for a serious image, cannot afford this luxury. Policing must be insulated from public pressures except at the top, to which all policing affairs must be responsible. People handling policing should be responsible only to law and their heads in the police department and to none else. The regulation of policing policies in all details must be controlled and guided by the top. On the other hand, the line authority of the organisation must be all-powerful to guide and regulate policing and police administration and bear the responsibility for everything below the level. Such a setup sine dubio presumes a pollent leadership. For an organisation with powers and responsibilities like the police, such a strong leadership is sine qua non otherwise as well. A police organisation, open to public pressures can do no policing worth the name. The very idea of being receptive to pressures and interferences presupposes a lack of will for objectivity and justice. It is criminal elements that cultivate sources for such straints on the police that have put the policing on the wrong rails. Pressure on policing often renders the police to commit crimes under the veil of authority, either by protecting criminals or more dangerously, by replacing them with innocent people as criminals. The possibility of the police being open to the straints of the rich and powerful deprives it of its credibility. A police force that works at the behests of the rich and powerful can guard their interests only. It would thus be the villain to the hoi polloi. Does democratic India need such a police force to perpetuate the tyranny of the poor and helpless by the rich and powerful? Democratic India tolerated such a police in the last four decades. India and its people however, must now abraid to the situation and spawn a police that behove to the trust laid on it. FALL OF PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS The aberration of professional objectivity is the
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kenspeckle signature of the police in independent India. The problem was simple in British India where ruler and ruled were distinctly bifurcated and ipso facto the loyalty of police was perspicaciously defined unlike the Indian republic of democratic genre where people rule themselves through elected representatives. Here, the loyalty of police to the public and public law is the professional ethic; misplaced loyalty to an individual, a family, a party or an ideology at the cost of the general public is an apostasy from the inviolable professionalism of the police. The police, in a democracy, are the guardian of public interests and public safety unlike in the Raj where the police protected the interests of the Raj. This distinction is forgotten

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in independent India where mental fetters are yet to be broken and legacies of the British rule continue inveterate. How can a police that stays loyal to personal, familial or party interests ever discharge its functions objectively to law and general public? What can its locus standi be when a different person or party comes to power? A sequacious police is an asset to any individual or party and no sensible individual or party distances it in name of the professional ethics. It is the paravant duty of the police not to breach the edifice of the police organisation and its spirit by misprising its professional standards. This infrangible obligation is thrown to the winds in the maelstrom of career advancements by the self- seeking gendarmerie of the Indian republic. A byproduct of this degenerate trend is the rise of opportunists and sycophants to key posts and the fall of pollent caractere to insignificant and humiliating slots. The trend creates a catena of reactions that slowly-cats up the vitality of the police organisation and reduces it to a foul bunch of bloodhounds of the rich and powerful few. The shoddy creatures sitting tout court above men of probity is a dangerous situation in an organisation like the police where a stiff hierarchical order and a command-obedience relationship exist between ranks. This reverse order of merit is sure to bring frustration and the collapse of the organisation someday ex consequenti. This is because, a few selfish elements put own interests before the professional and national interests. And this is in a disciplined organisation. This is where commitment to organizational objects is the life-fluid of the profession. POLICE CULTURE OF FREE INDIA The British were the forefathers, of the unified Indian police. They created the reticulation of the police force for India with their own designs and objects in sight. It was a force that met the needs of the time. In an age of rapid changes due to the opening up of new vistas and dimensions to life by inventions and discoveries in science and technology, nothing remains quiescent. The scope, design and objects of the Indian police underwent a basic
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metamorphosis with the transfer of government to native hands. The process spawned a synod wherein undemanding aspects of both the worlds survived to create a new police culture. The distinguishing traits of the Indian police of the British vintage like objectivity, apoliticism, commitment, discipline, quality and high standards were discarded as peregrine and irrelevant in the changed circumstances; and traditional Indian values like simplicity, charity, wisdom, mutual respect, encraty and human qualities were distanced as indign to the police culture. The convenient factors of the old and new worlds were chosen to warp a new world of police culture while demands on policing were at the crucial stage in the creant

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years of national independence. The cabal was struck by the Indian police officers who rapidly rose in their career overnight to fill the void, created by the resignations of their senior British officers in the ancient regime on the eve of independence. The demand for creating a new work-relationship with native political leaders was a historical opportunity to carve a new police culture in free India. The incompetence of the then police impresarios, their greed, parochial approach and self-interests spawned the wrong type of police culture. They laid mendacious praxis to those lower by bending laws and conscience to aggrate men in power with the myopic object of promoting own career and personal interests. The police became a lithe tool in the hands of the power brokers of free India. How can the police be objective, honest, apolitical, committed and disciplined in such atrophy and how can it uphold the rule of law and justice in line with its professional edit in such a circumstance? POLICE AT THE CROSS-SECTION Policing, being a specialized job wherein few people venture to have a keek owing to its fearful image, still remains an enigma to outsiders including administrators and the general public. Its locus standi somewhere in between the armed forces and civil administration renders its structure, scope and style of functioning undefined in the monolith of governance. This, compounded with the prolate powers of the police to cover all aspects of living, has made the police an awful company to live with. This is a situation of one-way traffic wherein the police have a say on every aspect of the life of the people while the general public is dumb and blindfold to everything about the police. The situation has placed the police at the unusual advantage of dictating what should be what, where and how in policing and police organisation. Sine dubio, it is a god sent benison for the police while right man sits at the sconce. To the worst mauvais moment of the police, sycophants ramp the ladder and reach the top t hold reins and guide the destiny of the police in independent India and consequently the Indian police has got what it
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deserved, namely a spiritless culture, composed of the weak and bad precedences of its incompetent leaders. It has been a long time since independence. What people and those in the police accepted as standards in the inchoate entrainement of the dawn of independence, no more stir them. The atrophy of more than two generations of independent India opened their eyes to what was happening around, in the name of the supercherie of the self-rule. Enough is enough. Though late, they realized for certain that self-rule does not mean fraud and tyranny by their own people, that self-interests know no nationality, that the cabals of compatriots are no less pernicious than that of the aliens. Forty-five years is a long enough period to

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realize the need for breaking away from the corrupt innards of the statecrafts of independent India. India and the Indian police stand at this crossroads at this hour. POLICE AS SOCIAL DOCTORS Policemen are social doctors and policing is a surgical operation of the society to systematically remove cancerous growths from its body. What if the band of doctors itself is infested with serious cancerous growths? This is the position of the present-day Indian police. The police, as the enforcers of law and protectors of the public interests, wield tremendous powers for the public good. Such powers to interfere with the life of the citizens must be invested only in people of high probity and conscience. Otherwise, the powers by themselves ruin the social fabric of the country and bring anarchy. Powers to search, seize, remove, detain, direct, arrest, hit and even kill may prove pernicious in the wrong hands. Powers to decide who has done wrong and how to prosecute them, when invested in dishonest hands, certainly ruin society and the country. How these powers are exercised depends imprimis on the work ethic of the organisation. Though it is the people of an organisation au fond who build the job-culture of the organisation, it is this job-culture of the organisation that creates a person in the organisation at a given point of time. Even a degenerate caractere turns honest and efficient in an honest and efficient environment. The workculture builds and moulds vitality to meet the general atmosphere around. Similarly, an honest and efficient person in a degenerate culture is bound to atrophy sooner or later, unless his individual strength superates the vitiating work-culture of the organisation. Ergo, building up a proper job-culture is the bedrock of a perficient police organisation. UNEQUAL TREATMENT The problem of the Indian police lies in a lack of proper understanding of the scope and ground rules of the work. This results in the absence of a proper set of standards to approach the call of duty. Consequently, each call of duty is approached subjectively, depending upon the mood and
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understanding of the police in charge of the situation. All strata of people sans prole unfortunately accept the subjective policing on the Indian scene. The Indian police never recognize the equality of all and the need for equal coverage of policing facilities to all citizens of India. Whether it is in matters of protection, maintenance of order, crime control or investigation of crimes committed, the standards of policing available are kenspeckle in their disparity for a nameless poor farmer in a remote village and an ex-Prime Minister, both of whom have equal rights before the law and the Indian constitution to have crimes against them

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investigated. The coverage is nonpareil for a landlord and an agricultural laborer. The point is not that the principle of equality should balk the ground realities, but that the policing must have a reasonable set of standards, within which more important and less important aspects of the policing must operate. It will not be so in the Indian police until people who place their personal interests beyond everything including law, justice, fairness, objectivity, righteousness, career pride, professional interests of policing and the nation hold the reins at the highest levels of the police, courtesy of those whom they serve better than the hoi polloi. POLICING APPROACH There are two types of approach to policing as distinguishable on the Indian scene, namely, a) The playful approach, where the police as players in a football game, play the game within the scope of the ground rules to have the ball inside the goal without committing a foul. Tout au contraire to the real football game, here the game is played dispassionately and leisurely and played because they are paid to play the game; and, b) The passionate approach, wherein the police break all rules and laws that come in the way with the sole approach of making their task a success. They may even commit dangerous crimes in pursuance of their goals. The Indian police oscillate between these two disparate approaches, depending upon, for whose advantage they work and what would be their personal grist ultimately. Only a few high-flying people with money and power en arrier to back policing of the passionate genre deserve the ‘Passionate Approach.’ Others must remain contented with the ‘Playful Approach.’ Both approaches are indign to a dignified police organisation. The former, namely the ‘Playful Approach’ is against the tenets of professionalism and a professional commitment to work. The latter, namely the Passionate Approach in spite of its commitment to its goals, is devoid of its professionalism by lack of professional commitment to the
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objects of objectivity, fairness and justice. Policing by criminal methods cannot be called professional policing. The right approach to professional policing is a unity of both the approaches in which the commitment to achieve goals follow the professionalism of rightful means in respecting rules and laws of which the police as professionals are guardians. Professional commitment implies achieving goals within the parameters of the permitted methods. The professional end of the police is upholding the interests of law and justice. Policing is not an end by itself. It is a tool to serve law and justice. Policing by committing crimes against law and justice is committing crimes against policing. The Indian police are yet to show its maturity of professional commitment in

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policing, which as a standard policing approach would be equally available to all the needy, irrespective of their status, wealth and position in the society. CRIMINAL TENDENCIES IN POLICE A serious subculture of the Indian police in Indian hands is committing crimes to prevent and detect crimes and breaking laws to catch law-breakers: indeed in the name of showing results. The misplaced stress on results sans a concern for organizational and national objects of law and justice in committing grave malfeasances only reflects a shallow intellectual commitment to policing by Indian police leaders and a bankruptcy of ingine to delve to the roots of policing problems. Third-degree methods in crime detection are the point. Even senior officers tacitly supporting inhuman crimes of the third-degree methods on suspects, who may turn out to be innocent at the end, is not uncommon. Crimes are crimes whether they are committed by the police or by the public. What right has the police to inflict sufferings on others albeit on suspicion? After all, it is not the agency to pass judgment on crimes. None placed the police ayont the scope of the Indian Penal Code. What justification can the police have to commit crimes to collect evidences of other crimes? The Indian Penal Code never conceived two sets of laws for the crimes committed by the police and others. Crimes committed by the police in the name of detecting other crimes are not less harmful to the well-being of society. The sadism and criminal tendencies of the police are not more justifiable than those of the general public. On the other hand, society has to be avizefull and deracinate criminal tendencies from the police, for, criminals from the police with the state plenipotence and laws behind it can be a real death-knell to the society. The difference between crimes for official and crimes for personal ends is wafer thin. Those who have tasted the blood of crime, takes to that more easily than others, because of their special accesses to the field and special privileges. A good police force requires an inveterate cause against crime and criminality. In absence of such a cause, the police may
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metamorphose into a demonic organisation that throws the country into a mux of atrophy. In an atmosphere of the maintenance of law and order in the hands of unprincipled police, queer things may take place. Long ago, a dacoity was reported in the house of a person of doubtful character at Betgeri in Dharwar district. People who had knowledge of the coup de fond opined that his illegitimate son committed the act after a serious quarrel, the preceding night. He had bad relations with and court cases pending against the illegitimate son. The investigation of the case by the local police also obsigned the matter. The person who had cultivated some standing in Betgeri thought it imperative after he settled

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his feuds with the illegitimate son, to have the case of dacoity substantiated as a professional offence to save his family name. Soon, he patched up relations with the young man, settled his court cases with him and arranged for the case to be charge sheeted, with an ex-convict of Stuartpuram being picked up and shown as accused. A mangalasutra recast from the gold recovered in some other case was shown as property seized from the criminal out of the property worth of about 300 gms of gold being reportedly snatched away. Arrest, recovery, detection and charge sheet followed after a decade of the reported commission of the dacoity. Such developments make criminal administration a mockery. What a serious breach of the public trust and what a serious crime is it by the police officials in consciously involving a person, albeit an ex-convict, in a crime in which they knew, he did not commit and fabricating evidence to a crime which never took place to help to settle the family affairs of a bad character? Such paradigms reflect to what levels of criminality the Indian police have sunk to. Percase, the weather is stormiest before the return to stillness. The boundless pravity of the police, perchance, is the sign of the advent of a new age of honest and committed policing in India. In another instance that dates back to 1981, a police official holding the charge of Koppal police subdivision in Karnataka picked up a poor goldsmith from a small town of a neighboring district for interrogation about receiving stolen properties. He subjected him to inhuman torture in a tourist bungalow of the same town for two nights to make the innocent goldsmith confess to an act that he did not do. The wife and children of the goldsmith, who spotted him in the tourist bungalow after endless running from pillar to post, were mercilessly scared away from the place even while they could hear his agonized shrieks. The goldsmith succumbed and died on the second night of torture. The Koppal official, who had worked as Circle Police Inspector in the town until a few months before, carried out this illicit, nefarious activity without the knowledge of the senior
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police officers of the town. The news of the lockup death, as such deaths are popularly known, broke out in local and other newspapers. The wife of the goldsmith filed a private complaint before the local court about the killing of her husband. The district Superintendent o Police and the Range Deputy Inspector General of Police, in whose good books the Koppal official was as the Circle Inspector of the small town, due to his liberal give-and-take approach, rose to the occasion to save their protege from any harm. They visited the town and entrusted the investigation of the case to a complaisant Deputy Superintendent of Police of a neighboring subdivision with perspicuous oral directions to finalize the case as not proved, before the magistrate who received

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the wife’s private complaint took cognizance of the plaint. The officious Deputy Superintendent of Police duly complied with the directions and sent his investigation report to the court for action u/s 2l0 of the Cr.P.C. Thus ended the case of cold-blooded torture and culpable homicide of an innocent goldsmith. The person who committed the crime stealthily in a place outside his jurisdiction now lives a retired life, unaffected by the crime in anyway and the two officers who saved him from the wheel of justice are continuing in service at higher ranks. It is such success stories of cruelty and criminality that make the police appear like a criminal demon. What right has the police to investigate and prosecute criminals while it protects killer criminals from its own field to the disservice of law and justice? In another incident, a police official who got posted as police chief of a state of India in 1986 on the support of his community, wanted to favour a fingerprint Sub-Inspector, who had been under suspension for a long time after being arrested in a criminal case involving community interests, en revanche to the support of his community for his elevation as police chief, by releasing the latter from suspension even while the criminal case was at the trial stage in court. He summoned the Superintendent of Police in charge of the Sub-Inspector and examined the file about the suspension after assuming the charge as police chief. The Superintendent of Police, who was a greenhorn in such matters, failed to understand that the action was an indication that he was to release the Sub- Inspector from the suspension coute que coute. Even if he understood the tacit meaning of the act, he could not act selon les regles for two reasons; a) that the Sub- Inspector was suspended by an officer of the rank of Deputy Inspector General of Police and ipso facto no officer below that rank was empowered to release the official from the suspension as per civil service rules, and b) that as the official was under suspension for being arrested in a criminal case and the case was then pending trial in court of law, release from suspension was not en regle. After a fortnight, the police
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chief secured the fingerprint Sub-Inspector’s release from suspension. However, he nourished esoteric spite for the young Superintendent of Police for not understanding what he wanted him to do; he manipulated the records and ensured that the latter lost his selection for the Indian Police Service during the selection committee meeting, held after three years. The career of the bright officer is in shambles now. Such cases of avenging the non-cooperation in criminal activities of those at higher ranks are common in the Indian police these days. This egregious trend adversely affects the policing outfit by weakening its cause for fairness, law and justice.

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How subordinates are brought to requisite shapes is a different story tout ensemble. A young sub divisional police officer in a small town that was known for speculative business activities, conducted a raid on a library, run by a powerful local community as a common gambling house where prominent people of the town were patrons. He apprehended more than fifty prominent people including the richest businessmen, senior government officials and local politicians with huge stake monies. Though the library had been a blue-chip gambling den for many years, none dared to raid it in spite of repeated public petitions. As law requires that the place must first be proved as a common gambling house, the sub divisional police officer entered the names of all those who were gambling at the place on the Station House Diary of the town police station and let them out with written warning that cases would be booked if they continued to gamble there. The officer learnt too late that the Superintendent of Police of the district and the Deputy Inspector General of the range patronized the gambling den and the men whose names were brought on the police Station records were their friends. He was transferred out to a sinecure post tout de suite of the incident, with his annual confidential report stating that the public might revolt against the officer if he had continued in the police department. The library continues to be a gambling den even now. The Deputy Inspector General of Police at the place of the new posting of the officer at in 1982 wanted the maledict young Deputy Superintendent of Police to marry a girl from his circle. The parents of the young officer fearing chantage got their son married in hurry to a girl of their choice. This antagonized the Deputy Inspector General. His next annual confidential report showed the junior as a liability to the police department. He also prevailed year after year upon other officers who wrote confidential reports of the officer to incorpse adverse remarks. Most of them obliged and this bright junior officer ended up with a series of unsubstantiated adverse
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remarks in his annual confidential reports. All his appeals were never allowed to reach the government. These garish paradigms are just a croquis of the criminal clinamen of the people in today’s Indian police. In no way are they more committed to law and justice than the criminal elements of the society. Do not the police need people in its fold with deeper passion for law and justice? Is it by design or accident that independent India raised a criminal outfit to catch criminals? It is in the interest of the Indian police to accept the reality in its naked form so as to inspire remedial measures.

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POLICING BY FALSE PUBLICITY Sadly, the police of independent India learnt to rely on poor public memory to obliterate its poor performance. Incompetent and directionless reporting by the Indian media helps them in this image-salvaging task. It is a fashion in police circles to issue press notes about detection of major dacoity cases after small-time thieves are apprehended. Only if somebody from the press or public pursues the information of the press-notes, will they come to know that no dacoity case has been really detected and that the loud claims of successful policing are only meant to hoodwink the public, press and political masters. It is interesting to note that most claims of detection of dacoity cases coincide with legislative assembly sessions. This is true at least in Bangalore City where during 1989-91, such press notes abundantly appeared in newspapers during legislative assembly sessions. Of late, the public has learnt to take such claims cum grain sails and consequently the credibility of the police is waning in its eyes. The tough nononsense image of the Indian police of the British vintage has given way to a nonsensical, comical image in free India. What better thing can come from hoc genus omne hype? UNITARY POLICE ADMINISTRATION In the current system of policing in India, police stations and district police units form basic units of the administration. Some of the functions discharged at these levels have concurrent jurisdiction with some special units at state and national levels. Crime investigation in special circumstances can be taken over from the district police administration by the state CID or the CBI at the national level. So, it is with the intelligence collection, security operations, the raising of armed police forces, maintenance of crime records etc. The police in the states are devised as an independent unit. In a vast country like India, policing being shared between scores of independent units with no perspicaciously defined mechanism of cooperation, the problem occurs of coordination and unity of purpose in tackling challenges that cover more then one of these units. There are too many challenges such as these in the
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increasingly complex society of India. Except for the sense of national unity, there is nothing common among these units to approach the gauntlets with a common cause. Even the common Indian Police Service is unable to bring about a unity of purpose to policing throughout India. This gives an impression of fragmentation in the Indian police. A fragmented police cannot turn out work in full stream, owing to the waste by leakage in the process of coordination between the fragmented pans. India must consider devising a pollent unitary police administration at the centre with full control over subordinate state and union territory police setups. This would

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avoid coordination problems and help policing to be more purposeful in tackling challenges from the national perspective. It also makes available larger resources from the national level for policing apart from strengthening the sense of belonging to one police. This is necessary in the interests of the country and it’s policing in the future. STUDY AND RESEARCH IN POLICING Policing is a field of specialized study. There is the need of in-depth study of policing as a discipline, apart from research to improve policing functions. Police administration is a distinct field with sui generis characteristics. The police organisation with its hierarchical order, stiff discipline, nonesuch policing characteristics, unique operational difficulties and functional modalities poses its own challenges. These challenges must be met and superated more suo. This requires the development of the subjects of police and policing as a distinct field of intense study and research. Whatever was done in this field till now has not sufficed and has contributed nothing to policing methods and style. Myriad problems in the field of practical policing stare planners on the face, be these problems of operational strategies, timing of the operations, procedural hurdles, organizational planning, control techniques, information and feedback systems, communication networks, effective supervision, leadership qualities, work distribution, work measurement, job analysis or human relationships. Useful study on and research into these subjects would make a momentous impact on the style and effectiveness of policing in India. Such studies and research impart respectability to police and policing by creating an intellectual dimension. The academic interests work as stepping-stones in remodeling the police organisation and redefining policing functions to create an effective police force. MEASUREMENT OF POLICING A major handicap in police administration is the difficulty posed in measurement of policing. No tangible tool to measure police performance has as yet been
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devised. The problem is peculiar to the fields of crime control and security operations. The object of the organisation is preventing crimes fro being committed and success of the policing can be measured only in relation to the extent of the efforts being made to commit crimes, which are prevented. As the factors of such an effort being unknown after the crimes are prevented, effectiveness of the policing can never be measured. The results that meet the eye, namely the successful protection of a sensitive target or the complete crime prevention during a particular period can be the outcome for two different reasons: either that none have attempted such malicho, in which case even the least effective police could also have produced the same results or that an all-out

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major attempt to commit crime has been prevented, which could not have been achieved by anything less than the first-rate policing. Here, the same results meet the eye for two different dimensions of the policing, ipso facto rendering outcome a factor not related to the quality of the policing. Measurement of the quality of crime investigation and maintenance of order are also equally complex for different reasons. Policing in these fields largely depends upon intangible factors like luck, surroundings and the willing cooperation of the public. To superate these problems of measurement of policing qualities, a police organisation depends upon comparing developments in the same periods in preceding years. This is an unscientific method and gives unsatisfactory results for various reasons. The crime rate or other policing challenges do not remain static over time. These depend upon population, complexity of the society, economic conditions, moral values, quality of leadership, political conditions, prices, climate etc, none of which develop from any predictable formula. The police perforce needs a tool to measure policing quality as a control device. Until such a device is invented, police administrators have to rely upon their subjective fancies to measure and control policing and assess the work of their subordinates. Until a scientific device is formulated, the heartburns and frustrations caused by erratic measurement of work and policing qualities, wherein a few mealy-mouthed smarties always comer accolades at the cost of efficient silent workers, will continue to precipitate. A sufficiently efficient tool to measure policing qualities is the first priority in the task of creating a new shape for the Indian police. The success achieved in this field will decide the degree to which the Indian police can shed its old shoddy image. MANAGEMENT IN POLICING For police administrators, knowledge of modern management principles makes policing and police operations cheaper, effective and less demanding in terms of time, place, manpower, equipments and other resources. The clinamen to study and plan operations in terms of
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layout charts, time flow, span of control, methods of programming of operations, motivational aspects, human relationships, information flow, control methods, work analysis and contingencies for emergencies must be ingenerate in policing whether it pertain to raids, maintenance of order, crime control, crime investigation, intelligence collection, security exercises or even quotidian police administration. Only the pernickety exercise of management techniques will make police administration meaningful, purposeful and useful in giving policing a direction and content. The police cannot afford to sit back while others reap the behoofs of the latest tidings in the field of management techniques.

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HOUSING AND OTHER FACILITIES Policing is a risky profession that draws antagonism and hatred by its very nature. It involves round-the-clock duties, often at odd hours, at odd places in odd circumstances. Retaliation by criminals is a constant risk under which policemen live. Their work constantly exposes them to danger. The very nature of their duties necessitates their being treated on a different footing to others in the government. The security of housing and other facilities being generously available to them is de rigueur. Indeed the spirit of the ancien regime remains undisturbed in matters of housing facilities for the police. However, a much more liberal attitude in providing housing and other facilities to the police is necessary to strengthen the Indian police and make policing more effective. REORGANISATION OF POLICE The last three decades saw a tremendous expansion in the Indian police. For lack of an organizational plan and the foresight to assess the future demands of policing, an erratic growth has resulted. Organizational sensibilities like workload, unity of control, accountability, functional conveniences, span of control, and information flow are never given the attention they need in building an organisation. As a result, while a few posts in the police organisation are overburdened with work, there are many which sinecures without work or accountability are. The lopsided growth of the organisation generated acute likes and dislikes for various police jobs. This made postings in the police department, a matter of haute politique and high business. Naturally, probity and objectivity are sacrificed to give precedence to survival and protection of career interests. Corruption flourished. This may not be the sole reason for the glissade of the standards of policing. Yet, it is a major cause. Rationalization of the police structure to bring a balance among various posts at the same rank would certainly help to ameliorate the situation considerably. It would also help to eliminate the wastage of government funds on unnecessary posts. The justification for the creation of such de trop posts, that they fill slots to
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post unwanted elements, does not hold ground in a nononsense and serious department like the police. A systematic growth plan for balanced expansion is sine qua non if the police department is to be of any relevance to the difficile tasks ahead. PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE Policing is a field where professional knowledge is perforce in use. What is at issue is not only the knowledge of law and procedures but also a deeper insight into their applications, necessary in diverse circumstances. A mind, alert to its surroundings with an inexhaustible curiosity to know what is afoot and what is the coup de fond of each development and its likely impacts on policing in general

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and the work at hand in particular, is sine qua non for perficient policing. This need entails special efforts to update professional and general knowledge at all levels. Though there are training programmes, including in-service training, in the Indian police, these are lacking in substance and quality. They fail to impart the right knowledge to trainees and induce attitudinal changes in them. The poor mental makeup is a common failing at all police ranks in India. A lack of commitment to work, either in actual performance or in supervision is the primary cause of this failing. A healthy police setup must possess sound professional and general knowledge at all levels, from the constabulary to the ranks of the Director General: this is the number one priority. TRAINING IN MARTIAL ART The Indian police are not paying sufficient attention to the need for physical prowess, sturdiness and skill in martial art. The need for attention to these factors during recruitment, basic training and in-service challenges is tout a fait ignored. A healthy and sturdy police requires healthy and sturdy men and officers, capable of taking up gauntlets and defending themselves when exposed to comminations. The need can be sidelined only at the risk of weakening the organisation. The police are often required to defend themselves in circumstances when unarmed and undefended. Policing involves performance of tough and physically trying jobs that can only be performed when policemen and police officers are physically and mentally fit. The police, aspiring to a bright future, must attend to this need for its own good health with genuine seriousness. POLICING THROUGH PEOPLE The performance of the Indian police in utilizing the services of the public is far from desirable. Most parts of the country are yet to avail of the services o the people as special police officers, as is provided by police regulations to assist in policing. Wherever the services are availed, the potential is not made use of to the full. The system of village police officers also is yet to fledge to take off. The
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use of people as traffic wardens to assist traffic police is limited to major cities of India. No police can be tout a fait self-contained. Involving the public and obtaining its cooperation in policing is a necessary art that needs to be carefully cultivated for making policing a success story in India. There is no shortage of people in the public who would volunteer their services. Only, the police must open its doors to such services and organize a system to make such services really effective and useful. LACK OF PLANNING IN MODERNISATION It is indubitable that neoteric communication, transport, weaponry, office and other scientific systems arc musts for a feracious turnout of work in the

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police. Only modernization can equip the police for perficient action. The fact is well realized in police circles sans an insight as to the what, where, how and whys. The passion for modernization is not met with intellectual analysis of the needs for modernization. The result is a spasmodic modernization without the logical support to sustain modernization systems. This has resulted in enormous, wasteful expenditures on mal a propos gadgetry. India is yet to develop to machinery to assess the needs of modernization in the police and to devise techniques to speed up the process. India is yet to make full use of advanced computer facilities for the policing work; computerization of fingerprints is yet to reach a satisfactory phase. Use of helicopters for policing is as yet a distant dream in India. Distant hearing and night watching devices are similarly unknown. RESPONSE TIME The response time of Indian police to a crisis call is unduly long when compared to international standards. Efforts to shorten it in Delhi and a few other places where terrorist strikes made shocking impacts brought some improvements. These are only exceptions. Otherwise, no serious thought is given to the need for quick response time. The modernization programmes that should pave the path for improving the response time, seldom attend to this salient need. The Bangalore city police spent liberally in 1991 on modem communication gadgets; but it did not better its response time even by the fraction of a second. Instances of such wasteful expenditure on modernization are available in other parts of the country also. NEED OF SOUND HUMAN RELATIONSHIP The current state of human relationships in Indian police does not bring credit to the organisation. Relationships are brittle and mechanical without the edge of human feelings. The relationship between different ranks turns out to be soft or hard depending upon the contractual relationship established for mutual advantage from time to time: it is rather a donor and recipient relationship while soft and
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master and servant relationship while hard. There is no genuine human concern and no sense of recognition of the other man as another human being with more suo approach. The other’s human qualities, sui generis attributes and rare gifts are balked as inconsequential trash. Rank differences superate other factors in molding the brittle pattern of these relationships. This is equally true among officers of the same rank. The model of bad human relationship within the police bred an atmosphere of mutual suspicion in spite of an outward show of belonging to the single family that the police are.

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Indian police leaders must think hard to decide whether the current model of human relationship in the police is conducive to healthy policing or not. A sound police organisation sprouts only on the terra firma of sound human relationships between and within ranks, founded on genuine concern, mutual respect, recognition, sympathy and understanding. Such relationship does not perforce go against the police discipline and official commandobedience functions. A sense of belonging and unity of purpose are spawned in the mind not in a stiff hierarchical order. The hierarchical order only defines the relationship that is created in the minds of the people. Good relationship strengthens the hierarchical order by making the order willingly acceptable to all and thus lubricating its working. A subtle mental bond that links all men in an organisation is its greatest asset. A sense of recognition from others and the pride of belonging create a happy atmosphere in the organisation and improve efficiency and output by bringing-in the elements of cooperation and unity of purpose. Sadly, this is just the reverse in the maledict Indian police. Here, human relationships are vitiated. Mutual suspicion and antagonism are the rule. Men at higher ranks revel in hurling the pride of subordinates while subordinates in turn wait for the right time to wreak of revenge. In this atmosphere of antagonism and under cuttings, the organisation and its objects suffer, its entire people suffer and the country suffers. This is where India stands at present. WARMING-UP OF POLICE RECRUITS The period of initiation is the most important and impressionable period in the career-life of fresh recruits to the police department. The process of warming-up is based on the psychological needs of human nature. New entrants must be handled with utmost care to give them confidence and a feeling of belonging at the incipient stage itself. A sense of confidence and belonging to the organisation and an ingenerate love and respect for the higher-ups are the substruction on which discipline grows. Efforts to inculcate discipline in a void are like waiting for
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rain from the autumn sky. Indian police impresarios failed to understand such finer nuances of administration when they copied the system of the British Indian police. And so we now have a police system where discipline is insisted on subordinates sans the conditions requisite for the discipline. The recruits, who enter the fold with open sensibilities and high expectations, anon wither after braving for a while the brusque and insensitive conduct of their higher ranks. These recruits continue thereafter to be constant enemies of the higher ranks and the department for which they must continue to work for the next three to four decades. A police department constituted of such members, thanks to the shabby approach of the insensitive higher ranks in this most

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impressionable period of the former’s career-life, cannot turn out eximious work. It is a tragedy that India neither spawned a police force of its own superior values nor copied the police force of the British vintage in its entirety with its finer points, but cultivated instead a burlesque of the rough and mediocre aspects of both. RECOGNITION AS A MOTIVATING TOOL The success of a police organisation depends upon to what extent it creates a sense of pride and dignity in its members including the constabulary, so that they realize and recognize themselves as useful and responsible members of the police outfit and endeavor to live up to the image. The goal can be achieved by proper modulation of perks, reward-and-punishment policy and rank-to-rank relationship. The approach must create an impression that whatever a police official gets as perks, rewards, praise, good treatment, respect, censure or punishment, has been earned by his swink and potential. This makes the proceedings a part of his service and seity and thus helps him to identify with his work and conduct and ultimately with the organisation. This brings him a sort of recognition and makes him more responsible to his work and organisation. This is a far cry from the simulacrum of what is actually happening in Indian police. Recognition of good work as a rule is shied away from. Every behoof is bestowed as a personal favour. Even a reward en regle in recognition of eximious work is made to look like a favour. Meritorious and distinguished medals too are divested of their distinction by being linked to seniority and not actual merit. This is the reason why these medals carry no meaning within the police organisation. REMODELLING THE USE OF WELFARE FUNDS Police forces administer welfare funds for the benefit of their members. The current approach of disbursing money from these funds to needy applicants needs to be revised in line with the need to arouse a sense of pride and dignity even in receiving help from the establishment. Much thought has to go into this aspect to make the welfare funds useful to them without giving the impression of
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charity. If the funds go to them as their rightful share, they would be put to better use than as a charitable contribution. A newly structured police for the new age certainly requires a fresh approach to the utilization of police welfare funds. NEEDS FOR RIGHT PEOPLE AT THE TOP A job culture involutes of basic beliefs and objects of the organisation, professional ethics and degree of commitment to the aspirations of the organisation, as laid down by precedence and practice. To what results precedence and practice mould the job culture decide the success or otherwise

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of the organisation. The decisions and conduct of those at the helm as the point d’appui of police circles substruct the lifelines of the organisation. It is important that only right people reach the top. A headless organisation is better than one headed by a degenerate weakling. This is why the policy of selection and promotion at high levels plays a vital role in the growth of the organisation. In a democratic age of self-seeking, short-term political leadership, where sycophancy is the sole criterion for ascending the career ladder, the policy of selection and promotion is misdight at best and motivatedly in the reverse gear at worst, to the detriment of the growth and functioning of the organisation. All those committed to the cause of police and effective policing must break the trend and endeavor to provide a fresh lease of life for effective policing. BAD MODELS AT HIGH LEVELS There are myriad instances of unhealthy practices at the highest levels on the current Indian police scene. A scoundrel who retired as the police chief of a southern state of India was taken to court with his polio-struck wife on the eve of his retirement from service in 1990 by a prominent social worker for defrauding the public and a spastic society by defalcation of huge amounts of money collected by sale of charity entertainment tickets in the name of a spastic society. It is a different story that the alleged escroc succeeded in silencing the social worker through police pressure and ensured that the case fell through for lack of evidence. The point is to what sad levels men reaching high ranks in this maledict independent India can stoop to make a few dirty bucks. Fortunately, the nithing, in spite of dance afore men who count in politics, could not get an extension of service ayont his superannuation in 1990. Such instances of mauvaise sujet at high ranks abound in Indian police scene. Discipline is a potential uniting force of the police organisation. It defines all parameters of the force and makes its hierarchical order meaningful and purposeful, the command-obedience relationship sharp-edged and
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functional conduct pernickety. This pollent instrument devised as an esemplastic factor for the police force during the British era has now become a demonic evil in the Indian situation and gorges its vitality. It is used as a cover by the people in higher ranks to indulge in wrongdoing and to silence the conscientious few in the lower ranks from protesting. It is also a gleg cover to promote the interests of juniors who support their evil deeds by sycophancy and personal loyalty; and to suppress those juniors of inner strength, individual pride, independent mind and argute conscience. A subtle hatred for superior qualities of the subordinates is patent in the Indian police force of the post-independent vintage. The juniors who are perspicaciously inferior in intellectual qualities and other superior attributes are

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valued and helped to superate others on the career ladder. Perchance, an innate inferiority complex in police leadership and a consectaneous fear of weaknesses being excoriated before those lower in their ranks bother them au fond. Another farce carried out behind the facade of discipline is that of an officer forcing a subordinate to meet personal ends ranging from getting a regular supply of vegetables to even forcing to marry his daughter or wife’s sister. Here, police ranks display exceptional unity of purpose in helping a colleague to corner the subordinate who shows the hardihood to go against his senior’s desire. In the process, foursquare youngsters in the organisation drop out or are cornered and those impair to higher tasks scale the ladder of the organisation, thus weakening the organisation ab intra. There are myraid paradigms of such fearless officers who acted upon their consciences and lost their seniority through catenated false annual reports. PUBLIC IMAGE OF POLICE What the Indian police inspire in the public is fear and hatred, not trust, respect and love. This is the greatest single failing of the Indian police. A police force thus feared and hated is irrelevant in a democracy. The argument that fears is a necessary constituent in policing is not based on the right understanding of human psychology and the basic tenets of policing work. The police do stand on a different footing from the general public while exercising policing powers. The different footing perforce is based on trust, respect, love and consectaneous healthy awe, not on fear and hatred. The image incorpsed with healthy awe is more lasting and pollent than that based on hateful fear. While the former inspires genuine cooperation and willing subjection to police authority, the latter only forces such subjection till the fear lasts. An argument advanced in favour of fear in policing is that the strains of fear are deep in the very nature of policing. This again is based on a mendacious notion, about policing and belike on the preposterous practices of the present police outfit. The police are not synonymous with fear. A smiling and helpful police is the model of democratic
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policing. The police are not the enemy of the people, especially in a democracy. Policing involves enforcement of order for the good of many, which may sometimes involve inconvenience to a perverted few. The job if performed rightly must win trust, love and respect of the hoi polloi for the police. Only the misuse of power and a supercilious approach to the exercise of the powers would antagonize the plebeian and earn his implacable haired. The exercise of police powers with absolute humility is quite possible. An approach of service to the general public renders the exercise of police powers, a sensible and

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circumspect task and avoids harshness. The performance inspires trust, love and respect and not fear and hatred. Only if people learn that police really care for their wellbeing, percase, no other government agency would be as loved and respected as the police. Only the police should show its good intentions and convince the public about its trustworthiness. Nothing the Indian police do now helps to create this image. It is high time that serious efforts are made in this direction. What is basically required for the Indian police is a tough, mature and no- nonsense image in place of the present fear. The police organisation must create an impression of strength of character and infrangible probity. Only from this height, can the police discharge its sacred duties of protecting and maintaining order in national life. This is now a far cry from the invious misdight of the Indian police. The leap from the current glidder field to what should be is not an impossible feat. Each step ahead must be carefully laid to make steady, albeit slow progress towards the difficile goal. It is an attempt worth making. It is an opuscule worth doing. NEED OF SOUND MIND AT HIGHER LEVELS A factor that seriously affects the morale of a disciplined force like the police is that of men affected by psychological disorders of inferiority complex, holding posts from where they can affect the career of the subordinates. This is a very serious situation where distorted minds hold reigns of the career of thousands of subordinates with many at very senior levels. The mental disorder brings a psychological imbalance by which the people in high ranks learn to interpret subordinates’ normal conduct perversely as surquedry; normal reporting or explanation appears like an intrigue. The extra modum fear of insecurity, inspired by the feeling of inferiority is so pollent that it does not permit cunctation in striking back at the source of the commination with all strength at disposal. This makes retaliation an everpensile threat to the career of the subordinates. And the threat, sine prole, is true in the police. This makes people of
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sound mind, a must in responsible positions. For an organisation like the police, the need of a sound mind is more basic than any other faculty. The inferiority complex seriously manifests when the pusillanimous person troubled with the disorder is newly posted to a responsible position after marcescere in a sinecure post for a long time. The metabasis from the void to the strains and straints of responsibilities breaches his inner confidence and the disorder of nettlesome suspicion on everything around raises its ugly head. There is any number of such examples in the Indian police.

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SALVAGING OPERATION Clearing the cobwebs from the entrails of the Indian police can salvage the situation. There is a catena of selfmotivated officers in key positions in the police who unknowingly brought about the degringolade of the Indian police in the post- democratic era. They corrupted the police atmosphere, set wrong precedences, encouraged self-indulgence, pulled down its no-nonsense tough image and reduced it to its present cadaverous existence. These elements should be sidelined to absorb men of probity to refurbish and rebuild the police setup. Only really capable impresarios can pull the Indian police out from its present fix. The future of India as a country depends upon the strengths and weaknesses of its police. Defence forces are relevant to the existence of India insomuch as defending its borders and protecting the system of government. But the relevance of the police is more meaningful, for, here, the very existence of India as a nation is an issue. The significance of the police in the survival of the nation is often forgotten somewhere between the width of the civil administration and the depth of the defence forces. A highly competent and disciplined police force, percase, is the greatest asset of any country. Every patriotic Indian must aspire to that. The police must be powerful. En attendant, it must be a disciplined and committed force, a no-nonsense, tough outfit. It saves the country from all disasters; it supports the administration in civil rule and works as its watchdog. It works as a subsidiary force in support of the military during war. If need be, it can run the administration when civil rule breaks down and function as an armed force when the military fails the country. The importance of this great tool of governance is yet to be duly recognized. It is high time that it is done now and. the Indian police is exemed from its nauseating subculture and gets a fresh life of vitality and strength. It is really heartrending to see the swinging police in its present mauvais ton, especially for an insider who is a part of this great institution, entrusted with the high objects of
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protecting public life. Yes, something should be done to save the police. The question is who should begin the process, and where, when and how? Who will bell the demonic cat to bring it to its senses?

