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Preface This training manual is meant to be a guide to all hotel personnel in food and beverage service who are involved in the day-to-day training of staff either parttime. Furthermore, it ensures a uniform system of training inputs. It also acts as a self-study guide to any individual who wishes to develop himself/ herself in the vocation of a waiter or restaurant supervisor. The book was developed after understanding the problems that personnel in hotel and restaurant operations face in imparting training. Some of these problems are: (a) Non-availability of training material (b) Limited time to prepare a lecture (c) Limited time to train (d) Not knowing what to teach (e) Not knowing how much to teach (f) Not knowing the sequence in which to teach The material and design of the manual facilitate a “trainer” at a moments notice, or an individual who need spare just half-an-hour a day, to execute a programme. Here is a brief introduction to the approach of the manual. After a thorough “job analysis” of the position in food and beverage outlets, the job positions are divided into two sections- The waiter and the Supervisor. Each is broken into three aspects that are important in the development of an individual-Knowledge, Skills, Attitude. Knowledge Pertains to all cognitive inputs directly or indirectly connected with a job. These inputs act as a background to skill functions to enable a job to be done more effectively. Skill Concentrates on the methodology of doing a particular activity manually or through the use of motor functions coordinated with other senses. Attitude Deals with the psychology desired of staff. Each person comes with his own values and ideas, which may not be conducive to organizational efficiency. Changing the thinking is as important as knowledge and skill. At the end of some the lessons the appropriate Training Methodology and Training Aids that should be employed have been mentioned as a guide to “trainers”
Contents Preface Introduction Training Methodologies and Aids Part I The Waiter Knowledge Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson 1 2 3 4 5 6 The Restaurant Basic Etiquette for Restaurant Staff Knowledge of Other Departments The Menu Grooming Service Equipment Linen Furniture Chinaware Glassware Tableware Briefing Preparation for Service Safety Sanitation and Hygiene Food Service Breakfast The Cover Beverage Service Taking an Order 13 15 16 19 20 21 Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 26 27 31 32 33 36 38 39 41 Skills Lesson 16 Preparing a check and Receiving Payment 44 Attitudes Counsel 1 Counsel Counsel Counsel Counsel Counsel Counsel 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ability to Overcome Resistance to do Manual or Menial Work Willingness to serve Capacity to Take Orders from Seniors Cheerful Attitude Towards Work and People Cordial Relations with All-Interaction Pride in Work Tact and Initiative 47 48 49 50 51 52 53
Counsel Counsel Counsel Counsel 8 As Representative of the Organization 9 Honesty 10 Courtesy 11 Negative Attitudes 54 55 56 58 Part II The Restaurant Supervisor Knowledge Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Lesson 9 Lesson 10 Lesson 11 Alcoholic Beverages Wines Whisky Brandy Gin Rum Vodka Tequila Sake Beer Beer Production Non-Alcoholic Beverages Stimulating Refreshing Nourishing Food Preparation Stocks Sauces Soups Soup Garnishes Cheeses Hard Cheeses Semi-hard Cheeses Soft or Cream Cheeses Blue Cheeses Tobacco Varieties of Tobacco Cigars Menu 62 63 68 74 76 78 80 82 83 84 88 Lesson 12 Lesson 13 Lesson 14 Lesson 15 89 91 93 95 Lesson 16 Lesson 17 97 102 Skills Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Sales Orientation Discipline Cost Reducing Methods Briefing Training Your Team Tip Distribution Staff Scheduling Performance Appraisal Assignment of Duties 104 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113
Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson 27 28 29 30 31 Lesson 32 Lesson 33 Attendance Check Point for Supervisor After Closing Carving Banquets Banquets Menu Flaming Special Food Service 114 115 116 117 118 123 124 Attitudes Counsel 1 Counsel 2 Leadership Motivation 127 128 131 138 Appendices I Glossary- French to English II Glossary- Technical Terms
Introduction “Hotel” or “Inn” is defined by British law as “a place where a bonafide traveler can receive food and shelter, provided he is in a position to pay for it and is in a fit condition to be received.” Hence, a hotel must provide food (and beverage) and lodging to travelers, on payment and has, in turn, the right to refuse if the traveler is drunk, disorderly, unkempt or is not in a position to pay for the services. Origin The hotel industry is perhaps one of the oldest commercial endeavours in the world. The first inns go back to the sixth century B.C. and were the products of the urge to travel, spurred by the invention of the ‘wheel’. The earliest inns were ventures by husband and wife teams who provided large halls for travelers to make their own beds and sleep on the floor. They also provided modest wholesome food, thirst quenchers like wine, port, ale, etc. and stabling facilities. Entertainment and recreation were provided by the host’s wife or his wench. The entire cooking, service and recreation was provided by the husband and wife team and his family. These conditions prevailed for several hundred years. The advent of the industrial Revolution in England brought ideas and progress in the business of inn keeping. The development of railways and steamships made traveling more prominent. The Industrial Revoluation also changed travel from social or government travel to business travel. There was a need for quick and clean service. The lead in hotel keeping was taken by the emerging nations of Europe, especially Switzerland. It was in Europe that the birth of an organized hotels industry took place in the shape of chalets and small hotels which provided a variety of service and were mainly patronized by the aristocracy the day. The real growth of the modern hotel industry took place in the USA beginning with the opining of the City Hotel in New York in 1794. This was the first building specifically erected for hotel purposes. This eventually led to great competition between different cities and resulted in frenzied hotel building activity. Some of the finest hotels of USA were built in this era, but the real boom in hotel building came in the twenties. This period also saw the beginning of chain operations under the guidance of E.M. Statler. It involved big investments, big profits and trained professionals to manage the business. The depression in 1930 had a disastrous effect on the hotel industry. It was felt that the industry would never recover; but the outbreak of World War II brought a tremendous upsurge. This prosperity continued through the war years into the fifties when two new concepts emerged: (a) Motels; (b) International chain operation. While the growth of motels was restricted to the North American continent, international chain operation spread into all continents. Individual entrepreneurs found themselves crushed in the race of this mult-dimensional, multinational industry. International chains could provide the expertise, technology and marketing thrust that individual owners could not provide. Individual owners thus merged themselves to large
international chains such as Sheratons, Hiltons, Hyatt, Holiday Inn, Ramada Inn, and etc. These international chains provided the following services to individual owners: (a) Partnership ـــsharing equity profits. (b) Franchise ـــproviding “Name” and “Association”, marketing services in exchange for franchise and marketing fees. (c) Management ـــexpertise in management, professional managers, technicians, manuals, systems, etc. on the basis of management fees and share of profits as “incentive” payment. (d) Marketing ــــactive selling, chain benefits, reservation tie-up, etc. on payment for marketing fees and “incentive” payment. Today’s hotel caters to all the needs and wishes of a guest and we hope the future holds a promise for a further mushrooming of modern hotels.
Training Methodologies and Aids Training methodology is the way in which knowledge, skills and attitudes are imparted to trainees, whereas training aids are the implements used during the methodology. Here are explanations of methodologies and aids suggested in this manual. METHODOLOGIES Lecture Ideas expressed orally. It is a one-way communication from trainer to trainee. Tours Guided physical movement into work areas. Trainees get a chance to see and feel. Demonstration Used for skill training where a trainer actually does a skill activity while trainees watch. Practice A chance for trainees to do, under simulated conditions, what they are taught in a lecture or demonstration. On-job The best form of training where the trainees come into groups with actual experience. Case-study A theoretical experience of actual situations. A case is a written explanation of a true situation, which is solved in a classroom only. Role-play A simulated experience of actual situations. Here trainees approach a situation in a class by actually enacting the role of the principal characters in the situation. Counseling Used for attitude training. A personal meeting when a trainee is made to see the benefits of a correct attitude.
AIDS Blackboard For classroom lectures. It requires chalk and a blackboard duster. Flip charts Charts, which are sequenced according to the progression of lecture. The charts are hung in this sequence on a stand, which facilitates the charts to be flapped over. Overhead projector A modern concept, which combines the benefits of a blackboard with a projector. The trainer writes on a transparent sheet and the matter is projected onto a screen. Slide projector One in which slides are inserted into a slide tray according to a particular sequence. This tray is inserted into a projector, which flashes each slide according to the sequence. The trainer controls the change of slides from one to another. Movement of slide trays may be linear or round. The round variety is called a “carousal”. Epidiascope A projector, which is unique. It can project any written material on an opaque sheet or flat surface. Samples (Exhibits) Self-explanatory. A few of the actual items, which are being lectured on, and are brought for trainees to actually feel and see. Note: The best aid in any lecture is the sample of the actual being described.