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HUMANISING THE POLICE
I have made a ceaseless effort Not to ridicule, not to bewail, Not to scorn human actions, But to understand them. These words of Spinoza give expression to the subjacent current of human responses that constitute humanism that as the common denominator of all natural human activities breeds an environment of facile fusion of hearts and minds wherein sprout further causes for human evolution as manifested in diverse fields of human activities including policing. Humanism involves a sense of belonging to mankind with all its qualities and limitations that breeds an intense urge to respond to the joys and sufferings of other beings. The chief attributes of humanism are a sixth sense that accommodates and cooperates in the common interests of mankind and an uncanny power to perceive the self as an indivisible part of the larger scheme of the universe in the pattern of Atma imbibed in Paramatma. It is a concept that instills kindness and tenderness in an individual, elegance and classicism in a culture, softness and civility in a civilization and concern and participation in a society. It is a transpicious crucible wherein the negative discharges of evolution crumble to be transformed into efficient propellants of natural evolution. Humanism is an eerie solvent that causes depravity and selfishness to effloresce as the beatitude of kindness and tenderness. It ennobles a caractere with a sense of levity and concinnity, substructed in its environment and
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leaves an organisation in excelsis of its potentials. Humanism renders the organisation germane to human activities either as a service-oriented unit or as an establishment of human interplay by rendering it sensitive to the joys and sufferings of human beings and thereby making it responsive to their needs and efforts. William Wordsworth in “Lines Composed A Few Miles Above Titem Abbey” beautifully brings out the salubrious, mellowing effects of humanism. The still, sad music of humanity, Nor harsh nor grating, though of ample power To chasten and subdue. And I have felt

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A presence that disturbs me, with the joy Of elevated thoughts; a sense sublime Of something far more deeply interfused, Whose dwelling is the light of setting suns. Though policing is a human service au fond, its methods are strikingly inhuman in India due to poor leadership and a failure of our planners to tread pari passu with the amble in the clime of man management and policing techniques. The tragedy of the Indian police is that its means and ends do not amate. The querimony that the feral methods of the Indian police are more contemptible and anti-social than the criminal acts they are supposed to control cannot be dismissed glibly as inaccurate in prevailing circumstances. Our police system has grown of late to be a monster deprived of all strains of humanism by its perennial exposure to the inhuman methods of both the criminals and policing. It is true that association moulds character. The tenor of immane policing methods inextricably obfuscates and dislimns the strains of humanism in rerum natura. The issue can be dealt on two fronts; adopting the latest developments in police techniques to make it a more civilized operation and shaping the police environment to make it less sensitized to inhuman exposures. As the police leaders themselves are victims of this infaust mould of mind, tremendous organizational efforts may be necessary to refract the fallouts and reinstate humanism in the police. Should the police conform to standards of humane comportment and methods, policing would become a meaningful and relevant service to society. The test of the Police as a humanized organisation is its acceptance by the society as couthie associate, so that no child is scared of hearing the name of a policeman and no agrestic folks take to their heels at the mere sight of one. It is a wonder how people manage to accept the police-whom they perceive as an embodiment of bestiality, incivility and inanity-as guardians of their life, honour and property. The Indian police have cohabited long enough with its
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disrepute. A decision anon t furbish its image as a humanized setup though late, will not be intempestive as policing is as yet far from having its relevance to society luxated though its inhuman methods are fast eating up its credibility. Its leaders cannot afford any more the exuberance of complacency if the police must stand up to its expectations as the peace-keeper of society and assert to resile to its deeper human strains. The process of showing the police its roots that are obfuscated by the strokes of time and its own working methods must begin anon. The wherewithal of affecting the transformation is varied and covers such disparate avenues as recruitment, training, environment, exposures, man management,

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policing methods, uniforms, organisation, criminal laws, living and working conditions, work pressure, image, public relation techniques etc. A police leader should effectively cover all these aspects in his plan should he wish to see his police humanized. POLICE RECRUITMENT The human aspect is the fulcrum of policing. Policing is primarily latitant human interaction in the perennial luctation to safeguard the security and rights of the common man and the human quality in the force determines effectiveness and vitality of the performance. Human resources policy as a device of selecting human stuffs needs careful handling at the highest level to attract right people to the fold. The present Indian environment of ruthless concours, impeached with a degringolade of values has made human resources management a farce. The wherewithals of human resources management like recruitment, promotions, transfers, rewards, punishments, etc. are no more employed for maximum benefit of the organisation. Self-interests have undermined quality and character and organizational interests are subordinated to personal behoofs. Though this proclivity is prevalent in all fields in India, its adverse effects are kenspeckle in the police organisation as the line-system of the organisation makes the ingenuity of the human resources management a factor having direct and immediate bearing on the efforts of humanizing the police. An earnest effort from the highest level to infuse the creme de la creme, characterized by genuine human stuff, probity and commitment may be the foremost need of the police. The prevalence of police administration over general administration in the survival of a nation as a democratic and orderly country may necessitate changes in recruitment policy. This is to ensure that only those with a deep natural humane disposition step in to the police so that the arrogance and savagery, bred by its environment can do little harm and the tenue of humanism will continue alongside policing work.
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PROPER TRAINING The chief cause of the police seldom being humane in India is its ineffective training facilities. In spite of adequate infrastructures available for police training in India, these centers largely fail to offer quality to the training to humanize a recruit adequately to stand up to the challenges of the temulence of the arrogant and feral environment that policing breeds. An overhaul of the extant training facilities in terms of quality, content and character in favour of humanized policing practices is inevitable to keep the police excubant against the depravity of the modem society. The psychology faculty of the centre should endeavor to

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build character and strengthen human fibers. The training centers should lay emphasis on an attitudinal change in the recruits and develop the skills of humanized policing. The training centers should give the impression of being temples, dedicated to humanizing the police apart from actually being so. EXPOSURE TO ARTISTIC ACTIVITIES C. Kluckhohm and H. A. Murray said, “Personality is the totality of a man’s knowledge, motives, values, beliefs, goal-seeking patterns and psychological makeup of an individual and include environmental and hereditary factors.” The substratum of individuality is molded of complex building blocks derived ab extra and ab intra to the persona. The same view is supported by Argyris when he says, “Behaviour occurs as an interaction between organism and environment” in the simulacrum of Prakrithi devolving on Purusha to create the Universe. The environmental aspect as a wherewithal, open to police leaders, calls for designs that can humanize the police. The environment, gravid with human comportances like tenderness, elegance, civility and concern, impinges upon its subjects to make them conform to its influences. A police leader can humanize his force by exposing it to those influences. The strenuous nature of policing hardens the police in spirit and mind. A measure of creative activities like literary interactions, exposure to poetry and fine arts, musical performances etc besprent in the precious spare-time between policing hours intenerates the man behind the police facade and resiles him to his natural human tendencies. Artistic activities counter pose the damage done to the man by the role-play of policing and open him up to the halcyon clime of an ideal and imaginary world, far removed from the hard and brusque realities of police life and make his life tanto uberior. EXPOSURE TO SOCIAL SERVICE ACTIVITIES The exposure of the police to social service activities is the celestial surgeon who enraces human mellowness and dignity to the police. Interaction with people from the
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plane of oblation sinks the policeman from his inflated self to the roots of his genuine feelings and concerns and conditions him to respond to the vicissitudes of the environment. It opens up a new vista of feelings and experiences that make life richer and meaningful au reste sensitization of the self. The social service activities, as a form of servitude to mankind and a voluntary involvement with the people, absterge the temulence of power and abraid latitant human tendencies in the policeman to bring to the surface his pristine self. It is left to the police leaders to include opulent social service schemes in their human resources development programmes if their force is to be genuinely humanized.

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BETTER TREATMENT OF SUBORDINATES Rogers in “On Becoming A Person” says, “The more fully the individual is understood and accepted, the more he tends to drop the false fronts with which he has been meeting life, and the more he tends to move in a direction which is forward.” An atmosphere of respect, dignity and fairness resiles his self to its pristine charm of innocence and couthie disposition. Au contraire, the strains of humiliation, contempt and scorn drive him to catharize his frustrations and indignities on both those lower in the hierarchy and the members of the public who come to his doors au desespoir for redressal at the cutting-edge level of the policing. The spite and the feral indignities he inflicts on those at his mercy would be pro rata to those he is subjected to by his leaders. A policeman shabbily instated in his organisation develops a poor self-image. Solley and Murphy analyze this when they say “He perceives, responds, acts and communicates in terms of his complex self-image by trying to be consistent with it; too negative a self-image leads to adjustment mechanisms.” A policeman, proud of his self and work is created by respect to his individual dignity that develops a confidence about humane strains subjacent in his person and dares him to betray the human responses that are so natural to his entrails and make the Police environment in the country besprent with the milk of human attributes like kindness, tenderness, elegance and civility. EXEMPLARY PUNISHMENTS FOR INHUMAN ACTS Motivation and deterrence are opposite facets of the same coin that pays for attitudinal change. Deterrence, although an extra force to the system, is an effective wherewithal in materializing mobility in an intended direction as an addendum to disparate motivation factors. Efforts to humanize the police call for the apposite employment of deterrence to inhumane acts by way of exemplary punishments. The prevalence of means over the ends should be made the cardinal principle of policing. The ends, however
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eximious they be, should not find recognition b the police if the means adopted are mean and deplorable. All inhuman acts by the police should be met with heavy punishments and an atmosphere of social ostracisation of such elements should be created in the force. The realization that the police are ordinary people and no criminal act committed in discharge of official duties would extricate them from the ensuing liability should be made crystal clear. An ingenerate sense of regard for people, oblivious to their locus standi in the social ladder, can be generated in the police by installing a mortal fear of inhuman acts through exemplary punishments.

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ELIMINATION OF VIOLENT METHODS FROM POLICING The fact that policing is a human service au fond does not justify adoption of feral methods in policing. Adoption of violence and savagery by the police gives legitimacy to such methods in the public eye and thus weakens the orderly fabric of society. Violent methods like employment of third degree in interrogation to obtain quick results, in preference to the tedium of swink’t investigation, weaken the image of the police, already weighed under by pressures of work. Adoption of scientific methods in policing helps in humanizing the police. It saves the police from the antilogy of committing criminal acts to meet the ends of justice. Al efforts at humanizing the police prove infructuous until the police continue to be at the mercy of violent methods for results. A genuine effort at humanizing the police should begin with the adoption of modem policing techniques and scientific methods to instill sophistication and accuracy in policing. Old habits die hard. Vigorous efforts to mundify old nasty habits should find priority as a substruction on which the edifice of efforts of humanizing the police should be built. ELIMINATION OF CONSTABULARY The constabulary that forms the backbone and cuttingedge of the Indian policing and which wields a real authority over the populace is a lowly paid, modestly educated and non-elite mass of uniformed workers. The authority they wield makes them fearsome while their low status in society prevents them from commanding empathy, respect and legitimacy. Authority sans empathy, respect and legitimacy decidedly proves to be a deadly substructure that breaks the conduit between the organisation and the public and renders the organisation dyspathetic to the aspirations of the humanity at large. The constabulary with its intramural enlightenment and responsibility finds the intricacies of civil and comme il faut comportance rather peregrine to its taste.
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In the circumstances, the rank of sub-inspector with its present level of minimum education and status in society should form the cutting-edge level with no policing powers and responsibilities devolved beneath that level. The conduct at the cutting-edge of the police decides its image because of its perennial interaction with the general public. Sub-inspectors as the cutting-edge level functionaries must perform the bulk of police tasks like beat patrolling, station house duties, preliminary interrogations and other investigation assistance that brings the police to actual contact with the public. The officials with their education and social status can be more civil and courteous to the general public.

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CHANGE OF UNIFORM A change in the existing police uniform is an issue worth assessing as a device to humanize the police force. The present khaki uniform inspires a mood of arrogance and savagery by its psychological association with power and repression. Change in uniform to a friendly and soothing shade may prove to be for the better in intenerating the psyche of the police. The strategy in selecting a new uniform is to imbibe a sense of cleanliness, levity, balance and probity and to inspire a couthie disposition in the force. CHANGE IN CRIMINAL LAWS A few glaring anomalies and erroneous provisions of the extant criminal laws in India contributed to the easy release of criminals from the clutches of the law in many cases and the harassment of innocent persons by the police in some other cases. The loopholes in the criminal laws have to be plugged if crime administration is to be humanized and command a semblance of public respect and confidence. Intelligent adaptations in the extant criminal laws to interdict inhuman policing methods and provide wherewithal for facile crime administration are the needs of the hour. The policeman or the judicial officer under whose custody a person is kept under detention must be made responsible by name for the timely release of the detenue with the provision that if detention exceeds the period provided by law, the concerned officer is liable for proceedings for the unlawful detention sans the privilege of exemptions for acts performed in official color. Also, all cases of violence and physical outrage committed in police custody should be made punishable with exemplary penalties by special legislations. Such extreme measures may bring an end to shocking inhumane acts committed in the similitude of policing in some quarters and save the Indian police from acute public resentment. The current bail provisions of Indian criminal law are a source of acute embarrassment to police officers with
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criminals arrested by them after weeks or months of stupendous efforts being let off by the judiciary on bail only to facilitate them to jump the bail. All discretions with police and judiciary regarding bail should be taken away with only a select few offences of enormous gravity mad non-bailable. This will restrict both the police and the judiciary from showing favors to some criminals as quid pro quo and bring mechanical accuracy to bail provisions. This measure may be found a path-breaker in preventing the misuse of criminal laws and the inhuman play of favors and disfavors to criminals.

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CIVIL LIBERTY CELLS External controls must walk pari passu with ingenerate encraty in the act of self-disciplining in view of the human propensity to unwittingly stray from the chosen path. Institution of civil liberty cells in each district and metropolitan city as advisory conseil to the police chief of the region with local civil liberty champions as its members to draw attention to specific instances of inhuman conduct by subordinate officers would meet the need of control ab extra to keep the police on pernoctation against inhuman comportment. The civil liberty cell should be a dynamic part of the police administration in the region and its observations should set in motion a process of verification and peremptory action. Though subjecting police to the scrutiny of an outside setup may appear a retrograde measure, it helps the assuefaction of the policing methods to human conduct. BETTER SERVICE CONDITIONS People can afford the luxury of humaneness when they are insulated from the quotidian diversions of their occupational hazards. A delectable service atmosphere mellows their responses to those around them. They begin to see the world in a better light, in conformity with the atmosphere around them and try to share these pleasant feelings with those they come in contact with. The levity of the environment land the absence of strains from the service-front facilitates their opening-up to give vent to their latitant human contents. An effort to humanize the police cannot ignore the need to improve service conditions to make the police proud to be enraced in the vocation. The sense of contentment generated by the service atmosphere devolves to the public that interacts with the police. This interaction between the police and the public can be a sound substruction for humane policing. BETTER LIVING CONDITIONS A reasonably good standard of living helps the police to rise above the physical and security need-levels to social and higher need-levels in the need- hierarchy outlined by
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McGregor and have the mental space for wider interests like human concerns of kindness, tenderness, elegance and civility. A low living standard retards the police image and esteem in society. It is necessary to make the police financially bein by adequately compensating for the risks and hazard factors of their jobs to attract the best men to its fold apart from securing them against financial distractions. A feeling of condign compensation and contentment is certain to raise the police above physical and security need-levels to give free expression to natural human tendencies.

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LIGHTER WORK All creations in their fraicheur and nature’s bounty are kind and tender and elegant. The strains of the environment cause inquietude in nature’s balance and leads to the obfuscation of a few precious sheens from its innards. It manifests in loss of human factors in man and his mental space turns intenible of human qualities by environmental strains such as work-pressures. The Indian police are weighed down with an impossible quantum of responsibilities and tasks. This work-pressure adversely affects the mental balance apart from depriving those tasks from the attention due. It is impossible to expect a man bogged down with heavy responsibilities and tasks to spare his time for the niceties of human qualities. An important measure in humanizing the police is to scale down the work- pressure on it to a bearable level. An element of levity in work makes the work environment dulcet and provides an adequate mental space to devolve on the exuberances of human comportations. EXCLUSION OF SOCIAL LEGISLATIONS The propensity of weighing the police with the enforcement of all types of legislations has become a major hazard to effective policing. It is emphatically so with social legislations which pass out of our legislative house sans cohibition. These progressive measures are inherently controversial in nature and their enforcement by the police weakens its credibility as an agency of serious business and peremptory order. It is plauditory to conceive of the police as a vehicle of progressive measures. In the process, however, the police are certain to put both its credibility and professionalism in jeopardy as these social legislations lack the depth and gravity required to enforce them. Assiduous enforcement may be perceived as inhuman acts of high-handedness and harassment of certain sections of the society. It is not in the interest of the process of humanizing the police to expose it to civil contecks that are gravid with the malengine of expropriating from all those concerned from human concerns. The exclusion of social legislations from
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the ambit-of normal police work will save the police organisation from the embarrassment of handling issues for which it is not equipped either mentally or professionally or organizationally. This measure will release the police organisation from unwarranted pressures that add to the dehumanization process and also enhances its legitimacy as the guardian of order and security of human interests.

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EXPOSURES TO PUBLIC RELATIONS TECHNIQUES Though efforts have been en train to ameliorate the image of the Indian police for a long time, nothing substantial could be achieved due to amateurish handling. The present Indian police managers have their image development wherewithal limited to issuing occasional press statements while image development has become a highly advanced field of specialization with perennial scope for further advancements. In view of the considerable significance of the image for successful police operations, the wherewithal of image building in the police is required to be updated with the latest techniques, applied by professionals in the field. It does not suffice if the police are humanized; the police also should appear humanized. While public relations professionals can handle the job from the organizational level, an insight to the police about the rudiments of public relations is sine qua non if it is to appear humanized to the public eye. This necessitates the exposure of the police to the latest public relations techniques at regular intervals to imbibe the skill of civility in interacting with the public. IN-SERVICE IMAGE The proclivity for role-play is a major driving force in the process of motivation. People who enter a new setup, look to their new environment for the role they should assume? And the setup renders them homo colons in conformity to its own image. People joining a humanized organisation play the role of humaneness to fulfill their esurient urge to identify with the setup. The in-service image of an organisation is a powerful springboard that sets it to actuate that image. An in-service image as a humane setup is de rigueur if humanizing the police is to grow as a tradition. The very reputation of the police as a humane setup limits the options of the insiders to act antilogous to its reputation and thus exert an invisd pressure to rise to the expectations of the organisation that owns them. The process of building a humanized image ab infra requires the assistance of
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skeely image-building technicians and adroit operations by police leaders. This forms the desinent and vital stage in humanizing the police. McGregor identifies man as “rational-emotive. inextricably interwoven” and defines motivation as “an emotional force.” According to Irving Sarnoff “motivation is an internally operative tension-producing stimulus that provokes the individual to act in such a way as to reduce the tension.” Plato traces the origin of man’s behaviour to knowledge from the head as he identified prominently in politicians, emotion from the blood as identified prominently in soldiers and desire from the stomach as identified prominently in businessmen. MoDougall

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in “Instinct Theory of Hormic Psychology” speaks about sensory, motivational and emotional aspects of behaviour. He says that environmental situations provide the stimuli necessary to arouse a particular behaviour in a cognitive (sensory) aspect; goal-directed behaviour is caused by the conative (motivational) aspect while an affective (emotional) aspect arouses its own behaviour. Man should be approached from two levels inter alia for an attitudinal change from conviction, which according to Woolbert, “is an appeal to reason,” and persuasion which “is an appeal to emotions.” The role of police leaders in humanizing the police lies in emotionally integrating it with humanistic causes by esoteric organizational moves to supervene a rational appeal to conviction by training and creation of environments in policing where a man is treated as a man imprimis in spite of all his foibles or strengths. Humanistic propensities in a hierarchical setup like the police should permeate from above should the organisation be humanized and its lower strata identify it with their organizational self. The police leaders should set standards of’ human comportment for others in the organisation to make it the substruction of organizational behaviour. Policing is an exercise revolving around the fulcrum of humanism while humanism is the foundation on which the edifice of policing should stand. Policing is a crime sans human concerns to support it. The infaust polarization of dulcet human propensities from nefandous policing activities in the present police setup is a serious organizational malady that renders the very policing system of India counter-productive and as a perpetuator of licensed crimes. Policing powers are a trust invested in the police for exercise in the general interests of the people. The police lose all its claims to power, the moment it sinks its concerns for people and its policing activities become depravity in purls naturalibus. Humanism is the ineluctable other side of the policing. Rather, policing is the negative discharges de rigueur to the upward thrust of human interests. The Indian policing with its obfuscating backfire sans the upward thrusts of human concerns may
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sink in the Bay of Bengal some day unless its leaders shed their indolence to vitalize the police with genuine human qualities.

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ORGANISATIONAL CHALLENGES OF THE POLICE
It is India’s good fortune that its fabric of law and order withstood the onslaught of growing complexity of the Indian society lest fragile is its system of policing. The fact that the police systems in a few neighboring countries of Asia and Africa are worse cannot be a solace as the political, social and economical structures forming the cornerstones of those countries have tout a fait different backgrounds and value systems from ours. India is a crucible wherein the dynamics and relevance of democracy in the third world are experimented with. The Indian police system must necessarily meet the latitant aspirations of the democracy in fulfilling its desinent objective of maintaining internal order arid security. This dimension added to the problems of policing in India. The Indian polity confronts its police with ever-greater challenges while affording it an increasingly limited wherewithal to do so. The Indian police system dodders while taken on ride by the shocks of the growing complexity of the Indian society and its relevance to society is luxated in the seemingly unending luctation for relevance. The tenor of the setback lies in the failure to foresee and continuously keep the system one step ahead. The hazard of the Indian-police lies in this immobility of its organizational structure. The existing police system is utterly devoid of any adjustment mechanism that keeps it relevant to the zeitgeist. A time-to-time review and concomitant updating of the police organisation become sine qua non the circumstances. A systematic study of the policing in India with an adequate pernoctation to screen the latest researches and findings in relevant fields of social and political systems, science and technology in
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reorienting the police organisation and administration is an essential parameter in the vital exercise. A police setup worth its salt should meet the specific needs of the policing. The police setup must necessarily be raucle in its frame to be capable of absorbing the shocks to which it would often be exposed. Secondly, motive factors should be substructed in the body of the organisation as sound motivation alone can make policing a purposeful activity. This should be

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reinforced with external motive factors that can be infused to the organisation e re nata. Thirdly, the system should be organized so as to generate optimism and confidence. Another important aspect that should weigh in evolving an effective police organisation is evolving a mechanism whereby every police officer or unit is put in charge of a specific job matching his or its competence and aptitude. An element of levity should be brought to policing so that the work in hand can be attended to with genuine involvement by each police officer. Another strategic principle of a healthy police organisation is having absolute faith and giving full responsibilities to subordinates with a concomitant reward and punishment system that follow at the heels. Any attempt to disturb the balance of faith, full responsibility and reward and punishment system is certain to fell the organisation into desuetude. The extant conception of collective responsibility through a chain of command has gone passe by its propensity to demotivate the real workers due to the corrupt ambitions of those at higher levels in the chain of command. Policing has grown of late to be such an independent field of specialisation that it is touts de force impossible for a mortal being to be proficient in even a single aspect of policing. It is rather a folly to fancy a police officer as being able to handle all aspects of policing though at different times. Hence, the need of specialization-oriented policing. The present managerial world is increasingly realizing the importance of human resources as organizational inputs. Unless allout efforts are made to inhaust to police the creme de la creme of the country with exceptional attributes of probity, intelligence and commitment and impart eximious and purposeful training to bring out the best of each, no efforts at updating the organisation can bring about a sempiternal transformation in the setup. The fact that policing can be successful only with popular cooperation focuses the attention of the police organisation on the needs of building up its image. Although efforts are already afoot towards building up the image of the police, the depths of the possibilities are yet to be fully explored and
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exploited. A scientific approach in this score will make policing tanto uberior. Also, the scope for scholarly and intellectual activities in policing will make policing multidimensional and add to its effectiveness. The fremit reception given to intellectual activities in some quarters of policing may not go down too well with the future police planners. The future police organisation and administration should cater to the need of intellectual activities. The present police organisation and administrative system have to be overhauled in the near future as the ineffectiveness of the extant system becomes increasingly obvious with the flaws in the edifice starting to gape wider. The areas wherein restructuring may be desirable and the thrusts sine qua non to stuff the

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hiatus valde deflendus to have a featous police setup, quite capable of facing the challenges of the future are discussed tout court below. EXCLUSION OF SOCIAL LEGISLATIONS The proclivity of weighing the police with reinforcement of all types of legislations has become a major hazard to effective policing. While the proliferation of legislations in independent India made it impossible even to keep track of their numbers, it is senseless to expect the police as being able to enforce them all. The stupendous task of enforcing these legislations adversely affects the effectiveness of the police and corrodes its credibility. This is emphatically so with social legislations which pass out of our legislative houses sans cohibition. These progressive measures are inherently controversial in nature and their enforcement by the police weakens its credibility as an agency of serious business and peremptory order. It is plauditory to conceive of the police as a vehicle of progressive measures, but in the process, is certain to put both its credibility and professionalism into jeopardy as the social legislations lack depth and gravity to enforce them and assiduous enforcement may ricochet as an outcry of harassment and high-handedness. It is not in the interest of the country to expose its police to such civil contecks and suffer it thereby. India can have an independent social policing system under the social welfare ministry to which police officers with a flair for progressive measures may be deputed. The social policing system as a professional enforcement agency of the social welfare ministry can do an effective job in enforcing progressive social legislations with all their nuances, by fully devolving on it while saving the police organisation from the embarrassment of handling issues to which it is not equipped either mentally, professionally or organizationally. This measure will exeme the police organisation from unwarranted pressures and enhances its legitimacy in handling serious security and law and order issues. SPECIALISATIONS IN POLICING
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The growth of police functions as adnated to present lifestyle of increasing complexity is enormous of late with policing slinking to the vitals of all streaks of social and nonsocial living. Policing has become a high-tech affair these days with scopes for further advancements. Each major activity of policing like maintenance of order, investigation of crimes, collection of intelligence and security-operations have assumed such an independent status of nonesuch expertise and professionalism that these fields being inhered is neither desirable nor feasible. Nor in the circumstances, does shifting a functionary from one field of expertise to the other help his overall performance. Anfractuosity in any one of these fields of specialization for life is becoming a requisite as time goes by.

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The futuristic policing of India must have its subordinate police as professionals in a given field of specialization, say maintenance of order, crime investigation, intelligence collection or security operation with synergy manifesting only at higher levels. So, India may have independent law and order police, detective police, special police and security police, each separately recruited and trained for professionalism and expertise in their respective fields. Officers from all these specialized fields should be eligible to rise t general policing at higher levels on the basis of a pro rata quota system for promotions. PARALLEL CRIME ADMINISTRATION “The increased preoccupation of the police with law and order and security issues in view of the growing cataclysmic activities in the country has adversely affected effective, crime administration of late. Police stations have become registering stations as far as crime administration is concerned. The time of the local police is fordone with immediate issues of law and order and V.I.P. security, and in the process, crime investigation has become a casualty. The process may further deteriorate as security and law and order problems increase in coming years. Neither the crime staff at subordinate levels nor the supervisory staff at district and higher levels, in the melee, has the will or the resources to divert to crime investigation while the crime rate in the country is assuming dangerous proportions. Crime investigations should not be allowed to suffer because of disorder and insecurity in the country, as otherwise, a vicious circle may develop wherein disorder and insecurity lead to fall in investigation and flabby investigation in turn, to patulous disorder and insecurity. This triste development may be effectively dealt-with by an independent crime setup, parallel to the law and order outfit. The crime outfit should be responsible for the investigation of criminal cases and function under an Inspector General of Police who is responsible to the police chief, with a crime Deputy Inspector General of Police in
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each range. Each district may have a crime Superintendent of Police with the necessary number of detective Deputy Superintendents of Police, detective Inspectors, SubInspectors and constabulary to assist while only SubInspectors and above are empowered t investigate cases. The Sub-Inspectors will be attached to various police stations with powers to register criminal cases and investigate only petty cases. The crime Superintendent of Police refers criminal cases of his district for investigation to Police Inspectors or Deputy Superintendents of Police, coming under him, on the basis of the gravity of the cases and take up exceptionally grave cases for personal investigation. The crime Deputy Inspectors General of Police may take up exceptionally sensational cases in his range for personal investigation.

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The crime outfit in a district must run parallel to the law and order outfit of the district. An independent crime outfit in district and state may exquisitely behove to a futuristic police setup by giving crime investigation a boost and insuring it against the peracute pangs of organizational maladies of the future. CONTROL ROOM-CENTERED POLICING The compulsions of urban policing are strikingly different from those of rural policing. Response time is the hallmark of urban policing where a delay of a few minutes can make a difference between death and life as criminals and terrorists with the most sophisticated communication, weapon system and hair-raising organizational accuracy overawe the police, pitted against them in the course of their criminal operations. The present police station oriented policing are incompetent to meet the challenges of the urban criminals either in resources or in organizational ingine. Unity, resourcefulness and speed form the spine of urban policing. The control room-centered policing in urban centers where men and transportation and latest communication facilities that work round the clock in shifts enables galvanic operations to tackle law and order problems. All town and cities require control rooms of appropriate sizes with a control room chief of a befitting rank. A control room of a metropolitan city having a population of more than fifty lakhs may be entrusted to a control room chief of the rank of Deputy Inspector General of police; a city having a population exceeding ten lakhs requires a chief of the rank of Superintendent of police to its control room; a city of a population exceeding a lakh may have a control room in charge of a Deputy Superintendent of Police; a town having a population of more than 20,000 may require an Inspector to head its control room; and a town with a population of less than twenty thousand may need a control room under a SubInspector. Each control room may have four shift-officers of the rank immediately lower in rank; all subordinate staff of the town or city is kept under the control room’s disposal
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on round the clock shifts. The control room should be well connected with several channels of telephones, wireless sets, mobile telephones and other state- of-the-art communication equipments to strategic points, mobile vans, task forces, hospitals, fire force units, civil defence units, neighboring police units and residences of senior police officers and civil authorities. The control rooms should be equipped with the latest gadgets and sufficient transportation facilities for the maintenance of law and order. The law and order unit of the urban area may be headed by an officer of the rank above the rank of the chief of the control room.

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This outfit with unlimited resource at its disposal for launching any type of operation within a few minutes of communication may suffice to meet the challenges of maintaining law and order in urban areas in the new age. REORGANISATION OF INTELLIGENCE UNITS The place of collection and analysis of intelligence and special operations in policing including security operations, maintenance of law and order and crime investigation is sui generis as intelligence forms the building blocks of all nuances of the police operations. The police, operating to collect intelligence, form the substructure of the edifice of policing of the country. Indian intelligence system is yet to stand up to the enormous challenges thrown to it and it can nowhere be compared with its counterparts in developed and even a few developing countries. Various intelligence outfits of India are often found functioning at crosspurposes. India should reorganize and strengthen its intelligence outfit if it is to survive the challenges of the coming age. The Indian intelligence system should develop unity of purpose and operation by working under the umbrella of a unified intelligence authority headed by the union cabinet Secretary with intelligence chiefs of the police and military as members. The authority should affect a synergy of intelligence operations through its various wings of internal intelligence, foreign intelligence, counterintelligence, military intelligence and security intelligence. Sufficient attention should be given to infuse entrain in the intelligence system of India and modernize its methods to raise it to a few degrees closer to the international standards. The interferences of officialdom should be eradicated from intelligence operations and a sense of commitment and dedication should be infused by making intelligence operations a lifelong career. An Inspector General of police, directly responsible to the state police chief, should head the state intelligence wing. The intelligence wing should be overall in charge of intelligence operations, pertaining to security, law and order and crime in the state.
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SPECIALLY TRAINED SECURITY OPERATORS The ultimate purpose of all police functions is public security. Either it is intelligence collection or crime investigation or maintenance of law and order- all roads lead to this single aspiration. Therefore, the security operations form the crown of policing activities without which all other police operations prove futile exercises. The India of the new age will need specially trained battalions of security operators in every state to take charge of the security of vital installations and VIPs. Each will work under the supervision of an Inspector General of police,

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responsible to the state police chief. Also, each state police unit will have a small commando force under the Inspector General of police to meet threats during emergencies like hijacking, VVIP security under difficult circumstances, complicated operations against terrorists etc. This special group will be brought into operation only under exceptionally difficult circumstances on the direct orders from the state police chief. Otherwise, it will be involved in continuous commando training of the highest order. The commandos will be well equipped with the wherewithal of commando operations of the latest order. Only select officers will be recruited to the group with extra emoluments to make the job really elite. The commando units of the central government will train the state commando forces. The need of commando groups in the state police will be increasingly felt in future as the menace of terrorism and sabotage grows uninhibited with the future possibility of peracute methods being accepted as legitimate ways of expressing political dissent. IMPROVED MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES The human aspect is the fulcrum of policing. Human comportment teethed with authority to restrain the human mass forms the essence of police activities. Policing essentially is human interaction, latitant in unending luctation to smite criminal and anti-social elements. It is the human quality in the force that determines its effectiveness and vitality. Therefore, human resource policy in a police organisation needs careful and gritty handling at the highest possible level. The present Indian environment of ruthless competitions impleached with a degringolade of values made human resources management a farce in India. The wherewithal of human resources management like recruitment, promotions, transfers, rewards, punishments etc, is no more employed for the maximum benefit of the organisation. Self-interests have undermined quality and character and organizational interests are subordinated to personal behoofs. Though this proclivity is prevalent in all
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fields in India, of late, its adverse effects are kenspeckle in police organisation as the line-system of the organisation makes the ingenuity of human resources management, a factor having direct bearing on the quality of the policing. While policing is becoming a dynamic part of the governance in urban areas, with the rise of urban pockets, the damage done by egregious management of human resources in the police cannot be exaggerated. The declension may go patulous with the passage of time if frack measures to arrest the depravation in human resources management are ignored. Diligent efforts at the highest level in the organisation to create a force characterized by integrity, commitment and intelligence may be the foremost

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need of a police organisation of the coming age. The prevalence of police administration over the general administration in the survival of a nation as a democratic and orderly country may necessitate future changes in recruitment and service condition rules to attract the very best talents of the country to the police organisation with extraordinary care to ensure that anything less than the best with clean antecedents does not step into the organisation. Once the ingine is inveigled into the fold of the organisation, the ingenerate need of retaining it in the organisation sans delusions and disappointments and improving upon its attributes gains added momentum. In the extant system, only those less than the best join the police organisation; less than satisfactory training is imparted to them that fail to infuse even elementary professionalism; and the practical experience in the field emaciates their noble ettles, if any are left alive, as an improvident fool’s paradise and causes them to fall in line with the mediocre. Futuristic India may not have an alternative to breaking this vicious circle for its survival and better managing its human resources by designing a training programme that makes a budding officer a thorough professional in policing, reinforces his noble ettles and changes the environment of the police organisation to inspire a subjacent faith in the right value system. TIME-BOUND PROMOTIONS The system of assessment of a subordinate’s work for promotion has fallen into utter desuetude and dangerous misuse by the prevalent corrupt atmosphere. India, in the interest of its future policing may do well to extricate the prospects of career developments like promotions from subjective assessments of corrupt influences by ensuring two periodical promotions in a time scale of twenty-five years. So, every Police Constable retires minimum as an Assistant Sub-Inspector of Police, a Sub-Inspector as a Deputy Superintendent of Police and an Indian Police Service Officer as an Inspector General of Police. The present incidence of most of the Police Constables retiring
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as Police Constables may not go well with the concept of ex aequo society of futuristic India and pose a threat to the health of the police organisation in the environment of increased awakening of the 21st century. The officers of the Indian Police Service may be posted on first appointment as Superintendents of Police to make the service more attractive, though not to districts directly and the dual recruitments at the rank as in vogue now require to be stopped to make police recruitment meaningful. Officers in exceptional cases may have avenues for special promotions in addition to the two, provided in a time scale of twenty-five years, on the basis of written examination and on an overall assessment of their career of twenty- five years by high-powered committees formed for the purpose. The

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promotion of constabulary in exceptional cases to the ranks of PSIs and above should be screened by the Police Board of the State; the promotion of PSIs as Superintendents of Police and above should be screened by the All India Police Authority and the promotion of IPS Officers as Director General of Police and above by a Central Cabinet Committee headed by the Prime Minister. This arrangement will ensure fearless and professional policing sans complaisance to corrupt elements, particularly when the prospects of corrupt practices of repriming professionals of probity and hoisting flaccid complaisant to prominence are certain to be in excelsis in the new age. REMOVAL OF CONSTABULARY The constabulary that forms the backbone and the cutting-edge of Indian policing and wields real authority over the populace is a lowly paid, modestly educated, nonelite mass of uniformed workers. The authority they wield makes them fearsome while their low status in society sperres them from commanding empathy, respect and legitimacy. The fearsome authority sans empathy, respect and legitimacy decidedly proves a deadly substructure for an organisation and people certainly resent an organisation with this unhealthy attribute. Nor the truculent authority, invested in officials of an intra-mural enlightenment and responsibility can ensure its comme il faut exercise. This foible in the extant setup manifests as increased hazards to glib policing as the complexity of its challenges thickens in coming years, if no remedial measures are undertaken belive. The Indian police of the 21st century will require SubInspectors with their present scale of education and status in society as the primary unit of policing at the cutting-edge level with no policing powers and responsibilities devolved beneath this level. The constabulary up to the level of the Assistant Sub- Inspectors of Police should be limited to the duties of menial assistants without police powers and responsibilities. This will require a huge army of SubInspectors in the Indian police while the constabulary
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stands to be severely spruced in strength. With the removal of the constabulary from the police hierarchy, the Sub- Inspectors will besort to the lowest rank in the police setup. Each police station works under a Police Inspector assisted by a host of Sub-Inspectors, performing all subordinate functions of the policing including beat patrolling and investigation of minor cases under this dispensation. PROFESSIONAL TRAINING FACILITIES The chief cause of policing never being a profession in India is the ineffectiveness of its training facilities. In spite of adequate infrastructures available for training police officials of various ranks, these centers largely fail to

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meet the quality required to make a recruit a thorough professional. An overhaul of the extant training facilities in terms of its quality, content and character is inevitable to keep the Indian police excubant to future challenges. The training facilities should be made centers of scholarship and research on police subjects with professionals of national reputation in each subject handling their respective subjects. The psychology faculty of the centre should endeavor to build character and infuse right orientation among the recruits. The faculty members of the training centers should be exceptionally well paid so as to inveigle the best in the field to join. Army officers must handle outdoor classes. This model helps in instilling the highest standards and expectations in trainees till they become fullfledged officers and orient them to become professional police officers, apart from distancing them from the moderate influences that are herded to handle police training centers in the present setup. The trainees must be exposed to police officers as guest speakers, by inviting very senior police officers of the highest integrity and job standards to deliver talks on specific topics. Separate professional training courses should be available in the training centers for law and order police, crime police, intelligence police and security police with scope for advanced learning with an eye to the latest developments in each respective field. Latest training methods should be adopted with management, computers and advanced psychology inter alia as the common subjects of study for all the courses. The training centers should give the impression of being temples of advanced studies apart from being so. PROFESSIONALISM IN POLICING Policing requires commitment and dedication on the part of its operators. The principles of faith and responsibility must run invisus through the vitals of the policing, should it be purposeful and successful. The extant bureaucratic malady that infested the Indian police setup cohibits healthy policing practices. The police organisation should be reoriented to develop a professional approach to its
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operations with full faith and responsibility as the hallmark of the delegation of power. The present emphasis on procedures should be shifted to commitment and resultorientation within the ambit of the rules. An analytical study of policing, its trends and modem techniques helps to bring professionalism in policing. Due encouragement for the study of theoretical aspects of policing and its application in the field through in-service training will be a welcome step in this direction. If police managers succeed in inspiring in police officers an interest in theoretical aspects of the policing and its latest techniques, it would be a kenspeckle leap in awakening Indian police to the challenges in the future.

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GENTLEMANLY IMAGE Though efforts have been en train to ameliorate the image of the Indian police for a long time, nothing substantial could be achieved for amateurish handling of the affair. The present Indian police managers have their image development tools limited to issuing occasional press statements when image development has become a highly advanced field of specialization with unending scope for further advancements. In view of the considerable significance of the image for successful police operations, the wherewithal of image building in police organisation is required to be updated with latest techniques with the help of professionals in the field. CHANGE OF UNIFORM A change in the existing police uniform is an issue to be deeply probed into to improve the police image. The present khaki uniform of police inspires resentment, as it is psychologically associated with repression and violence. A change of police uniform to full white or pleasant colours may prove to be a measure for the better in removing the negative image of the police. The overall strategy in selecting a new police uniform should be to infuse a sense of oneness and quality among the ranks of police and inspiring a psychological disposition of friendliness, confidence, respect and healthy fear in the public with a compulsion to see the police as their own people, but invested with the responsibility of a noble task. GOOD LIVING STANDARDS The police organisation functions effectively only when a reasonably good living standard is made affordable to all ranks of officers, so that they can deal with antisocial elements from a level of strength and confidence sans the lure of easy booty, thrown en revanche to a let-off. A low living standard retards the police image and esteem in society that are the essentials of successful policing. It is more so in future while more and more of the so-called elite jump into the fray of criminal activities in an increasingly complicated society. It may be necessary to make police officers financially
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bien in comparison to their counterparts in other services with 30% of their pay paid as risk allowance and 20% as hazard allowance to compensate job factors. This helps to attract the best to the fold of the police organisation, apart from protecting them from financial distractions. A feeling of condign compensation is certain to boost the commitment and efficiency of the police. MODERN FACILITIES AND MANAGEMENT TOOLS The police organisation has seen mushroom growth sans application of requisite management principles. The major lapse lies in failure to define

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organizational objectives and formulate specific set of actions thereon. For example, extraneous objectives like creating employment opportunities often inspire creation of additional posts irrespective of the organizational needs, which results in corrosion of job contents and thereby morale of the force. Work often is not allocated on the basis of scientific assessment of the character and aptitude. The latest equipments purchased a grands frais under modernization schemes without creating the infrastructure for its operation or analyzing its relative merits to the organisation, resulted in its being dumped a few days of its operation while even basic necessities of policing are yet to be met in a few other quarters. These anomalies prove criant luxuries to a police organisation, sure to be faced with enormous challenges in the third millennium. The police organisations of India do well to be featous, well organized and formulate actions and operations in line with latest management principles and practices. K may either constitute an efficient cell of management experts to advice or hire a management consultation firm for guidance. At any rate, the police organisation of the third millennium should be a far smaller unit than now, manned by highly committed and capable officers who are paid and looked after well by the government. The present policing system in India has too much of paper work with hundreds of registers maintained in each station or office with tens of forms filled up in each stage of policing. A detailed analytical study of paper works in policing may help to considerably reduce paper works and thereby save precious official man-hours for use in actual police operations. The modernization of the police force with the latest communication, transport, weaponry and office equipment system and me simultaneous creation of the necessary infrastructure for their operation in advance alone besort the police force to the challenges of elite criminals, armed with latest equipments. India of the third millennium will require its police force to be equipped with helicopters as
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an aide in policing in emergencies. A genuine and effective effort to achieve modernization ends would be sine qua non for the future policing. A face-lift to police stations and offices with the latest office equipment and general facilities will go a long way in creating a psychological atmosphere for effective policing. CREATION OF CRIMINAL LAW BOARD India requires the constitution of a statutory Criminal Law Board as an advisory body to liaise between the police setup and the union law ministry regarding criminal laws to facilitate glib policing. The board, as a permanent body, may have senior most officers of the central government from home and

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law ministries, police and prosecution departments, distinguished humanists and senior advocates of the Superme Court as members with the union home minister as its chairman. It must undertake the study of the need of changes in criminal laws from rime to rime. The board may meet every quarter and discuss extant criminal laws and their shortcomings in the light of representations received from officers in the field from the police and prosecution departments and make proposals for requisite changes in criminal laws e re nata. WIDENED RESPONSIBILITIES IN CRIME ADMINISTRATION A few glaring anomalies and some erroneous provisions in the extant criminal laws of India contributed to the easy escapade of criminals from the clutches of law in many cases and harassment of innocent persons by the police in some other cases. The loopholes in the criminal laws have to be plugged imprimis if crime administration has to be effective in India and command a semblance of respect and confidence of the public. The police or judicial officer under whose custody a person is kept under detention should be made responsible by name for the latter’s timely release with a provision that if detention exceeds the period provided by law, it will make the concerned officer liable for proceedings for unlawful detention without the privilege of exemptions for actions performed in official colours, available under extant laws. Also, all cases of violence and physical outrages committed in police custody should be made punishable with exemplary penalties by special legislations. Such extreme measures may bring an end to shocking criminal acts committed eo nomine policing in some quarters and save the Indian police from the embarrassment of severe public resentment. Current bail provisions of the Indian criminal law constitute a source of acute embarrassment to police officers with criminals, arrested after weeks or months of stupendous efforts, let off by the judiciary on bail only to facilitate jumping the bail. All discretions about bail with
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police and judiciary should be taken away with only a select few offences of enormous gravity being made non-bailable wherein neither police nor judiciary can release criminals on bail. This eliminates the possibility of favours to some criminals and brings mechanical accuracy and objectivity to bail provisions. This measure may prove to be a trailblazer in ensconcing criminal laws from misuse during the difficult period ahead. POLICE COMMISSIONERS IN CITIES Every city in India with a population of more than a lakh must have an independent policing unit under a Police Commissioner of a rank befitting the population of the city; a city with a population up to ten lakhs may have one of

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the rank of Superintendent of police; a city with a population up to 50 lakhs may have a Deputy Inspector General of Police as the chief and a city with a population of 50 lakhs or more may have an Inspector General of Police as its Police Commissioner. The setup of Police Commissionerate gives a sense of unity and purposefulness to the task of policing, apart from being most suitable form of setup for urban policing with magisterial powers being invested with the police to enable prompt action. This setup with empight responsibilities instills commitment and dedication in policing. CREATION OF ALL INDIA POLICE AUTHORITY All maladies of the present policing emanate from the politicians who are only concerned with winning the next election. Until the police organisation is extricated from the vile prise of the mediocre politicians, it cannot hope to rise above the mediocre level of its el patron either in proficiency or in character, as such mediocrity is wont to permeate downwards in a democratic setup. In the circumstances, the police organisation with its sensitive responsibilities towards the maintenance of order and security of the country, cannot afford to submit to political vagaries. Though a proposal to extricate precious machinery like the police from the clutches of the politicians is likely to be met with enormous resistance, it is an important measure to be undertaken at all costs in the overall interests of the country. The task may be achieved by creation of an All India Police Authority, responsible only to the President of India at the national level with regional Police Boards in states as independent bodies, managing police organisations at the centre and states. A Supreme Court Judge must head the All India Police Authority with union home secretary and central cabinet secretary as members and the senior most police officer of the country as the member-secretary. The regional Police Board must have a High Court Judge at the helm with home secretary and state chief secretary as members and the state police chief
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as its member-secretary. The arrangement is likely to bring an end to undue interference in police affairs, thus enabling the police to function in an independent atmosphere. The Indian police may hope to turn out eximious work in the new age if these measures are implemented. Policing as a phenomenon of maintaining order and security in society cannot afford to be oblivious of the flux in the modem lifestyles. As an integral part of civil living, policing must prepare itself to amate the increasing complexities of modem life by modifying its organizational and administrative setups to the demands that these vicissitudes create. The changes warranted in policing may either be deciduous or peremptory depending on the nature of the transition in

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society. It is left to police planners to analyze the nature of the flux in the society and locate the areas where decession from the past practices has become sine qua non for policing. This should be an ongoing process if policing is to retain its relevance as the guardian of social discipline. The futuristic challenges of policing would be pro rata to the twists of the future living. The prospects of Indian population reaching the mark of a billion and the concomitant luctation of two billion needy hands to grab a share in the country’s limited resources of food, shelter, water, clothing, electricity, schooling, employment etc. naturally make life a cut-throat concours and a ruthless adventure devoid of scruple, human values and a concern for fellow men. Though the Indian policing system managed somehow to deal with the vicissitudes till now, the geometric acceleration of the flux of the coming years may prove to be too much to the extant police setup. Therefore, it is high time now that we prepare our police organisation and administration for the future challenges.

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INTERNAL SECURITY CHALLENGES
In an age of sabotage and terrorism, no man, no place and no structure are really safe; no time of the day or night can be construed as safe. With the increasing complexity of human society, with increasing claims on limited resources of the world, the kettle of human life is spilling over with organized hatred and violence. Terrorism has become an international phenomenon. Accrescent unemploy- ment makes terrorism popular by giving unemployed youths a raison d’etre for life and an ideology to pursue. The lopsided material growth of the 20th century life at the cost of contentment and inner peace, endeared to man the thrills and adventures of the life that fill up his inner void. New scientific inventions give man such sophisticated mechanisms and machinery that he can do anything he wants without being personally present at a place. Each man has potentially become a power centre and he can build or destroy the world he lives in. Each man has become a force to reckon with in the survival of this Earth. The rise in hatred and violence in the present world, compounded with the man’s dangerous power to wreak vengeance avec acharnement made internal security an unsure field. It replaced the avital police function of crime control and maintenance of law and order to become the primary gauntlet of the police. POLICE ON AN UNEQUAL JOB Highly trained, highly motivated volunteers belonging to highly organized and highly resourceful terrorist outfits pose the threat to internal security. The unenviable task of providing protection to men, places and structures from these committed zealots on the antipode with the precious choice of time, place and target in their favour and any number of sophisticated methods and techniques of strike
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to choose from, continually sap the manpower, machinery and other resources of the police. The police, with its forfain organisation and approach to challenge, are found to be too nonpareil to the dimensions of the problem even in advanced countries. The pressure sine dubio helped the police to walk along with regard to plans of modernization following them. What should have been is the other way round, that is, the police keeping the lead in modernization techniques and the antipode marching to keep pace with the police. Unfortunately, it is not to be in the Indian situation.

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LACK OF GROUND WORK In absence of strength, resources, plans and the confidence to meet the gauntlets of terrorism, the reaction of the police to terrorist threats is desperate mobbing and covering the target at best and diffident immobilization at the worst. The inability of the police to penetrate highly raisonne terrorist organisations and get an insight into their goal, plan and method of work put it at a costly disadvantage. The failure of the police to draw up detailed long-term plans to meet terrorist challenges handicaps it in its operations. It is just non- possumus to guarantee internal security sans a sound knowledge of the terrorists and their proclivities and a systematic ruse de guerre to checkmate them in carefully drawn-out phases. Terrorists are not the stuffs and internal security is not the telos to be dealt with in bits and farthings as and when challenges arc posed. SPASMODIC APPROACH TO SECURITY CHALLENGES Internal security machinery working in a void often gives rise to ludicrous security reactions. Anonymous calls or letters in most unlikely situations arc attended to with a desperate mobilization of men and machinery a grands frais to the stale exchequer sans any research into the call or the letter and everything ends up as a hoax. Any number of such instances is available in recent Indian police history. An anonymous Kannada letter claimed to have been written by LTTE cadres was received in Mysore with a threat of blowing up the KRS dam on the intervening night of 14 and 15 of August, 1991 and was later followed with similar threats of blowing up Vidhana Soudha on me same night. The comminations were followed with exoteric security preparations at all those places to the fun of the plebeian. A right Kenner to the LTTE objectives, expertise and method of operation would have dismissed the calls and the letters as a non-event. The Karnataka police had to prepare itself en plein jour for an emergency because it was not prepared and equipped to handle internal security problems with courage and confidence. It is not wrong to
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gear up the police machinery to meet challenges even in cases of suspected threats. But, such security could have been given more subtly without fanfare, flare of publicity and undue show of strength, to save the police from being a laughing stock. The desperate police reaction in such patently unlikely situations may prompt mischievous elements to shoot similar missives almost daily. Can the police react to all those letters similarly? The desperate reaction of the police only betrayed a lack of courage and confidence in meeting the needs of internal security. No show of strength can ever provide real security. It is subtle planning and conticent operation that make security possible. All security arrangements must be

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preceded by thorough research and detailed operational plans. This is completely forgotten in the Indian situation. NEED OF SILENT AND PLANNED APPROACH In an expertly drawn-up operational plan of sabotage, minimum possible number of people is involved, usually one or two apart from the logistic support. It is quality that counts and not quantity in sabotage and security operations. The minimum number of people who really execute the sabotage arc highly motivated and highly trained, competent individuals, capable of keel operation. No sabotage operation depends upon the strength of manpower nor can it hope to succeed by the number of people, involutes. Rather, the larger the number, the smaller the chances of success because of human nature, coordination problems and higher chances of leakage of subtle operational details. It also involves the problem of providing security and escape routes for more men in the post-operational period. Ergo, it is futile to depend on the strength of manpower and machinery at the cost of quality in security plans. No numbers can stop a highly motivated and trained man from sneaking up to his target and blowing it up with modern gadgetry which are next to impossible to detect. What were required were not companies of policemen, but a handful of highly qualified and motivated men of experience with an intelligent, thoroughly drawn-up security plan, based on competent intelligence inputs about the objects and operational plans of the adversary. Everything except these salient features of an internal security plan is present in the responses of the Indian police to security challenges. OVERHAULING OF POLICE SYSTEM The police force in India was raised imprimis to tackle crime and law-and- order problems. Its recruitment, training and on-the-field experience programmes stress upon the elements required to tackle those problems. The Indian police organisation, in its stiff hierarchical order and discipline, is geared to meet these challenges. There is little scope in the present police for the growth of an aptitude other than for these deja vu functions. No effort was made
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to overhaul the police even after security challenges have superated in their primacy in police functions. It should be borne in mind that the demands on the police to meet security challenges are tout a fait distinct from the demands to which the Indian police have long been accustomed. The aptitude required to protect targets from determined esoteric strikes by terrorists is antipodal with the aptitude required for the show of strength, necessary to suppress a loosely knit mob of wankle law-breakers. In spite of these ascensive strains on the Indian police, its organisation and resources, due to the dangerous spurt in security

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threats, it unfortunately has failed to abraid and overhaul its system to amate the new challenges; the consectaneous fatalities of men and other targets are steeply rising every year with a free hand to terrorist reticulation to strike at will. The glitches of the Indian police in re internal security are obvious by the fact that Indian soil has become a fertile ground to breed and feed terrorist organisations. Every corner of India has its own terrorist outfit and each of these outfits has proved itself a pernicious challenge to the Indian police. Never, even by chance, have the Indian police shown that it can control a terrorist outfit. The fact is that even all armies of the world together cannot bring a terrorist outfit to heel, unless the soft belly of the terrorist outfit is subtly hit embusque by intelligent operations. Sadly, the Indian police are yet to realize this fact. Sabotage, terrorism and security risks are not phenomena pro tempore. They are here to stay and the police must know to meet the situations they engender. And threats to internal security, by all means, will assume demonic proportions as time advances. The survival of the police in coming years depends upon its ability lo meet the needs of internal security. It has no alternative but to overhaul its passe system, organisation, operational methods, approach to work, training and manpower resources to be able to do so. The faster it is done, the better. For, the inability of the police in successfully handling security challenges is resulting in fatalities almost every day. SELECTION OF RIGHT PEOPLE The first parameter for preparing the police for the future challenges of the internal security is selecting right people with right aptitude, right abilities and right background. This requires thorough job analysis in re the requirements to handle the pertinent responsibilities. Choosing the right man from the motley to inclip him to the ergon forms the foremost need of preparing the police for the impending challenges. It should be realized that the need of such people to the police overweighs the need of the police for these extraordinary species. As internal security is a
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condition of national survival, no law, no fundamental right, no directive principle or any social welfare ideologies should interfere with the recruitment of the right people. Internal security being a highly sensitive and secretive job, each less than right man inside is a positive risk to security operations. Further, such people are a drain on the efficiency and effectiveness of the organisation. Ergo, avoiding people less than right for the job is as important in recruitment as selecting the right person. SELECTION ON SPECIAL FOOTING The people who fit-in to internal security responsibilities must have an innate trait to give themselves to the job that they take up. They must be sensitive people

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with a high commitment to their responsibilities with the mental and physical agility to fulfill the task ex mero motu. Men of high intelligence quotient, patience, aplomb and perseverance have to be immanent in their nature. A profound sense of patriotism is an added qualification. However, not many people having these rare qualities are readily available. It must be a sacred duty of the security operators to ingest such rara avis to the organisation wherever they are found and with whatever sacrifice. It is possible only if recruitment to these places is made a postern affair at the highest level without throwing recruitment open to competitions where all types of people sneak in malam partem for various reasons. Internal security, more often than not, is an invious profession wherein life is committed to its objectives. In the circumstances, the indraught to the fold must be agraste with respect and behoofs in form of liberal purses and perks apart from more than generous promotional and death-cum-retirements benefits that behove to the compulsive commitment sine qua non for the job. This helps to widen the latitude of choice by promising a belle vue that is pareil to its demands to the aspirants to this difficile career. TRAINING Having suitable manpower is one thing. Preparing them for the future challenges is quite another. It is here that training comes into picture. Training high-caliber, sensitive people is a much more responsible and arduous job. If the training is to prepare them for a sensitive job like internal security, the gravity of the task gets-further compounded by the addition of another dimension to the responsibility. The emphasis here is to raise the innate traits of the trainees to desired levels. They should be molded to be highly motivated, knowledgeable, bright professionals with a flair for results. They must be taught to operate without plangent attention and get maximum mileage from minimum basic action. Such training needs a carefully drawn-up training programme with creative inputs. In sensitive jobs like internal security, grooming
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manpower including recruitment and training is more vital than the job itself. SECURITY OPERATIONS All internal security operations must be part of a raisonne security plan that is drawn out in advance after thorough research and study of the best available intelligence on internal and external affairs, the geographical position of the country, the internal and external economic situation, likely shifts in foreign relations, objects and intentions of neighboring countries, the dynamics of ethnic, communal and linguistic interaction within the country and scientific advances in weaponry and other gadgetry, having a bearing on the security mailers. The

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security plan must foresee likely sources of trouble inside and outside the country and cultivate undercover’ operations at sensitive spots either by its own resources or through agents, often years or decades in advance to keep an eye on developments, feed intelligence and control situations by infiltration to strategic positions. Without this groundwork, no security operation can make much headway. Such a long-drawn security plan that foresees events decades ahead in the sempiternal interests of the state security presumes foresightedness and a thorough study and research of facts by its author to back up the plan. There is no mark of any such a plan obvious for Indian internal security and what is happening around gives the triste impression that the gauntlets of internal security are met day to day in line with meeting daily lawand-order problems. The best India can gasconade now arc the internal security schemes in police offices with names of sensitive targets and general instructions about where and how they must be protected in emergencies and normal days. These schemes are tout a fait wasted exercises in these days of highly sophisticated terrorist strikes by organized terrorist outfits. More important, the passé instructions in these supposedly secret official documents are no more secret. Though some attempts are made to update these instructions when a security lapse leads to a public outcry, none of such general instructions can assure even a semblance of security in this age of sophistication. A resourceful terrorist gladiator who is committed to execute his strike a tout prix can hit his target at will malgre tout security precautions undertaken I compliance to updated security instructions in Indian internal security schemes. It is obvious that the security lapses during Shri Rajiv Gandhi’s Sriperumbudur election campaign made the job of the LITE squad easy. At the same time, it should be borne in mind that no measures by security outfits of India in its present infaust state of affair would have prevented the committed and avizefull cadres of the LTTE from accomplishing their devilish task. The killing would have been merely a matter of time. There is
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infinite number of courses available to a resourceful and inventive mind. It is in these circumstances that India should devise its new security outfit. KNOWLEDGE OF THE SECURITY RISKS Any security buildup must stand on two basic requirements; firstly, up-to- date knowledge of the security risks and their strategies and secondly, a security machinery devised to meet specific demands of the specific circumstances. A thorough knowledge of the adversaries includes an in-depth knowledge of their long and short term objectives, their time-to-time aberrations, strategies, expertise, modes of operation, friends, enemies, sources of support, likely change of strategies and their analyses to assess the possibility of security threats

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and likely targets. Yes, it is a stupendous task involving huge manpower and other resources a grands frais. Yet, it is worth the cost and trouble in the interests of the national security and a far more intelligent and meaningful use of human and material resources than spending them to indagate criminals after they accomplish their pernicious job. Investigation of terrorism-oriented crimes serves practically no purpose and makes no impact on the plan and strategies of a well-planned terrorist outfit. SPECIFIC SECURITY PLANS A security build-up is infrangible only if it is specific fur each circumstance, depending upon the needs as assessed by security experts from time to time. Security must essentially be an esoteric operation with open eyes and ears and closed mouth; with open mind and closed heart. It must be a shadowy operation rather than a gust of light blinding people around. Intelligent terrorist operators prefer to strike in this gust of light that is what security tends to be. A good and pollent security plan should not have an open set-plan that by all likelihood would be used by intelligent terrorists to their advantage. The pollicitation of a good security plan depends upon its secretiveness, perspicacity and ability to take even a well-prepared and resourceful terrorist operator by surprise. RING ROUND DUTY Indian security plans lay stress on covering targets with armed men and preventing people from approaching the threatened target. In absence of adequate penetration to the source of threat, none of these pernoctation can have any impact on the capabilities of a terrorist to strike his target. A human wall around the target is an infructuous show of strength in an age where there are powerful weapons and’ ammunitions that can penetrate several such layers in a single stroke. Even the best of the snipers protecting a target would be at a disadvantage in felling a terrorist-to-strike that has all the advantages of time, place, surprise and the mental and physical reflexes to superate both his target and armed protectors. A wellplanned terrorist attack fully prepares for all these odd
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contretemps. Those around the target, posted to spot suspicious movements among people are also at the same disadvantage. It is the skeely terrorist who is keenly watching his target and men around versus the spotters staring blankly at inconnu for suspicious movements. An intelligently chosen and thoroughly trained terrorist operator can easily overcome this problem. SCREENING OF PEOPLE Another important strategy of the Indian security machinery is screening people before permitting proximity to the threatened target. A resourceful terrorist plan can facilely circumvent this with money, connections and influence.

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There are infinite ingenious ways available to a resourceful and imaginative man, determined to reach his target. In circumstances where a police force remiss and ineffectual at best and corrupt at the worst is in charge of screening as spotters, his job is facile and custom-made for his aptitude. QUIET SECURITY Indian security plans ignore the cardinal principle of a good security reticulation namely, providing security without coming in the way of the normal process of life of the target except where unavoidable. The minimum show of force must form an inviolable part of the scheme. The leitmotif of an effective security buildup is providing perfect security with minimum inconvenience to the concerned. But, Indian security sleuths believe otherwise. They believe in taking over the target a toute force to their control, modifying the normal course and process of the target to their convenience with the least regard to whether the target is a place, an installation, or a dignitary, as if they try to provide security in exchange for the freedom of movement and action. And all this for obviously ineffective security! This is ludicrous. Indian security reached this facetious ebb because it is diffident of even thinking of providing security to targets au naturel. The fact is that it cannot provide true security in its present mauvais ton in spite of dictating terms to the target. En principe, security is a birthright and it should be available in that form with no constraints attached on free movement. It is not to be so in the existing circumstances of Indian security buildup and even national leaders in India accepted the fact by trading their image and popularity for this supposed safety. RELEVANCE OF PRESENT SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS It is argued that the extant Indian security system is effective in discouraging less resourceful terrorist outfits from attempting strikes and preventing half- hearted attacks. The argument is not convincing for the reason that there can be no lesser terrorist strikes in the present world. All terrorist outfits worth the name in the present international situation are extremely resourceful with
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serious objectives, plans and strategies and a complete commitment to carry out their operational plans. Budding terrorist groups do not come into picture and plans to provide security from them cannot be called security schemes. With India’s present security capabilities, no target is really out of reach from the commination of a determined terrorist outfit. If a target of a terrorist outfit’s hit-list is not struck for a long time, the reasons for the same can be only three, that the terrorist organisation has not really intended to strike the target, that the outfit is yet to grow resourceful enough, or that security sleuths could gear up their machinery, taking this specific case as an exception to foil the plans of the outfit concerned.

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India should reach a stage where the third reason that is an exception becomes a rule in providing foolproof security to all targets, all the time, sans throwing the normal course of life of the threatened target to the winds. NEEDS OF A PERFICIENT SECURITY BUILDUP The Indian police system lays emphasis on dashing qualities rather than on mental qualities and planning that form the elan vital of security policing. The age- old police traits like a criant show of force and a strict adherence to hierarchical order have a mesalliance with the needs of security operations where patience, perseverance, calculating mind, an ingine to foresee developments, speedy physical and mental reflexes, unreachable sangfroid in adverse situations, high commitment to the work in hand, initiative and above all, courage to take responsibility for action decide the success or otherwise of the security buildup. Indeed, these human qualities have to be reinforced with neoteric security equipment including latest communication, transport, information, weaponry and other security-oriented systems. The organisation must have three full- fledged wings in charge of a) collection of intelligence, b) process and assessment of security risks and c) field operation. A) COLLECTION OF INTELLIGENCE Collection of vital intelligence forms the pith of perficient security operation. An effective security buildup perforce stands on the foundation of strategic intelligence. The feracity of security basically depends on the quality of intelligence as an input. A security organisation of neoteric age cannot survive without an effective intelligence wing as a backup unit. And key intelligence does not come freely. It has to be extracted at great risks from closely guarded sources by resourceful intelligence operators. Often, such an operation may require years of patient preparation by an undercover to cultivate dependable insiders to the cause. These operations are potential comminations to the mutual relation and ergo employers leave intelligence operators to their own fate when the operators are caught. Intelligence is a venal commodity and its price can be
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fixed in monetary terms. Collection of intelligence involves huge expenditure to maintain organisation and communication reticulation, support the logistics of the operations and at times to affect outright purchases as well. It requires a huge army of highly paid and expensive operators and agents to cover places and groups that arc potentially security risks. The success of security back home lout a fait depends upon the quality of the intelligence sent back. In an age of bitter concours to win over or withhold a piece of intelligence, double crosses or even triple crosses are au naturel. The situation necessitates keeping an eye on these operators from a distance. In other words, the intelligence collection setup is a

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very complicated machinery that always must be maintained in top condition a grands frais as an important factor in an internal security buildup. B) PROCESS AND ASSESSMENT OF SECURITY RISKS The raw inputs from intelligence sources have to be winnowed, classified and processed if found to have security relevance. Intelligence collection sans processing is as good as, if not worse than, not collecting them at all. Raw intelligence throws the national security to the winds by raising a maelstrom wherein facts and fancies are complected beyond recognition. It blunts the sensitivities of the sleuths and excoriates targets to real danger. The possibility can be avoided by creating a nerve-centre, a command post in the security organisation to process and assess intelligence inputs anent ground realities, past history and known facts. This organisation must be manned by people capable of reading between lines to arrive at right conclusions as well as devise strategies in the interests of the internal security. This body must have flair for research and analysis and knowledge of the internal situation of the country, dynamics of various factors that have bearing on the internal security and possess an insight into minor developments that may blow up into serious security risks at some future date. It must be constituted of carefully chose professionals with proven records of eximious work and a deep sense of patriotism and commitment to their work and should be directly responsible to the chief of the organisation and work as a high-power advisory body in all matters pertaining to the security. The unit must function as a command post where intelligence inputs are instreamed and where from field operations emanate. C) FIELD OPERATION Field operation is the cutting-edge of the security buildup. Other activities in the organisation are just postern backups to the field operation that forms the mainstay of the security organisation and inclips a vast portion of the organization’s manpower, equipments, machinery,
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money, time and other resources. If intelligence operators must have alert eyes and cars, security analysts must have smart mental faculties and field-operators must have smart reflexes inter alia. Only people with exceptional courage and perseverance and daredevilry can behove to this job. Resourceful people with a plurisie of energy and willingness to work hard in tramontane circumstances, rare single- mindedness of purpose and devotion can alone be successful in the dangerous world of field operations. They have to be pollent-willed people with the preparedness to risk their lives for the sake of achieving goals. Screening people for these traits is not a facile job. This arduous job has to be performed with great

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care and caution, for, the quality of internal security of the land depends upon the work turned out by them. The people who are chosen for the job must be able to provide security to men, places and structures, known to be sensitive and comminated by enemies, while they remain in shades. Speed and surprise are their chief attributes. Resourcefulness to do jobs that appear impossible is their mainstay. Indeed, the demands arc too high and this necessitates careful selection and recruitment, efficient training, high motivation and liberal compensations in the form of generous pay, perks and expenditure accounts. The people who play with their lives to meet the objectives of the internal security have to be treated well for the risks to which they willingly submit themselves in the interests of the country and its internal security. GLITCHES OF INDIAN SECURITY SETUP A coup d’oel over the security surroundings of India gives an insipid taste be it about security intelligence, security planning or security operation. The bungling of the Indian police at Konanakunte recently where they failed to capture Sivarasan and Subha of the Rajiv Gandhi assassination case is a recent paradigm. The chance intelligence as early as on 18-8-91 that both the extremists were holed up with others in a ramshackle house at Konanakunte could not help Indian security forces to catch them alive with all time, resources and the element of surprise at their disposal while the handful of desperados inside the walled structure had no knowledge of what was happening around them. This primarily reflects grim glitches in the field of security planning in India. A little use of the faculty of thinking and planning and ingine to retain an even keel under pressure would not have made capturing the extremists alive a difficile goal to achieve. Instead of showing conticent patience to devise an undercover strategy that allowed the unsuspecting extremists to come on the street on their own and thus enter the waiting dragnet of security sleuths or entering their den as friends with the help of undercover agents, our cops used the first available opportunity to spoil the
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advantage of surprise that fell into their hands by openly surrounding the building and thought of storming it while even the average newspaper reader knew a coup sur that the first reaction of the extremists when they were cornered would be the felo de se. What transpired ultimately there by the acte gratuit was not only the suicide by the extremists, it was the fetish suicide of the operation to catch the extremists alive. India and the Rajiv Gandhi assassination investigation gained nothing by the extremists’ death. They would have been more useful to India and the investigation had they remained alive in India or anywhere in the world. All hopes were doused by the senseless seizure of the hideout, ironically, using a vital piece of intelligence that would have

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made the Rajiv Gandhi assassination investigation a true success story of the 20th century. The glitch itself is a tragedy. MICRO- AND MACRO-SECURITY PLANNING The primary reason for such bungling is that Indian sleuths have not yet realized the intricacies of security operation. Their perception of security operation does not go much beyond multiple crack-forces, created one after the other like the Black Cats, National Security Guards, Special Protection Group etc. Perhaps some more are to follow at the cost of the state exchequer. Indeed, these crack forces are important. They are the ammunitions of the security weaponry. However effective the ammunitions be, they are worthless without a working gun to fire them. It is the situation of the present Indian security atmosphere. India is yet to develop an effective infrastructure to plan security strategies at micro and macro levels. In the absence of such machinery, the Indian security system is bound to react with struts and frets, mere random reactions depending on the fancies of the person in charge of the situation. Never should the internal security of a country be left in the hands of a few individuals; the vital interests of the country cannot be based on casual decisions of a few security sleuths. An exhaustive internal security plan on which all security strategies and operations are based must be the gospel of the internal security religion. Sadly, India is yet to have such a macro-plan to guide its security sleuths; it is yet to realize the inevitability of the macro-plan in reacting to security threats. MODEL INTERNAL SECURITY SCHEMES The present perception of internal security in India revolves round a few catchwords like prohibited areas, protected areas, official secrets, sensitive installations, static guards, armed pickets, mobile patrols, striking forces, perimeter protection, infiltration, mechanical breakdown, external and internal attacks, verification, unobtrusive watch, internal watch, intelligence collection, top-secret papers, security information, leakage of
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information etc. Model internal security schemes, containing jugglery of these words are available in all district and police offices. The plans in the security schemes are intended as guidelines for police officers during security emergencies, which are rarely the case for various reasons. The first and foremost reason is that the model schemes are anything but model, being too simplistic for this complex modem age. The plans in the schemes do not touch even the fringes of the present security needs. Secondly, the model schemes are based on outdated facts and statistics, which became irrelevant in subsequent periods. Though these model schemes are

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expected to be updated from time to time, seldom are they touched. This renders them irrelevant to a given phase of time. Thirdly, the security guidelines in the model schemes can in no way make a claim to expertise. They are simple suggestions based on common sense. Any police official with sound field knowledge can improve on them according to specific instances by relying on his own savvy. For all practical purposes, these model internal security schemes have become passe and impair. They have only historical interests in the neoteric scheme of things. CONTENTS OF MODEL SECURITY SCHEMES The model security schemes enumerate in terrorem the likely sources of threats to the country’s internal security such as aggression by an alien power, sabotage and subversive activities, communal riots, student unrest, extremist activities, violent labour problems, natural calamities etc. The scheme distinguishes between peacetime threats and wartime threats and deal with each period with various stages of approach like precautionary stage, preventive measures and protective measures. What are striking in these schemes arc the details of work to be attended to, like evacuation of lunatics, policepublic relations, peace committees, mobilization of NCC and volunteer organisations etc. But, unfortunately, there is nothing really instructive in these schemes for a security officer of good field experience and sound common sense. The only advantage the schemes provide is that all obvious measures are listed in a raisonne nutshell for easy reference. But, as said before, albeit the measures listed out are exhaustive as routine jobs to be performed in such disturbances, they in no way help in tackling complex internal security challenges of the present day. The reason for this is that the format of the schemes was conceived decades back when challenges of internal security were simpler and on expected lines. No serious thought was given to overhauling the format of the schemes since then. The position though is similar in respect of the blue book that deals with aspects of security for dignitaries, political compulsions helped to update them as more and more
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dignitaries fell to the bullets of extremists. The updating of the blue book is one of the plus points of the subservience of the police to political masters. Yet, the blue book too needs a complete overhauling on the basis of the new realities of security challenges and new perceptions and conceptions about meeting such challenges. PARAMETERS OF NEW SECURITY SCHEMES What the new blue book and new model internal security schemes need is guidelines on how to approach a security challenge and not what peripheral

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matters should be attended to. Each security challenge of the present day is sui generis and needs a specific approach depending upon the time, the place and other circumstances of the challenge. It is too simplistic to imagine that a common formula, however exhaustive it is, can tackle all internal security challenges of the present day. The blue book and model internal security schemes must lay down broad guidelines and the spirit with which security challenges must be approached, the nature and classes of such challenges, available methods of approach for each class of challenge, salient features of the risks involved and precautions to be attended to, alternative courses of action and assessment of the chances of success for each course under different circumstances etc. The security guidelines must name the nature of security threats under various situations and list out likely targets of sabotage under all imaginable circumstances. They must be able to forewarn about potential sources of threats and suggest ways and means of overcoming them and devise short and long-range plans to meet likely serious challenges. Such an approach to security relieves pressure on prototypal security and shifts stress to creative security and saves manpower and other resources from being wasted on unproductive quotidian mobilization. This works as a panpharmacon to the underutilization of precious security tools by unintelligent routine deployment. PROBLEMS OF SECURITY OPERATION The problems of security are manifold. In the stage of intelligence collection, the plurisie of intelligence itself poses the problem of blunting the edge of really vital intelligence. Often, true and false information are insomuch entwined that winnowing the one from the other becomes impossible; even if such a piece of information is identified as possibly true, it gets emaciated by the loss of credibility because of its locus standi in the midst of the heaps of intelligence that are sometimes true and many more times mendacious. Even if a piece of intelligence is winnowed out as true for further action, more often, than
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not, the intelligence is an isolated piece of information and ipso facto removed from the adversary’s total action plan. Such a piece of intelligence, many a time, leads to wrong conclusions and dangerous situations. Continued research per procurationem the piece of intelligence is a must to make it complete and fit for action. The research of available intelligence requires motivated intelligence operation, which is not possible without an elaborate and anfractuous infrastructure. If the particular piece of intelligence does not fall into place by such research, it may end up as an indign piece of information. The useful intelligence that falls in place by research requires to be subjected to analysis and study to test and substruct the situation and circumstances of both the challenge and the means

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to amate the challenge. This again depends upon the skill and experience of the individual or group of individuals who handle the job. Often, both the research and analysis are carried out under the constraints of time because of the proximity of the threat even while security operation is based on the research and analysis of intelligence, the basic intelligence and its sources are required to be kept as a closely guarded secret. Any leakage about an impending plan may prompt an adversary to modify his strategy to superate the security operation. This necessitates every security operation to be esoteric in its substance and scope and carried out with perfect elements of surprise. This creates problems of mobilization and deployment without rousing suspicion. The men to handle the security operation should be handpicked for competence and probity. Their antecedents and recent activities must be closely examined before they are cleared. It is the failure of security agencies to effectively carry out such preparations that cost India Smt. Indira Gandhi. The briefing of security operators about their job itself poses its own problem. The time of briefing must be carefully chosen so that while the gap between the impending operation and the briefing gives sufficient time to the operators for preparation, it must not be so long as to give them louche ideas or to allow any inadvertent actions to leak the plan. The timing of briefing and development must be decided at high levels to ensure perfect secrecy. Another crucial problem of security, operation pertains to the quantum of briefing: how much must be briefed? Security operation basically involves the creative initiative of the operator. His success depends upon his ability to assess the situation and pursue better course of action sans loss of time. Too much briefing trammels the mind and results in loss of creative initiative. Too little may fail to provide the insight into salient features of the operation and leave the operator in a cul-de-sac. The success of a security operation depends also on deciding how much briefing must be made to each of the operators at disparate ranks and levels and how much information and background knowledge can be
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fed to them. Here again, liberal outlets for vital information create security risks. The primary requirement of any security operation is a thorough study and analysis of intelligence and other inputs, a detailed conception of the plan of operation with adaptability for contingencies and painstaking in execution with a resourceful mind and quick reflexes to meet such contingencies, if any. TIMING OF OPERATION Timing is an essential ingredient of the security planning. Perchance, this is the most significant single ingredient that decides the success or failure of an operation. Apart from infusing the element of surprise, the time-factor provides

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for making the strike while the adversary is mentally and physically least prepared for it. Often, the right time helps the operation to succeed with right contents, which may not be possible otherwise because of the alertness of an equally skeely and prepared adversary. The failure of Indian security forces to capture Sivarasan and Subha can be attributed to the swither and inexplicable cunctation of nearly 1½ day for action after it was inadvertently made known to the terrorists that they were cornered with no recourse for survival. Unfortunately, the police force discounted the time-factor and the bevue ended up in tragic perdition to the investigation that would have otherwise turned out to be a world event, a plangent success story of the century. RELEVANCE OF TRADITIONAL APPROACH Not that everything of traditional approach to security is irrelevant today. Certain aspects therein are indeed sempiternal tools in a security buildup. The strategy of quadruple deployment namely static guards, armed pickets, mobile patrols and striking forces yet constitute the skeleton of any security buildup for a static target. The strategy takes the form of standing guards, personal security officer, inner cordon, outer cordon and striking force in respect of a human target. Its derivative for a mobile target is a security officer, escort, piloting and striking force. The in-built deployment though it in no way pre-empts a raisonne strike by a perficient outfit, perforce provides a semblance of resistance to random strikes and gives a psychological advantage to security in the form of a show of strength. However, it should be borne in mind that this strategy in no way replaces specific security strategies; it only complements them. Security, its challenges and the strategies to counter it are ever-growing phenomena. Security and its challenges change their colours like chameleons and force strategies that counter them to keep pace pari passu. An effective strategy must foresee future challenges and arm itself in advance for them. Otherwise, the security is bound to be indign of its raison d’ etre. It must be said that Indian
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security agencies do not meet this cardinal need. Not that India has no concern for its internal security. Bloodcurdling terrorist outfits from all sides surround it. The Kashmir separatist movement in the North, the Akali separatist movement in the west, the ULFA in the East, the LTTEs in the South and the Naxalites in the Centre comminate a corps perdu, India’s internal security and very survival. The number of new security outfits coming up is an indication of India’s concern for its security. The triste part of the spiel is that India yet does not know how to face these gauntlets to its very existence and the misplaced emphasis on quantity in the form of a new security outfit every time a serious security breach shakes the country, rather than building quality, complicated the matter. Indian security

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standards have not made kenspeckle headway pro rata to the rise in expenditure incurred thereon in recent years because India is yet to gain an insight into the salient features of security in the modem complex political world that learnt to achieve its goals by comminations and bullets. Until India learns the basic lessons of modern security, tragic deaths and destruction are bound to continue. Ergo, India must act pronto.