The Waiter Every hotel, irrespective of size or volume of business, two major revenue producing areas- rooms and restaurants (and bars). The latter offer food and beverages for sale. In common hotel terminology the services offered in restaurants and bars are referred to as “food and beverage service”. This manual deals with the training of the food and beverage service personnel. The most important person, around whom food and beverage service pivots, is the waiter. Who is a Waiter? A waiter is one who serves food and beverage in a restaurant in a restaurant or bar. He is also popularly known as a Steward or Commis-de-Rang. A good waiter should possess qualities like social confidence, good etiquette and manners, effective communication, a pleasing personality, salesmanship, a willingness to serve, and above all, a thorough knowledge of his job. 1. Attend briefing before a restaurant service 2. Mise-en-scene 3. Mise-en-place 4. Requisition restaurant items for service, e.g. linen, glassware, cutlery, flowers, etc. 5. Clear silverware and glassware 6. Prepare each table for service 7. Receive and seat guests 8. Take beverage orders and serve 9. Take food orders and serve 10. Serve wine and champagne 11. Present a check (or bill) and receive payment 12. Ensure cost control 13. Salesmanship 14. Ensure hygiene and sanitation 15. Safety Typical Job Description of a Waiter This manual attempts to teach a waiter how to do his job well. For this he requires correct knowledge, skills and attitudes. The subsequent lessons elucidate the knowledge, skill and attitudes that a waiter should possess to execute his job. TRAINING AID Submit the job description of a waiter of your establishment.
Knowledge Lesson 1 The Restaurant restaurant is a commercial establishment committed to the sale of food and beverage. A restaurant may be a licensed part of a Hotel operation, whereby the sales of the restaurant contribute to the sales performance of the hotel as a whole. Restaurants may also be independent business entities under individual ownership and management. Basically, restaurants provide tables and chairs for people to sit and eat food prepared by an attached kitchen. They are equipped with crockery, cutlery and linen, which are determined, by its décor, independent bar, entertainment facilities and above all, the quality of service. There are different types of restaurants. Coffee Shop A concept borrowed form the United States, distinguished by its quick service. Food is pre-plated and the atmosphere informal. Table cover layouts are less elaborate and have basic essentials only. Continental Restaurant The atmosphere is more sophisticated and caters for people who can eat at leisure. The accent is on good continental food and elaborate service. Specialty Restaurant The entire atmosphere and décor are geared to a particular type of food or theme. Thus restaurants, which offer Chinese, Japanese, Indian and Polynesian cuisine would be termed “specialty restaurant”. The service is based more or less on the style of the country from which the particular cuisine originates. Grill Room Various meat cuts are grilled or roasted here. Normally, a grillroom has a glass partition between the restaurant and the kitchen, so that the guest can choose his meat cut and see the actual preparation. Dining Room Found in smaller hotels, motels or inns who find it uneconomical to have more than one eating-place. The dining room is basically meant for the residents of the hotel but may be open to non-residents also. Snack Bar/Café/Milk Bar Here the restaurant is informal and the service quick. The snack bar may have a counter for self-service and specializes in snacks, soda fountain specialties, ice cream, etc. the décor is relatively inexpensive. A
Discotheque A restaurant, which is principally meant for dancing to, recorded music. A live band may also perform. An essential part of a discotheque is a bar while the food offered consists mainly of snacks. Night Club It is principally open at night for dinner, dance and cabarets. A dispensing bar is always provided. Décor is lavish while service is elaborate. A live band is important to the setup. Most establishments insist on formal wear so as to enhance the atmosphere. TRAINING METHODOLOGY The above is board information on the types of restaurants. What the waiter needs to know is the type of restaurant he will work in and facilities and services that it provides. Thus, explain the following to your waiter: 1. 2. 3. 4. The type of restaurant that he will work in. Floor plan of the restaurant (Fig.1 gives a typical floor plan). Capacity of the restaurant in terms of the number of seats and tables. Facilities offered in the restaurant such as entertainment, credit, type of menu such as a la carte, table d’hote, buffet, liquor service, etc. 5. Type of clientele patronizing the restaurant: business, tourists, students and socialites. 6. The organizational hierarchy the restaurant (seeFig.2). Follow up with an induction tour of the restaurant. TRAINING AIDS 1. Flip chart of floor plan of your restaurant 2. Flip chart of organizational hierarchy (Fig.2). Restaurant Manager Hostess/ Receptionist Maitre D’hotel Chef De Rang Sommelier (Wine-Butler) Trancheur (the carver) Supervisor Head Waiter Senior Captain Captain Steward Asst.steward (Busboy) Commis De Rang Waiter Commis De Barasseur Asst.Waiter Fig.2 Organization Hierarchy of a Restaurant
Lesson 2 Basic Etiquette for Restaurant Staff The hotel and restaurant business is an admixture of showmanship, diplomacy and sociability. All front line personnel are required to have an ability to communicate effectively coupled with certain manners and the etiquette associated with genteelness. The etiquette that a waiter exhibits in a restaurant should comprise the following: 1. Attend to guests as soon as they enter the restaurant. 2. Assist guests to remove warm, heavy coats in winter and help put them on when they leave. 3. Wish guests the time of the day and welcome them to the restaurant. 4. Preferably address them by their name, which requires remembering them. 5. Be polite to guests. 6. Help to seat ladies. 7. Provide extra cushions or special chairs for children. 8. When speaking to guest, do not interrupt him if he is speaking to another guest. 9. Do not overhear conversation. 10. Avoid mannerisms such as touching hair or nose picking, etc. 11. Stand erect at all times. A gentle bow at the time of service is permissible. 12. Remember a guest’s special dish and remind him that you know it. Ascertain whether he would like to order it again. 13. Be attentive to guest calls. 14. Talk softly. 15. Strike a match to enable a guest to light his cigarette. 16. Avoid arguing with service staff and guest in the restaurant. 17. Carry pencils in the pockets and not behind ears or clipped in front of the jacket. 18. Desist from chewing gum or beetle nut. 19. Present the bill/check to the host discreetly in order to avoid embarrassing him. 20. Avoid soliciting for tips. 21. Remove tips after the guest has left. 22. Enter and leave the restaurant through the service door only. TRAINING MYTHOLOGY The trainer should observe etiquette during actual service and point out any lapses at the end of the service. TRAINING AID Rules and regulations booklet of the hotel/restaurant
Lesson 3 Knowledge of other Departments A restaurant depends largely on certain departments effective functioning. Smooth coordination is important. A waiter must be fully aware of the role of each cocoordinating department. Though most departments mentioned below are applicable to a hotel, individual restaurants may also find some useful tips. Kitchen The kitchen is the place where food is prepared. While larger kitchens may have distinctly different sections to deal with various aspects of food preparation, smaller kitchens may have different functions done by a single person. The main sections in a large kitchen are: Butcher Shop: Here raw meats are cut from wholesale cuts and carcasses into smaller portions of given weight so that they are ready to be cooked. Garde Manger: The section where cold dishes such as hors d’oeuvres, cold meat platters, salads, galantines, and pates are made. Bakery and Confectionery: The section, which prepares breads, bread-rolls, croissants, brioches, cakes, pastries, muffins, cookies, ice creams. Hot Range: The main cooking range where all hot dishes are prepared. Grill: For all grilled items like steaks, fish, chops, etc. Vegetable Preparation: Here all raw vegetables are cut into smaller presentable portions. Still Room: Tea and coffee are brewed here. A still is a chamber in which water is continuously boiling. For tea service a waiter may fill the teapot with tea leaves according to portions required and fill the pot with boiling water from the still. For a quick turnover of tea, the still may brew tea continuously, at low temperatures. The same applies to coffee service where ground coffee is brewed and instant coffee is placed in coffee pots to which water is added. Kitchen Stewarding Or Wish-up Area This department primarily controls the storage and issue of cutlery, crockery, hollowware, chinaware and glassware to the restaurant and kitchens. The waiter would have to get his supplies of the above items from this department. The department is also responsible for washing soiled service ware and subsequently furnishing clean items. The sanitation and hygiene of the kitchen usually comes under the purview of the kitchen stewarding department. Bar Housekeeping The bar dispenses wines, liquor, spirits, juices, aerated waters, cigars and cigarettes.
The housekeeping department is responsible for the cleanliness, maintenance and the aesthetic standards of a hotel. A waiter should know that the housekeeping department is the source for staff uniforms, restaurant linen and flowers. Cashier (from the Accounts department) The cashier receives all cash and credit payments made for food and beverage sales in a restaurant or bar. Engineering Front Office This department is responsible for the supply of air-conditioning or heating, lighting, mechanical and electrical functioning of any service equipment in the restaurant. This is the central point where all checks or bills of hotel residents are collected and then recorded in their overall bill. The front office keeps a record of all guests residing in the hotel. If a resident wishes to sign his bill, the waiter may contact this department for confirmation of the guest’s name and room number. The source from which a waiter can get supplies of proprietary sauces, order-pads, pencils, bottle-openers or any other-supplies. Large hotels would have separate General stores, Food stores, Beverage stores and Perishable stores. Stores TRAINING METHODOLOGY Explain the role of these departments in your establishment. In addition take the waiter on an induction tour. It is important that the procedure of requisitioning items Kitchen Stewarding, Housekeeping and Stores are explained thoroughly. A popular system adopted in most hotels is that the requisitioning department originates a store requisition, which records the following information: unit, quantity, and description of item, unit price. Store Requisition Usually three copies made: 1st Copy- stores- controls/accounts 2nd copy- retained by stores for record 3rd copy- retained by originating requisitioning department. Present flip charts of the organizational hierarchy of each coordinating department. Typical organization charts are given in Figs.3A, 3B, 3C and 3D. TRAINING AIDS (1) Flip chart with organization hierarchy of each department (2) Flip chart with process flow of coordinating activity. Executive Kitchen Steward Kitchen Steward Utility Worker Dish Washer Pot Washer Fig.3A Organization chart of Kitchen Stewarding.
Executive Housekeeper Secretary Assistant Housekeepers Uniform Supervisor Line Supervisor Floor Supervisor Public Area Supervisor Interior Decorator Uniform Room Attds Linen Room Attds Tailors Room Attds Houseman Gardeners Fig.3B Organization Chart of Housekeeping Front Office Manager Secretary Front Office Supervisor Telex Operator Information Assistants Registration Assistants Reservation Assistants Fig.3C Organization Chart of Front office
Lesson The Menu A menu represents the range of food and beverage items offered in a restaurant. When the menu is represented on a card, it is referred to as the menu Card. Great pains are taken in compiling the menu card, which should not only be attractive but informative and gastronomically sound as this reflects the quality of the restaurant. In a restaurant there are tow different types of menus, which they are priced: 4 A la Carte Table d’hote Menu in which each food item is separately priced in order to give the guest a choice to suit his taste and budget. The choices offered in various courses are many. Menu in which the entire meal is priced and charged, irrespective of whether the guest has the complete meal or not. Sometimes there are choices of individual courses within a completely priced meal. A restaurant may offer two table d’hote menus a guest have a choice of a meal. The classical French menu consists of eleven courses. The number of courses are restricted in modern times to an appetizer, soup, main dish and sweet dish. Coffee may be served after it. A course is a food item eaten at a particular time and sequence during a complete meal. French Hors d’oeuvres Potage Poisson Femme Entrée Releve Sorbet offered at this stage) Roti Legumes Entremets choux chantilly Savoureux Dessert English Appetizers Soup Fish First meat dish Main meat dish Flavoured ice Roast of game birds Or joints Vegetables Sweet dish Savoury Dessert Examples Oysters, smoked salmon, caviar, shrimp cocktail Crème of tomato soup, consommés, vichyssoise Fish a l’anglaise, Sole de Bonne Noisette d’Agneau, Jambon Pepper steak, Chateaubriand Sorbet vanilla (cigars may be Roast turkey, ox knuckies Tomato farcis Baba au rhum, crepe suzette, Cheese and crackers Fruit and nuts TRAINING METHODOLOGY Distribute copies of the menu card of your restaurant to waiters and explain the following:
1. The various food and beverage items on your menu card. 2. The price of various items mentioned in the menu. 3. Briefly how each food item is prepared and how it finally looks when presented to the guest. 4. The garnish and accompaniments of each dish. TRAINING AIDS Copies of the menu card of your restaurant. Lesson Grooming Grooming is one of the most important features of a waiter. Since he is in direct contact with the guest of the restaurant, he projects the standards of the establishment. A well-groomed waiter represents qualities such as hygiene, sanitation, professionalism and the style of management of his establishment. Here are some tips for a waiter: 1. Hair should be cut close. 2. The uniform should be spotless and well ironed. A tight or oversized uniform gives a sloppy appearance. 3. Nails should be well manicured and hands absolutely clean. This is important especially since the waiter serves the guest with his hands and is under constant surveillance. 4. Guard against body odours or the smell of cheap perfumes. 5. Shoes should always be polished, and of a conservative style. 6. A close shave is necessary before entering the restaurant. Stubbles of beard or moustache could be look uncomely. 7. Bad breath could be nauseating to a guest since the waiter speaks to the guest at close proximity. 5 For Waitresses 1. The apron and hairband should always be clean. 2. High heels could be hazardous during service. Flat shoes with sturdy heels are advisable. 3. Stockings should be clean. 4. Light make-up to project a professional working lady’s image is preferred. 5. Excessive jewellery should be avoided. 6. A very strong perfume could nauseate a guest. A fresh light cologne would be preferable. TRAINING METHODOLOGY Solicit the trainee's ideas on the qualities of a good waiter and list on the blackboard or overhead projector. Their ideas should be checked with the points given above. Follow up learning on subsequent days by pointing out lapses in grooming.