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REVAMPING THE INVESTIGATION MACHINERY
Indian Constitution makes Criminal Justice System a Rhadamanthine steel frame of the rule of law when it preconises in Article 20(1), “No person shall be convicted of any offence except for violation of a law in force at the time of the commission of the act charged as an offence, nor be subjected to a penalty greater than that which might have been inflicted under the law in force at the time of the commission of the offence.” A common place looking but potent instrument in theory that keeps out faith, public opinion or even sittlichkeit beyond the purview of the nation’s Criminal Justice System and proclaims the rule of law as its sole life and blood and making all equal before the law irrespective of one’s status, standing and rank in the society. However, the realities in the field as it developed today are entirely different from what was perceived then by the fathers of the Indian Constitution at a milieu of different value system. The democratic political dynamics of India since independence took a direction entirely different from the popular expectations and thus the need of corrections perforce. POLITICAL LEADERSHIP Amod Kanth, DGP, who was sacked by the Government from the post of the Police Chief of Goa on 25 November on the ground that the DGP did not obey the Government’s written orders reacted by stating that the police are the agents of law and he did not believe in loyalty to anyone, but strongly believed in the performance of duties in terms of constitutional, legal and people-oriented parameters. Kudos to his noble ideas and values. I too had championed that cause of the profession and perhaps the first to bring out the ideal in concrete ideas in 1990s. However, the
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conundrum lies in the lengths to which the Indian Constitution moves and prepares for those paradigmatic roles for its police in its body and gestalt. Police and policing for the Indian Constitution are nothing more than the subject matters of Legislative Powers as enshrined in the Lists of its Seventh Schedule under Article 246, ipso facto rendering it within the constitutional limits

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subordinate to the control and supervision of the political bosses in power and their policies and programmes. Sadly, Indian Constitution does not recognise their professional ideals, values and conscience, and their singular role as the custodians of the rule of law. They are circumscribed by the political will to which they are subordinate. All the extant ills of this maledict country emanate from this sole provenance. This is a serious matter as far as investigation of crimes is concerned. CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION Criminal investigation as the bedrock of the prosecution, judicial proceedings and subsequent penal servitude forms the seed of the criminal justice system. Crime prevention activities being pneumatic and nebulous as what it is, it is criminal investigation that constitutes the spine of the crime administration anywhere in the world. Right investigation of crimes is the soul of fair societal living and the foundation of the fair and secure living. The Indian Constitution rests the control and supervision of the premiere investigation agency of the country, the Central Bureau of Investigation, in the hands of the political leadership of the Union Government and the police and the offences against the State Laws in the hands of the political leadership of the State Government by keeping the subject matters in respective Lists of the Seventh Schedule under Article246. This sine dubio provides a key and decisive role to the political leadership in power in the investigation of crimes and renders the police mere professional tools of the political decision makers. Considering the growth of the political culture of the country in the last six decades and the need of absolute fairness and objectivity in the process of the criminal investigation, better deal for criminal investigation in the gestalt of the Indian Constitution is certainly called for. This is sine qua non for the survival of the nation as well as for the health of its political and public life. POLITICAL COMPULSIONS Shibu Soren, the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha chief, who was the Coal and Mines minister in the UPA government
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quit the Cabinet on July 24 in face of vociferous demand by the BJP and its NDA allies for his resignation after a Jharkhand court issued a non-bailable warrant against him in a 20-year-old case relating to the 1975 Chirudih massacre during the agitation for a separate Jharkhand state, only to be reinducted to the Union Cabinet on November27 as the minister of Coal after the Opposition was cornered by its own act of going all out in support of the Kanchi Shankaracharya, Shri Jayendra Saraswati while the latter was arrested by the Tamilnad police on November 11 on the charges of conspiracy for the murder of a whilom devotee of the Kanchi Mutt,

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Shankararaman. The episode makes it crystal clear how political parties treat investigation of even serious cases of murder as their political pawns to checkmate the opponents. Criminality is a non-issue in Indian political parlance and criminals increasingly proved to be the pillars of India’s democracy. They constitute the spine of the Indian politics. No Government is possible and complete without their participation. Criminal investigation becomes a farce if left to the mercy of these people, which it has already become in the last half century in India. POLITICS IS FOR POWER Politics is for power. Power in democracy does not come for free. No sensible person can squander his hard earned money in political gambles. That is how corruption enters politics a la derobee. Peter Ustinov said, “Corruption is nature’s way of restoring our faith in democracy.” It is dangerously radicated in the extant political system of India so much that politics sans corruption has become unimaginable. As back as in 1971, when the then Union Finance Minister, Y.B.Chavan approached the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi with a proposal for demonetisations to curb corruption, the only curt response from the Prime Minister was a question, “Chavanji, are no more elections to be fought by the Congress Party?” That reveals the political compulsions within which a politician must operate. The grab is more serious lower down the level. Every MLA or MP counts in the survival game of the politics. The choice is between power interests and national interests. Almost always it is the survival instinct and the lure of power that prevails true to the very definition of the politics. People’s representatives are allowed to auction postings within their constituencies to influence the administration in their favour or to enable them to pool the fund to face the next election as a quid pro quo for their continued support to the Chief Executive of the Government and his survival. This is a vicious circle of political compulsions outgrown in the Indian variety of the democracy. No investigation machinery can remain fair and objective in such an ambience. Political system in India has
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just not matured for the enlightened leadership of the criminal justice system. POLITICAL EXPEDIENCY Criminal investigation in India has become a matter of political expediency. State political leadership decides about the permission to the CBI to investigate a case depending on its own vulnerability and interests in the case. Whether it is in states or in the Centre, criminal cases are taken for investigation, the pace of the investigation is decided, arrests are made, bails and post-arrest treatments are decided, and even the quality of the investigation are regulated according to the

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needs of the politicians in power. Important investigations continuing for decades and even dying in rerum natura following political needs are no more exceptions in India. The way out to resile the criminal investigation machinery to its normal fairness, objectivity and the framework of the rule of law is to institute a constitutional body for criminal investigation called the Indian Investigation Authority in the Centre and subordinate Authorities in the states by due constitutional amendments a la the judiciary with autarchy to guide the process of the investigations from the scratch to the end sans immunity to any except perhaps to the President of the country. Indeed the process necessitates a specialised cadre of investigators responsible only to the Investigation Authority with a senior Supreme Court judge as its constitutional head and senior police and civil service officers of proven integrity selected by the Authority in consultation with the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as members in constitutional posts and responsible only to the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and the President of the country. This may considerably relieve the investigation machinery of the country from the epinosic political compulsions and bring fairness, objectivity and the framework of the rule of law so essential for the rightful process of any investigation back to its frame.

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COORDINATED APPROACH TO CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
Justice begotten at a cost is justice lost. Justice is a natural right. It is the sine qua non and the raison d’etre of the social grouping. Justice in a social environment has to be as natural as sleep or oxygen to a living being. Free and fair justice is the leges legum of the human rights. The proficiency of the judicial administration system has to be assayed with this litmus test and its role in the system has to be judged by its contributions to this goal of the judicial administration system. Justice in its basic sense necessitates an integral vision. Justice abstracted from its environment, past, present, future, diverse issues, dramatis personae and related events cannot be justice in the true sense of the word. Justice in parts is no justice that lasts. Justice involves delving deep down to the heart of an issue and delivering justice in reference to all related issues and matters to the rightful entitlement of all. This presupposes a passion for objectivity and justness and above all, selflessness in the arbitrators of justice as well as in those who are in the service of the administration of justice. JUDICIARY AND THE POLICE Effectiveness of police lies in its ability in making justice an easily and cheaply dispensable commodity. Police are the first line of the means of dispensing justice. Courts come to the scene only in far later stage for restricted number of cases. For the hoi polloi, police is the first and the only easy defence against injustices. Most cases of disputes never cross the thresholds of the police stations. Police do act as arbitrators of justice in criminal as well as
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civil cases in exercise of the wide spectrum of responsibilities of crime investigations, investigations, maintenance of law, enforcement of order, preventive measures and security duties. They enjoy a key position in the administration of justice. A good police certainly symbolize effective administration of justice more than courts and prosecution department together do. That is why a sound police system is conditio sine qua non for the health and progress of the country and its tenuous social fabric.

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The position of the police as the enforcer of the laws of the country gives it an edge in the judicial system of the country in enforcement of laws, preventive measures and investigation of crimes and provides it a strategic relationship with the dispenser of laws namely the judiciary. Though the judiciary has absolutely no say in the organizational matters of the police force, it, if it so desires and have adequate resources to do it, can have absolute control over the police functions as the police au fond is the enforcer of laws and the judiciary is the interpreter and dispenser of the laws and the synergy between the two functions perforce implies absolute subordination of the police functions to the judicial review. However, this may not be the case in practice for several reasons. One is the concept of judicial restraint. Another is the constraints within which the judiciary functions. The other is the disinclination of the judiciary to interfere with the executive functions of the police unless circumstances compel it to do so to discharge its cardinal responsibility of upholding the rule of law and justice in the country. In the spectrum of the state administration, the police enjoy or suffer a rather polemic position defying many principles of the statecraft like the insulation of legislature, executive and judiciary in the machinery of the state governance or the compatibility between the constitutional rights invested with the importance enjoyed by a government organisation in the state administration. The police organisation on the other hand is the best example of the unity of state administration, of the synergy of various organs of the state governance. It, as an enforcer of laws, investigator of crimes and an apparatus of state security, share a lever with all the pockets of the statecraft and acts as the spinal chord of the government by coordinating the functions of the legislature, the executive and the judiciary in establishing the rule of law. Its bonds with the executive and the judiciary are equally strong and act as a powerful link between the two powerful wings of the government. It is a string that binds disparate wings and organs of the government together and gives it a
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sense of oneness and belonging while it remains en arriere. This explains the sine qua non of the police in state administration while denying it a ranking place as a governing body sui juris like many other organs of the state administration. The police as a government agency represent the driving force of the executive and the controlling device of the judiciary. It is the working muscle of the government. It represents the law of the country and therefore ultimately responsible to the laws of the country. While it is a part of the executive, its subordination to the judiciary and responsibility towards the law of the country raise it above the scope of the executive functions. While it is a part of the judiciary, its position as a handmaid

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of the executive, spreads its role above the scope of the judiciary. Ergo, the police are a government agency that performs functions both within and above the scope of the executive and judiciary as well as the legislature. The police are a part of all these wings of the government and subordinate of each to them while outgrows each of them in professional discharge of its responsibilities au reste. What is required is the realization of this sui generis position of the police and preparing itself mentally to discharge these cardinal responsibilities in compatibility with the professional requirements. UNITY OF PURPOSE IN INDIAN POLICE In the current system of policing in India, police stations and district police units form clavis of the administration. Some of the functions discharged at these levels have concurrent jurisdiction with some special units at state and national levels. Crime investigation in special circumstances can be taken over from the district police administration by the state CID or the CBI at the national level. The police in the state are devised as an independent unit. In a vast country like India, policing being shared between myraid independent units with no perspicaciously defined mechanism of concinnity, the problem occurs of coordination and the unity of purpose in tackling crimes. Except for the sense of national unity there is nothing common among these units to appropinquate the gauntlets with a common cause. Even the common Indian Police Service is unable to bring about a unit of purpose to policing throughout India. This gives an impression of fragmentation in the Indian police. A fragmented police cannot turn out work in full-stream owing to the waste by leakage in the process of co-ordination between the fragmented parts. India must consider devising a pollent unitary police administration at the centre with full control over subordinate state and union territory police setups. This would avoid coordination problems and help policing by allogamy to be more purposeful in tackling challenges from the national perspective. It also makes available larger resources from the national level for policing apart
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from strengthening the sense of belonging to one police. This is the conditio sine qua non for the perficient policing of the future. CRIMINAL LAWS A few glaring anomalies and some erroneous provisions more suo in the extant criminal laws of India improvise for the easy escapades of criminals from the clutches of law and the harassment of innocent persons by the law enforcing authorities. The psellisms of the criminal law have to be plugged imprimis if crime administration has to be effective in India and command a semblance of respect and confidence of the public.

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The police or judicial officer under whose custody a person is kept under detention should be made responsible by name for the latter’s timely release with a provision that if detention exceeds the period provided by law, it will make the concerned officer liable for proceedings for unlawful detention sans the privilege of exemptions ingenerate to the actions performed in official colours. CRIMINAL LAW BOARD India requires the constitution of a statutory Criminal Law Board as an advisory body to liaise between the criminal justice setup and the union law ministry regarding criminal laws to facilitate glib process of the criminal justice system. The board, as a permanent body, may have senior most officers of the central government from home and law ministries, police and prosecution departments, distinguished humanists and senior advocates of the Supreme Court as members with the union home minister as its chairman. It must undertake propaedeutic of the need of changes in criminal laws from time to time. The board may meet every quarter or a year and discuss extant criminal laws and their shortcomings in the light of representations received from officers in the field from the police and prosecution departments and make proposals for requisite changes in criminal laws e ra nata. HUMAN RIGHTS CELLS Institution of human rights cells in each district and metropolitan city as advisory conseil to the police of the region with local human rights champions as its members to draw attention to specific instances of inhuman conduct by subordinate officers would meet the needs to keep the police on pernoctation against excesses. The human rights cells should be a dynamic part of the police administration in the regions and its observations should set in motion a process of verification and peremptory action. Though subjecting police to the scrutiny of an outside setup may appear a retrograde measure, it may help the assuefaction of the policing methods to human comports and saves the establishment from the charges of violation of human rights
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STRUCTUAL CHANGES The first and foremost job to do to bring back the police on rails as a fair dealer in the process of the criminal justice system is to extricate the police from the epinosic influence of all hues by making it responsible to an independent Authority with absolute powers to take decisions on matters of policing and criminal investigation. The Authority should be a professional body of men and women of proven probity and competence as members, who reached a stage from where they need not sacrifice their convictions to appease those in power. A working arrangement is to be devised by which the Authority becomes

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responsible directly to the legislature and functions independently a la the judiciary, the Central Vigilance Commission, the Comptroller and Auditor General or the Chief Election Commissioner. Creation of a Core Group of people adept in assessing men and character within the aforesaid Police Authority helps to create a feeling of confidence and job security in police and prod to discharge the duties of crime investigation fearlessly. This Group that oversees the work of police personnel from a distance should be ultimately responsible for all career decisions in the police force. The responsibility of senior officers in assessing the work of the subordinates that forms the major embarrassment of the present Indian police dispensation must be limited to giving opinion about the performance of their subordinates to the Core Group; the expert Core Group must process the opinion by its own research, expertise and discretion and take responsible decision on its own research, expertise and discretion and take responsible decision on its own. The Group must be made responsible for all development plans of the police, work assessment, job analyses, recruitment and management of human resources etc. Institution of such a Core Group to oversee the career development of police personnel without personal bias may bring revolutionary changes in the police by committing it to its work ethics and professional telos with single mindedness to bring in objectivity and fairness to the process of the crime investigation from the vile prise of those in power and rich and powerful enough to dictate terms to the police. PROSECUTION The weakest link in the chain of the criminal justice system in India ironically is the cardinal factor of the system namely the prosecution that actually heads and guides the criminal justice process in countries like the United States of America. The prosecution as the interface between the investigating agency and the judiciary and between the investigation and the law is run in India by minor government departments with all the malaises and
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malfeasances common to such setups like indifference, inefficiency, complacency, casualness, corruption and lack of professionalism and competitive edge. Prosecution is cardinal to criminal justice process and professionalism and competitive edge constitute the summum bonum of the process as it makes investigation relevant to the judiciary and judiciary meaningful to the investigation to emphasize that crime never pays and criminality never succeeds. While investigation involves indagation of facts and adjudication involves interpretation of laws, prosecution is involved in right interpretation as facilitator of the criminal justice system. In this sense, prosecution is the unifier of the process and needs really highcalibre

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performance to make the criminal justice system a success. It needs social sensitivity and commitment of the highest order and competitive edge to fight out the rich and powerful criminals with the best defence lawyers and creative edge in the service of the truth and justice. It is easier said than possible in a government setup of the Indian mindset. An efficacious criminal justice system calls for a sound prosecution mechanism that is flexible enough to draw the best talents from the open market and reward strictly by chevisance. The investigating agencies at various levels should have the liberty to pick the best legal talents in the field as prosecutors for a fixed tenure like five years on a contract to try their cases at attractive emoluments. The fear of outsiders on contract in government setups is meaningless in the triste ambience of the profligate insiders of the independent India. The selection of the right prosecutor cannot be left to any individual at any rank because of the prolate fall in moral standards of the country. Each district police unit and state and central investigating agencies must have a statutory prosecutor selection committee constituted of the principal district Judge or his representative as the chairman, the Deputy Commissioner of the district, the president of the district Bar Council and a representative formally appointed by the Deputy Commissioner from the local Human Rights organization or any public service organization as the members and the district police chief as the membersecretary for each district, High Court or Supreme Court Chief Justice or his representative as the chairman, Chief Secretary of the state or the Cabinet Secretary, the president of the High Court or the Supreme Court Bar Council and the head of the Human Rights Commission as the members and the chief of the investigating agency as the secretary-member for the state and the central investigating agencies for the selection of right prosecutors from the best legal talents in the field for quantum meruit based on performance for fixed tenures on contract as deemed fit from time to time. The high nature of the
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selection committee behoves to the high importance of the right prosecutors at all levels for the success en semble of the criminal justice system and the concomitant peace, security and prosperity of the country and its people. PRISONS The place of prisons in the plexus of the criminal justice system is sine qua non in that it is the guardian of all the condemned persons and the fate of their families and dependants. Their responsibilities therefore are unenviable. This is especially so in the circumstances that criminals are not born, but made by the circumstances and the insensitivities of the society and the society that has spawned criminals out of them because of its failures has a responsibility towards

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them to reform and accommodate them. Sadly, extant prison setups in India as government departments as hubs of inefficiency, indifference and corruption largely lack sensitivity to the gargantuan task. The sensitivity of the task as the custodians of the periculous criminals including security threats further escalates the problem. Powerful and rich criminals of whatever category living in prisons en prince is common knowledge. There are myriad cases of dangerous criminals running their criminal gangs extra muros from the precincts of the prisons and even committing murders and sabotages with the patronage of the corrupt prison officials. Such a prison administration undermines the very purpose of the criminal justice system. Indian prison administration needs overhauling a fond without the edifice of its structure being disturbed. How about a Prisons Management Board for each prison with the head of the prison as its member-secretary and the head of the prisons department as the chairman with the Deputy Commissioner of the concerned district, the district police chief and the district medical officer and two representatives from the local human rights and social service organizations appointed by the Deputy Commissioner as members running the administration and statutorily being responsible for the performance of the prison? It shall deracinate all extant evils of the prison administration and free the hapless prisoners from all their gratuitous inhuman sufferings and the rich and powerful among them from being a princely retreat and a haven of safety and security to hide from the revenge of the opposite groups. The heart of the responsibilities of the criminal justice system is cleansing the society by bringing criminals to book. Investigation is the prime tool available for this end. Human rights, justice and equitability before the law make up the essence of the privileges man enjoys in the social setup. The organisations entrusted with the responsibility of protecting the rights and doing justice to all with the equitable process of the criminal justice system en semble are doing a disservice to the professions and humanity if
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failed in their cardinal responsibility coordination and synergy in approach.

for

want

of

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INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES IN POLICING
Indian Police of the post-independent vintage is deeply mired in the maelstrom of inaptitude and unprofessional indulgences non-obstinate rare exceptions. It is impaled in the skein of self-seeking objectives and amblyopia. Motivation is the first disaster in the process. Excellence suffers in the ambience. Those in police in India are familiar with this mephitis. But, sadly as unenlightened as they are, they think that they are doing a service to the police by denying the reality. Such people have not realized the fact that a sound reconstruction presupposes demolition. Unfortunately, these people are perpetuating the glissade of the Indian police. Talks of innovative techniques presuppose a sound foundation. In the situation of a crumbling foundation as in India Police, talks of innovative techniques appear rather cosmetic. The singular panpharmacon convenance for the malady of the India Police is packed in just two words: motivation and professionalism. Bring it, all other matters including organizational restructuring, administrative skills, control mechanisms, long term perspectives, accountability, efficiency, innovative techniques, cost effectiveness, creative input, response time etc inter se fall in line. Anything done sans the two attributes as the backbones of the gestalt is an operose labour of carrying to a bottomless avernus. As motivation and professionalism constitute independent subjects for exhaustive deliberations inter se and beyond the scope of the extant paper, I attempt a brachypterous propaedeutic on what innovative techniques are en regle for the India Police within the given limitations. 1) CREATION OF A DISTINCT DETECTIVE CADRE
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Policing of the ancien regime was basically identified with crime investigations. Even now, popular perception of the Police is associated with crime investigation. The image of the Police is largely dependent on the standard of the performance of its investigators. The pandemic tragedy of the present Indian Police is that the investigation ingredient of the policing is increasingly palliated by external pressures. The prevarication is a major factor in the

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degringolade of the police and policing standards in India subsequent to independence. Indian police can cover the Achilles’ heel by carrying out a separate detective cadre up to the rank of Inspectors with recruitment and training processes more suo conforming to the needs of the detective cadre. The cadre should be treated as a distinct entity for the purpose of seniority and promotions. Inspectors from the detective and general streams have to be absorbed to higher ranks on the basis of seniority cum merit with a clear advantage of one or two years to the detective cadre so that the best brains are illaqueated to the fold. Periodical in-service training and tests in investigation skills have to be an essential ingredient of the cadre management and conditional to gain eligibility for promotion at every level. The demarche may revert Indian police to its pristine gloria in the vital expanse of the crime investigation. Creation of the distinct detective cadre necessitates perforce the creation of investigation centers parallel to the police stations in the process of the division of policing responsibilities at the grass root levels. 2) POLICE STATIONS AS GRASSROOT POLICE SYSTEM: A system is a functionally independent unit of mutually dependent entities that constitute the whole with or without an umbilical chord connecting to the materfamilias for sustenance. Extant police stations can hardly be a system as per this definition. Police stations as of now are dependent on ectogenous factors for its functions leading to dilation of effectiveness and professionalism. On the other hand, police stations as an ideal system must infuse credibility and compel public co-operation. The police Inspector in charge of a police station in the new system must have a legal Inspector trained in law and a panel of local representatives as statutory aides. For this, the police department must create a new cadre of legal officers trained in law to staff the police stations and senior police offices. On the other hand, the district police superintendents must prepare a panel of two or three law531

abiding and distinguished nonpolitical locals of his choice for each police station under him as democratic representatives. All major decisions and actions of a police station must originate only after formal discussion between the police inspector, the legal Inspector and any one from the statutory panel of the locals and on majority decision among the three in writing as a statutory requirement. The process helps the democratization of the policing at the grass root level consectary to the zeitgeist sans the negative aspects of the democratic process. The opus musivum brings the advantage of a collective decision and a touch of legal expertise and local-sense to the policing decisions and actions. The systemic

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change may take away the apollyon of corruption immanent in the ancien regime and also oppilate it too. Indeed, much depends upon the avizefull selection of the locals by the district police superintendent. After all, he is responsible au fond for the perficient policing in his district. Two techniques that constitute the bedrock for transforming Indian police to an efficient outfit in the absence of motivation and professionalism at higher levels are touched upon here. The Indian police must learn to live with the cul de sac of such an absence and consectaneous maelstrom and adapt as it is well- nigh impossible to breach complacency. Ergo, if anything, it must be at lower levels. And the grass root level is the most ideal candidate to take something pro bono publico. Hence, a couple of isagogic techniques that I think innovative to restructure policing and police administration at the grass root level are dealt in brief here. If the new fangled techniques are imprimis incorpsed assez bien in Indian police system, I obsign that that contabescent Indian police is bound to experience considerable face-lift.

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VISION FOR THE INDIAN POLICE
The most basic requirement of any good governance is a vision, an ability to look ahead to the future of the country with great expectations and endless possibilities in sidelines. This is potential of evolving the governance to greater heights to herald an era of successes and prosperity. Visions carve paths to the future and prod the governance to navigate along the couloirs. It provides a break from the quotidian plod in preference to innovative strides to fulfill the vision. Governance sans vision is like building an edifice a tatons without a plan or blueprint. It at best is a random erection. Vision gives direction and purpose to the governance. It gives grandeur and a proportion to the process. No governance can be good and complete without a vision to steer ahead, and true governance can be built only on the terra firma of a vision. The old concept of a prosperous India is based on the vision of “Rama-Rajya.” The new concept of India coming of age is based on the vision of a world power or a regional power in Asia. Once a vision of that dimension is contrived to back, it is easy to put the pluses and minuses to conceive a strategy towards the end. Otherwise, governance is nothing more than a mechanical motion. Shree A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, the hon’ble former President of India is quoted in Introduction to the “Report of the Committee on India Vision” prepared by the Planning Commission in December 2002 as saying, ‘A vision is not a project report or a plan target. It is an articulation of the desired end results in broader terms.’ The same report in Conclusion enumerates Nine Nodal points of Indian Prosperity, which as adapted and edited to the police and policing of the 2020 vintage, can be summed up ut infra: 1. PEACE, SECURITY & NATIONAL UNITY—Physical
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security both from external and internal threats—strong national defence, domestic law enforcement and social harmony. 2. PRODUCTIVITY SECURITY—A vibrant and highly productive policing sector that can ensure national security, generate stability, stimulate peace, and produce a safe and confident social fabric.

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3. JOBS FOR ALL—A departmental commitment to ensure the right of all police personnel to be employed round the year in policing according to his merit competence and skill. 4. KNOWLEDGE—An environment of cent per cent expertise in policing activities all over the world including latest policing techniques, latest police technologies, organizational and administrative updates from all over the world, law reforms and related matters by training and exposures to maximum police personnel. 5. HEALTH—Care towards physical well-being of all citizens. 6. TECHNOLOGY & INFRASTRUCTURE—Continuous expansion of the physical infrastructure for rapid low-cost transportation and communication that is required for effective policing competitiveness and policing aides. Application of computers to improve access to knowledge and information, and increase in the speed, efficiency and convenience of activities in all fields of policing. 7. GLOBALISATION—Successful integration of Indian Police with the policing activities world over. 8. GOOD GOVERNANCE—Farsighted and dynamic leadership to maximize effective policing, security and social justice through responsive, transparent and accountable administration that removes all the bottlenecks to successful policing. 9. WORK VALUES-Activation of all these nodal points requires firm and determined adherence to high values, including prompt decision-making, disciplined execution, systematic implementation, finely tuned co-ordination, unceasing effort and endurance. The report also says that the future depends not on what will happen, but on what is decided to become, and on the will to create it. The vision of 2010 or 2020 must be one in which all levels and sections of the police and all of its parts march forward together into a more productive and prosperous future. The vision of ‘police 2010’ and ‘police 2020’ is discussed under these parameters provided in the report as a national perspective with the purpose of bringing about uniformity
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of approach and identification with the national thought process. PARAMETERS OF CHANGE Panta rhei. Change is a universal phenomenon and the proof of life. Change is the manifestation of adoption and adaptation and a carrier of the process of the evolution. No living organism or organisation can remain unchanged between 2006 and 2010 or 2020. Necessitas non habet legem. Necessities of the

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environment dictate terms for changes and changes occur inter se. That is a sign of growth. This is so for the police also. Police being an essential service, it can never remain a deadwood, ergo, must show signs of life and concomitant propensity for change. But the clavis here is that natura non facit saltum. Change is a gradual process running on the bedrock of certain definite parameters. Understanding here is prognostication. Assessing the parameters of the change in this perspective gives clues to the dynamics that shape the police of 2010 or 2020. A vision is possible and shapes on the determinants decided upon on the terra firma of these parameters. Vision gives direction to the flow of the dynamics of the change, and determination to pad-up and execute the vision provides fuel for realizing the vision. POPULATION GROWTH Increase in population does have significant impact on the challenges and the performances of the police, and inevitably on the direction it takes for its growth. Ability to assess the challenge provides an allee to decide upon how disadvantages can be converted into advantage to envision the police of the 2010 or 2020 vintage in an advantageous mould corresponding to the overall national interests. Corresponding to the increase in the global population from 6.3 billion in 2006 to estimated 6.7 billion in 2010 and 7.5 billion in 2020, India which is home to 1/6 of the humanity is expected to have its population rise from 1.1 billion in 2006 to 1.18 billion in 2010 and 1.35 billion in 2020 ipso facto figuring to 1.6% population growth per annum. Police being the custodian of peace, security and national unity in the environment will have larger challenges and responsibilities to shoulder and endure, necessitating appropriate measures to stand up to the problems and do better. GLOBALISATION With further shrinking and diminishing of the globe to a global hamlet in the next fifteen years thanks to advancements in the fields of transport and
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communication, the magnitude of policing also becomes globalize with its own advantages and disadvantages. The shift certainly renders policing a trans-border phenomenon touching humanity tout ensemble. With crimes and criminality increasingly transcending national borders, policing no more will remain an intra- border affair by 2020 and cooperation between the police in the international arena in the common interests of the rule of law and justice will become the condition sine qua non by then. Extradition and exchange of criminal intelligence will become centric to effective policing processes. It is not only transport and communication that render the globe smaller to an aldea and contributes to bring global dimension to the criminality. Computer

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and Internet revolution added another dimension to the issue along with global economic enterprises and their global reticulations adding their own contributions to the ascensive criminal tendencies and their global spread. Cyber crime is gaining its own currency in the police parlance with its reverberations felt in countries across the world. It will be trans-border cooperation or perish for the profession of policing in the milieu of the globalization. Terrorism as an international phenomenon against humanity will bring the need of watching and addressing trans-border crimes into sharp focus even to the exclusion of common intra-border crimes in priorities. TECHNOLOGY EXPLOSIONS Technology is a powerful vehicle of the successful policing and constitutes the spine of effective policing. This is one factor that renders change inevitable for policing to update itself to keep au courant with the latest technological developments affecting police and policing as aides either in criminal or policing activities. Technology explosions touching policing activities either as carriers of the policing activities or as policing techniques occurred in recent past are bound to continue with accrescent pace in coming years and the technology advancements in related fields in the next five or fifteen years will be considerable, calling for suitable updating by the police. Again it is ‘remain fit or perish’ for the police. Au reste, it is left to the vision of the top brass how to meet the gauntlets and make best out of the vicissitudes. If police fails here, criminals, anti-social elements and the hors la loi will take advantage of the situation and gain upper hand in this field to be the ultimate apollyon of the policing concept as the savior of the innocent and law-abiding citizens. It is an issue of whom among the police and criminals take better advantage of the open market of the technology explosions for survival and bring the other to its knee. Police ignore this bitter concours at its own peril. Technology advancements in the fields of transport and communication do have pollent impact on the policing methods as they serve as the harbinger of faster response
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time and provide access to areas unthought otherwise as possible. Communication technology is in excelsis these days and bound to make further progress in coming five or fifteen years. Computer and Internet technologies are the other fields to be watched as a pollent tool of the information technology. E-governance is a by-word now. It will be an omnipresent reality in 2020 with 2010 forming a part of the transition period. It will be particularly so in a key sector like policing with e-policing through computer and Internet technologies in policing methods and techniques going hi-tech apart from police administration and organizational activities being fully computerised. Computer

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and Internet technologies by 2020 may change the very face of the policing all over the world so much that the present police systems will remain by that time only as a matter of archival interests. Policing techniques too may find revolutionary changes if extant technological advancements are any indications. Latest technologies like DNA profiling for identification and related activities will find universal acceptance as popular as fingerprints and footprints now. Even the researches on stem cells coming with solutions to decide and perhaps cure criminal tendencies cannot be ruled out. Also, feracious researches and discoveries on super conductivity, solid fuel and liquid nitrogen and allied subjects may find some relevance to the process of the policing and policing techniques by the year 2020 if not earlier in 2010. What is called for is a vision and vigilance in part of the police leaders to make use of the breakthroughs at the advent of the right time to overtake the visionary and vigilant criminals in the concours for the superiority. ECONOMIC GROWTH Economics and crimes algate go pari passu. They are the two faces of the same coin in any society, more so in a democracy, and economic growth perforce affect crime and criminal fields, ipso facto police orientations in a major way. India’s increasingly dynamic and vibrant economic base lends credence to the view that India can achieve and sustain higher than historical rates of economic growth in the coming decades. The compounded effect of achieving the targeted annual GDP growth rate of 8.5 to 9 per cent over the next 20 years would result in a quadrupling of the real per capita income and almost eliminating the percentage of Indians living below the poverty line. This will raise India’s rank from around 11th today to 4th from the top in 2020 among 207 countries given in the World Development Report in terms of GDP. Further, in terms of per capita GDP measured in ppp India’s rank will rise by a minimum of 53 ranks from the present 153 to 100. This will mean, India will move from a lowincome country to an upper middle-income country. It will
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be a major accomplishment indeed that is certain to make major impact on the crime scenario of the country. Human greed is the main culprit. Inequality and disparities of the economic growth, particularly in an open market milieu is the second Momus. It is dumb to presume that economic growth brings peace and stability. The truth is other way round. Statistics have proved that economic growth in the form of unequal distribution of the national wealth always increased the propensity towards violence, crime and instability in the country. This will be the major concern of the police in 2020.

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SOCIAL AND POLITICAL DYNAMICS Factors like social inequities, conflicts arising out of the conversion of the traditional stratified society to egalitarian society, religious extremism, interstate territorial disputes, racial and linguistic violence and radical politics of the Maoist Communist Party variety will continue to plague the police of both 2010 and 2020 and keep them on their toes if not further add to their problems. India- Pakistan conflict may also continue to plague the country in form of internal instability prompted by ISI and such external agencies. In spite of terrorism prompted by external elements and extremist activities from disgruntled internal elements, police is expected to maintain the Indian social fabric intact, and this will be a major challenge to the police by 2020. TARGETS FOR THE POLICE Peace, security and national unity are the pillars on which the edifice of the police is constructed. Social justice and removal of the injustices from the face of the society are its prime objectives. Crime prevention measures, crime investigation, enforcement of the laws of the country, security measures, regulating and establishing order in the public life for the commune bonum are the tools of the police to accomplish these objectives. Police is duty-bound to perform these objectives and bring about a sense of safety and security among the people, and a sense of unity without disturbing the social fabric of the country and without offending basic human rights. People look to the police for their safety and security. The country looks to the police as an esemplastic factor in the process of the nationhood. And the society looks to the police for protecting their interests and basic human rights from vested interests. In the increasingly complex society of the 2020, these cardinal contraplex objectives of the police will continue to eat up to its vitals unless sound police alferez finds a balance and guides policing in aurea mediocritas. Indian police of the 2020 vintage with that of 2010 in a transition to the end will come on par with the police of the advanced western countries and the weltgeist in
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schemes for the protection and safety of the weak, feeble and exploited sections of the society. Novel and revolutionary schemes for the protection of children, women, elderly citizens, weaker sections and helpless foreigners from the exploitation will find favour with the Indian police in the next five to fifteen years. ELDERLY CITIZENS Elderly citizens of the age 65 years or more will rise to 76 millions in strength in 2020 from 58 millions in 2010 and 51 millions in 2006. This section of the

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society that is weak and incapable of looking after itself needs priority attention to averruncate exploitations of their age-related infirmities in a society in which their children because of prolate migrations to foreign countries or other parts of the country for job-related or other encheasons assurgently leave them to their own fate unattended. The elder citizens are found targets of specific crimes and exploitations by unscrupulous elements, and police worth the name should have special programmes for their safety and well-being. Police of advanced countries including the United States of America have special schemes and programmes for the safety and protection of this section of the society. Indian police is yet to catch up with the zeitgeist though scattered attempts are felt here and there. But, concrete measures in this direction are yet to shape up. Indian police must see awakening itself to this aspect of its responsibility by the year 2020. CHILDREN, WOMEN, FOREIGNERS All weaker sections of the society need special attention of the police with specific schemes for protection after avizefull study of crimes and criminal tendencies in the field and adoption of protection machinery most suited to the situation. Just having schemes do not make any difference. There should be will to earnestly execute them and bring safety and protection from exploitation to all the sections of the society to bring in overall atmosphere of peace, security and freedom from exploitation in the country in cause of its policing objectives. Indian police certainly will rise to this professional commitment by 2020. Child labour is a crime as well as a social dilemma in a country where for many a square meal is a luxury. Though India has myriad Acts meant for the protection of the weaker sections of the society like children, women, SCs & STs, and bonded laborers, often their enforcements are found lacking in will to execute and sometimes steeped in social problems. The confusions and incertitudes in enforcing social legislations are likely to be overcome with the coming of age by the police by 2020 to meet the overall objectives to bring about an atmosphere of peace, security,
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stability and national unity to the country without disturbing the social fabric of the country. In the ambience of globalization, safety and security needs of the foreigners also warrant priority attention. Incidence of rape and extortion of foreigners is increasingly becoming a common phenomenon in India these days. Indian police leaders will find themselves hand-tied by 2020 to attend this menace in the interests of their own country. CRIME INVESTIGATION Investigation is an area Indian police needs to improve considerably. Key to public confidence in police investigation is a conviction rate of a minimum of

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51% so that there can be a claim that majority of the hors la loi goes behind the bar. But, it is a far cry from the reality in any police organisation including the Central Police Organisations in India for any category of crime. That means conviction for a crime is an exception rather than a rule in India and crime goes unpunished. This reality must change if police is to be relevant to the future crime situation of the country in 2020. Another important field where Indian police needs change of its image is completing investigation within a time-bound frame of three months, or better, less. Justice delayed is justice denied. Time is a crucial factor in bringing a culprit to the justice. Period that goes unpunished after a crime a la money borrowed incrementally adds to the free life of the criminal at others’ expenses. It is not seldom in Indian situation to see convictions coming after the death of the criminal, or after the criminal fully made use of the res gestae, thereby rendering Indian criminal justice system and its conviction an ironical farce. This should stop if Indian police has any passion and commitment for justice and crime investigation process. It is another vision of the police 2020. These are not something impossible objectives to be achieved in the next five or fifteen years. Political will and committed police leadership at the helm can easily achieve these targets. And fifteen years is not too short a period to accomplish these crucial feats. After all, vision of India in 2020 is predicated on the belief that human resources are the most important determinants of overall development, and it is here that the Indian police needs to focus to achieve these targets. Indeed minor amendments to the criminal laws of the country after convincing the political leadership and procedural updates with an iron hand should be able to bring about these changes. It is a vision a portee for accomplishment by 2010, if not by 2010 or earlier. COMMUNITY POLICING Policing ideally is a job performed for the people, through the people, with police acting just as catalysts in the
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process. Police as the specialists in the field initiate and guide the volunteers from the public pro bono publico. They provide information and expertise input in the process. The function of the police in policing in a democratic milieu is just that of an alferez; a friend, guide and philosopher. Secondly, the crucible of policing in precipitating justice needs to be transparent, and accountable to the public. This need can be met only by involving the public in the process of the policing. Thirdly, no police organisation however mammoth and powerful it be, can do full justice to its work without the cooperation of the public. Ergo, true policing needs to be community policing-centric. This aspect also covers counseling and consultation aspects at

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crucial levels. Community policing lightens the quotidian burden of the policing to the police, so that the latter can focus on macro aspects of the policing touching national interests and international angle. PROFESSIONALISM A major handicap of the extant Indian police is the infusion of nonprofessional decisions to the mould of professional decisions of the policing whether it is in service matters like postings and transfers or policing processes like investigations and enforcement of rules and laws. All the present maladies emanate from the politicians who are only concerned with winning of the next elections. The paramount need of the future police is a professional image tout au contraire to present image as a handmaid of rich and powerful. What is required is a perspicacious definition of police duties and responsibilities and entrusting the force to perform the duties under the avizefull eyes of the constitution without the distractions of interferences ab extra. The police should have free hand to tackle and solve issues cropping up during the process of policing with concomitant responsibility for any failures squarely lying on its shoulders. Until the organisation is extricated from the grip of politicians practicing machtpolitic, it cannot hope to rise above mediocrity either in proficiency or in character. Such mediocrity is wont to percolate downwards in a democratic setup. Lack of character among the noumenal police leadership actually brought the police forces in India to its knees before the political leadership of the democratic vintage where more often than not, politicians bear the major share of the criminal activities of the country. This is a triste affaire for both the country and its police. The situation is slipping from bad to worse ad nauseum. Indeed these are mauvais moment for the Indian police. But, no bad days are a jamais and the tide should change. After all, post tenebris spero lucem. It is a desperate vision that the bad days in the annals of the Indian police will be over by 2020 and Indian police will come clean under sound police leadership and right
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political leadership by that time. This can be achieved by the creation of the Policing Authority at the helm of the policing affairs of the country. An All India Police Authority accountable only to the President of India at the national level with the regional Police Boards in States as independent bodies need to be created to oversee and take major decisions pertaining to policing and service matters including assessment of performances and transfers more suo. A Supreme Court Judge must head the Authority with the Union Home Secretary and the Cabinet Secretary as members and the senior most police officer of the country as the membersecretary. The regional Police Boards must

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have a High Court Judge at the helm with the Home Secretary and the Chief Secretary as members and the State Police Chief as member-secretary. The facticite will bring to an end interference of any kind in police affairs, thus enabling the personnel to function in an independent atmosphere. These measures complete with the overhaul of the UPSC will oppilate the glissade and bring back all the former gloria of commitment to merit and character to the police. This vision though appears a dreamer’s dream because of the exercise of machtpolitic and political unwillingness to give up its extant prise on the police, 2020 is far away to dismiss such a miracle outright as apocryphal. No labefactation in a national life continues in perpetuum. This vision as the enfants perdus of resurgence and the pollicitation of the revival of the Indian police are must for all those who have police interests in their hearts. SPECCIALISATIONS If policing is to be effective in the years ahead, specialization is crucial. The year 2020 must see three distinct police services with separate recruitment and training: (1) Regulatory police or uniformed police in charge of law and order and other regulatory duties; (2) Mainstay police in charge of crime investigation and prevention and security and intelligence operation; (3) Social police in charge of prevention and investigation of all social offences and implementation of social legislation. All three wings should have their own individual organisations up to the district level with independent Superintendents and staff as required, functioning in tandem in much the same way as the Army, Navy and the Air Force. The vision can be brought to reality by committed police leadership to bring true professionalism in discharge of the policing responsibilities and enhance the public confidence in the competence of the force by 2020 or earlier. POLICE RUN ON MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES Police will do well to formulate actions and operations in line with the latest management principles and practices
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following the welt geist. The force by 2020 should be able either to constitute an efficient gestalt of management experts to advice or hire a management consultation firm for guidance. At any rate, the police organisation of the 2020 should be a far smaller unit than now, manned by highly committed and capable officers who are paid and looked after well by the government. The last three decades have seen tremendous expansion in the police force. For lack of an organizational plan and the foresight to assess future demands, haphazard growth has resulted. Organizational sensibilities such as workload, unit of control, accountability functional conveniences, span of control and information flow are never given the attention they need building an

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organisation. As a result, while a few posts in the police are overburdened with work, there are many which have no work or accountability. The lopsided growth of the organisation has spawned acute likes and dislikes for various positions. Naturally, probity and objectivity are sacrificed in favour of survival and protection of career interests. Corruption is rampant. This may not be the sole reason for the falling standards of policing. Yet, it is a major cause. By 2020, police administration should be able to see the vestigial retrorsum from the prolate conspurcation. Rationalization of the police structure to bring about a balance among the various posts in the same rank would certainly help to ameliorate the situation. It would also help to eliminate the wastage of government funds on unnecessary posts. Creation of such posts to accommodate unwanted elements cannot be tolerated in a serious department like the police. A systemic growth plan for balanced expansion is what is called for, if the department is to meet the tasks ahead. LEAN AND MEAN FORCE The piece de resistance of the policing by 2020 will be perficient performance with minimal visible presence. This means a far more professional organisation than now. This means far more skilled policing than now. This means better management of the police organisation, betterequipped force, men of higher calibre and devotion to work and more contented people manning the police hierarchy. The police of the 2020 will be required to shed its idée fixe for the show of strength in place of efficient policing. The stress in future will be on lean and fit policing. The structural deformity of the chorisis and overweight caused by redundant posts, undefined jobs, lack of accountability, epinosic equation of rights and responsibilities, topheavy structure, erratic span of control, demotivating factors, nonprofessional ambience and uninspiring leadership must become a matter of the past by the year 2020 with the police going perforce competitive en face gargantuan challenges from criminals posing threat to the raison d’etre of the police and its relevance to the extant
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society. RESPONSE TIME The key to the success of the police is its response time, the speed with which it responds to the gauntlets of the crime. Where time is a precious commodity and a difference of a couple of seconds make the difference of success and failure of a police operation, persistent efforts to shorten response time will get the priority in excelsis. The thrust of the police administration of the next fifteen years must be directed to bettering the response time as speed will be the mainstay of

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crimes and criminals of the coming age. Short response time implies improved communication and transport network and highly motivated human resources, ever ready to handle challenges. Outmoded communication and transport facilities in disrepair conditions most of the time have no relevance there and casual manpower is rather passe in that ambience. Coming years must see the police force in the finest fettle in terms of organisation, manpower and equipments and the force becoming a highly organized and efficient limb of the state apparatus. GOOD GOVERNANCE India in its long history saw governance of all kinds, proportions and dimensions and survived through them. It saw the worst and the best in its 2500 years of recorded history. It, like other old civilizations of the world, has worked as the crucible of various experiments in governance. The governance and policing in India now is based on this long experience. It is the collective will for good governance that is lacking in India. The consequence is that the hoi polloi suffer and the country fails to reach the height it is potential of. The besoin of the extant India is the evolution of a collective will to have good governance. People must pool their energies to force good governance for the country. Indeed the job is not easy and the resistance from those in charge of the governance whose interests lie in the status quo is bound to be hard. But, this cannot be an encheason to leave the matter of this dimension unattended as the fate of one billion people depends on this development. Only such a collective will can devolve truly good governance and policing for the country. Creation of a self-contained police machinery in place of the present mere nuts and bolts of the administration is the cardinal need ahead. The nasty political and bureaucratic interferences in professional policing have done no good to the country and its police in the last six decades. Insulating the police from the vice prise of the ectogenetic pressures and influences needs to become a reality in fifteen years
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since, should the police have relevance in the governance of the country. This is possible only by the metamorphosis of the police to an independent body with goals and objectives perspicuously defined and laid down. The new police have to be responsible only to the constitution through a suitable machinery of checks and counterchecks exercised by constitutional bodies manned by people of proven track-record in matters of integrity, competence and other mental attributes and chosen from academic, bureaucratic and political fields as well as public life. The change may bring a semblance of justice and fairplay to administration and ipso facto infuse a value system to the Indian public life and bring the fear of god to force strict adherence

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to probity and the rule of law in public life. India has no alternative to this metamorphosis should the country survive the moral crisis and degringolade of the national spirit, it witnessed since independence.