Lesson Service Equipment Service equipment (which includes furniture, fixtures and linen for all purposes) squarely reflects the standard and style of the restaurant. Several factors are considered when they are chosen: 1. Standard of the restaurant 2. Types of service 3. Décor and theme of the restaurant 4. Type of clientele 5. Durability of equipment 6. Ease of maintenance 7. Availability after stocks run out 8. Storage 9. Flexibility of use 10. Price factors 11. Standardization For multipurpose use, most equipment is standardized in terms of size and sometimes colour. 6 Linen 1. 54” Tablecloths: To fit 2’6” square table 54 ”ــــx To fit 3’ square table 72 ”ـــx72” To fit rectangular table 72 ”ــــx96” To fit rectangular table 72 ”ــــx54” To cover a stained table cloth ـــSquare ــــ 02 ”ــــx20” 4. Buffet cloths: 6’x12” ــــ 2. Slip cloth: 36”x36” 3. Serviettes/Napkins: 18”x18” Food and beverage service equipment may be divided into chinaware, glassware and tableware, which are further subdivided into flatware, cutlery and holloware. Chinaware It is made of silica, soda ash and china clay, glazed to give a fine finish. It should be opaque and free from air-bubbles. Chinaware can be found in different colours and designs, which are always coated with glaze. Patterns on top of the glaze ware and discolour very quickly. Chinaware is more resistant to heat than glassware. Examples of Chinaware with Standard Sizes:
Side plate Sweet plate Fish plate Soup plate Joint plate Cereal/Salad palate Coffee cup Tea cup Coffee Demi-Tasse Tea pot Other Chinaware Milk Jugs Cream Jugs Coffee pots Sugar pots Butter dishes Ashtrays Eggcups Soup cups Platters 6.75” diameter 7”and 8.5” diameter 8” diameter 8.75” diameter 10” diameter 5” diameter 8-10 oz. Volume 6.2\3 oz. Volume 3.1\3 oz. Volume 1\2 pint, 1 pint, 1.1\2 pint, 2 pint Some Tips on Chinaware 1. Vitrified chinaware is stronger. 2. It has a high breakage rate and therefore needs careful handling. 3. Should be stored on shelves. 4. Should be stacked carefully so that it does not topple over. 5. Should be stored at a convenient height to avoid accidents. 6. Should be kept covered to avoid dust and germs. Glassware The raw materials used are silica and soda ash. Lead is added to make the glass crystal clear. When purchasing glassware it should be ensured that it is completely transparent, free of air bubbles and not chipped. Glasses are measured in terms of capacity, i.e. ounces or centiliters. Restaurant glassware is usually plain except in specialty restaurants, where they may be coloured. 1. Glasses should be stored inverted in single rows, with a paper on the shelf to avoid slippage. 2. Racks with individual compartments for each glass is a better method for storage (as they can be stacked) and transported. These racks are plastic or rubber lined. 3. In a restaurant, glasses must be transported on trays with a tray cloth to avoid slippage. 4. Glasses with a stem must be inverted and held by the stem. 5. Service glasses must be cleaned and held against a light before use for traces of smudges, etc. Some Tips on Glassware
TRAINING METHODOLOGY Keep ready samples of furniture, linen, chinaware, glassware and tableware. Show these samples when taking about them. TRAINING AIDS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Standard restaurant chair Standard restaurant tables of different shapes and sizes. One samples each, of all types of chinaware, glassware and tableware. Stem glasses to demonstrate how they are carried. Flip charts with items not available in the establishment. Tableware Flatware/Cutlery Table service consists of the following items, and when to use them: (a) Soup spoon : Soup served in plates (b) Fish knives and forks : Fish/ Hors d’oeuvers (c) Large knives and forks : Entrée/ Main course (d) Dessert spoons& forks : All sweet served in plates/Oeuf Sur le plat (e) Dessert spoons : Soup served in cups/ cereals (f) Small fruit knives & forks: Fresh fruits (g) Coffee spoons : Coffee (h) Teaspoons : Tea/ fruit cocktails/ice-cream served as" Coupes”/grapefruit, oeufon cocotte (I) Service spoons &forks : For service (j) Steak knife : Steaks (k) Grapefruit knife : Grapefruit (l) Egg spoon : Eggs (m) Cheese knife : Cheese Hollowware (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) Soup tureens Individual soup bowls Trays Oval flat with lids Oval or round vegetable dishes with lids Oval or round under dish for vegetables Soufflé cases Oval or round entrée dishes Oval or round dishes for entrée Round flats with covers Asparagus dish Water jug Muffin dish Cocktail juice container Sliver for serving Drinks:
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Still room Silver: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Salver for serving Salver for clearing Ice tongs Ice buckets Champagne bucket with stand Coffee pots Hot milk jug (creamer) Tea pots Hot water jugs Cream jugs (creamer) Toast racks Special Tableware (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) (p) (q) (r) (s) (t) (u) (v) (w) (x) Chinaware Plates (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Sugar tongs Asparagus tongs Oyster forks Finger bowls Set of cruets Ice-cream spoons Sauce ladles Soup ladles Butter dishes Snail tong Snail fork Fondue fork Caviar knife Sundae spoon Ice-cream spoon Pastry fork cum knife Corn on cop holder Lobster pick Butter knife Grapefruit spoon Cheese knife Nut cracker Gateaux slice Steak knife (a) Soup plate-8 ¾” Entrée plate-9 ¾ ” Hors d’oeuvre/fish/entrée courses/soups under plate Meat or fish plate-10” main course Sweet plate-often the 8 ½” plate is used. Sweets/Puddings. Dessert or fruit plate-7 ¼ ” Side plate-6 ¾ ” Tea saucer-6”
(h) Cups Fruit nappy (a) (b) (c) (d) Soup plate-7 ½ oz Tea cups-6 ½ ” Coffee cups-8-10 oz Egg cups-3” (f) Demi tasse cup-3 ½ oz (g) French onion soup bowl Ashtrays Bread boats Flower vases Fruit stands Tea strainers Candles stands Wine cradles Wine funnels Drip bowl Sundae coups Cheese dish Oil, vinegar bottle Oval au gratin Cocotte dish Jam pot Toothpick stand Chaffing dishes Straw stand Burner for dishes Copper pans Irish coffee burners Shaker Stirring spoon and bowl Punch bowl and ladle Supreme bowl Special Food Service Equipment (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) (p) (q) (r) (s) (t) (u) (v) (w) (x) (y) TRAINING METHODOLOGY Get one sample of each so that trainees can see and feel for themselves. For items not available, bowl-up diagram on a flip chart and show. TRAINING AIDS Sample each of all items mentioned above.
Lesson Briefing Briefing is a meeting of the restaurant staff prior to the opening of the restaurant, while de-briefing is done when the restaurant closes. In theses sessions the seniormost member of the restaurant gives his instructions, checks on certain aspects of service and receives suggestion or problems of the staff. There are certain points that each waiter should keep in mind before presenting himself for briefing. 7 The waiter should: 1. Acquaint himself with the non-available food and beverage items listed on the menu by asking the Chef or referring to the ‘non-available items’ board. 2. Know the dujour soup and main dish in order to push it to the customers. 3. Be equipped with clean handkerchiefs, clean waiter clothes, bottleopeners, match box and pen. 4. Be fully conversant with the menu card and the beverage list of the day. The Restaurant In-charge would normally check whether the waiter has satisfied the above points but in addition would explain new house rules or policies to his staff and encourage an upward communication from the staff in terms of suggestions and problems. The waiter should be prepared to clarify doubts or give suggestions and ask questions. This is an opportunity to give the staff some training inputs. TRINING METHDOLOGY The trainer must reinforce the above points when the waiters actually go into service.
Lesson Preparation for Service Mise-en-scene refers to preparing the environment of the area in order to make it pleasant, comfortable, safe and hygienic. For the waiter, the restaurant is the service area. Before each service session, the restaurant should be made presentable enough to accept guests. The Supervisor or team of waiters should ensure the following mise-enscene: 1. Carpets are well brushed or hovered 2. All tables and chairs are serviceable 3. Table lights or wall lights have functioning bulbs 4. Menu cards are presentable and attractive 5. Tent cards or other sales material are presentable 6. Doors and windows are thrown open for sometime to air the restaurant. This should be followed by closing the windows and doors and setting the airconditioning or heating to a comfortable temperature. 7. Exchange dirty linen for fresh linen 8. Table cloths and mats are laid on the tables 9. Wilted flowers are discarded and fresh flowers requisitioned Mise-en-place means “putting in place” and is the term attributed to the preparation of a work place for ultimate smooth service. To ensure that the restaurant is ready for service the waiter makes sure that his station has been efficiently prepared for service. A station comprises of a given number of tables, which are attended by a given team of waiter. Thus a restaurant may have several stations, each with a team of waiters. In large restaurants each station may be headed by a Captain or Chef-derang. 8 Mise-en-scene Mise-en-place Sideboard A sideboard (or dummy waiter) is a piece of furniture with shelves and cupboards, spacious enough to hold all linen, cutlery, crockery, and etc.for service to a particular number of coves. The smooth functioning of service in the given covers will depend on how thoroughly the sideboard has been prepared. Before a restaurant opens the sideboard must be equipped with the following items:
1. Cold water in jugs with under plates and napkins to cover 2. All-important proprietory sauces, such as Worcestershire sauces, Tabasco sauces, tomato ketchup, Maggi sauce, JP/HP sauces (The waiter should ensure that the necks of the bottles are cleaned). 3. Toothpicks in toothpick holders 4. Sugar bowls- for both brown and white sugar with teaspoons for each. 5. Sugar dredger. 6. Hot plates and order taking pads. 7. Straw holders. 8. Pickles and chutneys. 9. Bread-boats or baskets with assortment of rolls and sticks. 10. Ashtrays-cleaned and polished. 11. Service spoons and forks. 12. Adequate numbers of cutlery used on the table (normally two and a half times the number required for one sitting in the station). 13. Salvers. 14. Under plates. 15. Half plates, quarter plates and large plates and saucers. 16. A crumbing plate. 17. Trays covered with a napkin for service. 18. Spare restaurant linen of all types (napkins tablecloths, waiter clothes, etc.) 19. Paper napkins and doyley papers. 20. Butter dishes. 21. Finger bowls. 22. Water goblets (bar glasses in case bar service is extended by the restaurant). 23. Pots for preserves are filled and kept ready. 24. Cloth napkins are folded and kept ready for service. 25. All usable silverware to be used in service to be polished. 26. Cruet sets cleaned and filled with salt and pepper. Fresh mustard filled in appropriate pots. Hors d’oeuvres Trolley Before the restaurant opens the waiter should: 1. Clean the trolley thoroughly first with a wet cloth (if not made of wood) and then with a dray cloth. 2. See that the wheels of the trolley move freely and are well oiled. 3. Set the containers in such a way that they look colourful and attractive. 4. Keep adequate numbers of service spoons, forks, napkins and underliners. 5. Keep a sufficient number of dessert plates to serve the items to the guests. Cheese Trolley Display different types of cheese on a wooden board with an attractive knife to cut the cheese. Accompaniments such as brown bread, crackers, celery and watercress should be present.
Salad Trolley The waiter must ensure that the salad bowls are set in an attractive way on the trolley. Wooden bowls with wooden spoons and fork, to mix the salad, are kept ready. Various types of dressings should be arranged in sauce boats on underliners with individual spoons. Hearts of lettuce leaves are kept in a glass jar containing water for preparing green tossed salad. Gueridon Trolley This trolley is used to cook food or to complete semi-processed food in the restaurant itself. Flambé items are also prepared on this trolley. It should be equipped with the following items: 1. Proprietory sauces 2. White wine 3. Oil 4. Brandy 5. Pepper mill 6. Vinegar 7. Napkins 8. Service spoons and fork 9. Matches and ashtrays 10. Flambé copper pans 11. French and English mustard 12. Wooden board 13. Carving knife and fork 14. Butter 15. Salt and pepper 16. Sugar- (grain and cubs) 17. Gas cylinder (filled) 18. Any other items, which might be, required very frequently, e.g. liqueurs for crepe suzettes, etc. The wine trolley must be equipped with the following items: 1. Wine opener (corkscrew) 2. Waiter-cloth 3. Half plates to present the cork of the wine bottle 4. Battery and switch for light 5. Wine list 6. Different types of wine, e.g. Red, White, Pink and Sparkling 7. The red and rose wines should be placed on one side 8. The white and sparking wines should be together to identify them easily . The trolley must be equipped with the following items: 1. Cordial glass 2. Brandy inhaler 3. Cocktail glass (frappe) 4. Crushed ice 5. Straws 6. Peg measures 7. Waiters-cloth Wine Trolley Liqueur Trolley
8. Different liqueurs-(eight to ten would be a good choice for a highly rated restaurant) 9. Cordials. Pastry Trolley The pastry trolley must be equipped with: 1. Dessert plates 2. Paper napkins or folded serviettes 3. Pastry forks 4. Pastry tong 5. Round tray for keeping pastries 6. Assorted pastries 7. Assorted cake slices 8. Gateaux slice. TRAINING METHDOLOGY Actually show the sideboards and various trolleys and demonstrate how they are setup; then make trainees set-up the same with the trainer reinforcing with suggestions from time to time. TRAINING AIDS Sideboard 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Hors d’oevres trolley ــــSalad trolley ــــCheese trolley ـــــGueridon trolley ـــــWine trolley ـــــLiqueur trolley ـــــPastry trolley ــــــwith hors d’oevres with salads with cheese with burners/ cylinders with wines with liqueurs with pastries All the above equipment must have all items that go into them for effective demonstration.
LESSON SAFETY Waiter may not realize that he is exposed to a number of hazards that jeopardize not only him but his job as well. Accidents in the restaurant could tarnish the good image of the establishment. The guest will only view it as clumsy and unprofessional. He will not be sympathetic to a mistake. The waiter should: 1. Carry equipment on trays only as much as the body can take. 2. Report faulty equipment to the proper authority, otherwise it could malfunction at a crucial time. 3. Discard chipped glassware and chinaware. 4. Look out for uneven carpet layout as a winter could trip. 5. Ensure that shoelaces are well tied otherwise loose laces could result in tripping. 6. Normally the service entrance is a swing door. A waiter should always be cautious of the possibility of another waiter on the other side. in case the door has a window , care must be taken to look through it before using the door. 7. Do not run in the restaurant as it could bustle another waiter. 8. Be careful while lighting a match as it can lead to a fire. 9. Push trolleys, never pull them. 9 A TRAINING METHODOLOGY Solicit ideas from trainees as to where hazards exist in a restaurant.
List their ideas on a blackboard and checklist the points given above against their ideas. Enforce learning by reinforcing the above points when they are in actual service. TRAINING AID Blackboard, chalk and duster or overhead projector. LESSON Sanitation and Hygiene 10 S anitation and hygiene are predominant criteria for a guest's choice of a restaurant. A guest is a particular about hygienic food and the cleanliness of the environment. In order to ensure a good image the waiter must keep the following points in mind: 1. Remove soiled dishes and leftover food from the table immediately. Food items and crumbs that fall on the table must be crumbed or wiped out with a napkin on a side plate. 2. Keep sideboards, tables and other surroundings clean and meticulous as a guest is very observant. 3. Keep all sauce bottles are wiped closed. When in use ensure that the mouth of the bottles are wiped clean before presenting them to a guest. 4. Clean cutlery in fresh water and dry them before use. 5. Wipe glasses with a clean waiter cloth and hold up the glasses against a light to detect any stains and thumb impressions. 6. Bar mirrors as well as plate glasses should be free of stains.
LESSON 11 Food Service T here are some basic principles in food and beverage service that a waiter must know: When food is served by the waiter at the table from a platter onto a guest plate, the service is done from the left. When food is pre-plated the service to the guest is usually done from the right, though modern convention permits service from the left also. All beverages are served from the right. Soups are served from the right unless it is poured by a waiter from a large tureen into a soup cup in which case it is done from the left of the guest. Ladies are always served first and the remaining guests clockwise. Soiled plates should always be cleared from the table from the right. Empty crockery and fresh cutlery are always served from the right. Never reach across a customer. Hence, when a guest is present at the table, all items and equipment on the right of the guest must be placed from the right and that on the left from the left. TYPES OF SERVICE English Service Often referred to as the "Host Service" because the host plays an active role in the service. Food is brought on platters by the waiter and is shown to the host for approval. The waiter then places the platters on the table. The host either portions the food into the guest plates directly or portions the food and allows the waiter to serve
.for replenishment of guest food the waiter may then take the dishes around for guests to help themselves or be served by the waiter. French Service It is very personalized service. Food is brought from the kitchen in dishes and salvers, which are placed directly on the table. The plates are kept near the dish and the guests help themselves The table is set for hors d'oeuvres, soup, main courses and sweet dish in sterling silverware. The food is portioned into silver platters at the kitchen itself, which are placed at the sideboard with burners or hot plates to keep the food warm in the restaurant. Plates are placed before the guest. The waiter then picks the platter from the hot plate and presents the dish to the host for approval. He serves each guest using a services spoon and fork. All food is presented in silver dishes with elaborate dressing. Silver Service American Service The American service is pre-plated service which means that the food is served into the guest's plate in the kitchen itself and brought to the guest .the portion is predetermined by the kitchen and the accompaniments served with the dish balance the entire presentation in terms of nutrition and color. This type of service is commonly used in a coffee shop where services are required to be fast. This service exists normally in industrial canteens, colleges, and hospital or hotel cafeterias. To facilitate quick service, the menu is fixed and displayed on large boards. The guest may have to buy coupons in advance, present them to the counter waiter who then serves the desired items. Sometimes food is displayed behind the counter and the guest may indicate their choice to the counter attendant. The food is served pre-plated and the cutlery is handed