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LOGISTIC REQUIREMENTS OF INDIAN POLICE
Greek verb ‘logistikos’ meaning compute or calculate, and French verb ‘loger’ meaning lodge are the roots of the English noun ‘logistics,’ meaning supply of supportive attributes like manpower, transport, communication reticulation, weapons systems and other facilitators in any operation as planned in advance, and accurately trace the true nature of an effective logistics in terms of computed and calculated planning, and lodging or infixing the supportive tools as calculated and planned in advance to be lodged at right time, place and occasion to meet the needs of the operation for efficient performance and results, ipso facto investing logistics and its execution a managerial edge. Logistics and logistics support imprimis are managerial tools built on the bedrock of the management techniques. Logistics au fond is perficient material management run with an edge of precise time management and efficient space management, made possible with right foresight, creative vision, incisive planning and accurate execution. Evolution of norms for logistics in police organisations is byword for the desire for the application of management principles to policing and police organisations. It represents induction of the faculty of ratiocination to the field of policing and police organisations. It is a visionary step and prognosticates the aurora of the scientific age in police organisations. Logistics norms differ only in details from the Police Station level to the sub-division level to district level while rest on the same bedrock of broad managerial techniques. PRIME VECTORS Both Police Station and District Police Administration are
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the pillars of the policing structure of India with subdivisions providing the links between the two. Sub-divisions derive their sustenance and draw manpower and logistics from the Police Stations, ergo strong and efficient Police Stations mean strong sub-divisions. In exceptional cases, sub-divisions can always depend upon the strength of the district police force. Sub-divisions as such do not have independent existence apart from the Police Stations under them and the district police administration that guides and controls them. Therefore, discussion on the

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logistics requirements of the Police Stations and the district police administration inter se covers sub-divisions too. Police Stations and district police administrations as the basic structures of the policing need to be pollent units capable of independently tackling crimes, security and law and order issues from their own provenances, so that higher units are free to focus on larger issues of countrywide dimensions sans distractions. For this to happen, the Police Stations have to be full-fledged units as far as their manpower and logistics requirements are concerned without the need of asking and waiting for the help extra muros. A sense of autarchy and autarky is basic here. The change brings pride to the unit and boosts morale bringing in high motivation and inculcating lofty purpose to the job of policing. The end result will be quality and often competitive performance of very high order in policing which sadly is a mere dream in the extant policing structure of India. Police Station setup of present India grievously falls short in logistics and infrastructure support whether it is in manpower, transport, communication network, weapon systems or financial powers. Though district police administrations are in far better position than the Police Stations in all compartments en face respective requirements, they too are far from an ideal position in respect of their requirements. While Police Stations must look to the district police administration for help for manpower and logistics support for every uncommon situation, the district police administration in turn looks to the state headquarters for elbow space. Even begging other government departments for transport and other infrastructure facilities is not unheard of. This is not an ideal situation by any stretch of imagination to any police setup and should stop. ARMED POLICE UNITS Both Police Stations and district police administrations should become self- contained units in respect of manpower, transport facilities, communication reticulatum, weaponry and other logistics requirements. Every Police
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Station should convert into a nidus of police functions under an officer of the rank of Police Inspector assisted by scores of Sub-Inspectors in charge of different policing functions like crime, traffic, headquarters, intelligence, law and order and armed police. Every Police Station must have a unit of its own armed reserve under a PSI that provides men also for extraneous duties like guards, courts, summons, orderly services apart from being the striking force. The armed police units of the district police administration need to be strengthened in most districts and properly trained.

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INTELLIGENCE GATHERING Both Police Station and district police administration setups as far as intelligence gathering is concerned is in extremely poor shape uniformly in most states of India, save a few like Jammu and Kashmir where the need of self- preservation perforce dictated terms to strengthen the intelligence apparatus. Intelligence is the bedrock of effective policing and sine qua non for professional policing. Intelligence gathering and analyses apparatchik is the principium among the core logistics supports that makes difference to the quality of the policing process in both the Police Station and district police administration levels. Districts do have structures to handle both the crime and law and order intelligence, though poorly equipped and seldom made use of, while the same in the Police Station levels is almost nonexistent. Intelligence gathering apparatchik needs to be strengthened at both the levels to enrich policing process with relevant intelligence. An officer of the rank of PSI with adequate staff in a Police Station should be in exclusive charge of collecting both the crime and law and order intelligence to strengthen the hands of the officer heading the Police Station. MINI POLICE COMMISSIONERATES Police Stations as centers of policing functions must work as mini police commissionerates sans magisterial powers and treated as such in importance and powers. Trust begets trust and trust sprouts responsibility. Once Police Stations revive respectability and importance on par with that of the British vintage, they may regain their whilom aureole at no time. This is so also with the district police administrations. Indeed, there are the issues of corruption and misuse of powers that are beyond the scope of this discussion and it suffices to state that appropriate checks and counterchecks should be in place to counter such eventualities. NIDUS OF POLICE FUNCTIONS Pollent Police Stations as the centers of police functions justifies fewer police stations around and irrationalize the present donnert trend among the top-brass of crying wolf
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for creating more and more police stations at every possible opportunity and howling hoarse for many more to create ‘gulli-gulli police station’ situation with most of them weak and incapable of independent existence and just meant as mere show-pieces for the public consumption and adding to the welter in jurisdictional and other complications. The epinosic response is owing to the copycat mindset so prolate among the Indian police leadership of the post-independent vintage. Quantity is an irrelevant concept in the extant age of hi-tech world, and transport and communication explosions

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render the world increasingly smaller every passing day. What is required is quality. The stress must be on resourcefulness and response time. Fewer Police Stations, each a nidus of the police functions at strategic locations and self- dependent in its manpower and other logistic requirements of transport, communication, weaponry and related facilitators is the need of the hour. Control room oriented policing with shortened response time are capable to tackle any kind of police emergencies and contingencies within a given area. District police administrations must function as the custodian and provider of special techniques, high-tech gadgets and higher counseling and guidance to the benefits of the Police Stations apart from its extant conventional duties. CONTROL ROOMS This brings the issue of control room oriented policing that suits best in urban areas to the fore. Shift systems round the clock and response time are the key factors in such a policing system. Logistics support becomes the crucial issue in the control room oriented policing system as the effectiveness of the system depends tout a fait on effective logistics designs, planning and management in place. Police Stations fully self-dependent in manpower and other logistics supports like transport, communication, weaponry and other facilitators alone can handle control rooms successfully for perficient policing. Such a system presupposes committed manpower working on round the clock shifts and requiring high morale. High morale in turn depends on job satisfaction and right job culture that are built on perfect man management practices. All these issues need to be tackled one after the other for efficient policing. Indian police of present days is a far cry from those objectives. MANPOWER In a country bogged down with endemic unemployment, and steeped in cheap labour, manpower should not be a problem though eurhythmic quality production may often become an issue. No discussion on manpower is complete without the factors of morale,
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motivation, competence, discipline and commitment are taken into account. No analysis on logistics is complete without the production factor of the manpower is assessed. SHIFT SYSTEM Policing being a round the clock responsibility, a threeshift system is sine qua non in a grass-root policing unit like the Police Station. And unlike now, the system must be statutorily defined and duly molded and rounded off for effective functioning with clear-cut division of labour in place. Lack of this clarity and arbitrary day-to-day allotment of duties on one’s own fancies by lower ranks in the Police Stations is the radical of the entire maelstrom in man management

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noticed in police stations these days resulting in low and inefficient turn-out of work. A well-defined shift system and purposeful man management policy directed towards high motivation and morale should work as the nostrum to the malady. EFFICIENT MAN MANAGEMENT Sound incentive schemes based on the innards of the human psyche and latest managerial techniques and committed leadership models can do the tricks to maximize the output with the minimum input and save the criminal wastages in manpower that are common features of the present man management in Indian police, where a few islands of manpower are over-worked while most wanze precious man-hours without productive output. Any step to break this epinosic trend will save Indian police from gargantuan manpower wastages. This aspect needs priority. An important feature of the efficient man management is best utilization of the available manpower talents. Indian police of the post-independent vintage is notoriously profligate in frittering away and even curbing precious human talents that land on its lap by its good fortune. An example is that of a brilliant police officer from an Indian state who made name as a poet, an intellectual and an original thinker on police and policing subjects with scores of published books on poetry and policing subjects to his credit and a popular writer on police subjects on all major English newspapers, and well-known for his immaculate conduct and foursquare character, being persistently and consistently harassed gratuitously for decades, denied promotion for more than twenty-one years without offering a reason in the ambience of no reasons existing, often denied facilities normal even for his posts and repeatedly forced to work in the rank of Superintendent of Police under his far less talented and far less upright juniors from his own batch now in the rank of IGPs. Such atrocities are possible in Indian police these days. Reason for the reductio ad absurdum of the man management in Indian police of the present vintage to this scale is just
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jealousy and fear among the higher-ups of being overshadowed by his superior talents. His fault lies in the denial to approach the court of law in propugnation of own interests in spite of promptings from well-meaning seniors and his preposterous pride in deciding that what are his, must come by themselves sans promptings from any quarters and philosophizing che sara, sara. He continues in the plight even now without promotions. This is an example of the criminal wastage of human talents apart from cruelty and crimes involved. Just thinking how best and to what advantages an efficient organisation would have made use of his talents by providing right incentives rather than curbing and crushing his normal

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opportunities makes this example of negative norms of the Indian police an eye opener. Such perversions and prevarications of the man management norms of epinosic dimensions must stop. It is a different story that he did not wither away like most in similar situations and made big name and brilliantly succeeded in other avenues. It is true that true talents cannot be hidden and even villainy of the top brass of the police has limits in curbing and crushing the talents of the fonctionnaire lower down. This is the brighter side of the spiel. PRECIOUS MAN POWER Every employee in any efficient organisation is a precious asset. This is not because labour comes at enormous cost, but because of the presence of innate potentialities in every person and its mammoth utility were they are adequately tapped. The problem lies in the need and competence to extract the potentialities and talents. Police organisation has a long tail of hierarchy of seniors after seniors. The billion-dollar question is whether this long tail of seniority of the police department has any relevance as far as leadership and leadership qualities are concerned. The answer is a big “no.” Present Indian police is least bothered about the need of sound leadership and leadership qualities in its body as far as seniority go and sadly leadership and seniority are synonymous in its diction. That must stop and the organisation must constitute per se a climacteric norm to enable the resorgimento of the Indian police to draw it out of its present chilling hiems. None realizes the importance of every single human hand available as the USA does, and the care taken and the investment made on each hand in American armed forces are legendary. India and Indian police though cannot fully follow the American ideal because of its financial constraints and other reasons, the model sine dubio deserves avizefull consideration to aemule as a vaulting norm adapted to Indian milieu. Human being a natura rei is potential of extending and shrinking to any scope created for him. This is so also in work environment. A man or woman treated as lowly and dispensable as it is in the
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constabulary and other lowly ranks of the Indian police, shrinks au naturel to adjust to the space created for him, and expands and extends to be der Unsterbliche ubermensch if he or she is provided for and treated as such. Indian police lacks this insight to the human psyche and pays heavily in terms of human cost for the grave incompetence. How fast Indian police realizes this fault, so good it is pour-soi. Maximum output out of minimum resources is the motto here. Maximum output should be the norms of manpower management in Indian police at all levels rather than going for blind increase in manpower strength at every possible occasion. High morale, high motivation and job contentment, high professional

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pride, adequate rights and responsibilities, reasonably sound infrastructure and logistics support are the claves for productive and perficient policing and make difference to the quality of the policing whether it is in Police Station levels or district police administration levels. This brings the issue of logistics support to the fore. LOGISTICS SUPPORT Logistics and infrastructure supports are the core of effective policing and also serve as the multiplier of manpower. Transport and communication logistics are the eyes and ears of the perficient policing. In the age of hi-tech crimes and criminals, high-level logistics support is sine qua non for the policing to be successful. Right logistics support has four dimensions or factors to be useful and effective in policing: quantity factor, quality factor, relevancy factor and time factor. Quantity factor covers availability of adequate logistics support; quality factor covers availability of latest and hi-tech logistics support; relevancy factor covers the need of logistics support being relevant to the needs of the policing; and time factor refers to the availability of the logistics support at right occasion and time. Inadequacy in any of these factors certain to affect the quality of the policing and needs foremost attention of the police leadership to keep the police and policing in top gear. In Indian situation, the principium of the four factors namely the quantity factor itself often is a major hurdle because of financial constraints and other problems though recent rise in terrorism alerted the bureaucratic and political leadership to awaken to this problem and make more and more logistics support available to police de grado in grado. But, the quality factor continues to be a major pain in the spine. Criminals are often found in India better equipped than the police as far as hi-tech gadgets and even crucial intelligence are concerned. Indian police lacks adequate organizational strength and expertise to keep up dated to the research explosions in the world market in hi-tech gadgets in transport, communication, information and weaponry systems. This shortfall needs to
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be attended on priority if Police Stations and district police administrations to be effective in defeating crime and criminals in their own games. Whatever done at present in this field are sporadic attempts sans systemic efforts. This lacuna needs to be rectified. Relevance and time factors are logistic maneuvers tout court involving human assessments and decision making in the process of the policing and depends assez bien on human excellence involved and requires improved human qualities. That comes by practice, skill, training, commitment and mature leadership. These factors also need close attention in efforts to give quality policing to the country.

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MAINTENANCE Any talk on logistics is incomplete without a discussion on maintenance, which is the weakest link in the mindset of the Indian psyche. Maintenance inherently is the byproduct of a disciplined mind that is anathema to the Indian psyche. Naturally Indian police is pathetically poor in maintenance aspect of whatever it does. One factor responsible for this perilous assuetude is the cost factor involved. The second factor that brings about this neglect of the maintenance structure in the organisation is the lack of appreciation of the need of the maintenance in running an organisation and carrying out its operations. This Achilles’ heel of the Indian psyche holds its sway in police organisations also. Sound maintenance of the logistics infrastructures and other assets is sine qua non for sound policing and perhaps gets precedence in importance over acquiring new gadgets and assets. A sound police organisation just cannot ignore this crucial need that considerably contributes to the success of police operations. FINANCIAL POWERS Police Stations as the nidus of police functions with considerable manpower and huge logistics support means in its possession and responsible for their maintenance perforce need considerable financial powers for themselves so that they can look after themselves without waiting for sanctions from above. This investment also boosts the confidence and self-reliance of the Police Stations as independent units apart from bringing respectability and accountability to them unlike now. The advantage here is both physical and psychological and needs priority attention. STRATEGIC LOCATION It be a Police Station, district police administration or any other police unit, its effective functioning depends very much on small details like its location and building also. They have to be located at a place decided upon after careful study of the issues involved and operational facility and convenience considered not only for the easy access to
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the public, but also for more crucial strategic reasons of operational considerations like facile movements, easy logistics support, access to hi-tech equipments, easy access to key manpower assets, convenience for secret operations et cetera. This important factor is often ignored in Indian police and it is common to find a Police Station situated in a locality outside its jurisdiction in urban areas and district police administration being located in an unplanned shabby rented building in a busy and strategically unsound locality. Easy availability often guides such decisions in Indian police. Such casual approaches in such key decisions should stop and proper norms should be laid to bring order in such key decisions and avoid concomitant mishaps.

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Norms are mere standards, or more precisely, standard customs to be set or evolved. Indian police as defined and structured by the British administration more than a century back served the British administration and its objectives in a far less complex milieu appreciably for nearly a century and later. But, in a situation of panta rhei, the antianus reticulation is increasingly becoming unfit and incompetent to the changing trends of the crime and criminality and may become entirely irrelevant to the changed complexities of crime and criminality if immediate corrective steps are not taken and new norms are evolved and set for the posterity. In a donnert police structure steeped in blinkers and mental inaction, the very idea of evolving fresh norms for manpower and logistics is a highly welcome initiative and deserves hearty plaudite.

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TRAINING STRATEGY FOR INDIAN POLICE
The major problem that confronts extant police is its attitude to work, responsibilities, profession, organization, government and the public. It is confounded about its goals, objectives, loyalties, professional ethos, job culture, procedures and practices that carry it forward in the field in attending professional duties. In the wilderness of undefined roads, Indian police grope for perspicacious directions to reach professional ends. Popular phrases like maintenance of order, enforcement of law, prevention of crime, investigation of offences, protection of security interests etc are too generic terms to carry any meaning and significance during the process of actual policing. Perficient policing is possible only in the ambience of wellrounded and clearly defined specific guidelines for action that help molding professional attitude in the organization. Police develop wrong attitudes in its absence by erroneous interpretation of the situation around. This is what happens to Indian police now: wrong attitudes and concomitant confusion about performing legitimate duties. Professional ideals of police are rooted in the terra firma of the rule of law, justice, order and the security of the country and its citizens. Police organization is basically responsible to the constitution of the country and the government constituted and the laws enacted in accordance with the constitution. Police lose its relevance to the country when its professional attitude goes against the cardinal ideals of the profession. The challenge of a police organization lies in molding professional attitude as required by the ideals of the profession. Wrong attitudes inveterate in extant practices and procedures of policing are shaped by self- interests, misconceptions, ignorance
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and tendency to pursue easy and shortcut methods: they are hard to be broken and survive under most odds. Only efficient, honest and highly motivated leadership alone can crack the etui encompassing it. Once it is done, building a new set of right professional attitudes is relatively a simpler job to a committed leadership. Basic to these efforts is a realization among the top brass about what constitute right and wrong attitudes. The crux of the problem of Indian police lies here. It is distressing to note that

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the top leadership of post-independent Indian police is responsible for the prevarication of the organization from its professional attitude of absolute commitment to public order and safety, justice and rule of law to easy and shortcut avenues of selfish interests. The change percolated downwards. In the rush of Indians replacing the British to sensitive government positions on the eve of independence, men of inadequate caliber and merit occupied key government posts. This happened in police as in other government departments. The result was corrosion in leadership qualities, traits of excellence and high personal merits, so essential to run public and national affairs at the top. It was during this period that Indian police lost its track in professional policing and exposed itself to the luxury of dancing to the easy and soft tunes of convenience by yielding to pressures of political and other vested interests. Policing powers served as a tool of maximizing self-interests and personal comforts at the cost of professional policing. In the process, the country suffered and police lost its face. WRONG ATTITUDES APLENTY A profession like police naturally has its own goals, objectives and ideals to pursue. They get clouded in the smog of practical turn-around in the field and ultimately lose their edge in the spin of attitudinal aberrations. The consequence is clashes of loyalties, adoption of immodest vectors in policing, the issue of excesses and inactions, tendency to bend rules and laws to achieve perceived ends in the hour of need of upholding the rule of law, urge to cash-in on the ignorance and weaknesses of the ignorant people around and indulgences in unprofessional works in the name of discharging legitimate police duties. Performance of any profession depends upon three factors: professional ideals, job culture and actual practices and procedures. Job culture is spawned of constant interaction of professional ideals and actual practices and procedures in the field. Though basically is a product of the past, it considerably affects the future performance of an organization. Practices and procedures being the primary
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vehicle of attitude, they help molding job culture a la immanent attitude in the job. The result is a pollent hold of attitude in deciding the direction of an organisation. A profession loses its raison d’etre while attitude in the job prevaricates from professional ideals. People caught in the web of criminal laws deserve sympathy and kindness until they are proved guilty beyond doubts. They need to be treated with gentleness and courtesy that behoves to interpersonal relationship in a civilized society while the process of investigation continues with all efficiency and ruthless exactitude. Police as investigator is not invested with powers to punish for the crimes committed. Fair chance to persons under investigation to prove their

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innocence goes a long way in unearthing truth and solving crimes justly. This has to be the attitude of the police during crime investigation. Truth and justice have to be their goal. Indian police lack the maturity and poise. A serious Achilles’ heel of Indian police is its perverted attitude towards rules and laws. Bending rules and laws to suit self-interests is one dimension of the spiel. Another dimension is its blind application sans sense of proportion and discreetness while self-interest is not an issue. It is seen in enforcing laws and maintaining order. Police forget that rules and laws are just tools in the larger cause of peace and order of the society and sadly handle laws for law’s sake. Rules and laws are invested on police like weapons as the dernier ressort while all other avenues are shut. Discreetness is their constraint. Objectives are primary. Rules and laws must follow them only as tools to that end. The realization is rarely found in the present police. It operates laws for law’s sake by relegating organizational objectives to oblivion. Professional objectives suffer and police become an object of detestation consequential to this perverted attitude. Mechanical enforcement of gratuitous rules and laws constrict the freedom of people for no specific purpose and weaves an unnecessary web of constraints around them for nobody’s good. The attitude is fatal to fair and professional policing practices and needs to be corrected on priority to make application of rules and laws need-based in reaching professional targets. Another field where police need to change its attitude is its contempt for human values. Policing is just an instrument to the cause of protecting human values. Police oblivious to this fact, subject human values to immane policing methods in the name of policing. Third degree methods are the point. Malfeasances do not behove to the cause of human values. Means are as important as ends in policing. Pursuing unjust means for the cause of justice is the spiel of the Frankenstein, the story of an offspring eating its creator. Inviolable commitment to human values and rights is the foundation of good
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policing. Human touch is sine qua non for professional policing. Human concern is the raison d’etre of good policing. The shift in attitude needs to be from blind and blanket policing for the policing’s sake to discreet and enlightened policing to reach professional objectives. The shift has to be from the use of policing powers to maximize professional goals. The shift must see police taking risks in the interests of the profession and doing intelligent policing rather than indulging in maneuvers of personal security. The process warrants massive exercise in attitudinal change.

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AFFECTING ATTITUDINAL CHANGE Forcing police away from vicious practices and procedures and undesirable job culture through the attitudinal change is an arduous and time-consuming exercise even for experts in the field. The exercise has to be a multi-pronged attack on inveterate misconceptions and wrong notions in extant policing by extensive exposures to talks, discussions, seminars, briefings, studies, researches and in-service training involving analyses of policing, its ideals, objectives, methods, means and ends, social relevance, pressures, policing environment, psychological aspects of policing etc. The exercise has to be intended to provoke police personnel to think about their profession without dogma and arrive at desirable conclusions about professional policing and impress them on the ingredients of good policing by constant exposure. A few ideal cases as models have tremendous impact on the cause of creating right attitudes. Studies and researches on policing and policing methods provide a sound foundation to these exercises. A police organisation interested in improving its quality and performance cannot go without sound study centers and research projects on the issues of policing. These attempts provide both inputs and insight to the behavioral pattern of the police in field under different situations and stress patterns as differentiated from what are desired. They bring both gestalts to contrast in terms of their perficiency, professional needs and relevance to the environment of policing to affect attitudinal change in right direction by way of conviction. The immediate need is inducing doubts about the soundness of existing attitudes to encourage discussion on the topic. Deliberate guiding through structured mental exercises to desirable end forms the latter part of the task. Indeed, the whole exercise has to be planned and executed in detail by highly efficient leadership in the police. The conundrum is who behoves to handle the highly responsible job while the leadership of the police itself is mired in wrong attitudes to the job of policing.
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RIGHT RECRUITMENT Character is nascitur, non fit. Sound character is the materfamilias of right attitudes. The principium of right training strategy is the realization that character and attitudes cannot be created. Character is an immanent element. Any discussion on right training strategy sans discussion on right recruitment is like building an edifice on sand-bed, like watering a dead plant, an exercise in futility, an intellectual wanze. Right training is nothing more than perficient seedling of a seed or precocious flowering of a blossom. It is more so in issues of character,

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attitude and behavior, the three being entwined into one with character spawning attitude and attitude in its turn defining the behavior. This brings us to the intricate issues of character and character building. The triste state d’ affaire of the Indian police of the post-independent vintage and its degringolade after independence can be attributed tout a fait to this single factor: lack of character. That is recruitment of wrong people, recruitment of people lacking in character, integrity, honesty, human sensibilities, service motive and Rhadamanthine attributes. The corner stone of any perficient training strategy is right recruitment. The emphasis should be on sound character reflecting on integrity, human sensibilities and service motive. This necessitates creation of a character profile of each applicant imprimis in the process of selection and recruitment. Once character is in place, other needs follow by the fundamentum relationis and secondary to the need hierarchy enface crucial character in professional policing. Ability to envision and see things in broader perspective also needs to be tested for final selection. Indeed, practical problems are mind-boggling if not impossible to manage. First of all, drawing the character profile of eligible applicants is easier said than done. It calls for complete overhauling of the extant selection procedures and evolution of psychological processes as the prime mechanism of the selection in place of present highlight on answering abilities. Competence of the present psychological processes in drawing right character profile is another issue. And the ever-presence interference of political and influential lobbies and the greed of the selectors at all levels are the grave hurdles for this process to be feracious. WARMING-UP PROCESS The period of initiation is the most important and impressionable period in the career-life of fresh recruits to the police department. The process of warming-up is based on the psychological needs of human nature. New
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entrants must be handled with utmost care to give them confidence and a feeling of belonging at the incipient stage itself. A sense of confidence and belonging to the organisation and an ingenerate love and respect for the higher-ups are the substruction on which discipline grows. Efforts to inculcate discipline in a void are like waiting for rain from the autumn sky. Indian police impresarios failed to understand such finer nuances of administration when they copied the system of the British Indian police. And so we now have a police system where discipline is insisted on subordinates sans the conditions requisite for the discipline. The recruits, who enter the fold with open sensibilities and high expectations, wither after braving for a while the brusque and insensitive conduct of their higher ranks.

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These recruits continue thereafter to be constant enemies of the higher ranks and the department for which they must continue to work for the next three to four decades. A police department constituted of such members, thanks to the shabby approach of the insensitive higher ranks in this most impressionable period of the former’s carrier-life cannot turn out eximious work. It is a tragedy that India neither spawned a police force of its own superior values nor copied the police force of the British vintage in its entirety with its finer points, but cultivated instead a burlesque of the rough and mediocre aspects of both. ACADEMIC TRAINING It is euphemistic to nuncupate extant Indian police training cap-a-pie as a maelstrom. It is in utter disarray and directionless. Emphasis is on information, which is not a big deal in this age of Internet and competitive marketing of all kinds of information. What is required is blossoming of the potential right character, attitudes and requisite skills. This is the field where complete overhauling of the training system is called for. Save the constabulary for which spoon-feeding of the rudimentary criminal laws are must, other where wanze the precious training period on basics while prime issues like character building and behavioral and attitudinal evolutions remain untouched is criminal offence per se. What is required is laying a sound foundation for character building as a powerful base for passions for righteous policing, and motivating the young recruits in that direction. This aspect is completely forgotten in Indian police training now. Basic police training course at all levels should begin with exclusive exposure in the first month to the sine qua non of sound character, integrity, honesty, humility, human sensibilities and the Rhadamanthine attributes as the springboard of the right attitudes in policing. Policemen as the custodians of the rules and laws of the country and the agents of the public sittlichkeit in uniform how stand out from the public must be deeply etched on the young minds to guide them all through their career and light their path with the flambeau of righteousness
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thus lighted. The need of right public relations and image building in perficient policing cannot be over-emphasized at this stage of the adsorption of the young recruit to the fold of the police setup. The young recruits should be impressed on the importance of means in achieving targets and how malfeasance leads to utter disaster in the end. And also how right policing stands on the bedrock of the human rights. The subjects to be covered during this period of one month at all levels should cover in-depth study of human values and their philosophic foundations, policing philosophy, objectives and ideals of right policing, the locus standi of

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the police and policing in a democratic setup and the requisites of adjustments with the political and other leaderships and the degrees to which the police should maintain its own space and balance, the place of rules and laws in the overall scheme of the criminal justice system of the country and the shortfalls, the supremacy of the constitution of the country, the true meaning of the loyalty and its extensions in a democratic setup, the field realities of the less than perfect society with which police constantly remains engaged in performing its duties and how to maintain an adjustment mechanism in diverse situations in the overall interests of the peace and security of the society. The period must cover also diverse case studies from the field about the success stories of right character and attitudes in policing and analyses of the inner dynamics therein. Indeed, these are intangible topics lacking suitable textbooks for police studies at all levels now. It means earnest measures towards writing of suitable textbooks to this end for various levels must find priority. While the first month of the academic training exclusively covered the character and attitudinal issues, the remaining period of nine months too should have the subject covered in addition to conventional police subjects. The telos is to build characters that approach policing nec cupias, nec metuas. Here too, case studies from the field about success stories of right character and attitudes must find priority. Other measures during the academic training at all levels must cover recognition and ample rewards for development of right character and attitudes even to the exclusion of talent and technical skills in the training scheme, and right people as the models in the training staff unlike now when it is only unwanted mediocre stuffs are fed to the police training institutions at all levels. Excellent initiatives can do the tricks. There is an instant of a police officer in a police training academy whilom a few years since for a batch of PSI recruit trainees rubbishing his allotted law classes and in place briefing on practical tricks from his field experience about making maximum at the
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earliest to recoup the bribe paid for obtaining their recruitments. This is ovem lupo committere. FIELD TRAINING Field training is the phase at which an entrant truly comes in contact with the true policing and begins to form his own impression about police and policing in the field. There are any numbers of instances in police department senior police officers at the eve of their retirement recalling with fondness the contribution of a PC or HC they came in contact at this phase of their career and actually trained them in the intricacies of policing in the field in drawing the road map of their whole career. This is just to map out the significance of this phase of one’s career

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in policing. A wrong trainer at this stage, and a career wanzes. Ergo, it is of paramount importance that only right people in the field should be carefully selected and nominated to assist and train probationers. Any wrong choice will result in irreparable casualties and should be avoided with maximum caution. This principle should be applied to trainers even at higher levels including the district Superintendents. In addition, the district Superintendent should be made statutorily responsible for imparting right and effective training particularly forming right attitudes in those under his charge with mandatory provision for his performance in this regard figuring in his Annual Performance Reports. There should be provisions for removal from service at this stage of the probationary period for failing to develop right attitudes and character even after repeated detailed warnings, indeed with checks and counterchecks in place to avoid misuses. IN-SERVICE TRAINING Repeated exposures to the need of sound character and right attitudes do help in instilling the qualities. A refresher course of five days on character building and right attitudes in police training institutes should be made statutorily mandatory once in every five years at all levels up to the ranks of IGPs. In addition, every promotion up to this rank should be provisional until the concerned official passes a written test on character building and right attitudes conducted by the concerned police-training institute. RESEARCH ON RIGHT POLICE ATTITUDES Higher police training institutes should take up research projects on right police attitudes on priority on a continuous basis by partaking in the services of both eligible police officers and non-police academics from the relevant fields. Every higher police-training institute of the country should have an exclusive department for research and producing textbooks on character and attitudes in relevance to police and policing. JOB CULTURE
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Learning is a continuous process. It is so in police and policing also. All advantages of the right recruitment, right academic training in police training institutes and right field training face serious reif if field realities become inconducive to the ideals. Field realities with their positive and negative elements truly constitute the nidus of the attitudes one is compelled to adopt and adapt. Therefore, field realities of the policing warrant utmost attention in the process of breeding right attitudes in the service. It is only through the right job culture

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that the police environment in the tide of high morale turns the leaf and policing s’orienter to build up a set of right attitudes among its personnel. It is the sacred responsibility of the top brass of the police to ensure that right means gets precedence over achieving targets somehow. Shortcut methods at the cost of right means should be discouraged. Exitus acta probat should not be the only and ultimate motto of the policing. Right attitude should be amply rewarded in the usual course of the policing. Further, a culture of senior officers briefing their juniors on the need of right character and attitudes in every possible opportunity should be created in the organisation. Repeated stresses do have their own impact particularly in a disciplined organisation like the police. It is just the opposite of what is prolate in Indian police these days. Wrong values are encouraged. Corrupt and caste-ridden elements see vaulting spots. ‘Yes, Minister’ tregetours win the rat race. Corruption is swept under the carpet on the specious claim that there is a separate organisation to deal with the matter and it is none of the responsibility of the organisation to keep itself clean. For, if one resorts to the cleansing process, he is certain to be unceremoniously kicked out by the political leadership. The situation has reached such a rien ne va plus pass in India that it is often visioned that if an fonctionnaire is overlooked for promotion or transferred to an undesirable post, more than often he is surmised and hailed as a foursquare and outstanding person and those who corner desirable posts are looked down upon as part of the coprophagous rot. It is a grave vicious circle. There is no point in discussing right attitude unless this pythogenic vicious circle is broken. Problem of attitude basically is a problem felt at higher wrung in top brass of the force. The stiff hierarchical order and command-obedience pattern of functioning make the lower wrung irrelevant in matters of job attitude. Those down the ladder are loyal followers and obedient operators in the path and policy laid above them. Their
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attitudes change shape from case to case to meet the demands trickle from above. When the demand is to let out a rich and powerful criminal with royal honors, those down the level do just that with vengeance; when the demand from above is to frame an innocent man and obtain his confession by subjecting to torture, they just do that with dedication for the sake of a well earned pat of their omniscient superiors. It is again a question of illconceived job culture and attitudes, which need to be corrected, as it is tangible to the standards of policing as all organizational matters are. The primary target of attitudinal change is the higher wrung and the top brass. Others follow and fall to place. The key lies in the realization that something is wrong in the present mode of policing. Demolition is the beginning of the construction.

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Once the realization of wrong dawns upon, reconstruction becomes possible. Police being an extrovert and actionoriented outfit, self-analyses and inward- looking tendencies do not come easily. While things go wrong, introversion becomes sine qua non for healthy growth. This is what is required in Indian police now.

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POLICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS — DOES END JUSTIFY MEANS?
A basic tool man devised to preserve his common rights is the police. It is an irony that most incidents of human rights violations have their roots in the police. This is an example of the fence grazing the crop. The reasons are many. The most important lies in the police culture itself-its inability to look beyond certain barriers it raises around itself; its failure to see a human being as he; its incapacity to see its relevance to the common man outside the power structure; its inveterate indulgence with power play; its deviant interpretations of its role in the rule of law and, above all, its scant respect for means (in achieving the end) The result is the police siding with the wrong-doers in the clashes between individual and national or other social interests, leading to popular condemnation of the police. Right thinking people are aware of the predicament and sufferings of their fellow men. Thanks to the revolution in the communication sphere, human rights violations have become a highly sensitive issue, with the human rights commissions at the regional, national and international levels on their toes to detect, investigate, report and protest. The factual reports have embarrassed Governments and their police outfits. It is distressing to note that developing countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America prominently figure in these reports; and the record of the countries in the Indian sub-continent, including India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, is not inspiring either. India, in particular, must reread its recent human rights record. The basic question is whether human rights violation is
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sine qua non with safeguarding national and the larger social interests. The second is whether such violations are justified in the cause of such interests. The third is what are the limits within which violations are confined, and who imposes these limits and by what mechanism. What would be the situation if the police who indulge in human rights violations to protect national and social interests are thoroughly corrupt, immoral and unworthy of any trust? Answers are desperately needed.