directly to the guest. Guest may then sit at tables and chairs provided by the establishment. Sometimes high tables are provided where guests can stand and eat. Tall stools are placed along a counter so that the guest may eat the food at the counter it self. In better establishments, the covers are layed out on the counter itself. Food is either displayed behind the counter for the guests to choose from, or is listed on a menu card or common black board. In this form of service various meats are grilled in front of the guest. The guest places his order with the room service order taker. The waiter receives the order and transmits the same to the kitchen. In the meanwhile he prepares his tray or trolley. He then goes to the cashier to have a cheque prepared to take a long with the food order for the guest's signature or payment. Usually clearance of soiled dishes from the room is done after half an hour or an hour. However, the guest can telephone Room Service for the clearance as and when he has finished with the meal. There are two types of Room Service: Centralized : Here all the food orders are processed from the main kitchen and sent to the rooms by a common team of waiters. Decentralized : Each floor or a set of floor may have separate pantries to service them. Orders are taken at a central point by order-takers who in turn convey it to the mobile pantry. The pantry has to just switch on the floor and give instant service. Cafeteria Service Counter Service Grill Room Service
For the sake of information, in countries, which have a shortage of manpower, large hotels install mechanized dispensing units in rooms, the guest interests the necessary value of coins into the machine, which will eject pre-prepared food and beverages for guest consumption. Buffet Service A self- service where food is displayed on tables. The guest takes his plate from a stack at the end of each table or requests the waiter behind the buffet table to serve him. For sit-down buffet service, tables are laid with crockery and cutlery as in a restaurant. The guest may serve himself at the buffet table and return to eat at the guest table laid out. A few courses like the appetizer and soup may be served at the table by the waiter. Russian Service An elaborate silver service much on the lines of French service expects that the food portioned and carved by the waiter at the gueridon trolley in the restaurant in full view of the guests. Display and presentation are a major part of this service. The principle involved is to have all joints, poultry, game and fish elaborately dressed and garnished, presented to guests and carved and portioned by the waiter. this is a service where a dish comes partially prepared from the kitchen to be completed in the restaurant by the waiter or, when a complete meal is cooked at the table – side in the restaurant. The cooking is done on a gueridon trolley which is a mobile trolley with a gas cylinder and burners. The waiter plays a prominent part as he is required to fillet, carve, flambé and prepare the food with showmanship. The waiter has to have considerable dexterity and skill. Gueridon Service
LESSON Breakfast 12 T here are basically two types of breakfast offered in hotels and restaurants. The Continental Breakfast and English breakfast. The Continental Breakfast originated in Europe. It is a light meal as the Europeans normally have a heavy mid-day meal. The English breakfast is heavy and is a major meal of the day. A traditional English Breakfast is heavy and is a major meal of the day. A traditional English Breakfast runs into six or seven courses. Consists of bread rolls or toast with jam, honey, or marmalade and rounded off with tae or coffee. Better hotels may serve brioches and croissants. The cover layout consists of (see fig.9). (a) A side plate and a side knife (b) A butter dish and a butter knife on a quarter plate (c) A tea cup and saucer with a teaspoon (d) A sugar pot with tongs. (e) A bread boat or toast rack (f) Serviette. (g) Jam, marmalade and honey pots Note: There are variations to the Continental Breakfast. Café complete refers to Continental Breakfast with coffee (or tea) while Café simple refers to just coffee or tea with nothing to eat. Continental Breakfast
English Breakfast Is more elaborate and offers a choice of juices (or fresh or stewed fruits), cereals, fish course, choice of eggs, meat course, toast with jam, marmalade or honey, and finally, tea or coffee. The cover consists of (see Fig. 10). (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) A side plate and a side knife A butter dish and a butter knife on a quarter plate A tea cup and saucer with a teaspoon A sugar pot (a tongs, if there are sugar cubes) A cruet set A fish knife and a fish fork Dinner Knife and fork Jam, marmalade and honey Dessert spoon and fork Serviette : Orange, Pineapple, Tomato and Grapefruit. : Prunes, Pears, Apples and Figs. : Porridge, Cornflakes. : Grilled herring, fried sole. : Poached, Boiled, scrambled, fried, omelets : Sausages, bacon, salami, kidney, breakfast steak. : Toast, rolls, brioche, croissant, bread sticks. : Jam, marmalade, honey. : Tea, coffee, hot chocolate. : grilled tomatoes, sautéed mushrooms, baked beans, fried potatoes Typical English Chilled fruit juices Breakfast Menu Stewed fruit juices Cereals Fish Eggs Meat Breads Preserves Beverage Eggs can be served with TRAINING METHODLOGY Layout covers of Continental and English Breakfast (as per Figs. 9 and 10) and let trainees see and remember. Then let them individual make out the covers as practice. TRAINING AIDS Tables, chairs, linen, chinaware, glassware and tableware.
LESSON The Cover Cover is the space allotted on the table for cutlery, crockery, glassware and linen for one person. Each cover requires 24"×18" of space. Requirements of a cover: 1. Each cover should be well balanced. 2. All cutlery and other table appointments should be placed at least "away from the edge of the table. 3. Knives and spoons should be placed towards the right of the plate and all forks on the left, except for the butter knife. 4. The cutting edge of the knives should always face the plate with the exception of the butter knife, the cutting edge of which is always away from the plate, the water tumbler should be at the tip of the large knife. 5. The butter dish should be on the top of the forks along with a butter knife and on an under- plate. 6. The napkin should either be placed on top of the cover. 7. Cruet sets should be placed on top of the cover. 8. 13 A STANDARD TYPES OF Refer COVERS Fig.11 and 12 (Plate 3)
A' La Carte Covers (a) Side plate with a side knife (b) Water goblet (c)Fish plate (d)Fish knife and fork (e)Cruet set (f)Sauce and oil pots (a)Side plate with a side knife (b)Water goblet (c)Fish fork and knife (d)Soup Spoon (e)Dinner Knife and fork (f)Dessert spoon and fork (g)Cruet set (h)Sauce and oil pots Table D' Hotel Cover TRAINING METHODLOGY Lay out the actual covers as given in fig.11 and 12 and let trainees see. Then let them practice laying out thee covers by themselves TRAINING AIDS 1. Tables, chairs, glassware, chinaware and tableware. 2. Copies of a la Carte and table d'hote menus. LESSON Beverage Service 14 B Non-Alcoholic everages can be classified as follows : Alcoholic (a) Water (b)Refreshing drinks- colas, lemonades (c)Stimulants-coffee, tea (d)Nourishing drinks–malted beverages (Oval tine, Horlicks, Bourn vita) milkshakes, fruit juices. Wines, Liqueurs, Spirits, Beers, Cocktails. Here are some standard practices for the services of beverages. Note: All beverages are served from the right. Water (a) Water goblets should be kept on the right at the tip of the large knife. (b)Water is served from the right after the guest has taken his seat. (c)Water is served from a jug with a folded waiter-cloth under it to prevent it from spilling on the table. (d)Water should be filled 3/4'' below the rim of the glass. (e)Water should always be chilled, unless the guest asks for water at normal temperature.