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India’s human rights record is particularly bad in Punjab and Kashmir. Its record has never been satisfactory in the North-East or with the naxalites. Where does one draw the line between the larger interests of the country and the violation of human rights? Blame is shifted from one level to another whenever the police are pulled up for human rights violation during action. The top brass blames the field officers for excess while the latter blame the bosses for exerting pressures to show results without any guidelines to protect human rights. The truth is that the police, at all levels, and its administrators are to be blamed, that none among the police and their administrators really bother about human rights and their violations, least of all during actions which expose them to tremendous risks. It is a do-or-die situation. Once on a dangerous course of action, the sole aim of the police is to succeed in the operation by whatever means. Moral questions such as human rights violations and the public agitation likely to follow do not matter, considering the dangers they face in carrying out the task. It is a crisis and the tendency is to somehow overcome the situation irrespective of what the future might hold. The administrators know that excessive checks and moral fears blunt the killer instinct in the policeman and affect the chance of his success in the field. The authorities up the hierarchy also believe in succeeding somehow rather than play by the rules. This is the crux of the matter regarding human rights. Human rights take precedence over national and social interests and transcend religious and moral issues. Human rights become a sensitive issue only when they clash inter se and invite a decision on basic issues. The question is who is to judge such basic issues. Certainly the decisions cannot be left to the whims and convenience of the police. The human rights are the spine of policing must be made an integral part of the police culture. This is absolutely necessary. Only such emphasis restrains the police from
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indulging in violations. NATURAL AND BASIC Human rights are the natural rights of the human race as well as the laws that help make social life possible. This gives a legal slant to the issue. The legislature, in a democracy, decides how much of such rights could be surrendered in common interest. The legislature by promulgating laws and the courts by interpreting them delineate what natural rights constitute inviolable human rights violations are an issue between the legislature and the judiciary on the one hand and the executive, which is the police, on the other. For the fear-struck citizens, it is an issue between the helpless them and the arm-twisting Government. In

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simple terms, human rights violations involve violating the basic rights of life, liberty and human dignity beyond the limits of the law. The violations may be committed in the acts of execution, confinement or torture. It is basically the use of power beyond the scope of law for certain ends and is not committed for any noble end. Such violations are common in secret service operations; in emergent situations, say, when separatists or terrorists are active or dangerous operations of foreign agents are suspected. The police indulge in human rights violations on suspected elements to bring the situation under control either by eliminating them or by forcing them to reveal their plans. Fake encounters were first contrived and staged by the Indian Police. Crime investigations account for a large share of human rights violations in the developing countries where third degree methods are employed in the interrogation of the people detained. Death, rape and torture in custody are common in many developing countries. Are acts of human rights violation effective in crime investigation or in controlling a troubled situation? The answer is no. A temporary lull may be created, but in the world of organized crime, the illegalities of human rights violations have either no impact or have just the opposite impact. The criminals are mentally and physically prepared to face any threat to their basic rights. Devising alternative plans to counter police action is only a minor diversion in their massive operations. In fact, they enjoy fighting the Government on equal terms with no legal or moral inhibitions. Their resolve to fight the Government with all the resource at their disposal is only strengthened. It becomes a no-hold barred fight then onwards, the lawenforcers losing their initial advantages and the edge of civility and decency. Inhuman and outrageous acts perpetrated by established Government agencies have an electrifying impact on the common man whose sympathies are in favour of the victims. The legal and moral relevance become immaterial to the citizen. A well-organized outfit
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actually contrives to create a situation to earn the sympathy of the public. HARDENED CRIMINALS Another reason why acts of human rights violation will not put an end to crimes is the criminals get hard and wish to take revenge and embarrass the establishment. This is how resistance grows. This is what happened in Punjab, in Kashmir and in Vietnam in the Sixties and the Seventies. Another impact of the violation of human rights by the state is the loss of fear and respect for the authority of the state. Once subjected to third-degree

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methods during interrogation, a petty criminal comes out as a hardened criminal. A government devoid of moral authority cannot rule at all. Secret services indulge in dirty tricks involving human rights violation in national interests, though law and morality demand that such violations in any form and for reason are bad. Criminals have their own code of conduct. Secret service is a world apart and its dramatis personae are inveterate in criminal games with the official sanction to play them. The danger lies in committing excesses that endanger the safety and the well-being of innocent people not involved in the game in any way. It is left to each state to draw the line depending on the sensitivity of each problem though it cannot openly declare that it is promoting and guiding the secret acts even remotely. Yet it is a cardinal duty it must perform. Another dimension of human rights violations is its commission for personal ends in the garb of fighting a social cause. In the atmosphere of violence, individuals from enforcement agencies as well as terrorist outfits may take advantage of the situation and indulge in killings, extortions and rape. India saw it happen in Punjab and Kashmir and even in the North-East where personal scores wee settled. The tragedy about Indian law-enforcers is that they are keen on the immediate show of results to earn the appreciation of the higher-ups, in the process relegating to the oblivion the need to find lasting solutions. That is why the violation of human rights is on the rise as efficient and ingenious policing is less preferred. This is true about managing law and order issues as well as investigation of crimes. Laws are formulated and promulgated by the government keeping in sight the needs of the country and the responsibilities of its enforcing machinery. The need to go lawless in order to enforce laws arises only when the law-enforcers perceive that the laws are inadequate or their abilities are inadequate to meet the challenges in the field. The laws being what they are, framed from time to time, to
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suit the needs of the field, the only conclusion one can draw from rampant human rights violations is that the enforcers are utterly devoid of professional skill and the instinct to do effective policing and hence resort to lawlessness as a short-cut-method. The heart of police responsibilities is protection of rights, be it individual, corporate, organizational or social, or the rights of the nation for survival. Protection, prevention and investigation are the tools available for achieving these ends. Human rights make up the essence of the privileges man enjoys in the social setup. The police, entrusted with the responsibility of protecting rights, are

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doing a disservice to the profession and humanity in violating human rights in the discharge of peripheral duties. But this is not unique to Indian police. The police and the governments of almost all the developing countries suffer from the syndrome, the problem being acute in nondemocratic countries. The problem is laying the emphasis on results irrespective of the means. Committing an injustice in the name of justice cannot be called a service in the cause of justice. In policing, each means is an end by itself. Policing by its very nature, involves extreme measures such as detention, arrest, search, seizure, impounding, forced entry, taking possession, controlling movements and the use of weapons. These methods when not employed discreetly and moderately do great harm to individuals and society. Perhaps in no other organisation is means as vital as in the police.

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POLITICAL CRIMES AND SECURITY
The importance of political crimes for the police lies in politics and crimes being two fields ex utraque parte of policing with the police depending on political leaders for sustenance while acting on criminals to justify its raison d’etre. The police can ably deal with politicians and criminals separately in discharge of their professional duties with their obedience and subordination side furbished for political masters and tough and ruthless side reserved for criminals. Unfortunately, the police are not required always to deal with politics and crimes separately. They are more and more required to handle a special category of crimes by the name, political crimes where their masters and subjects join hands to their chagrin. To further flummox the issue, the political crimes rate the highest in the scale of importance of various crimes on the basis of national interests at stake, the prominence of personalities involved and the magnitude of interests, the crimes arouse in the country and outside. The scope of political crimes range from petty crimes committed by political activists to serious crimes including white-collar crimes committed in the colours of performing political duties to grave crimes against national interests committed for political reasons from within or outside the country. The gravity of political crimes and their threat to the national interests subject them to the scrutiny and handling by a district of distinct security apparatus attached to the intelligence setup in addition to the usual purview of the uniformed police. But, the technique of handling political crimes in India is yet to be perfected. The present technique is yet a patch work and the police especially at the top are psychologically ill-equipped to handle political crimes as seen by poor performance of the
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Indian police in handling of such important political crimes as Bofors gun deal, St.Kitts’ affairs, Jain Hawala case, antisikh riots of 1984 and investigation of cases against godman Chandraswamy. The result is proliferation of political crimes in India and fear of a parallel rule by the crime world coming into existence under political patronage. CRIME AS A TOOL OF POWERGAME Vohra Committee report on the nexus of politicians and criminals perspicaciously indicated Indian political culture for its close links with the

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underworld and provided a compte rendu on the havoc created by the criminalization of politics and the politicization of crime. Politics imprimis being a power game and an art of possible, Shakespeare’s characterization of love and war where everything is fair, most politicians obviously presume, holds good to their profession as well. War and politics being two facets of the same power game, one external and one internal, there is no point why the axiom that everything is fair in politics should not be honoured while fairness of war in all its shapes and forms is sacrosanct. As politics being a power game in extremis like war and decides the degringolade or steep rise of those involutes in it, the politicians are convinced that they are justified in seeking any means, apocryphal or de jure, to ensure that they win and survive. After all, being suicidal is not a virtue; nor faulting the art of possible brings any credit in public life. Ultimately, it is success that decides what is right and wrong. There is no sin or wrong worse than a defeat. History has shown how success can absterge even the sin of mass murder of innocent people by dropping atom bombs. The cardinal goal of survival and success is the first priority and the means to achieve it takes care of itself. Depending upon the success or failure of the mission in hand. So goes the thinking of politicians maintaining close links with underworld. The only gaffe in their perception of politics is their failure to understand politics in a civilized system like democracy as a power game selon les regles unlike emotional games of love and war, where everything goes by emotion and passion. In a democratic party system, where procedures are shaped to make the rule of the majority a scientific reality in form of constitutional provisions, rule of law is paramount and one who moves extra muros is not only debarred from the game, but also dealt as a criminal. However, many politicians refuse to accept constraints on their political powerplay and continue to indulge in links with criminal world to have immediate need of winning power fulfilled. The crux of the problem of Indian politics lies in this with certain categories of crimes in delicius of Indian political
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field loosening the very terra firma of the Indian democratic system. POLITICIAL MURDERS Political murders are common features these days in India. When a political adversary grows to be an irritant, too serious for comfort. He is seen to be eliminated. No career politician wants to stain his name with a murder case and get his name registered as a criminal in police station. He does the work through his faithful underworld henchmen whom he keeps in good humour always for being available for such a need, by providing him political support and protection. For this, he keeps the police at his side. Intervening in police postings easily does this and helping to get early promotions for favored ones.

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BOOTH CAPTURING A candidate for an election may even resort to booth capturing through his criminal aides to facilitate his victory. This operation requires through planning and training of the men involved, apart from the willing cooperation of the police. An attempt at booth-capturing can succeed only with the intrenchant nexus between politicians, criminals and the police for synergy. POLITICAL KIDNAPPING Political kidnapping is an international phenomenon that comminated the world of diplomacy in excelsis in the 1970’s. The Menace trickled onto the Indian scene though slowly, decisively in the 1980’s. The realization that political ends can be easily met by the malengine of the kidnapdrama opened up an aboideau to the terrorists who were acharne to meet their political telos. The increase in terrorist activities in India, perchance, as an outcome of the suspected “balkanization of India” policy adopted by some foreign countries, made political kidnapping a ubiquitous reality on the Indian political scene from the latter half of the 1980’s. The terrorists of Kashmir and Punjab set the tone in India, which was picked up, by the People’s War Group and the ULFAs in the 1990s. The inexperience of Indian political leaders in tackling the problem complicated the matter. While most countries around the world explicated a policy of stubborn refusal to yield to kidnappers’ demands under straints, the Indian leaders goofed by displaying their weaknesses while people close to them were abducted, in yielding to demands as a quid pro quo in releasing large number of dangerous terrorists, who were arrested at huge cost and loss of lives. The situation has been further complicated by adopting a policy of double standards in sacrificing the lives of lesser mortals in some other cases. It is obviously sending a mauvais depeche to the would-be-terrorists that the closer the proximity of the kidnapped to a political leader, the bigger is the chance of meeting their political ends. The publicity attached to the kidnap-drama and the
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arousal of the public interest in the developments that follow is another dimension of the political kidnapping that brings identification and gives an image to a terrorist outfit as nothing else can. It has become a fashion to initiate a terrorist outfit with a kidnapping operation. The chevisance in the inchoate drama proves the strength and resourcefulness of the new outfit and its locus standi among such other outfits, in the way the murders committed by a recruit decides his place in the mafia. The finesse displayed in executing the operation to a successful end decides the future of the organisation, a part form the advantages of the ransom money and the release of compatriots. Interestingly, the first experiment of political kidnapping

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in the Indian scene was conducted in a foreign country in the form of the egregious abduction and killing of Mr. R.H.Mhatre, a junior diplomat in the Birmingham consulate in the first week of February 1984 by JKLF militants. POLITICAL KIDNAPPING VERSUS DISPLOMACY Political kidnapping and murder is tout court the most heinous crime that often involves cold-blooded murder of absolutely innocent people for political ends. The mental agony and subsequent destruction involved to the maledict hostages and their near and dear ones because of the misguided entrainement of a handful of greenhorns go waste and make kidnapping an infructuous political tool at the end. The considerable fall in the incidences for political kidnapping on the international scene of late is an indication of the increasing realization of this fact that Crime scarcely survives in the situations of haute politique like diplomacy and relations between nations. High thinking by enlightened people functions as a catchpole to check the criminal tendencies from being perpetuated. Political kidnapping in the Indian scene is also bound to be a temporal phenomenon as seen otherwhere in the world. PROFESSIONAL CRIMINALS IN KIDNAP DRAMA A disturbing tread in political kidnapping is the possibility of professional criminals like smugglers and drug peddlers resorting to political kidnappings at the hest of their illegal profession in the guise of political kidnappers. The accrescent dependence of terrorists and professional criminals on each adds to the complexity. This unhealthy situation is already true in India as it is in many other countries. POLITICAL KIDNAPPINGS IN INDIAN SCENE The operation Rhino against the ULFA activities is a direct offshoot of a series of kidnappings of Indian and foreign nationals and killing of some of them by the ULFA militants in Assam. The peoples’ War Group in Andhra Pradesh is going progressively active in kidnapping government officials to bring the state government on its knees. The government of Andhra Pradesh is yet to take the gauntlet
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by the horns. The kidnap dramas excoriate criminals, politicians and the police to a war of nerves and those who have steel-nerves in them, emerge successful in the end. The political kidnappings are further complicating the welter created in the Indian and international scene by the rise of kidnappings by misadventurous individuals or groups lucri causa. The kidnappings becoming the piece de resistance of organized crime as a means of making a fast buck is already evident on the Indian scene as more and more reports of businessmen, industrialists or their relatives and children being kidnapped for ransom appear in newspapers in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Punjab, Delhi, Calcutta, Bombay

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and even smaller places. Ascensive anfractuosities of egregious mafia gangs in these operations are a pollent possibility. The relevance of the police comes into the picture in their ingine to check these pernicious developments. The triste reality is that the Indian police have failed to rise to the occasion till now. UNITY OF PURPOSE IN INDIAN POLICE The political crimes of gargantuan proportion can be successfully tackled only by pollent police organisation with its all resources and resolves pooled together. In the current system of policing in India, police stations and district police units form basic units of the administration. Some of the functions discharged at these levels have concurrent jurisdiction with some special units at state and national levels. Crime investigation in special circumstances can be taken over from the district police administration by the state CID or the CBI at the national level. So, it is with the intelligence collection, security operations, the raising of armed police forces, maintenance of crime records etc. The police in the state are devised as an independent unit. In a vast country like India, policing being shared between scores of independent units with no perspicaciously defined mechanism of cooperation, the problem occurs of coordination and units of purpose in tackling challenges that cover more than one of these unities. There are too many challenges such as these in the increasingly complex society of India. Except for the sense of national unity there is nothing common among these units to approach the gauntlets with a common cause. Even the common Indian Police Service is unable to bring about a unit of purpose to policing throughout India. This gives an impression of fragmentation in the Indian police. A fragmented police cannot turn out work in full-stream owing to the waste by leakage in the process of co-ordination between the fragmented parts. India must consider devising a pollent unitary police administration at the centre with full control over subordinate state and union territory police setups. This would avoid coordination problems and help policing to be more purposeful in tackling challenges from the
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national perspective. It also makes available larger resources from the national level for policing apart from strengthening the sense of belonging to one police. This is necessary in the interests of the country and it’s policing in the future. CRIMINAL LAWS A few glaring anomalies and some erroneous provisions in the extant criminal laws of India contribute to be easy escapades of criminals from the clutches of law in many cases and harassment of innocent persons by the police in some other cases. The loopholes in the criminal law have to be plugged imprimis if crime

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administration has to be effective in India and command a semblance of respect and confidence of the public. The police or judicial officer under whose custody a person is kept under detention should be made responsible by name for the latter’s timely release with a provision that if detention exceeds the period provided by law, it will make the concerned officer liable for proceedings for unlawful detention without the privilege of exemptions for actions performed in official colours, available under the extant laws. Also, all cases of violence and physical outrages committed in police custody should be made punishable with exemplary penalties by special legislations. Such extreme measures may bring an end to shocking criminal acts committed eo nomine policing in some quarters and save the Indian police from the embarrassment of serve public resentment. CRIMINAL LAW BOARD India requires the constitution of a statutory Criminal Law Board as an advisory body to liaise between the police setup and the union law ministry regarding criminal laws to facilitate glib policing. The board, as a permanent body, may have senior most officers of the central government from home and law ministries, police and prosecution departments, distinguished humanists and senior advocates of the Supreme Court as members with the union home minister as its chairman. It must undertake the study of the need of changes in criminal laws from time to time. The board may meet every quarter or a year and discuss extant criminal laws and their shortcomings in the light of representations received from officers in the field from the police and prosecution departments and make proposals for requisite changes in criminal laws e ra nata. HUMAN RIGHTS CELLS Political crimes whether it is of the stature of national politics or international politics have the queer propensity of arousing issues of violation of human rights to crumble the credibility of the law-enforcers in the eyes of the public. Institution of human rights cells in each district and
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metropolitan city as advisory conseil to the police of the region with local human rights champions as its members to draw attention to specific instances of inhuman conduct by subordinate officers would meet the needs to keep the police on pernoctation against political crimes credible vis a vis likely false hue and cry by affected political leaderships. The human rights cells should be a dynamic part of the police administration in the regions and its observations should set in motion a process of verification and peremptory action. Though subjecting police to the scrutiny of an outside setup may appear a retrograde measure, it may help the assuefaction of the policing

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methods to human comports in rerum natura and save the establishment from the charges of violation of human rights in controlling political crimes a la Kashmir, Punjab and elsewhere in the country. INTELLIGENCE OUTFITS Collection and analysis of intelligence and special operations from the building blocks of all nuances of the police operations. Indian intelligence system is yet to stand up to the enormous challenges thrown to it in detecting and controlling political crimes and can nowhere be compared with its counterparts in developed and even a few developing countries. Various intelligence outfits of India are often found functioning at cross-purposes even in protecting VVIPs and other sensitive targets from political crimes. India should reorganize and strengthen its intelligence outfit if it is to survive the challenges and stand up to the threats of political crimes to the integrity, security and law and order of the country. UNIFIED INTELLIGENCE AUTHORITY The Indian intelligence system may develop unity of purpose and operation to control political crimes ab intra and ab extra by working under the umbrella of a unified intelligence authority with the chiefs of all intelligence organisations as members. The authority must affect a synergy of intelligence operations through its various wings of internal, external, counter, military and security intelligence. Sufficient attention has to be given to infuse entrain to the intelligence system of India and modernize its methods to raise it to a few degrees closer to the international standards. The interferences of officialdom need to be minimised and a sense of commitment and dedication to be infused by making intelligence operations a lifelong career. The ultimate purpose of all police functions is public security. Either it is intelligence collection or crime investigation or maintenance of law and order, all roads leads to this single aspiration. Therefore, the security operations form the crown of policing activities, without which all other police operations prove futile exercises.
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SECURITY OPERATIONS India needs specially trained battalions of security operators in every state to take charge of the security of vital installations and VIPs. Also each state police unit may have a small commando force to meet threats during emergencies like hijacking, VVIP security under difficult circumstances, complicated operations against terrorists etc. This special group has to be brought into operation only under exceptionally difficult circumstances. Otherwise, it has to be involved in continuous commando training of the highest order. The commandos have to

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be well equipped with the wherewithal of commando operations of the latest order. Only select officers may be recruited to the group with extra emoluments to make the job really elite. The commando units of the central government must train the state commando forces. The need of commando groups in the state police forces will be increasingly felt in future as the menace of terrorism and sabotage grows uninhibited with the future possibility of violent methods being accepted as legitimate ways of expressing political dissent. INADEQUATE SECURITY PLANNING The present perception of internal security in India revolves round a few catchwords like prohibited areas, protected areas, official secrets, sensitive installation, static guards, armed pickets, mobile patrols, striking forces, perimeter protection, infiltration, mechanical breakdown, external and internal attacks verification, unobtrusive watch, internal watch, intelligence collection, top-secret papers, security information, leakage of information etc. Model internal security scheme, containing jugglery of these words is available in all district police offices. The plans in the schemes do not touch even the fringes of the present security needs. Secondly, the model schemes are based on outdated facts and statistics that have become irrelevant in subsequent periods. Though these model schemes are expected to be updated from time to time, seldom are they touched. This renders them irrelevant to a given phase of time. Thirdly, the security guidelines in the model schemes can in no way make a claim to expertise. They are simple suggestions based on common sense. Any police official with sound field knowledge can improve on them according to specific instances by relying on his own savvy. For all practical purposes, these model internal security schemes have become passe and impair. They have only historical interests in the neoteric scheme of things. The model security schemes enumerate in terrorem the likely sources of threats to the country’s internal security, such as aggression by an alien power, sabotage and
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subversive activities, communal riots, student unrest, extremist activities, violent labour problems, natural calamities etc. The schemes distinguish between peacetime threats and wartime threats and deal with each period with various stages of approach like precautionary stage, preventive measures and protective measures. What are striking in these schemes are the details of work to be attended to, like evacuation of lunatics, police-public relations peace committees, mobilization of NCC and volunteer organisation etc. But, unfortunately, there is nothing really instructive in these schemes for a security officer of good field experience and sound common sense. The only advantage the schemes provide

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is that all obvious measures are listed in a raisonne nutshell for easy reference. But, as said before, albeit the measures listed out are exhaustive as routine jobs to be performed in such disturbances, they in no way, help in tackling complex internal security challenges of the present day. The reason for this is that the format of the schemes was conceived decades back when challenges of internal security were simpler and on expected lines. No serious thought was given to overhauling the format of the scheme since then. The position though is similar in respect of the blue book that deals with aspects of security for dignitaries, political compulsions helped to update them as more and more dignitaries fell to the bullets of extremists. The updating of the blue book is one of the plus points of the subservience of the police to political masters. Yet, the blue book too needs a complete overhauling on the basis of the new realities of security challenges and new perceptions and conceptions about meeting such challenges. CHALLENGES OF INTERNAL SECURITY What the new blue book and new model internal security schemes need are guidelines on how to approach a security challenge and not what peripheral matters should be attended to, Each security challenge of the present day is sui generis and needs a specific approach depending upon the time, the place and other circumstances of the challenge. It is too simplistic to imagine that a common formula, however exhaustive it is, can tackle all internal security challenges of the present day. The blue book and model internal security schemes must lay down broad guidelines and the spirit with which security challenges, available methods of approach for each class of challenge, salient features of the risks involved and precautions to be attended to alternative courses of action and assessment of the chances of success for each course under different circumstances etc. The security guidelines must name the nature of security threats under various situations and list out likely targets of sabotage under all imaginable circumstances. They must be able to forewarn about potential sources of threats and suggest ways and means
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of overcoming them and invent short and long- range plans to meet likely serious challenges. Such an approach to security relieves pressure on prototypal security and shifts stress to creative security and saves manpower and other resources from being wasted on unproductive quotidian mobilization. This works a panpharmacon to the underutilization of precious security tools by unintelligent routine deployment. Political crimes call for special skills in police in handling them as the crimes involutes political leaders and ergo, sensitive in nature. Such crimes are often of national importance and draw the glare of pubic attention with all hues of Judgements passed by all kinds of people. There would be pulls and counter

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pulls by influential people from different sides at all levels of policing to handle them in a particular rendering objective appropinquation to such crimes non possumus, unless concerned police officer dares to endanger his own career prospects and even his life to achieve the object of objectivity. Only special skills save police from such a terrible fixe. The skills are hard to come and very taxing on the police. But, these are the job hazards and police must learn to live with it.

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NEED OF REVAMPING INDIAN POLICE
If policing is to be effective in the years ahead, specialization is crucial. Creation of three distinct police services with separate recruitment and training is the need of the hour. a) Regulatory Police or Uniformed Police in charge of law and order and other regulatory duties; (b) Mainstay police in charge of crime investigation, crime prevention, security and intelligence operation; (c) Social police in charge of prevention and investigation of all social offences and implementation of social legislation. All three wings should have their own individual organisations up to district level with independent Superintendents and staff as required: functioning in tandem in much the same way as the army, navy and air force. At the apex could be a specially constituted body called the State Police Authority with Police Chiefs of all three wings as members and the Chief Secretary of the Government as its Chairman. At present, the growth of the Police Department is not really much more than a spasmodic reaction to various stimuli and lacks the benefit of an integrated approach. As a result, a structural chorisis is evident which places operational facilities, counterbalances and counterchecks in jeopardy. The constitution of a permanent cell of organisation experts under the direct control of the police chief to redefine Police Organisation is required to make it more meaningful and need- based. This could help in streamlining the hierarchy by identifying and eliminating redundant posts, rationalizing workloads and preventing their duplication, redefining duties and procedures and thus the rights and responsibilities at each level. In consequence, police functioning would be made more costeffective and efficient.
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The annual assessment of men and officers in the police has become a travesty of what it was originally meant to be. In no way, under the present circumstances, does an ACR reflect an officer’s qualities or capabilities or lack thereof. Any reliance on this clavis to mischief is sure to demoralize the force. It is my strong conviction that the department would be far better off without this pernicious evaluation process that encourages corruption and favoritism in the force. Though, it must be said that the evils of the ACR are not inherent in the process

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itself, but stem rather from the calibre of those who write them at various levels. What characterizes the rite of the ACR today is a distinct lack of objectivity: it has become a means to personal ends, a medium for the advancement of individual interests and even settlement of personal scores. Servility is its inevitable consequence and it would not be immoderate to say that, eliminating the ACR altogether would be certainly a step towards commune bonum in the police force. Police Officers who don’t opt to join the IPS must have the opportunity for promotion provided by reservation of a suitable percentage at the next level. New rules would of course have to be prescribed for such promotion. Similarly, a minimum percentage of the total number of district and other coveted posts must be reserved for these officers. As the KSPS and IPS are two distinct services and nowhere is it stated that the latter superates the former, equal opportunities should be given to officers of both services. There would be no harm in allowing KSPS officers to grow in the service of their induction if proper avenues for advancement are vouchsafed. They would also feel more of a sense, of belonging in their own service rather than in an alien service, where a degree of alienation is perhaps inevitable. It is common experience that police officers on deputation land in jobs far lower in rank than in their home departments. The tendency to only gradually upgrade posts to facilitate promotion further complicates matters. Many posts generally held by Deputy Commissioners in administrative service were held by DIGs and then by IGs in the police department, with a consequent lowering of the prestige and dignity of the ranks. Similarly, there are very high-ranking posts in the Police with minor job contents, ipso facto affecting the dignity of the ranks.’ These matters require critical review by organization experts to have a more balanced police setup. The blame that no talent breeds and grows in the heath of the police setup cannot be easily gainsaid. The Indian Police Service continues to be an intellectually poor,
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unattractive, subsecive service in the spectrum of All India Services with only misfits opting for the service. The constabulary that forms the bulk of the service is largely constituted of people from the lower strata of society who are psychologically handicapped to exercise their police powers against the more enlightened people in society. The tendency to foul-up superior intellect and excellence is another contributing factor for the atrophy of the police setup. The general reluctance to adopt modern techniques of policing and management, the dogmatic approach to man-to-man and public relations and the lack of psychological insight to human nature are other factors responsible for the unfortunate state of affairs in the force. Only capable police leadership

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at all levels can overcome these problems. The organisation is bound to experience a glissade until the trend of donkey-judging-and-riding-horse is put to an end in the police setup and a semblance of objectivity, reasonableness and good judgment touch the core of police administration.

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RESTORING CREDIBILITY TO CRIME INVESTIGATION
The last decade of this century sees the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) becoming the Indian version of the U.S. Federal Bureau of Intelligence (FBI) headed by J.Edgar Hoover in the middle of the century with one difference. The FBI became a key component and much feared public institution, thanks to the open aggressive moves of its energetic Director, while the CBI gained notoriety as a pawn in the political game of chess used to bring rivals down on their knees. The trend altered the judiciary that became active. The CBI, closely watched by the judiciary, had to discharge its professional responsibilities and this saw many skeletons in the cupboard tumbling. The organisation, in the process, shed its meekness against powerful politicians and proved it was a force to reckon with. Being the highest authority of the country in crime investigation, the CBI must contain the best investigation brains vested with the power to execute the work. Personal attributes such as probity and professionalism are essential. But does the CBI meet all these needs? The seventh Schedule of the Constitution has the police and public order, except for the deployment and use of forces of the Union, under the State List, and criminal law, criminal procedure, administration of justice and judicial proceedings under the Concurrent List. The Central Bureau of Intelligence and Investigation figures in the Union List. The arrangement provides for a separate bureau of investigation. The legal authority of the CBI is defined by a short six-section Act of 1946 titled
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“Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946" which provides for the constitution of a special police force by the Central Government for the investigation of notified offences in any Union Territory and in any area in a State where the jurisdiction of the police force is extended by the order of the Central Government on the consent of the State Government. The last section of the Act states the special police force cannot exercise its powers in an area without the consent of the Government of that State. The

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special police force enjoys all the powers, duties privileges and the liabilities of the police officers of an area in the investigation of the offences committed there. The superintendence of the special police force lies with the Central Government and the administration with an officer whose grade is on par with State police chief. The preamble of the Act speaks about the need for the constitution of “a special police force in Delhi for the investigation of certain offences in the Union Territories and to make provision for the superintendence and administration of the said force and for the extension to other areas of the powers and jurisdiction of the members of the said force in regard to the investigation of the said offences.” It is the national character of the CBI that makes it stand head and shoulders above the myriad crime investigation department. Its prime position as the investigator of all important and sensitive crimes has brought it to the centrestage in the public life of India. Otherwise, the CBI, as an investigating agency, is on par with any other crime investigation department regarding the law, judicial proceedings, investigation methods and the powers and privileges given to the investigators. Does the CBI, in its present form, fully qualify to be a premier investigating authority? The answer is no. The restraint on the CBI from exercising its powers and jurisdiction in any area in a State without the consent of the government of that State is a great handicap. India, in 60 years, has come across several States giving and withdrawing consent depending on their political and parochial conveniences. This attitude renders the CBI part of a political game plan tarnishing its image and degrading the merit of the investigations. The CBI should be empowered to extend its tentacles to all areas of the country and investigate all types of offences classified crime. The Act has to be amended to that effect. The Act provides for the appointment of the head of the CBI by the Central Government, which involves politicians.
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Now, why should the head of the premier investigating agency is named according to the whims and fancies of the politicians in power? The power of appointing the head of the CBI should be taken away from the Centre. The agency will then have its credibility restored. Again, the Act has to be amended. Once a case is referred to the CBI, the people assume that the law will take its course. Only insiders know the turns and twists it undergoes depending upon who is what in the case and in the Government

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Right from taking up a case for investigation to the stage of filing a chargesheet and later, anything may happen at any stage depending upon the political dictates. A case may be investigated and charge sheet filed within a few weeks or months or just shelved for decades. Arrests, decisions on bails, searches, seizures and charge sheets are all subject to political convenience. The political head gains this leverage by becoming instrumental in the appointment of a particular police officer who would never have dreamt of making it to the top. The grateful chief knows to whom he owes his coveted position, and his power and conscience are at the convenience of his political boss. This is an arrangement of mutual benefit. When the new chief dares to challenge the will of his political patron, the sword of abrupt removal from the post is held over his head. Now he has no option but to go against his conscience and professional will unless he is prepared to sacrifice his job. By quitting, he does service to nobody: after all, there are others waiting to distort professional decisions at the command of the politicians. So he would rather join the race. This is how the agency chief is brought down on his knees. The malaise lies in the legal framework inherited from the Act the provided for constituting the special police force. When a series of sensitive cases against prominent political leaders was referred to the CIB in the Nineties, the agency stood exposed by its meddling. The case of the Bofors gun deal drags on; the handling of the St.Kitts forgery case, the Jain hawala case, the urea scam, the JNN bribery case, the Lakhubhai pathak cheating case, the Indian Bank scam, the telecommunications scandal, the anti-Sikh riots case of 1984 and the case of harboring terrorists and mafia associates has dealt a blow to the credibility of the CBI. The public no more trusts the CBI. What exactly has brought about the situation? Delay, sometimes running into years, in taking up or completing investigation of politically inconvenient cases, prompt
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execution when the political climate is congenial, decision to oppose or allow bails on political considerations, building up cases around flimsy evidence such as entries in diaries and inconsequential photographs sans corroboration have all eroded the status of the CBI. Going to the press about charge sheeting key political personalities even before statutory permission is obtained for the purpose (the Supreme Court observed, in this context: “talking too much outside and also carrying documents” in the pockets) and leaks about politically sensitive cases make the agency suspect.

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The charge that the CBI is more interested in trying the cases in the media than in courts cannot be answered squarely. If the appointment of the CBI chief is one side of the coin, the enormous powers he and his political masters enjoy are the other. Professional investigation by an upright officer can always be scuttled and the officer abruptly removed if he is found too inconvenient. Reverting officials to the base is always a possibility. Mr.K.N.Singh, former Joint Director of the CBI, in his book, “My CBI Days” refers to the harassment he underwent for pursuing investigation according to his conscience. Mr.K.Madhavan, another Joint Director, preferred voluntary retirement. The solution lies in liberating the CBI from the grip of the politicians and bringing its top brass to their senses about professional responsibilities. Making the CBI autonomous is not going to achieve anything. There is no guarantee that the CBI chiefs who make merry in the company of their political benefactors will behave better when left free. Chances are that they may run parallel political maneuvers to build a base for themselves. The Supreme Court pronounced on May 5, 1997, that it was not in favour of making the primeinvestigating agency totally autonomous, but would like to evolve a method based on checks and balances so that it could function independently in accordance with the law. The crux of the matter is “a method based on checks and balances.” The key is the appointment of the chief of the agency. A statutory panel constituted of men from the judicial profession as advisor to the agency may fulfill the need for “checks and balances.” The panel may be invested with the power to appoint and remove CBI chiefs on the basis of their performances. The panel may advise the agency on taking up cases, arrests, searches, seizures bail and charge sheets. The advice has to be statutorily binding on the process of the investigation. The panel has to be free to monitor the
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process and the pace of the investigation. The panel may consist of a dozen senior most retired judges of the Supreme Court as permanent members, one of them as chairman and the CBI chief as membersecretary. The membership of the panel must be awarded to the senior retied judges including chief justices. Only a full panel with a minimum of 80 percent quorum must be empowered to decide, on a simple majority, about the appointment and removal of the CBI

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chiefs, promotions and transfers of officers of an above the rank of Assistant Director. The function, privileges, rights, liabilities and responsibilities of the panel have to be clearly defined in order to avoid clashes with the CBI. A suitable amendment to the”Delhi Special Police Establishment Act 1946" is the first step. The constitution of the panel as part of the body of the CBI shall be the second step. And the third and most crucial step will be suitable administrative measures to ensure that the panel discharges its responsibilities in a fair manner. Appreciation and an atmosphere free of bureaucratic hassles and pulls and pressures will help the elder members of the judiciary discharge their responsibilities in guiding the CBI in the right course.

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NEED TO REVITALISE THE POLICE
In a disciplined organisation like the police where subordination and role-play forma crucial psychological necessity, rigid inheritance of the style of functioning has become sine qua non in the vacuum of independent and creative thinking. This is the seed of the frigidity of the Indian Police set up. More dangerously, blind faith in the inherited style of functioning as the only way out to the exclusion of all other open alleys deprive the Indian police of the richness of variety and growth opportunities while cementing ranks and bringing a sense of unity and belongingness that create a sense of strength about the organisation in outsiders. The stereotype style of functioning irrespective of merit, suitability to a given situation and options available makes the police functioning largely mechanical and stripped of any intellectual or creative contents in it. Any deviation from the beaten-path is considered with contempt and suspicion and birds of the same flock come together to bring the prevaricator to the required path. Until then, he is labeled and condemned as pout of the mainstream. That is why an imaginative and creative soul newly entering the Indian Police feels absolutely stifled and either follows the flock at the cost of his convictions or just withers away fighting a loosing and humiliating battle outside the mediocre mainstream. Winning such a battle to effect a couple of changes in the mental makeup of the giant organisation is an extremely rare phenomenon and not worth to an individual to have that try. These features bring distinct characteristics to the organisation. Indeed, the police have people come from all walks of life with their distinct personal features and styles. But, once they enter the police organisation, the
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grind of the system takes its toll and creates a common profile in its members. Though such a grind is common in many other organisations also, it is not as complete and clear as in the police. The process is not consciously man-made and ergo incidental to the policing system. The standardization so brought by the process has its own advantages and disadvantages. In case of the police, it appears that disadvantages as the standardized style of functioning cut through the growth process of the organisation in efficiency and excellence. It also grievously destabilizes dignity of the service and stifles professional values. There are

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inveterate servilities in the style of functioning evolved in the police by these prices. This often exposes the police to gratuitous risks in performance of legitimate duties. POLITICIAN-POLICE NEXUS Adaptations to political masters as a bargain to secure key posts prove fatal to the dignity as well as professional values of the police set up. A Police officer of a state in southern India succeeded in cornering the coveted post of police commissioner at the State capital a few years back with the support of a politician known in the then political parlance as the ‘ Father, Mother’ of the state Chief Minister. A few days later, the politician in an inebriated state was arrested with his associates while fleeing in a car late night after being involved in a sex scandal involving a budding film star. The police official who affected the arrest recognized the identity of the person he had arrested only after they were brought to the nearby police station in the city. The Police Commissioner was intimated about the developments. The Police Commissioner promptly made his appearance in the police station in the night and ensured the immediate release of his political godfather. But, the political heavy weight in a temulent state was impeccable. He caught the collar of the Police Commissioner in front of the shocked subordinate officials and shouted at the Police Commissioner in his inebriated voice asking him whether he was made the Police Commissioner to arrest and bring him to the Police station. The police Commissioner was seen meekly begging the politician to pardon him. The incident made headlines in newspapers. The scoundrel Police Commissioner later rose to become the Police Chief of the state and is now retired. Such incidents abound in circumstances of Police officers vying for coveted posts a tout prix and as a consequence, the dignity of the posts lowers and the professional qualities of the organisation suffer. An important reason at the derriere of this failing of the police lies in their general inability at assessments. A rather queer characteristic of the police is it’s dithering as far as assessments in any form are concerned. It is an
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organisational failing in the police and the police have found an easy way out of this failing— falling in line with the general trend and precedence sans application of mind. An officer once wrongly rapped as difficult to work with, would be seen so forever by all so much that he himself would begin to trust it as true. Though this trend strengthens the sinew of collectivity and collective responsibilities for whatever purposes in the organisation, it considerable weakens the intellectual credibility’s of the police and tears to pieces the fabric of objectivity and fairness in the organisation.

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Once in service, independent thinking becomes a disaster and metabasis as a mechanical part of the flock becomes a crude habit. While this tendency in the organisation brings the elements of collective acceptance within the danger of a person or situation or event once wrongly interpreted, never again to be seen in right perspective, destroys its strength and credibility. This lessens the possibility of seeing things at anytime rightly thereafter. The result often is perverted assessments. In the police, where assessments of men and events form a crucial role, this failure proves fatal to the organisation as well as to the society. This fomented with generally low intellectual qualities of the police, confines the police to mediocrity and restrains it from rising to excellence in performances and promoting high calibre in its personnel. SENSE OF COLLECTIVITY There is a sense of collectivity for good or bad in the police. None in the police normally get a spark to see a thing from a new angle and give their own interpretations or judgment ectogenesis to the view already held. The sense of rectitude becomes secondary when the sense of collectivity is at stake. Though the police profession demands fairness, justice and rectitude as its primary concern, passion for the values in the police is surprisingly feeble. The commitment to do things legally and rightly is superficial. A fall-out of corruption in the police is build-up of a dynamics that promotes the interests of corrupt in the system at the cost of those who retained the pristine value of professionalism. The flexible elements that can be maneuvered to required moulds through the juste milieu of pelf and position are useful assets to people in key positions to save the interests of their kith and kin as and when they get involved in criminal proceedings. Such characters in the force are always cultivated and posted to key positions so that striking compromises, when situation warrants, becomes easy. This strategy ends up in honest police officers being sidelined and promotes corruption. The dynamics that helps influential individuals to evade the
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long arm of law harms the interests of the country, its police and the rule of law. Police officers of plastic conscience are preferred to upright professionals to key posts even in national level police agencies like the Central Bureau of Investigation and the Intelligence Bureau. Police officers known for professional approach are spurned and distanced as inconvenient elements. In the situation, competence plays no role in preferences while honesty, integrity and professional commitment play negative roles. A history of bending backward on professional considerations always becomes a qualification in obtaining preferences to more sensitive jobs in important police organisations.