(f)The water jug should be covered with a folded waiter- cloth when kept on the sideboard. Refreshing Drinks (a) Aerated drinks like coca cola, lemonade, etc. are served in hi-ball glasses. (b)Tall drinks, such as floats, shakes and house cocktails are served in Tom Collins. (c)Certain tall drinks require long spoons, which must be presented on quarter plates with a doyley paper on it. These beverages are served in a cup and saucer with a teaspoon. If only a beverage is to be served the cup and saucer are placed in front of the guest; otherwise, to the right of the cover. The beverage is poured into the cup and also the milk or cream (as per the guest's requirements) and both the pot and the creamer are left on the table to the right of the cover. A tea napkin or a paper napkin is wrapped around the hot handle of the pot so that the guests do not burn their fingers while serving themselves. Alcoholics Straight drinks are served in a glass with the pegs required and placed on the table on a coaster and any accompaniment like soda water or tonic is poured into the glass in front if the guest. In the case of beer, the bottle is left on the table, if there is any beer left in the bottle after pouring the first mug –full of beer. Stimulants and Nourishing Wines . . . . Wine is the juice of freshly gathered grapes, grown in the open and fermented according to local custom and traditions without the addition of any foreign substance or ingredient. This juice is fermented, matured and aged over years to give it mellowness. It has an alcoholic content of 16%. There are four types of wines: Table : Red, White and Rose. These are further categorized into Still, Natural, Sweet and Dry. Fortified : Brandy, Port and Sherry. Sparkling : Champagne Aromated : Vermouth, Quinine Wines. Traditionally red wines are served with red meats such as beef, lamb, etc. white wines with white meats such as chicken, game bird, and fish. Champagne is drunk at the end of meal. However, nowadays, a guest may have any type of wine at any point of the meal. Procedure of Serving Table Wine Once the wine is ordered, it has to be requisitioned from the wine store. Without cleaning the bottle the wine bottle is presented to the host for approval from his right, with the label facing him. White wine glasses are placed just below the water goblet to the right. Red wines glasses are placed below the white wine glass to the right. If the guest does not order white wine then the red wine glass may take the place of the white wine glass. Remove the seal of the bottle at the sideboard and with a corkscrew uncork the bottle. (Refer to skills: Opening a wine bottle) Place the corkscrew with the cork in a side plate of the guest for the host to approve. The cork should be wet and firm. Wipe the bottle mouth and inner neck with a clean cloth. Wrap the bottle with clean napkin and pour a little into the host's glass for him to taste and approve. After the host has approved, change his glass with afresh one, then
proceed to serve the guests clockwise (ladies first and host last). While pouring the wine observe the following rules: 1. Pour the wine gently without making contact between the mouth of the bottle and the rim of the glass. 2. Only threefourth of the glass should be filled. 3. Only the glass is filled, twist the bottle to one side with a jerk to avoid a spillage. For white wine or champagne, place the bottle in an ice bucket to the right of the host and cover the mouth of the bottle with a clean napkin. In the case of red wine, place it straight on the table with a napkin folded around or in a red wine basket. Refill the glasses as a napkin folded around or in a red wine basket. Refill the glasses as and when they become empty. TRAINING METHODOLOGY Get empty bottles, (preferably filled) under various categories of alcoholic beverages and show the trainees. Demonstrate service of wine and let them practice one by one with other trainees as "guests". It is expensive to practice with real wine thus a squash can be used. The bottle must, however, have a cork. TRAINING AIDS Various bottles, appropriate glassware and napkins. LESSON Taking an Order 15 O rder taking is a skilful art that reflects the efficiency of both the waiter and the establishment . An order taken down clearly and precisely would ensure that each guest gets exactly what he has ordered and in the right sequence. This is also the time when a waiter can prove his salesmanship by pushing through suggestions on menu items that yield a high profit margin. After a guest is seated the first thing to offer him is the beverage menu card, more popularly known as the “wine list”. It is quite in order to suggest an appropriate cocktail or plain drink by saying “May I recommend our barman’s special Bloody Mary or Planters Punch?” In the case the waiter has given a definite choice and has limited it to two items to make it easy for the guest to choose from. While taking down the order the waiter should have already decided on a code to associate the order with a guest. He may number the guest in a clockwise direction starting from the host or he may decide on his own starting point –perhaps the person sitting closest to the service entrance, etc. It is in order to have any other logical identification system as long as the guest is ensured of his exact order. In smaller establishments an order may be taken on an order pad and later transcribed on to a check or bill. In larger restaurants the order is taken on a Kitchen Order Ticket (KOT), which have copies, the number depending upon the establishments control system. Usually the original copy of the KOT goes to the kitchen or bar while the second copy goes to the cashier for the preparation of the check or bill, while the third copy is retained by the waiter to aid him to give a proper service.
When taking down the food order it is prudent to allow the guest some time to decide. A guest does not appreciate being bustled into giving his decision. Polite suggestions may be given to help the guest decide but he should not be forced to decide in favor of the waiter’s recommendation. The waiter should be at hand to explain dishes, which demand explanations. He is therefore required to be conversant with the preparations and final presentation of dishes listed on the Menu Card. In addition, his salesmanship would enable him to explain the dishes in an attractive way. For example, “ A shrimp cocktail comprises of fresh succulent shrimps garnished in tangy cocktail sauce, served on a bed of crisp green lettuce”. A course in the menu must have the logical sequence of a classical menu. Of course, the sequence is according to what range the establishment offers. The normal sequence would be: Appetizer Soup Main Dish Sweet Dish Coffee Normally the dessert and coffee order is taken after the main meal is completed. Some establishments have separate Dessert Menu Cards, which offer a range of hot and cold dessert, flambé desserts, ice creams and coffee (straight and alcoholic). TRAINING METHODOLOGY Role-play the situation where some trainees are “ guests “ while others take orders. Get sample copies of an order pad or kitchen order ticket and distribute the same for trainees to see. Get them to take orders while role –playing on the actual order pad. TRAINING AIDS (1) Copies of order pads.
The Waiter Skills LESSON 16 Preparing a Check and Receiving Payment he very nomenclature, a “check “ shows that it is a control or check on the food that is sold in a restaurant. A check is also called a bill and provides an accurate account of the type and number of items sold, the price of each item and the total value of food and beverage served at a table. (Fig.13). It is an important sales document. It is the basis for charging tax for food and beverage consumption. The tax is usually a percentage may vary from state to state. Normally, an establishment has a separate restaurant cashier who has a control on all checks. These checks are cash documents and misplacement of any of them will result in an in accurate account of sales for the day and can encourage misuse of the checks. A check is made when the items are transcribed from an order pad or a KOT. During service the check is not totaled in case additional food items are ordered and have to be entered into the check. When a guest is ready to leave and asks for the check, the waiter informs the cashier who then totals the check and gives it to the waiter who signs for the check. (Remember a record has to be kept of all movement of the check as it represents cash). The waiter presents it to the guest on a salver or half –plate. In better establishment a check folder is made to present the check discreetly. It is worthwhile to remember that the time of payment by the guest (especially when he is in company) is an embarrassing moment. Thus the more discreet the activity of paying the check is done the better the service would be. A check has basically two copies: one for the guest and the other for the cashier’s record. Additional copies may be made according to the system of the establishment. Payment is done in three ways: T
Cash Payment When the guest pays in cash the same is taken along with the check to the cashier who enters it into a register or NCR machine. The cashier who enters it into a register or NCR machine. The cashier then gives the change if any and stamps the check “ paid .the change along with the original copy is placed in the check folder and presented again to the guest .It is very important that the waiter should not linger around for tips. Credit Card Payment The waiter takes the credit card to the cashier who verifies the following: 1. Whether the credit card is accepted by the establishment. 2. Whether the credit card has been black listed, by consulting a recent list of blacklisted cards. 3. Whether the date on the card has expired. 4. Whether the signature on the check and credit card tally. Once the cashier is satisfied with the above verifications he fills up appropriate vouchers, which are given to the guest for his signature. A copy of the voucher is given to the guest along with the card. Signing When a guest wishes to sign on the check, his signature is taken and he is requested to clearly mention his name and room number. The waiter confirms with the front office whether the guest is in fact a resident of the hotel. TRAINING METHODOLOGY Get samples of check, credit card, credit card vouchers, etc. and let trainees see. Perhaps a process flow chart will help them conceptualise this activity. TRAINING AIDS (1) Samples of restaurant check. (2) Samples of credit cards (3) Flip chart with process flow of checks and order pad copies.
The Waiter Attitudes COUNSEL 1 Ability to Overcome Resistance to do Manual or Menial Work 1. For all the hotel staff “menial” jobs are part of their normal work. This follows from the fact that in this industry, service is of the outmost importance and hence everyone must involve himself in achieving that objective. This would mean that right from the general manager to the utility worker, everyone is actually serving the guest in one way or the other. 2. To ensure a proper attitude to menial tasks, the trainer at times may himself have to do the work that the waiter does, to drive home the fact that at all levels manual work is done. 3. The waiter should be told of the important of his job and made to realize that the hotel cannot run without the essential services that he provides.
COUNSEL 2 Willingness to serve 1. The waiter should be briefed about the tip system and shown how a good service can fetch greater tips. At this stage emphasize the point that a guest gives lavish tips only when he is pleased with the service and the service can only be good when the waiter is willing to please. 2. A waiter’s job is appraised on his keenness and willingness to serve. This determines his job advancement, promotions, increment and other benefits. 3. A waiter is a representative of the hotel and his restaurant. He projects its image and is responsible for maintaining its high standards. On his attitude and actions will depend the image of the hotel.