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A case of dowry death reported against a retired judge and his family in February 1992 in a state as referred to the state investigation agency. The investigation made out a case for charge sheet against the retired judge and five others including his wife, son, two daughters and another person. The chief of the investigating agency in the rank of IGP being close to the retired judge dragged his feet from further proceedings in the case. The Superintendent of Police who was supervising the investigation of the case wanted to take the investigation to its logical end. But arrests in the case were prevented and the charge sheet was unduly delayed. The insistence of the Superintendent of Police to charge sheet the case cost him his post and he was transferred in July 1992 to the Home Guards department of the state as the head of it training wing. The case remained frozen sans charge sheet for more than one and a half years, till the IGP’s transfer in 1993. The case was later charge-sheeted in March 1994 with the retired judge and his two daughters being dropped from the charge sheet on the basis of evidences tampered at later stages. The police officer that tried to stall the wheel of the legal process subsequently succeeded in gaining entry to a sensitive police organisation at the national level and later in his own state. An extension of this style of functioning is their complete absorption in their service to the exclusion of other dimensions of life including family life. Nothing interests them outside the police except specific popular entertainments to counterpoise the tension of the quotidian police work. The result is the family life of most police officers being disoriented and their children more then often betraying criminal tendencies because of the lack of paternal care and attention. The lack of attention to personal habits manifests in very few police officers leading a happy and normal retired life. It is in the interests of the police to come out of this pernicious grind of the style of functioning, to breach the accretion and break out to the fraicheur of the invigorating open world of endless possibilities. But the adnate growth
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over the police system is so thick that no trickles of fresh air survive through it. Anything ab intra cannot ruffle the complacency of the constricting system. This is general experience and concomitant conviction, that something cataclysmic from outside should shake the system and bring it to its senses to show it how and why it is wrong and what retards the growth of the police to its full bloom to efficiency and excellence and how returning the style of functioning can flush new life to the Indian police. We can only hope that such a development comes soon and saves the Indian police from further degradation.

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INDIAN POLICE NEED VIGOUR
Independence half a century back marks the greatest turning point in the history of Indian police. It marks the end of the 88-year history of policing on modern lines under the British Raj, which began with the enactment of the Madras District Police Act of 1859 and assumed countrywide acceptance with the enactment of the Police Act of 1861. Independence marks the beginning of the history of Indian police under Indian hands in a democratic milieu unlike of yore though in form and contents they were its continuation. The hitch lay in its spirit, in the contradictions of the intentions of a colonial police and the traditions of a democratic police. It patently is against jus naturale to expect a colonial police transform to a democratic set-up overnight with the awakening of the country at midnight. Spirit is never known to be a quick chameleonic, particularly while form and contents maintain their stead. Change in spirit is the natural outcome of changes in ambience leading to metamorphosis of value system and attitudes by rapid exposures to changed trails and tribulations to ripen the spirit to its new avatar. The first fifty years of independence of India marks this period in context of the spirit of Indian police maturing to democratic traditions in the hands of Indian rulers. Crime investigation is a task as important to police as national security is. While national security gained currency in India after the country became independent, crime investigation along with law and order duties was the mainstay of Indian police from periods long before it. But, India never realized the importance of crime investigation in national affairs until very recently. Nonetheless, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of Mr.Edgar J Hoover
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in the US showed to the world around the time of India’s independence, what a powerful instrument an investigation agency can be in national affairs and how resourceful chiefs of investigation agencies can hold even the heads of governments of their countries to ransom. PLAYING SAFE It is to the credit of Indian Police that the premier investigation agency of the country, the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) and the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) in states and union territories never harbored such ambitions

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till now. It is a different matter that in the recent years the CBI is forced by the judiciary to proceed against ranking political leaders including former union cabinet ministers and prime ministers, in discharge of its legitimate duties. Otherwise, Indian investigation agencies, both at the Centre and in regions, kept themselves away from interfering with the affairs of political leaders and their kith and kin for most parts of the period in the last fifty years, save dictated for limited actions by the ruling parties for political purpose as in the Classic Computer case of 1993 in Karnataka or cases against Ms. Indira Gandhi and her kin in 1977 for emergency excesses. Otherwise, they believed in the sanctity of political leaders and their associates as beyond the laws of the country. Criminal cases filed against those people invariably fell through for lack of purposeful investigation and the trend led to the belief that powerful people are beyond the reach of law. Recent judicial activism changed the myth and infused a new vigor to the judicial and law-enforcing systems of the country. But, an investigation agency doing its legitimate duties under the pressures of the judiciary cannot be an adequate compensation for doing the same works with a missionary zeal of professional commitment. Indian investigation agencies at both the national as well as regional levels are far from any professional zeal and investigating skill seen in internationally acclaimed investigation agencies like the Scotland Yard of England that provided the model for the CBI and other regional investigation agencies of the country. Sadly, Indian counterparts adopted only the form and not the spirit of the Scotland Yard and thought it best in its indigenous wisdom not to stir the hornet’s nest by going active and radical after the FBI of the US LACKLUSTRE PERFORMANCE Some developments in the national crime scene of India like the CBI investigating top political leaders of the country for involvement in various scandals of national importance has not changed the situation of investigating
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agencies of India. Crime investigations continue to be a factor of political decisions, in spite of periodical judicial reviews of the investigation process Investigation agencies enjoy tremendous leeway in carrying out investigations in desired directions in spite of judicial scrutiny of the cases. Until investigation agencies exhibit professional commitment and develop a passion to deracinate evils from the society, exercises like judicial reviews of the investigation process cannot really make substantial differences, either to investigation agencies or to crime investigations. Unlike spirited investigations of corrupt leaders in countries like Italy, Japan and Korea in the recent past, Indian investigation agencies dither and drag their

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feet back to handle cases of political corruption in spite of judicial compulsions on it. The professional and social commitments seen in those countries are a far cry from Indian police of the independent vintage. There seems to be no scope of Indian police catching up with the spirit in near future if the first half-century of the democratic rule in India is any indication. Indian police leadership is too steeped in slef-promotion to be bothered by the spirits pro bono publico. For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. This is true in the field of Indian politics as well. It is significant that after the Supreme Court of India took active interest in the investigation of crimes involving top leaders of the country, a new trend has surfaced with the post of the CBI chief being invested on somebody from the cadre of the state from which the chief executive of the government hails, as if to counter the pressures of the judiciary on the investigation agency. This was true in 1993 and again in 1996. The new trend only makes clear that everything is not well in the administration of the investigation agencies of the country and pressures and counterpressures have a great say in the process of investigations of those investigation agencies. JUDICIAL ACTIVISM The recent judicial activism in the investigation of important crimes and scandals of India is not confined to the Supreme Court of India; nor is it limited to the cases investigated by the CBI. High courts and even session courts these days are taking lead from the Supreme Court, as evident from the court proceedings in cases under trial in lower courts like Lakhubhai Pathak cheating case involving an ex-prime minister, anti-Sikh rioting case of 1984 and recent cases of harboring notorious mafia leaders involving prominent political leaders wherein the courts have taken tough stands either in summoning top leaders for examination or in refusing bails. The judicial activism of the Supreme Court on the other hand is not restricted only to the cases investigated by the
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CBI. In a recent case of investigation of medial seat scandal involving prominent political leaders in a state, the Supreme Court directed that the chief of the state CID investigating the case should not be transferred out form the CID without the permission of the court. The Investigation was transferred to the CBI in 1996. The basic issue is why judiciary should do the legitimate works of the heads of investigation agencies in safeguarding the objectivity of the investigation process. The very fact that there is the need of judicial interference in the legitimate works of investigation agencies strongly suggests that the investigation agencies are seriously ill. While investigation agencies honestly and professionally discharge

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their responsibilities towards fair investigations, no judiciary can even afford to cross the sacred halls of their legitimate duties in violation of the sensitivities of the investigation agencies and invite righteous wrath of the public opinion. The investigation agencies and the public are aware of the extant situation in investigation agencies and therefore the interferences of the judiciary in investigations are not only tolerated, but also welcomed by all sections of the people. SYMPTOMS OF ATROPHY The serious maladies witnessed in secret police and investigation agencies of India are actually common symptoms of atrophy observed in all wings of Indian police, including the law and order police. Dishonesty, lack of professional commitment, extra-professional loyalties and unchecked corruption are the albatross that commonly affect the Indian police at all levels. It is not a rosy picture to have of a police force that is more than a century old and is now reaching 65-years mark of existence in a free country. The deterioration of Indian police is steep after independence. Perhaps, democratic rule in the country has not done any good to Indian police. The nexus of police with criminals and politicians is smothering and squeezing the country and its public life out of its vitality to a stage of paralysis. While this truth has been realized by people in states like Bihar and UP it is eating up the vitals of the country in other states too. The talk of private armies doing recent elections in UP and Bihar is an indication of the confidence Indian police inspire in public after fifty years of self-rule. Indian police in 1990s appears like a century old giant tree rendered hollow by the termite of corruption. Unless something is done fast to return the vitality of professional pride and commitment, Indian police may irrevocably fail the country in leading it forth to the century-mark of India’s independence.

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PROFESSIONAL PRIDE OF THE POLICE
The basic needs of police and policing are professional pride and a good image. The police force capable of doing its duties is carrying out its responsibilities with devotion and self-sacrifice. But it needs its sacrifices and devotion to work to be appreciated. A good image entails public cooperation and enhances the social recognition of the police personnel. Pride and a high morale are necessary in manpower-oriented organisations like the police, particularly those that have to deal with the public from a position of strength. Police personnel shamed and humiliated in their career can never face the public and do good policing. The tragedy lies in police administration. Its vanity belittles the police, breaches its pride, shatters its selfimage and destroys its good public image by unscrupulous and selfish interferences in police affairs. Suspensions and disciplinary action are a common phenomenon in the Indian Police. When no grounds are available for disciplinary proceedings, they resort to unfair and indecent measures like withdrawing vehicles, telephones and other facilities, denying promotions, transfer to humiliating jobs created for meeting such eventualities, keeping on prolonged compulsory waiting without a job etc. These humiliations weaken their position before the public as well as subordinates whom they are supposed to control and guide with the strength of their leadership qualities. ARROGANCE OF POWER A factor responsible for maladministration becoming the abracadabra of police administration is arrogance of power. The police are the real power, the crux of the state power. The police administrators weild power on the enforcers of
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the state power. Power breeds arrogance, ultimate power, ultimate arrogance. The sweep of arrogance is so strong that it has no patience for rules, laws, codes of conduct, moral values, natural courtesies and human dignities. The only goal of the police administration in the ambience of arrogance is proving its invincibility as tout prix. A serious lapse of police administration in India is its presumed virtue of indifference to other’s predicaments. The compulsions of being led deprive

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government officials the great human gifts like freedom of thought, originality and creativity and drain off feelings and sensibilities. The humble situation is spawned for government officials by themselves by their zeal to conform. This is the position in which the police administration finds itself. The need of making virtue out of irresponsiveness leads to mendacity and dishonesty. Normal human courtesies are unknown there. Evasion is the stock reply for queries. Vanity is the hallmark. Approach to all except higher-ups is always brusque and stroppy. Normal man-to-man interaction is impossible unless one is capable of gratifying. Public relations is an unknown concept, McGregor’s need hierarchy and such management, concepts are nonexistent in their vocabulary and thoughts. A CUSHY JOB The police administration provides a good cover to meet long cherished desires and is therefore considered a cushy job. A police administrator like the Home Secretary of a state can avail for himself from the police organisation all benefits inherent to the police job like the best available transport and communication facilities and orderly services at will. The police network throughout the country would be at his personal service wherever and in whatever way he desired it. This is an invaluable asset, for him and his kith and kin. In the name of various studies concerning the police, he can visit foreign countries at his will and convenience at government expenditure. The prevarications of the police administration from the right path in most cases are not even to achieve right professional ends. They mostly are pure and simple means to self-grandiosity and personal gains. Show them elements of personal grists. Files move fast. Discussions and meetings are held day and night. Decisions are taken overnight. Procedures are cut-short to ease the process. Ordinary situation turns to an emergence. Administration becomes a hub of incessant activity. Lots of energy and thought go to the process of administration. The result is
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that work is done irrespective of the relevance and importance of the work while more pressing and vital, but less remunerative works rot in files for years. Selection and recruitment of men in the age of unemployment and purchase of heavy vehicles in the ambience of commissions play a pivotal role in the administration of police and related safety-oriented organisations like the fire force. Recruiting men in thousands and purchase of scores of heavy vehicles at a single go in the name of expansion of an organisation involves subterranean change of hands of crores of rupees in a short span of time. It is a dizzy amount to be pocketed.

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Decisions were taken by the administration for expansion of the organisation with fresh recruitment of thousands of men and sub-officers and purchase of scores of heavy vehicles. A police officer in a sensitive juncture of his career that could be compromised was put in charge of the organisation and the selection and purchase processes. The setup worked out by the Home Secretary worked to his satisfaction. The result was that the police officer in charge was rewarded by quick and easy promotions. The organisation concerned saw rapid expansion. Thousands of unemployed youths got jobs. Manufactures of heavy vehicles got business. And the Home Secretary got what he wanted. Thus all are happy and contented. This is how administration works in India. Most ills of the present Indian police emerge from the malaise of the morbid handling of the police administration at different levels. Be is in handling of the body and shape of the organisation and its functions of managing the spirit and the soul of the force, the police administration can play a major role either in building or marring the prospects of raising a healthy police outfit for the country. As of today, police administration failed the country and its police by indifference on the one hand and crass handling of the organisation and its affairs on the other. The only solution to this serious malady lies in rebuilding the police administration with people of character, integrity, devotion, efficiency, ability and above all, deep insight to human nature and its problems.

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PRECEPTS OF POLICE ADMINISTRATION
The word ‘administration’ originates from the Latin administrare and administratum, which would mean ‘to serve’ or to be an aid to. Administration in its pristine form denotes service or aidance though in modern parlance it stands for management or governance of affairs. Non obstante the metachrosis of the word, administration even in its modern avatar is service and aidance in essence though from managerial level. Administration even now is serving and aiding an objective or commitment through suitable planning, organisation, supervision and control mechanisms. It normally is a distinct field of activity while being a part of the organisation en attendant and stands above the latter by holding overall charge of the affairs. Administration manifests at diverse levels with its lower strata rooted in higher levels of the organisation. In government organisations, higher functions of administration are invested in government at stratified levels while lower functions are burdened on higher levels of the organisations. The heads of the organisations join hands with the secretaries of the departments and higher authorities in the government to run the organisations. It is also in the police. While the police organisation en semble is responsible for policing, the police chief and his staff handle the levers of police administration at lower levels while the home secretary in charge of police in tandem with higher echelons of the government handles it at higher levels. POLICE ADMINISTRATION Administration, be it service or management, is immanent in organizational operations of all levels. In police, elements of administration are inherent at all
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supervisory levels beginning from head constables upwards. Police stations as grass root policing units go away with a large slice of the police administration. So are district police offices in districts and police commissionerate in big cities with the unit headquarters as the apex body of police administration within the organisation. The interim levels bridge the gaps in between. The springboard of police administration within the organisation is the state police headquarters in a state with all important decisions of policing and police administration

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emanating from there under the control, supervision and guidance of the government in the form of home department and higher levels. The police chief ab intra and home secretary and chief secretary in states ab extra form vital links of police administration. The ethos and character of a police force are shaped by these key figures of the police administration. Though political leadership is there as policy makers and executive heads of both the organisation and the government, it is these three configurations as innards of the setup, control and guide the police by administrative controls, head and shoulder above political heads. A SPECIALISED FIELD Administration as a service in spirit and governance in manifestation deals with men, money, materials and machinery through the means of laws, rules, decisions and directions. Of these, men form the most vital ingredient of management and governance. This is especially so in organisations entirely dependent on human resources to meet objectives and goals. Administration for most part is human resources management in a manpower-oriented force like the police. The special problems of the police setup, its distinct culture and service conditions, the stress and strain of policing and the non a such psychological factors unique for the organisation crop up issues unseen other where. This renders police administration a specialized field to be handled by experts having insight to and realization of the special nature of policing conditions and the psychological pressures on policemen on the off duty in the organisation. ISSUES IN POLICE ADMINISTRATION The problems of police and policing are inveterate in the contradictions immanent to the organisation, its status in society and the nature of job it performs. The organisation is primly stratified with a serve hierarchical order and stern discipline to the boot, preposterous to a free human nature. Police, perform the unpleasant task of disciplining and using force against fellow citizens. The unpopular job does not bode well to the psychological
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well-being and for leading common life in a society that exoterically fears and esoterically hates them. The police live in society in the ambience of sempiternal fear, suspicion and hatred against them. There is no love lost between the two and no real mutual respect. Such a living is not conducive to healthy mental fettle of human beings what policemen are. Sine dubio, the status enjoyed by the police as enforcers of the rule of law and the fear they inspire among the hoi polloi are some compensations and solace for the malaise. The tragedy is that these apparent benedictions themselves create problems of complex social adaptations to make up for the imbalance caused by their real social status nowhere coming near the

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importance they enjoy in society as law-enforcers vi et armis. The embarrassment is common to all ranks of the police. As constables of limited education, social position and enlightenment, they are required in streets and police stations to handle people of far higher social status and standing from a position of strength. As senior-most police officers of premier investigation agency of the country, they are required to investigate, arrest and charge sheet men of the standing of the Prime Minister of the country and similarly placed high dignitaries. The position is not as easy and joyous as it appears ab extra. The strains of such responsibilities preposterous to human nature and natural human tendencies of respect to social stations cause can only be imagined to be believed. Added to it, the feeling of insecurity bred by the potentiality of wrath and revanche of highly placed people pregnant in upright police actions further flummoxes the matter for the mental peace of the police. It is easily said that policemen ought to perform their duties en regle on merit. Images of policeman as a father shooting to kill his fleeing criminal son, as a son arresting his erring father or as a brother in pursuit of his criminal brother etc are mere fairy tales invented for films. The fact is that a policeman cannot be a creature abstracted from his surroundings and shut to natural human passions, emotions, feelings and familial attachments. If did, he cannot be a human being, but a mere robot, a lifeless machine performing police job. A policeman is a human being imprimis and the human nature makes him a good policeman. He sans human nature and its sweet failings cannot be real police stuff. He is not a mere robot to unwind in the blinkers of professional duties and responsibilities. The police in field perforce perform as robots against their natural human sensibilities and sensitivities on orders from above to show results. This ingredient of policing has great impact on the psychological makeup of the police. Added to this, the unending oppression and fear of disciplinary actions from higher-ups for a wink of an eye common in police makes the police life suffocating. It is said that policemen at all
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levels live with a sword of danger algate dangling over their heads. Ruthlessness is a fact of man management in police administration. Human relations here are slender and easily snap under the weight of job-related surquedry. The biggest tragedy of police life is the absence of human concerns around it. Endless interaction with ruffians inside and outside the organisation deprives policemen their natural sweetness and gentleness. There is no scope for inteneration of their mental makeup. Police administration needs to take these special features of police life and psyche into consideration in running the organisation. The need renders police administration a specialized field.

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A BALANCING ACT Responsibilities of any administration are two foldproviding the body and shapes required to fulfill the objectives of the organisation within the limits of the extant laws and providing right ambience to boost the morale, motivation and above all, the mental well-being of the manpower of the organisation. The extra- ordinary nature of the organisation of the police and its working conditions render the latter responsibility a sensitive field warranting specialized study and application. The complex psychological factors involving policing in diverse social conditions and social imperatives of a policeman’s life perforce require dexterous handling of affairs to promote high morale and right motivation in the place of present crass rule-of-thumb approach common to Indian police. What is required is a highly intricate organizational policy imbued with specialized skills and insight of the highest order to human nature to inspire, motivate and get most out of the manpower at disposal. This involves balancing in police many contradictions inherent to human psyche. In one hand, the police force has to be steeped in professional pride, while on the other hand, taught to accommodate in its character, the need of perfect obedience to the verge of servilities in a stiff hierarchical order. It has to be tuned to be loyal to authority while its ultimate loyalty must go to its professional objectives and the rule of law. The police have to be tough and fearsome to criminals and law-breakers while it has to be gentle and friendly to the plebeian. They have to be led to be law-abiding model citizens while day and night deal with hardened criminals requires breaking the latter to submission. While they are attuned to the interplay of ranks and status in the stiff hierarchical order of the force, they have to be compelled to treat all as equals and exercise authority even on the people at highest levels in society while performing duties. The list goes on endlessly. The cardinal task of balancing these contradictions in police is the real challenge of the police administration. FIELD SITUATION
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While police administration is a highly specialized field requiring extra- ordinary skills the present police administration in India is archaic at best and maladministration at worst. Actually there is no administration worth the name save some mechanical motions and unintelligent convulsions to provide body and shape to the organisation as time-to-time responses to day-to-day challenges. No long term plans. No organizational initiatives. No growth and coordination studies. The organisation takes care of itself depending upon need factors. The maximum, police administration in India does is controlling initiatives and works o of the police by throwing hurdles to prove existence. As

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far as morale, motivation and mental well-being of the manpower are concerned, the contribution of Indian police administration is absolutely nil. Police administrators believe that they have no role to play in the morale and motivation of the police organisation. Threats and suppression is the staple of manpower management in police. Wastage of human resources and man-days is the general rule. Quality, efficiency and character are inconsequential. Assessments are misnomers. Personal behoofs are the centers of all decisions. Accommodating the desires of higher-ups in official and political circles and the powerful people in consideration for quid pro quo is the accepted norm of Indian police administration. A CUSHY JOB Police administration provides good covers to meet long cherished desires and therefore considered as a cushy job. A police administrator can avail for himself from the police organisation all behoofs inherent to police job like best available transport and communication facilities and orderly services at will. The police network throughout the country would be at his personal service wherever and in whatever way he desires it. This is an invaluable asset for him and his kith and kin. In the name of various studies concerning police, he can visit foreign countries at his will and convenience at government expenditure. Recently, a regional edition of a leading national English newspaper raised a hue and cry on its front page for several days followed by a flood of letters to the editor against a visit of the home secretary of the state with a huge contingent of inconsequential police officials to a few western countries, supposedly to study crime and traffic problems. The newspaper called the intentions of the study apocryphal, the study gratuitous and the foreign tour during the holiday season of those countries without first obtaining the assurance of cooperation of the host countries in the study venture as outrageous and cried for stopping what is called a pleasure trip. Its hullabaloo proved infructuous and the contingent completed the tour malgre tout. When the home secretary visited foreign countries again after six weeks for
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the same purpose, the national newspaper did not dare to make an issue encore. WRECKER OF PRIDE AND GOOD IMAGE The basic needs of police and policing are professional pride and a good image. These are the breath of policing and oxygen for the lungs of the police organisation. They refresh the organisation, its system and personnel after backbreaking and dangerous policing above the oppressive life-style in the police ambience. They infuse entrain to the organisation, its system and the men to take on gauntlets in wait and attend to with commitment and efficiency. Pride is the

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fuel of policing. Good image is the air that sustains the fire or the zeal of the policing. Who are not aggraced by appreciation? Police force is capable of doing its duties and carrying out its responsibilities with devotion and selfsacrifice; it only wants sacrifices and devotion to work natural to it are appreciated. A good image boosts its professional pride and adds to its sense of belonging. What else the society can pay to the police for its self-sacrificing devotion to the well-being of the society? The professional pride and the sense of belonging to an organisation widely respected and appreciated by the public spur the police to do better and better every time. The pride adds to its high morale, which is sine qua non for good policing and healthy discipline in any police organisation. Good image entails public cooperation and enhances the social recognition of the police personnel. True policing is nonpossumus in the absence of the strength of pride about work while discharging responsibilities to the society from a position of strength. A weakened police organisation and its personnel put to aidos can do no good policing. Pride is the root of morale. Commercial enterprises know the fact and use the knowledge best to derive maximum out of their human resources. Pride and high morale play decisive role in deciding the quality and efficiency of work and discipline in the organisation. Its importance naturally is very high in manpower-oriented organisations like the police, particularly those that have to deal with the public from a position of strength. Police personnel shamed and humiliated in their career can never face the public from strength and do good policing. The tragedy lies in police administration. Its vanity belittles the police, breaches its pride, shatters its self- image and destroys its good public image by scrupleless and selfish interferences in police affairs. Indian police administrators are too unenlightened to realize this basic psychological imperative of good policing. The irony lies in that, that they crassly indulge in exactly the opposite, that is crushing the professional pride wherever it is traced raising its majestic head in the police.
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Sadly to meet personal ends. Perhaps men in no other government departments suffer humiliations for humiliation’s sake as in police. This is true of all levels including the higher ranks in police. Suspensions and disciplinary actions are a common phenomenon in Indian police. When no grounds selon les regles are available for disciplinary proceedings, resorting to unfair and indecent measures like withdrawing vehicles, telephones and other facilities, denying promotions, transfer to humiliating jobs created for meeting such eventualities, keeping on prolonged compulsory waiting without a job etc are the common scenario to face even by very senior level officers in Indian police. These humiliations weaken their position before the public as well as subordinates whom they are supposed to

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control and guide with the strength of their leadership qualities. What leadership one can have while he himself is wronged and humiliated from above for no apparent reason? This is the atmosphere in which Indian police, police the crime world. The consequence is a weak and confused police force with low self- image, low morale, low motivation and servile complexes sans confidence and public approbation. ARROGANCE OF POWER A factor responsible for maladministration becoming the abracadabra of police administration is arrogance of power. The police is the real power, the crux of the state power; the enforcer vi et armis on the field, not on papers as most other government agencies are. Police administrators wield power on the enforcers of the state power. Ergo, police administrators enjoy the temulence of holding the ultimate power. Power breeds arrogance; ultimate power, ultimate arrogance. This is the source of the arrogance of the police administration. The sweep of arrogance is so strong that it has no patience to rules, laws, codes of conduct, moral values, natural courtesies and human dignities. The only goal of the police administration in the ambience of arrogance is proving its invincibility a tout prix. Neither the well-being of the police administration nor the upkeep of laws of the country has any say in choosing the means to achieve this end. Police administrators going hors la loi for this vain goal is the rule in the country. A recent example is a senior police officer in a state who insisted for suspension or transfer of a subordinate after a criminal case of forgery, cheating, falsification of records, breach of trust etc involving misappropriation of about Rs.36 lakhs during discharge of official duties was registered against the subordinate in the police station by his department. The latter’s good connections in the higher rungs of administration prevented any further disciplinary actions imperative in such circumstances. The insistence of the senior officer in writing for departmental procedures against the subordinate inconvenienced the administration. The insistence of the
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senior officer in writing for departmental procedures against the subordinate inconvenienced the administration. The thinking of the administration was that, that how a police officer at whatever rank can insist disciplinary action when it has decided against it for whatever reasons. It decided that the recalcitrant senior police officer had to be brought around and taught to conform to its decisions, by legal or illegal means. The machinery of administration ground is so hard that the senior police officer found continuing in his position practically unbearable and impossible. He went on indefinite leave, rather forced to do so. His harassment was so acute that at one juncture, he addressed the head of the government, doubting the mental well-being of the

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perpetrators of the harassment and requested to save the department from the prise of psychopathic tendencies of the concerned. The Chief Secretary of the government after hearing him in August 1996, issued instructions for providing the senior officer an alternative posting forthwith. The police administration in a show of rare defiance resisted the instructions of the Chief Secretary till the latter’s retirement later. It was only after the principal secretary of the chief minister took interest in the case that files moved against the wishes of the home secretary and the four month vanavasa of the senior police officer came to an end. En attendant, the subordinate with criminal charges continued bien chausse in his cushy job. The new Chief Secretary in the beginning dovetailed to the depraved home secretary against the sound judgment of his predecessor on the ground that he never had an opportunity to know the senior police officer. This is how police administration is run in India. HUMAN RESOURCES STIFLED A serious lapse of police administration in India is its presumed virtue of indifference to other’s predicaments and idee fixe to distance from noble human values. The compulsions of being led and the sequacious tendencies cap-a-pie gratuitously deprive government officials the great human gifts like freedom of thought, originality and creativity and drain off feelings and sensibilities. It is why common human sense treats odd to find intellectuals poets, artists or genius among government officials. The humble situation is spawned for government officials by themselves by their overzeal to conform. An outcome of the ambience is administration going heartless and mindless, dry and irresponsive to the core to its surroundings. While arrogance of power adds to this, the situation becomes worse. This is the position in which police administration finds itself. The need of making virtue of the irresponsiveness leads to mendacity, dishonesty and immunity. Finding honest and dependable people there, finding people of character and integrity, finding a genius or creative soul at any level in police administration is like
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finding a peepal tree in a desert. Normal human courtesies are unknown there. Evasion is the stock reply for queries. Vanity is the hallmark. Ironically, these negative qualities are increasingly pro rata to the heights in the ladder of the police administration. Approach to all except higher-ups is always brusque and stroppy. Normal man-to-man interaction is impossible unless one is capable of gratifying. Public relations are an unknown concept McGregor’s need hierarchy and such man-management concepts are nonexistent in their vocabulary and thoughts. Efficient management of human resources is a fool’s paradise to them. They find the greatest virtue of administration in ruthlessness.

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In the process, human resources wither and gargantuan wastage of manpower becomes a common phenomenon of the police. BREAKING THE SPINE Police force is a vital instrument that if brought on knees can be of immense help to stave off the interferences of the rule of law and its enforcers and help to lead a good and comfortable life sans the fear of law and law-enforcers. Breaking and bringing on knees individual policemen is a clavis to this end. Police administrators know this secret as none else. They know that nothing works on police as fear at whatever ranks. They know that the advantages of a policeman broken of spine and reined-in easily outweighs the risks of breaking his spine by whatever means and that the policeman goes to any extent even at risks to his life and honour to gratify and pander to the needs of his master, because of his sequacious job culture. This is the reason why police administrators spare no efforts and lose no opportunities to beat, terrify and cow down a policeman of whatever rank, status and enlightenment though they know well that they are sacrificing the interests of the professional pride of the police, its commitment to the profession, efficiency, organizational interests, the interests of the rule of law and national interests at the altar of their personal grists in doing that. Service rules and jus naturale are arriere concerns to them in exercise of their governmental powers to chevir this goal. No normal human concerns or common courtesies for fellow beings deter them from pursuing their evil designs. The recent example is an upright officer of the rank of Additional Director General of Police in a state. A scholar in diverse fields, he is known not to easily bend against his conscience. This rendered him unpopular to the police administration. While he was holding the post of state prisons chief in 1995, he addressed government about tragic security lapses in a major prison of the state and sent proposals to government for improving the situation. The government took no actions on them. In the closing months of 1995, a mafia gang war ensued in the state capital led to
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murder of a gang leader lodged in the prison. Government ordered an enquiry into the matter by the home secretary of the state. The latter that algate found the ADGP of his same age, rank and status an inconvenient candidate for his esoteric urge of bringing police to submission. He found a golden opportunity in the enquiry. The ADGP was immediately removed from his position and refused any posting for the next 3-4 months though as the state prisons chief, he cannot be held responsible for the security breach in the prison, particularly while the government ignored his report on the matter. If anybody was to be acted on a highest level for lapses in the prison, it was the home secretary for not acting on the report of the ADGP. If it is the position of officers

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at highest ranks in the police in the hands of police administration, how precarious is that down the ladder, can only be imagined. ROLE OF PERSONAL GAINS The apostasy and prevarications of the police administration from the right path in most cases is not even a malfeasance to achieve right professional ends. They mostly are pure and simple means to self-grandiosity and personal grists. The fact is that police administration seld goes to any length of initiatives and risks for purely administrative reasons unless some elements of personal gains are involved. As far as purely administrative reasons are concerned, the communi consensu among police administrators is for letting the police carcass boil in its own broth uninterfered. After all, who wants the risks of awakening the sleeping monster? Somehow the police function, and let it do so as long as possible. Who knows how the monster may react while they loosen or tighten a screw or a nut here and there. Who wants gratuitous risks? It is the reigning thought of Indian police administration in normal times. Show them elements of personal grists. Lo, colours of everything changes and risks become sine qua non of the administration. Files move fast. Discussions and meetings are held day and night Decisions are taken overnight. Procedures are cut-short to ease the process. Ordinary situation turns to an emergency. Administration becomes a hub of incessant activity. Lots of energy and thought go to the process of administration. The result is that work is done irrespective of the relevance and importance of the work while more pressing and vital, but less remunerative works rot in files for years. Selection and recruitment of men in the age of prolate unemployment and purchase of heavy vehicles in the ambience of commissions play a pivotal role in the administration of police and related safety oriented organisations. Recruiting men in thousands and purchase of scores of heavy vehicles in a single go in the name of expansion of an organisation involves subterranean change of hands of crores of rupees at a short span of time. It is a dizzy amount to be
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pocketed with little risk. Decisions were taken by the administration for expansion of the organisation with fresh recruitment of thousands of men and sub-officers and purchase of scores of heavy vehicles. A police officer in a sensitive juncture of his career that could be compromised was put in charge of the organisation and the selection and purchase processes. The setup worked out by the home secretary worked to his satisfaction. The result was that the police officer in charge was rewarded in oodles. The concerned organisation saw rapid expansion. Thousands of unemployed youths got job. Manufacturers of heavy vehicles got business. And the home secretary got what he wanted. Thus all are happy and contented. This is how administration works in India.

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Most ills of present Indian police emerge from the malaise of the morbid handling of the police administration at different levels. Be it in handling of the body and shape of the organisation and its functions or managing the spirit and the soul of the force, police administration can play a major role either in building or marring the prospects of raising a healthy police outfit for the country. As on today, police administration failed the country and its police by indifference on one hand and crass handling of the organisation and its affairs on the other. The only solution on this serious malady lies in rebuilding police administration with people of character, integrity devotion, efficiency, ability and above all, deep insight to human nature and its problems.

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KIDNAPPING FOR RANSOM
Kidnapping per se is a crime. Kidnapping itself as an end, as in a child being kidnapped by either of the estranged parents of the child from the custody of the other or a minor beloved being kidnapped by a lover, is a crime known to man from the inception of social living. Kidnapping as a means of other crimes as in forcing governments to release prominent terrorist leaders in custody in exchange or for procuring other illegal benefits is a more heinous form of the crime and often led to cold-blooded murder of innocent people. The worldwide rise in the incidence of kidnapping cases as a political tool in the international crime scenario in 1970s is an important meith in the evolution of kidnapping as a crime leverage. The next decade saw use of this tool by Mafioso and criminal gangs as a convenient means of extortion in India in states like Bihar, UP, Delhi and Assam. The criminal virus is now percolating to healthier parts of Indian. The means which was once confined to criminal gangs of Bihar, UP and Delhi and to terrorist outfits of North-East, Kashmir and Punjab regions as means of meeting their respective criminal goals is now becoming an ambitious adventure of resourceful street-hoodlums of big cities of India of making quick easy money in oodles. The trend needs to be arrested quickly and fast a toute hazard. SELECTION OF RIGHT TARGET Most cases of Kidnapping for ransom are never made public or reported to police, Demands of the kidnappers are met posthaste and release of victims is obtained. Reasons are many. Kidnappers who are after big money and professionally operate, conduct more than adequate research about their target to ensure that the target is not only capable of meeting their demands, but also efficacious
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of coughing up them in private to secure the safe release. Secondly, the strike is mostly against people stacked with unaccounted money, who therefore dare not public scrutiny of their ill-gotten riches and prefer private settlement. The low credibility of the police in respect of its competence and commitment in handling such sensitive cases adds to the misease of the maledict victim. Added to this is the fear of being forcibly led by the unenlightened police

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to commit insensitive acts that may endanger of safety and security of the kidnapped persons. UNEQUAL POLICE In cases reported to police, the chance of kidnapped persons safely returning home is tout court a matter of rare accident in the ambience of present health of police competence in handling the cases. Public perception in this matter is accurate. The criminals are generally a highly qualified and efficient group of committed people operating on their own plans and convenience. Lots of thought, analyses and money go to the plans, strategy and technique before acted upon. Hi-tech facilities are employed to the best use. The success of police against these tremendous odds in the absence of an elaborate strategy is a matter of pure chance. Even in chance detection, endless investigation and trial generally end with equital in extant judicial system. Even in the rarest of the rare convictions, punishment awarded at a distant future nowhere amate to the promised fortunes of a successful kidnapping case for ransom. The balance of advantage algate is patently is favour of taking risk. ROMANTIC IMAGE In the age of high-money operation run through bank securities and other banking channels, huge cash in hand is a rarity. This added to the age-old stigma, makes conventional property offences like theft, HBT, robbery and dacoity lean and nonglamorous crimes. On the other hand, crimes like bank robbery, kidnapping for ransom and mega-fraud foot the bill as glamorous crimes in the extant high-money world and yield enormous grists unheard of in other crimes and make the criminals instant heroes. The elaborate plans, strategies and efficiency involved in the crime give an intellectual slant and bring the elements of adventure and thrill to the whole affair. The romantic combination prompts adventurous and ambitious unemployed youths in drones to take to the crime. CRIMINAL OUTFITS Many criminals take to kidnapping for ransom as a means to sustain their criminal outfits engaged in other
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major criminal activities. They kidnap rich persons from the surroundings to meet their monetary besoin. Notorious forest brigand, Veerappan, operating in forests bordering Karnataka and Tamilnadu used to extort money from the owners of granite mines in the areas of his operation. Any resistance was met with kidnappings for ransom. This forced Karnataka Government to ban all mining operation in the area. ULFA activities played the same trick in Assam with tea estates. The arrest of top officials of Tata Tea Ltd in 1977 on the charges of sedition inter alia for providing huge funds

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and other services to banned ULFA terrorist outfit threw light on the going on in Assam for years under the pall of the threat of kidnappings. LURE OF QUICK MONEY Other criminals take to kidnapping for ransom by the lure of the res gestae of the crime and the easy money involved. These criminals with importable lure for easy money spread like wildfire in Indian crime scenario and pose threat to the fabric of safety and security of the country. Ambitious and der-doing unemployed youths constitute the core of this group of criminals. Unlimited riches around, unfulfilled besion, own frustrations, the thrill of violence and the promise of belle vue offered by criminal life as seen in television, cinema and cheap literature together spur faex populi to make it big at a single sway by taking kidnapping for ransom. SCOPE FOR INGENUITY The crime provides ample scope for the bluette of ingenuity. It allows for immense freedom of action and strategies depending on the mental calibre and material resources of the criminals. Right strategies, efficient brasstacks and pernicketiness can make the crime a foolproof operation. This is an inviting challenge to any resourceful and skeely criminal. Use of hi-tech communication, transport and weaponry system makes the crime a highly sophisticated operation. An elaborate and hi-tech kidnapping operation for ransom involves huge money. In the circumstances of de trop riches and plush targets capable of huge yields as res gastae of a kidnap effort around, intelligent and enterprising criminals take it as a good investment. Liberal spending in the stage of reconnoitre is the hallmark of criminals resorting to this crime. They hire safe houses at posh areas at exorbitant rents, wear rich dresses and move in luxurious cars while preparing for their strike. The criminals in Nirmal Jaipuria kidnap case of Bangalore of 1977 who made a ransom demand of Rs.5 crores, hired a house in Bangalore as the centre for their operations at a rent of Rs.1.5 lakh a month for three months prior to their strike. An investment of a
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few lakhs of rupees is more than worth in an operation that promises to yield Rs.5 crores in a single sweep. SPREADING THE CRIMINAL VIRUS The crime as isolated adventures for quick money in unorganized sector poses the greatest thread to the peace and health of the country. The youths in the crime seek their targets far away from their home state to avoid detection and other embarrassments. This is how youths of Delhi, Punjab and UP are found operating in a southern city like Bangalore. The process helps the spread of the criminal virus of a crime-infested region to healthier regions of the country.

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Medical and engineering colleges that offer seats to the sons of crime tainted and black-money-plush parents on the strength of donations help the spread of crime tendencies to other parts of the country. This is how the crime culture of UP and Bihar is spreading to relatively crime-free areas. Cases of kidnapping for ransom pose a tough gauntlet to the skill and ingenuity of a police professional. His competence is openly on test while criminals negotiate ransom with the victims. This is the stage in which the scelerate ingenuity of the subdolous criminals is in excelsis while providing the real opening to the police to catch the criminals red-handed. The incertitude of the situation brings the true skill of the police to the acid test. It is a live challenge to the police— a climacteric. His single faux pas in the glidder path of his maneuvers may make life and death difference to many. The knowledge makes him nervous. The albatross gives him delitescent strength and drive to move him forward with a resolution to succeed. This is the real moment of policing. The thrill of real policing lies in such live moments and real joy in bringing relief to the people in real distress.

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INVESTIGATION OF ECONOMIC CRIMES
With liberalization, the aboideau of scams and financial irregularities is thrown open and Indian financial market is flooded with all conceivable kinds of frauds, shady transactions and corrupt practices. As long shadows of mixed economy receded from the six-decade-old sky of the Indian Republic, the Indian economy is sweltering under the heat of economic crimes. Not those economic crimes are new to human generation or India; small fraudulent dealings were born with man and bound to continue as part of his nature till the imbalance of supply and consumption haunts his existence. What manifested are organized frauds to loot the public its money by clever use of the financial environment and the innocence of the hoi polloi; ill-conceived financial rules and laws and slack financial practices and procedures evidently failed to carry the weight of the liberalized economy. The people who were inured to protected economy and state control cannot easily adapt to liberalized economy where all sorts of worms and creatures creep, waiting to make best use of the laissez-faire. Rules and laws being not tightened to meet the challenges of the liberal atmosphere, unscrupulous elements have a field day in playing with the public money either to intentionally defraud or experiment in risky projects. The plans are always mega-schemes running for hundreds or thousands of crores of rupees of the gullible public. Corruption in government and public life ease the process. Bribes play key roles in keeping rules, laws and regulatory authorities shut. The sounding of finance minister, Mr.P.Chaidambaram in June, 1977 after CRB scam came to light that law enforcers must ruthlessly deal with economic offenders is too small coming
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too late to have any meaning or impact on the atrophy already set-in, in Indian economic labyrinth. The problem lies in the liberalization process having taken- off without adequate infrastructure of checks and counterbalances to sustain it. Educating the public about the nuances of a liberal economy and preparing them for the risks immanent in the system as well as strengthening the reticulation of rules, laws and law enforcing system to handle and control economic crimes go

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a long way in keeping away the extant maelstrom and making liberalization a more relevant and meaningful direction to Indian economy to pursue. On closer scrutiny, it is obvious that Indian democracy and administration are over-weighed with myraid rules, regulations, laws and controls. The problem of India is their enforcement. What India needs is efficient enforcement, and not more and more rules and laws. This is true of Indian economy also. The need is desperately felt in the atmosphere of liberalization. Enforcement has two faces: preventive and investigative. As far as preventive measures are concerned, the present rules and laws are adequate to bring any financial operation to a standstill. Slack, inefficient and casual enforcement process laced with corruption makes economic activities possible in India. In the atmosphere of liberalization where economy is less regulated and controlled with fewer rules and laws to tie the hands and legs of the market forces, illegal activities find avenues to surface to the detriment of the open market. Stringent enforcement of relevant rules and laws to prevent illegal activities is the need of the hour. When preventive machinery fails in its activities is the need of the hour. When preventive machinery fails in its task, the investigation agency comes to the force. When preventive measures collapse, the demands on the investigating machinery increase to bring the hors la loi to book. Demands per se do not meet the needs of efficient investigation. Commitment to the job is one side of the need. The other side is the skill of investigating economic offences. Investigation of economic offences is a specialized job requiring special skills far removed from the needs of investigating bodily crimes. An investigator of economic offences has to be well versed in the intricacies of financial transactions, the dynamics of the market forces, rules and laws regulating and controlling the financial market and the finer aspects of auditing and accounting apart from a sound analytical disposition to interpret the data and evidences during the process of investigation. He should
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command indefatigable patience to scrutinize and interpret stacks of bills, vouchers, minutes, contracts, balance sheets, audit reports, correspondences, records, registers and other documents. It is a time consuming drudgery far removed from the glamour attached to it. A point central to both economic crimes and their investigation is the willing cooperation and participation of several related agencies and individuals in the operation. They call for group-work involving meeting of mind and synergy towards the main goal. Symbiosis is the sacred hymn of the operations. Indeed, there is a main player to whose initiative and plan, all others contribute as and when required. Other constituents in the play necessarily include key government agencies responsible for regulating financial activities in the country and its key

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officials. Large-scale economic crimes need their cooperation in shutting eyes to willful violation of inconvenient norms and regulations of financial discipline and active connivance in issuing official favors against rules to ease the passage of defrauding the public. Such constituents may include commercial banks, the SEBI, The RBI, the Ministry of Finance, any of the three credit rating agencies of the country, the auditors who audit the company or all of them in synergy as in the CRB scam. Other ministries and agencies involved in activities related to financial matters may also form part of such fraudulent operations. As CRB scam made explicit, non-banking finance companies form the spine of such frauds on the gullible public. Investigation of an economic crime must cover the role of these agencies, the key officials involved and the mens rea, the quid pro quo involved etc and support each fact with sound evidences. The work necessarily requires willing cooperation of the agencies concerned to provide related documents as evidence, interpret the meaning and significance of these documents, explain the related practices, procedures, rules and laws and provide inside information pertaining to the commission of the fraud au reste volunteering to be witnesses to the crime. The investigators require guidance from these experts about evidences and the course of further investigation to build up the case. This is a formidable job that cannot be handled by one investigator and a handful of his assistants. An essential feature for the successful investigation of an economic crime of large dimension is constitution of a team of experts drawn from all related agencies to assist the investigator. Investigation of any economic crime cannot be fair and square unless the investigation covers all aspects of the crime. Localized investigation leads to unfair and partial justice. The aspect is popularly forgotten in the investigation of scams and scandals in Indian environment. Localized investigation limited to the main front man of the fraud is a simple job that can be completed in a short
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duration to everybody’s satisfaction including the clever criminals and the gullible public with only a paid front man sacrificed in requital to the gain of hundreds or thousands of crores of rupees. Such unfair investigation suffers justice and financial discipline and encourages financial institutions to connive in such frauds. The crux of the investigation of economic crimes in tracing the end-users of the fraud and reaching the persons responsible for planning and organizing them. Rarely these investigations in Indian environment reach the depth, nor touch the government agencies and its key officers who willingly contributed to the fraud for gain by commissions and omissions. It is a grave Achilles’ heel of the investigation of economic crimes in India.

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In an intelligently planned, organized and executed mega fraud, the big fish always remains inconnu. It is only the little or sometimes middle-sized fishes that act as the front for the main-players are caught. It is so arranged in such frauds that all books and records point only to the front-players; public contacts and media exposures are designed to play up the roles of the front-players. The real players remain at the background harmless even while the fraud comes to open. It is only a few daring players who venture into risky financial operation with honest intensions, do so in their own names and get caught while their venture with the public money dooms. An investigator should be familiar with these nuances of the crime. Another aspect is the possibility of the grists made from the fraud being tucked away or invested in some far away foreign countries. Swiss banks are only a tip of the iceberg. An investigation into economic crimes is incomplete without a probe to this possibility. A corollary of this aspect is violation of Foreign Exchange Regulations; thus FERA comes to picture, Offences under Income-tax provisions is another side of the crime. A mega- economic crime spreads it tentacles over myraid financial enactments to involve independent investigations to the same crime by different agencies au reste the investigation by the police. This leads to gratuitous waste of time, manpower and energy by duplication of works apart from creating problems of inter-agency coordination and inter-agency rivalry. The fear of impinging on the limits of other agencies prevents free and concerted investigation. The result is shallow and piecemeal investigations by several agencies leading nowhere. Solution to this problem lies in integrated single investigation with the cooperation and active participation of the concerned financial institutions as expert advisors in the investigation team. Only such a holistic investigation can delve deep into the roots of the crime and unearth the truth in its entirety as a means of deterring recurrence of mega-frauds. No investigation into economic offences is complete without the impresario of the fraud, however deep be his cover, is
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brought to book and his gains, wherever it be stacked, is unearthed. This is seld done in extant Indian investigation situation. Investigation of mega-economic crimes cannot be handled by all and sundry investigators. Apart from investigation skill, they required special attributes to lead that investigation to a successful end. For one, they must have basic knowledge and familiarity of the goings on in the financial world to help them understand the interpretations and the explanations of the experts in the team about the complexities and intricacies of the financial transactions of the crime. In the absence of this basic familiarity, the investigators may appear like fishes out of water in the maze of financial transactions leading to the crime. These datas

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being often encoded and computerised for safety by clever criminals, a splatter of knowledge of computer and software are helpful to manage control over the process of the investigation. An essential feature for an investigator of economic crimes is leadership qualities, an ability to delegate and decentralize work, ability to trust right people, inspire confidence, draw cooperation and ability to coordinate the works of myraid agencies involved in the investigation to guide to the desired end. Commitment to lead the investigation to successful end and ability to work hard are other characteristics sine qua non for the investigator. A serious handicap of the investigation of economic offences is its slow process. The reason is mental fatigue. Examination of loads of documents, records and papers per se is a tiresome and time-consuming labor. To crown it, the mental processes involved in sifting right and relevant documents from the heap of papers, interpreting them, placing in right perspective to the commission of the crime, assessing its value in the overall process of the commission of the crime etc., are extremely exhausting and tiresome job. It naturally retards the pace of the investigation and the process taking years for completion is a common spectacle. On the other side, time is central to the investigation of economic crimes. Money rapidly multiplies with time in form of profits of investments or interests on deposits. Delay of investigation is in the interests of the criminals with this ill-gotten money. Delay in investigation process helps criminals to multiply their res gestae several times with the passage of time, ipso facto rendering them huge gainers in terms of monetary benefits that easily offset the pains of trial and conviction in court, if any. Early completion of investigation is vital for the cause of justice. Constitution of a team of investigators including experts from various financial institutions should be able to overcome the natural handicap of inordinate delays in the investigation of economic offences. A need of common sense in investigation of economic crimes is the initiative of the investigator to make up the
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losses of the victims of the fraud to possible extent by luring the criminals to a deal. Here comes to picture the discreetness of the investigator in striking a deal with the criminals selon les regles without jeopardizing the process of the investigation in any way. Investigation per se does not bring any relief to the victims of the fraud as its value lies only as an instrument of deterrence. Safeguarding the interests of the hapless victims is the cardinal need in the circumstances au reste bringing criminals to the book. Huge money running to hundreds and thousands of crores of rupees is at the centre of the investigation of scams and criminals are those who are clever, influential and stacked with easy money. In the circumstances, attempts to lure the investigator from the rightful path of investigation are a natural phenomenon.

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For the investigation to be successful, the investigator should have immense inner strength to resist the lures and stick to his professional path. It is said that every person has a price; and meeting whatever price is no problem in the efforts to distract investigators of mega-economic crimes from their commitment. In the circumstances, selection of right people as investigators becomes a key decision in the success or otherwise of the investigation. The tendency of soft-pedalling the role of financial institutions in the commission of economic crimes for whatever reason is a serious Achilles heel in the investigation of such crimes for the simple reason that lapses by these agencies create a framework for the crimes. No large scale frauds against the general public is possible without these agencies responsible for the financial discipline of the country willingly ignore violations of financial norms and regulations and offer favors against rules and laws of the financial discipline to the criminals engaged in the frauds. The role of theses institutions in the commission of the crimes is as grave as that of the main-players and the impresarios of the fraud. The fact is forgotten in the investigation of economic crimes in India. The result is lopsided and unfair investigation that satisfies none let alone acting as a deterrent against recurrence of such frauds. CRB scam is an example. Unless many agencies responsible for financial discipline helped the the commission of the fraud by the CRB capital markets by blatantly ignoring violations of norms and regulations by the latter and unlawful favors, the swindling of the public to that extent would not have been an easy feat. The SEBI tolerated CRB managing scores of shady share issues and permitted to start a mutual fund and a share custodial service. The SBI opened its banking services to the company to encash interest warrants and refund orders of the company from the public without adequate security. Credit Rating Agency and IDBI’s subsidiary CARE gifted the company’s fixed deposit programme, CRB caps an “A+” rating in spite of the full knowledge of the liquidity problems and deteriorating
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asset quality of the company after ICRA and CRISIL failed to oblige the company. The auditors of the company ignored irregularities in the company’s operations in the audit report. To top it all, the RBI turned blind eye to massive irregularities noticed during inspection and issued an in-principle banking license as favour and even tolerated the company raising money for its bank after the license was withdrawn. In absence of the synergy by various financial institutions of the country. CRB Capital Markets just could not befool and defraud thousands of investors to the extent it did, and struck gold. The key figures in these financial institutions who helped CRB scam are as much responsible for the scam as was Mr.C.R.Bhansail, the head of CRB capital

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Markets. Their involvement gives an added dimension of conspiracy to the case. Law that provides for the investigation of the case treats all these players of the conspiracy on equal footing. The exclusive attention of the investigation agency on the CRB chief and his close associates to the exclusion of other conspirators cannot be called en regle and bound to shake the confidence of the public in the investigation. This is not an isolated case of financial institutions prevaricating from their raison d’ etre. Another top credit rating agency of the country CRISIL failed to warn investors in advance about the poor showing of ITC Classic Finance on the eve of the issue of NCD and fixed deposit schemes of the company. For CRISIL, this was the second instance within the short duration of a year after similar failure regarding Mideast Shoes. The role of commercial banks infamous security scam is too well known to be repeated here. Indian Bank scam is waiting on the side-wings to blow up to a major scam. Ignoring the part of financial institutions and other government agencies in megaeconomic crimes is a sure way of ringing the death-knell of the financial discipline of the country. An investigation true to its profession must give primus to fix these institutions for their irresponsible roles and connivance in the scam. The responsibility of the main-player of a scam reduces to insignificance before the failures, lapses and impacts of the connivance of the players of these institutions on the financial market and public life of the country. No honest investigation can afford to leave the key figures of these institutions out of the field of investigation. Distractions like strikes and protests by the colleagues of the offenders in the institutions as in the case of suspension of the officials of the Bombay Branch of the State Bank of India for complicity in CRB scam should not deter a professional investigator from his commitment. Corrupt colleagues flocking together to go on agitation to protect one of them while caught is becoming a popular strategy of scaring away the hands of law reaching them. A few years back, central customs and excise staff of Delhi
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international airport resorted to agitation to protect a few corrupt colleagues from the CBI net, Recently, air traffic control staff went on agitation while some inefficient of them were suspended from service for grave dereliction of duty. The CBI deferred arrest of public servants in Bihar fodder scam some years back for the fear of creating law and order problems. A truly professional investigator should not be deterred by such extraneous developments in his resolve to unearth the truth. This is ore so in case of the investigation of economic crimes for the simple reason that the money involved in such crimes in capable of buying anything under the sun and creating any situation to the advantage of the criminals.

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Crimes are committed out of passion or for gain, if not by accident or negligence. Economic crimes constitute a major and important block of the crimes for gain. Economic crimes against the gullible public and the financial system of the country assume dangerous dimensions because of the magnitude of the crimes, their impact on the financial discipline of the country, the losses and grief come with it to the gullible public and the sense of the loss of credibility it brings to the financial market. Professional and in depth investigation to these scams is sine qua non for the growth and stability of the economy of the country.

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RECENT TRENDS IN ECONOMIC CRIMES
With the liberalization, the aboideau of scams and financial irregularities is thrown open and the Indian financial market is flooded with all conceivable kinds of frauds, shady transactions and corrupt practices. As long shadows of mixed economy receded from the four-decadeold sky of the Indian republic in 1990s, the Indian economy is sweltering under the heat of economic crimes. Not those economic crimes are new to human generation or India; small fraudulent dealings were born with man and bound to continue as part of his nature till the imbalance of supply and consumption haunts his existence. What manifested are organized frauds to loot the public its money by clever use of the financial environment and the innocence of the hoi polloi; ill-conceived financial rules and laws and slack financial practices and procedures evidently failed to carry the weight of the liberalized economy. The people who were inured to protected economy and state control cannot easily adapt to liberalized economy where all sorts of worms and creatures creep, waiting to make best use of the laissez-faire. Rules and laws being not tightened to meet the challenges of the liberal atmosphere, unscrupulous elements have a field day in playing with the public money either to intentionally defraud or experiment in risky projects. The plans are always mega-schemes running for hundreds or thousands of crores of rupees of the gullible public. Corruption in government and public life ease the process. Bribes play key roles in keeping rules, laws and regulatory authorities shut. Edwin H. Sutherland, renowned American criminologist in his propaedeutic of white-collar crimes in his celebrated ouvrage “Crime and Business” preconises the special
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nature of the crimes when he says, “Since the crimes are generally violations of trust, they create and extend feelings of distrust. Leadership against white-collar crime is generally lacking, since most leaders come from the upper socioeconomic class and since the persons in this class who do not participate in white-collar crimes are generally reluctant to attack other members of their own class.” Economic crimes as another facet of the white-collar crimes with its nonasuch etat in the caste hierarchy of crimes transcend the lesser crimes in

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gestalt and content as its raison d’etre in the tapestry of the civil society and ipso facto grow ectogenesis to the normal reach of the societal leadership including the lawenforcing agencies. It is a tragedy of the criminal justice system. DEFINITION AND SCOPE OF ECONOMIC CRIMES For E.H.Sutherland, white-collar crime is a violation of trust. His view emerges from his definition of the whitecollar crime as a violation of criminal law by a person of the upper socioeconomic class in the course of his occupational activities. The trend of economic crimes has seen sea-change since the ancien regime with more and more such violations being committed for the res gestae by individuals or organized groups with or without inside cooperation and raisonne exploitation of the weaknesses of the extant financial laws and procedures, the financial institutions and the people who man them. In the maelstrom, economic crimes can be defined simply as fraudulent financial transactions for financial gain. Popular realms of economic crimes these days include political and policy- making sector, government sector, financial sector, commerce and industry sector and individual entrepreneurs and cover events and activities like deposits fraud, shares and securities fraud, company regulations violation, fraud concerning government funds, counterfeit, import and export fraud, foreign exchange violation, telemarketing fraud, patent infringement, copyright violation and piracy, tax evasion, smuggling, hoarding and black-marketing, adulteration, drug-trafficking, insurance fraud, money laundering, highsea fraud, telecom and electricity fraud, computer manipulation, internet fraud, land deals fraud, bribery, cheating, breach of trust and unauthorized commission to name just a farthing of what actually exist and increasingly expand with the ingenuity of the persons involved. Some of them like deposits fraud, company regulations violation, fraud concerning government funds, import and export fraud, foreign exchange violation, tax evasion, smuggling, hoarding and black-marketing, adulteration,
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drug-trafficking, insurance fraud, high-sea fraud, bribery, breach of trust and unauthorized commission are d’ accord with the definition by Sutherland as committed in the course of occupational activities, while others like telecom and electricity fraud, cheating, patent infringements, copyright violations and piracy and counterfeit are ectogenesis. Commission of these crimes in gargantuan scale sponte sua by individuals and organized groups extramuros to the occupational activities with or without the cooperation of the invisus insiders constitutes the recent trend in economic crimes. Shares and securities fraud, counterfeit cheques, telemarketing fraud, software piracy and patent infringement, software copyright violation, computer manipulation, Internet

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fraud and land deals fraud in mammoth scale are relatively recent trend in the field. High sea fraud, insurance fraud and money laundering also continue to be periculous threats to the economic security of the country. RECENT TRENDS The flagitious security scam of 1992 involving Rs 8000 crores as the avant coureur stirred the national conscience to the issue of the economic security and showed how facilely it can be periclitated by the unscrupulous largescale inside trading and fraudulent stock manipulation. The supercherie run the corso from the late Harshad Mehta case of 1992 to the ban on the high-profile fund manager, Samir Arora from the capital markets by the SEBI in 2003 on the charge of inside trading in securities. Why the security scam of 1992 failed to shut the aboideau in the Indian security market in the last eleven years and why even successful and high profile fund managers like Samir Arora prefer to resign their lucrative jobs in companies like Alliance Capital Mutual Fund and resort to such violations? The obvious answer is that the exposures are just the prevarications from the zeitgeist and neither the concerned regulations are stringent enough nor the regulating agencies like the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) and the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and the people manning them in their aidos are competent to cleanse the capital market and protect the interests of the investors. Jucta est alea. The occasional exposures are just eyewashes. Such frauds are bound to squeeze Indian economy in years ahead. Another facet of the incompetence of the regulating agencies in the capital market is the malengine of floating apocryphal companies to fleece the public in crores by offering shares and disappearing after defrauding the public. There are hundreds of such flagrant cases reported in1990s with almost none booked for the falsi crimen. Another serious fraud of recent origin is the use of counterfeit cheques. The use of stolen cheques and writing cheques on accounts either closed or having insufficient fund to defraud is a vieux jeu in the business world. The
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computer revolution has added a new dimension to it. Often software that can produce legitimate checks is used to generate counterfeit checks with fictitious names and account numbers to defraud in business dealings. Counterfeit is wide spread these days in the shape of fake stamps scam of mammoth scale run in interstate level with a highly organized plexus. Telemarketing is another genre of fraud that is in rise that involves the so called boiler rooms or the telemarketing company promoting sales of worthless goods through phone solicitation by promising customers riches and gifts that never come. This form of fraud is already having pollent foothold in big cities of India. Another fraud is floating teakwood or such

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plantation companies those mobilize funds from the public with the pollicitation of distribution of the gain pro rata only to disappear before the climacteric approaches. However, prompt response from the law-enforcing agencies perficiently controlled the menace and the defalcation of this shape is in degringolade sinsyne. The episode marks that prompt response from the lawenforcing agencies do have desired effect on the spread of the economic crimes. Copyright violations and piracy are major threats to the book publishing, cinema and audio and videocassette industries. Patent infringements are the crimes those threaten new products. The computer revolution has brought software to the ambit of such threats apart from functioning as a facilitator of fraud and economic crimes by other means also. Fraudulent interference with the software or programmes used for financial transactions is a convenient tool to defraud companies and establishments in crores in a single stretch or di grado in grado and do away with all evidence to the act. Lack of proper understanding of the intricacies of the computer and its software and absence of due pernoctation at higher levels contribute for such frauds being ascensive. A byproduct of the computer revolution is the Internet fraud that has diverse gestalt and international ramifications. Innovative Internet solicitation to part with money for goods, schemes or services of fraudulent edge is the staple of such frauds. Another aspect of the Internet fraud involves tampering with others’ financial or establishment accounts by breaking into their passwords and copying digital signatures to illegally siphon funds or other valuables to own account. Innovative works of the hackers help the process. A very disturbing fraud these days, concerns prime government or private lands in the heart of big cities left unattended for various reasons. The quiddity of the rite de passage here is the study of the system for weaknesses. Innovative tregetours expiscate in poor laws, procedural loopholes, lack of coordination among and incompetence of
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concerned government departments like the city development authority, the city corporation, electricity and water supply bodies and the land registration office, and the greed or indifference of the people who man the government bodies an opportunity to gobble prime lands worth of several crores of rupees. The ichnography involves obtaining false power of attorney of the true owner of the land by impersonation from an unvigilant or greedy notary and selling the land using it. In some other cases, the tricksters raise buildings on such unattended lands after paying land taxes for those lands and obtaining sanction for the building plan from the engineering wing of the city corporation with the help of the tax records as proof of their ownership of the

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lands. Such gross anomalies are possible only because of the lack of coordination, defective procedures and sheer lethargy, incompetence and greed in the government bodies. The swindlers here secundum artem exploit the gross weaknesses and failures of the government bodies to make colossal gains for themselves. The res gestae involved in such frauds and the ease of the method render it a potential mode of the economic crime of the future. High-sea fraud involving disappearance of the whole ship or its cargo or carrying false cargo and financial or insurance claims on the basis of mendacious documents may become assez bien a popular means in days ahead to become rich a pas de geant because such crimes seldom draw the avizefull attention of the public and the fraud is limited to the concerned cloistered circles. Insurance fraud on the other hand will re-emerge to the center-stage in the ambience of the privatization of the insurance sector and its consequent proliferation. Money laundering is the cleanser of all economic crimes and the means of salvation to economic criminals; ergo, it is jus naturale that it reemerges in various avatars from time to time. Hawala transactions will continue to exist in different shapes and forms. The secrecy code of the Swiss banks provides the requisite refuge to the ill-gotten money of the swindlers among politicians, senior government officials, industrialists, businessmen and enterprising individuals. Export and import fraud of the recent origin involves false declaration of the country of the origin to evade antidumping duties in addition to over-invoicing of exports to fraudulently avail export incentives. Cheating, breach of trust and embezzlement are common economic crimes all over the world. A survey conducted by Pricewaterhouse Coopers, an accounting firm and Wilmer Cutler & Pickering, a law firm as reported in the New York Times of July 13, 2003 states that more than a third of the American firms surveyed in the last two years were found to be the victims of one or the other kind of economic crimes like asset misappropriation and embezzlement. The survey also suspected doubtful
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financial disclosures by more than half of the companies surveyed. It is the case in India too. The external auditors tend to take refuge under the plea that they audit only the documents provided to them by the companies and sweep inconvenient facts under the carpet for quid pro quo. The dictum, fraus est celare fraudem, is conveniently forgotten. It is on record that almost no auditor is dealt till now for professional apostasy in independent India and the organization responsible to oversee the auditors condones the professional betrayal and becomes a partaker in the irregularity as per the dictum, chi tace confessa.

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NATURE OF RECENT TRENDS A careful study of the recent trends in the economic crimes brings out interesting factors common to most of them. The most striking of them is the growth of the economic crimes usaque ad nauseam to the status of an entrepreneurship both in terms of respectability a la its description by Sutherland and concomitant responsibility, its sheer volume, interstate or international spread, highly organized operational plexus, hi-tech tools employed, highly efficient division of labour with minions at the cutting-edge level as front operators far removed from the main characters and the brain behind the operation at concentric circles, resourceful big actors en arriere, detailed planning, study and probouleusis prior to the operation, professional touch to the whole operation and high risks and high profits involved. The recent economic frauds are high-money soigné scams running to multiple crores. The materfamilias of all the scams of modern India namely the security scam of 1992 involved Rs 8000 crores while the recent fake stamp scam allegedly involves Rs 80,000 crores. The Indian Bank scam of the 1990s involved Rs 1300 crores while the fodder scam of Bihar ran to Rs 1500 crores. Other major scams of lesser volume are the Bihar bitumen scandal of Rs 350 crores, Bofors scandal of Rs 64 crores, HDW submarine scandal of Rs 64 crores, Bihar medical bills scandal of Rs 60 crores, ayurved scam of Rs 32 crores, telecom scam of Rs 6 crores inter alia. However, the leading role in such embezzlements must go to the banking sector that gobbled public money to the tune of Rs 1, 20,000 crores in three years with the euphemism of non-performing assets or bad loans that in most cases are advances paid to well-to-do favorites for consideration with the understanding that the clause of the non-performing assets take care of that. An important aspect of the modern economic frauds is that the brain behind the operation who normally are the people, who remain incognito and far removed from the cutting-edge operations by several levels and ensures that the law-enforcing agencies never reach him under any
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circumstance and there remains no evidence against him a la mode the Mafia and its leader, Al Capone. This holds good for all recent major scams and the veracity of the person identified in them as the el patron should be taken cum grano salis. These crimes au fond are well-plexured conspiracies. These economic crimes are marked by callida junctura. The cooperation of right people inside and outside the target institution is bought a grands frais for use at right time. This brings much needed aex triplex to the process and adds to the plexus of the operation and brings the elements of corruption to the process. Extra muros entrepreneurs mastermind these frauds as opus reticulatum after

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detailed study of the weaknesses and failures of the laws, procedures, institutions and the men concerned and right and adequate preparations. Free market economy in a poor, unenlightened and developing country like India is like spreading delicious foods around a person dying of hunger with injunctions to open the dishes only after performing an impossible feat. Imagine the consequences. In a country like India where easy life and chaltha hai mindset are the bedrock of life and hard work and commitment are anathema, where merit and brilliance are looked down upon, where character, discipline and integrity are belittled as the dernier ressort of weaklings, where criminals, swindlers and murderers become popular political leaders, where democratic votes are hostages to the riches you throw away, where the hapless hoi polloi is the prisoner of the vagaries of the arriviste along the ladder across the political spectrum, where imported isms rule the mindset in lieu of the genuine and holistic welfare-interests to meet the besoin of the plebeian and the country, where mediocrity and dishonesty reign supreme and the administration and the law-enforcing agencies crawl before the criminal political masters and the mesquin and lowly higher-ups lest their career interests are harmed, the free market economy turns an apollyon like a pachyderm allowed a free-run in a plantain plantation. Free market economy per se is not bad. It is best suited to the countries where it is born in the ambience of enlightenment, civility and respect to law and societal mores where apolaustic deviants are only exceptions. Other where, economic crimes are bound to grow exponently with the disillusioned cleverer elements as the provenance resorting to exploit the weaknesses of the financial laws, procedures and the institutions and the niaiserie, greed and the lethargy of the people around them. In the ambience of the survival of the fittest, it is hard to find fault with such criminals. Necessitas non habet legem. It is the inadequate laws, nonpareil institutions and the mediocre or greedy attercops in charge who inadvertently lure the
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desperate people to intelligently exploit them for survival. For, survival is the prime principle of life. And everything else is secondary to it. Exitus acta probat. Add to it the fact that money is the blut und ehre that can buy anything from respectability to the friendship of the people who matter, you have the right recipe for the wild chorisis of the economic crimes limited only by the limits of the creativity of an original mind thrown to infinite possibilities provided by the inferior laws, procedures and the institutions created by the lesser minds of the post-independent genre and equally poor manning of them. The trend for the future can only be defined as unspeakable varieties of every conceivable hue that is allowed by the financial laws and procedures, financial institutions and their practices.

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INVESTIGATION OF DOWRY DEATH CASES
Nature created woman different from man to her disadvantage to bear male atrocities unless and until society in an enlightened mood comes to her rescue. Atrocities against women are covered under various sections of Indian Penal Code and a few special laws. Of these, dowry death cases have become sensational topical issues with public being highly sensitized to the menace. Investigation of dowry death cases has special links with the science of forensic medicine because of the special nature of the investigation taking place within the family circle without eyewitnesses or even nonpartisan witnesses. Inexact definitions and certain anomalies of Acts and Rules concerning Dowry death investigation render investigation difficile. The loopholes need to be corrected. Marriage as the second birth in a girl’s life brings adaptation problems with it. An integrated approach to these problems alone can bring deliverance to the fairer sex of the human genre. Nature created women different from men with a definite purpose. Balance is stillness and stagnation; imbalance is motion and progress. Nature designed life and action by means of the imbalance brought about in the traits of men and women. In the process, women find themselves at the receiving end. They ended up as the weaker half of society by their very nature and are naturally handicapped in a world of men, by men, for men. In a world where strength commands charity and weakness receives cruelty, a woman is at a great disadvantage. She has suffered all types of cruelty and humiliation all along centuries with patience and in silence. This part of woman is symbolized in tradition by calling her as the Mother Earth who bears all
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sufferings. The cardinal principle of the survival of the fittest applies to the weak, natural attributes of woman that renders her less fit for survival than man. She must live at his mercy and on his charity, silently bearing all his atrocities unless and until society in an enlightened mood comes to her rescue. The immane approach of the stronger world to its weaker counterparts has to be countered with strong-arm methods of the state power. In an enlightened

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age such as this people in public life are sufficiently sensitized to this issue and more and more legislation come up to stop stronger people from riding over the weak and meek. India too has several legislations that have become Acts to protect its women folk. Atrocities against women in India are mainly rape and unnatural offences, dowry deaths, abduction and kidnapping for various purposes and outraging their modesty apart from minor acts like various marriage offences, dowry and other harassments, insulting the modesty, causing miscarriage without consent and prostitution. Most of these offences are punishable under the Indian Penal Code: in sections from 375 to 377, for rape and unnatural, offences, abduction and kidnapping girls for various purposes being punishable in sections from 364 to 369, offences related to marriage being subjected to penal provisions in sections from 493 to 498, outraging the modesty of a woman in section 354 and insulting the modesty in section 509 being offences. Section 314 makes causing miscarriage without women’s consent, a punishable act. The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act 1983 (No.43/83) provided for in camera trial of rape cases and also enlarged the scope of rape cases by placing the burden of proving innocence on the accused persons apart from making penal sections more mordant, particularly in cases of custodial rapes by public servants. The Suppression of Immoral Traffic in Women and girls Act 1956 with the Suppression on Immoral Traffic in Women and Girls (Amendment) Act, 1986 and rules framed by states u/s 23 of the Act deal with offences relating to immoral traffic in women and girls. Dowry death cases have become sensational topical issues these days with the public being highly sensitized to the menace of the offences with the unfortunate swelchie of cruel practices and circumstances deliver an innocent girl at death’s door. All institutions of society including the government, press, women’s organisations, judiciary and police handle dowry death cases on a special footing. Each such case outrages the patience of thinking people
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and rouses passion and outcry against the perpetrators of the offence. The police too give special importance to the investigation of these cases and closely supervise the investigation process. In the circumstances, an insight into the investigation of dowry death cases and proper understanding of the spectrum of challenges posed and how they are met is in the interests of both the public and investigating officers. It must be borne in mind that no investigation can succeed without public cooperation. And the public, particularly people aggrieved by such unfortunate incidents, can contribute to the progress of investigation of they have

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knowledge of its due process. With this in view, salient features and parameters of dowry death investigation are outlined in this work. Investigation of dowry death cases has special links with the science of forensic medicine because of the special nature of the investigation. Dowry deaths are figuratively called bedroom deaths. In most cases, no outsider including the investigating officer can have any knowledge about the circumstances and events that led to the death. Secondly, the offenders are the custodians of the dead body and the scene for many hours after the death till they volunteer to make its occurrence known, have all the time in the world to eliminate or tamper with any clues. In the circumstances, the investigating officer is completely at the mercy of medical experts to interpret the cause of death. Often, the mode of death noticed, be it asphyxia, drowning, or burning, may prove to be post-mortal; ipso facto suggesting homicide in place of suicide. Only forensic medicine can provide decisive proof to the investigating officer. The success of the investigating officer in investigating dowry death cases largely depends upon forensic medicine experts. Sans proper briefing from the latter, the investigating officer may not realize the importance of noting the profusion of bleeding or marks of inflammation in deciding whether wound is ante mortal or not. Again, in a poisoning case, the investigating officer may overlook the importance of recording the time when the deceased ate last, how many hours thereafter the first symptoms of poisoning were noticed, what were those symptoms and how many hours thereafter death occurred. Thus, the interaction between the investigating officer and forensic medicine experts is crucial to give the investigation a direction. Dowry death investigation has to address certain problems in the field in collecting evidence and examining witnesses. These offences take place within the family circle.
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Sometimes, though blood relatives of the deceased volunteer evidence in the heat of trauma, a gradual reconciliation would be the normal tendency. Therefore, sound evidence is rarely forthcoming and difficult to sustain. Dowry death being an offshoot of the relationship of wife and husband and veiled in a shroud of secrecy, even the parents of the deceased may be unaware of the hardships the deceased underwent at the hands of her husband and his relatives in the process of the dowry death. If the investigating officer is lucky, he may succeed in collecting some, evidence of cruelty. The next stage at which he would find himself would be the girl’s death. There would be an absolute void in-between with no clues or

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evidence of what happened or no eyewitnesses to vouch for that. Clues on the dead body and surroundings are likely to be tampered with by the offenders. Investigations are witness-oriented. A dowry death case being primarily a family affair, independent witnesses refuse to involve themselves. And partisan witnesses are too polarized to be credible. It is in these circumstances that investigating officers have to trace witnesses, conduct purposive examinations and undertake directional recording of statements after proper analysis of the offence and likely charges. The dowry death cases are offences primarily under central Acts namely the Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 with its amendments of 1984 and 1986 and certain sections of the Criminal Procedure code, 1973 as amended by Criminal Law (2nd Amendment) Act, 1983. In spite of attempts during amendments to avoid ambiguities in some sections of the earlier Acts, it is patent that there are still several louche terms that need interpretation by the court. The term ‘in connection with the marriage’ while defining dowry in section 2 of the Dowry Prohibition Act is unspecific about the flexibility of the word ‘connection’ and gives way for its subjective interpretations as well as that of the term dowry. The same word ‘connection’ brings in a similar impression while defining ‘dowry death’ in Section 304B of the Indian Penal Code and Section 113B of the Indian Evidence Act while declaring ‘in connection with demand of dowry’ ipso facto rendering the incatenation between the offence of dowry death and dowry’ demand uncertain and open for discussion. In the same sections, the phrase ‘soon before her death’ raises the question, how soon before? Similarly, the words ‘relative of her husband’ that figure in Section 498A of the Criminal Procedure Code, Section 304B of the Indian Penal Code and Section 113A of the Indian Evidence Act in no way provide exactly what is intended to be defined; the scope of the words there is too vast and includes even the blood relatives of the deceased as they are also relatives of the husband after the marriage. Another
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important term that defies full comprehension is ‘likely to drive’ in Section 498A of the Indian Penal Code, where the word ‘like’ by its very meaning is indefinitive and open for subjective interpretation. The scope for divergent interpretations of these terms in the comparatively new acts does create problems during investigation of the cases until convention assigns them definite meanings. Law by sections 113 (A) and 113(B) of the Indian Evidence Act relieve the investigation of cases of death of girls within seven years of their marriage from the special nature of difficulties by the reason of the crime being committed in the intimate circle of the offenders. The law provides that the court trying the case may presume that the accused persons committed the offence if it is proved that

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the accused persons subjected the victim to cruelty inter alia. The presumptions made easy the investigation of these otherwise impossible cases. While the presumptions under section 113(B) of the Indian Evidence Act is applicable to prove dowry death cases u/s 304 (B) IPC, section 113 (A) is applicable to prove abetment to commit suicide u/s 306 IPC within seven years of the marriage. The latter presumption benefits investigation of cases while a girl commits suicide under harassment for reason other than dowry also by her husband or in-laws within seven years of the marriage while the benefit is available for cases of suicide under the same circumstances and homicide for dowry reasons under the same circumstances. This renders investigation of cases of homicide of girls by husband and in-laws within seven years of marriage which poses the same difficulties as suicide cases under the same circumstances an impossible task and there are any number of such homicide cases that were acquitted which would have been convicted by the benefit of the presumptions u/s 113(A) of the Indian Evidence Act if they were suicide cases. Amendment of concerned laws may be necessary to avoid this loophole in law. If the investigating officer adequately employs his common sense and intelligence during the preliminary stage of the investigation while examining the dead body and the scene and collects all incriminating clues and evidences without restricting himself to the apparent cause of the death, no criminal can fool him and deflect him from the right line of investigation. Marriage is often called the second birth in a girl’s life; it brings an entire metamorphosis in the form and contents of her life and in the process exposes her to inopinate adaptation problems. It is an irony of nature and social customs that it is the girl who is delicate in nature rather than the man who is selected for this difficile gauntlet of transformation in the process of familial socializing. Per case, the gentle and amenable character of the female breed exposes her to the natural selection for the purpose.
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In the process, death of the most unfortunate of them by felo de se or homicide because of the grind of the circumstances has become an unfortunate phenomenon. Dowry is only one though primus interpares among various immane manifestations of adjustment problems to which the tender psyche of a young girl is exposed after her marriage. An integrated approach to all these symptoms of adjustment problems to which a girl is suddenly exposed while her persona is yet unprepared to meet the gauntlets alone can bring deliverance to the fairer sex of the human genre. The entire process of social legislations and their enforcement is only a distant link in the whole catena of luctation warranted to achieve this end.

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THE DEADLY PRICE OF POLICE COMPLACENCY
The complacency over peace in Punjab was shattered by the bomb blast that killed Punjab chief minister Beant Singh in front of the Punjab and Haryana secretariat building at Chandigarh on August 31, 1995. The assassination vindicated the axiom that superficial calm in a situation of serious conflict can be deceptive. Complacency on the part of the general public is understandable; complacency even on part of ordinary government functionaries can be accepted. But how authorities responsible for security functions ignored the prime tenets of internal security, and slackened their guard in respect of Punjab terrorism is something difficult to answer. Firstly, it is unreasonable to presume that the blaze of terrorism which raised its head with the Akali-Nirankari clash of April 13, 1978, reached its crescendo in 1985 and continued with undiminished vigor up to 1992, died down immediately after an elected government came to power. A bomb blast near the Indian Youth Congress office in Delhi on September 11, 1993 killed eight persons though Youth Congress president M.S.Bitta survived the attempt and the Khalistan Liberation Force kidnapped the son of Ram Niwas Mirdha. A minor blast in a car in proximity to chief minister Beant Singh near Dholewas Chowk in Ludhiana, the hub of previous terrorist activities, preceded the more daring venture. Thirdly it is rath