COUNSEL 3 1. Capacity to take Orders From Seniors The waiter should be made to feel that his supervisors have more authority and maturity to guide him. He should also be told that without a proper line of authority, there would be utter chaos. The example of some of his seniors should guide him at the job. He should be made to understand that he has a lot to learn from their knowledge, attitude and skill in tackling in their jobs. Moreover, it is his seniors who will assess him and mould him and it is they who to a great extent determine his future by recommending him for advancements in his job, promotions, transfer and raises in salary.
COUNSEL 4 Cheerful Attitude Towards Work and People 1. A cheerful attitude is an asset. It is infectious as one cheerful person spreads cheer and goodwill wherever he goes. As a result the work atmosphere is pleasant and free of tension and overwork. 2. A cheerful attitude towards colleagues is an advantage because a waiter would be able to obtain the maximum cooperation and help for them. 3. Job satisfaction comes from within oneself and depends on one’s attitude towards one’s work. If one has a cheerful outlook any kind of work can seem worthwhile and interesting.
COUNSEL 5 Cordial Relation with allInteraction 1. One of the bet ways to develop cordial relation and a team spirit is through group effort. Let the group set the goals. Show how much easier it becomes to resolve problems when every one puts their heads together. The phrase” United we stand, divided we fall”, should be the motto. 2.Through team spirit and teamwork efficiency is increased. Increase in efficiency implies higher sales turnover, which implies more earning of everyone. 3.By maintaining cordial relation, one not only benefits financially but also personally. A good friendship is also an asset and is of great help during times of trouble. 4.Cordial relations with guests is good relations. A guest who is pleased with the friendly atmosphere of a restaurant is bound to visit it again and again. However, friendliness does not mean over – familiarity.
COUNSEL 6 Pride in Work A waiter should realize that the work he is doing is not an ordinary kind of work. It is an art, which not everyone can do. It is an art, which has developed from times immemorial and is still being developed.
COUNSEL 7 Tact and Initiative 1.Role-playing sessions on basis of log book corselets help in developing a waiter’s tact and initiative. 2.Also formal case studies can be undertaken to inculcate tact and initiative. 3.Interesting and amusing anecdotes from personal experience or from the experience of others are good illustration.
COUNSEL 8 As a Representative of the Organization 1.A waiter is like a salesman for his department and he projects the image of his restaurant. Thus, as a representative of the organization he must endeavor to maintain high standards, 2.Any negligence on his part would at once reflect on the status of the organization and its high standards. He must act and behave in a manner befitting the type of set-up he is working in. 4.Good actions and behavior are always noted and go a long way in improving a waiter’s prospects and status.
COUNSEL 9 Honesty 1. Honesty is always the best policy. The rewards for being honest can vary from cash and publicity in hotel magazines to appreciation letters from the public. It can also get the waiters appreciation and commendation, which could help a waiter prospects in the professions. 2. Examples of actual incidents where honesty has paid dividends should be quoted. 3. The waiter must be told exactly what is regarded as dishonesty e.g., stealing cutlery, eating guest food, overcharging a guest are all forms of dishonesty.
COUNSEL 10 Courtesy 1. it is the hallmark of a good waiter to be courteous on all occasions not only towards guests but also towards his colleagues and other people working in the same unit . 2. Courtesy should be inherent in his nature and a sign of his desire to please those with whom he comes into contact. His manner should not be just a part of the “technique” of the restaurant. 3. The advantages and necessity of being courteous should be emphasized as it not only smoothens operations but also ensures better ties. 4. Examples of courtesy are given below: a) After a waiter has served breakfast and a guest is leaving, he should say “ Thank you, have a pleasant day” It should be said with utmost sincerity. b) When approaching a guest use the word ‘assist’, e.g. “May I assist you “ or “ May I be of assistance”. c) When guests are leaving after lunch or dinner or even if they have just stopped in for a cup of coffee or a drink, say “Thank you. I hope every thing was all right. Do come again, or “ It's been a pleasure serving you. Please come again soon “. d) Always present the check without delay. Keep it at the side station when the guest are nearing the end of their meal. e) While taking an order the waiter should approach the guest from the left and place the menu in front of him and inquire, “ May I have your order, Sir/Madam ?” Wait patiently facing the guest until after any necessary advice asked has been given, and the order is complete. Give the guest enough time to decide what he wants and do not rush him. f) Guests should never get the feeling that they are being hustled. It is really proper to let them finish their drink before asking for their food order. In
the evening this holds true. At noon a lot of people are on a tight schedule so the lunch- time menu should be presented as soon as the guest is seated. Before taking the food order the waiter should ask whether they would like a drink, “ May we bring you a drink before lunch?” If the answer is “No” he should take the food order and serve it as soon as it is ready. If the answer is “yes”, the drink is placed on the table the waiter should ask, “Would you like to order now or shall I come back later?” If the answer is “later” the waiter the guest is finishing his drink. If the guest orders right away, the food should be brought as soon as it is ready to serve, even if the guest has not finished his drink. g) If a guest says his food or drink isn’t right, the waiter should not tell him so, even if he is sure that the guest is wrong. The waiter should tell him “I am sorry. Please let me bring you another or may I bring you another or may I bring you something else?” The waiter should take the order back to the kitchen and tell the chief to replace it. If he has any trouble, he should tell the manager. h) In case there are restaurants having bar counters or bars in the immediate neighborhood of the restaurant, guests who cannot be seated in the restaurant should be asked if they wish to wait in the bar until a table is available. If possible the supervisor should accompany the guest to the other facility to make sure that they will be taken care of properly. i) In case a waiter is busy and cannot attend to a guest at once, he should inform him that he will attend to him immediately or in a moment. j) If the waiter knows the guest’s name it is advisable to address him by his name as this shown that the guest is getting personalized service. k) A guest may become impatient if he cannot catch the waiter’s eye. The waiter should never ignore guests or just pass them by, because they are not on his station. He should stop and acknowledge the call, by saying politely, “I will send your station waiter, sir “. l) When two tables are occupied approximately at the same time, the waiter must take the order of the first party, first. m) Each guest entering the restaurant must be received at the door by the hostess or the supervisor in a cordial and pleasant manner and be conducted to a seat. Chair should be held for the convenience of all lady guests, and gentlemen if possible. n) Guests must be asked prior to seating whether the table, which they have been allotted, is agreeable to them.
COUNSEL 11 Negative Attitudes Given below are certain attitude, which a waiter must be warned against adopting: 1. Forgetting to say “Thank you “ or failing to acknowledge a tip. 2. Cadging for tips, Counting tips or jingling coins in pockets. 3. Bad temper or indifference. 4. Talking too much to guest while they are conversing with each other. 5. Ignoring guests by talking amongst themselves. 6. Hurrying guests to get their stations cleared so that they can leave early. 7. Using a bad form of speech. 8. Using bad form in service, e.g., spilling food. 9. Adding up bills wrongly. 10. Eating during the service. 11. Putting the service cloths in trousers pockets. 12. Soiling menus by keeping them in their ears or in their hair. 13. Carrying pens or pencils behind their ears or in their hair. 14. Having bad breath, body odor, toe jam, dirty or untidy hair, dirty hands and nails. 15. Chewing gum. 16. Wearing greasy or spotted or otherwise dirty clothes. 17. Sneezing or coughing carelessly. 18. Wearing high-heeled shoes or unpolished shoes. 19. Quarrelling or being noisy and shrinking responsibility. 20. Indulging in preferential treatment.
Part Π The Restaurant Supervisor
Who is a restaurant supervisor? A Restaurant supervisor, who may be termed Maitre d’hotel or Senior Captain, is responsible for the entire restaurant team and their activity in the restaurant. He reports to the Restaurant Manager and in some restaurants is the over all In- charge. His responsibilities include: 1. Supervising the mis-en-place and mis-en-scene before the restaurant opens. 2. Briefing. 3. Scheduling the staff. 4. Motivating 5. Performance. 6. Training. 7. Handling guest complaints 8. Sales 9. Supervising actual service. 10. Preparing specialized food in the restaurant. 11. Safety 12. Hygiene and sanitation Apart from the above, the restaurant supervisor is expected to possess all the knowledge, skills and attitude reflected in part I of this manual. In addition, he is required to have the specialized knowledge elucidated in this part of the manual.
The Restaurant Supervisor Knowledge
LESSON Alcoholic Beverage 1 Definition of Alcohol Alcohol is an odorless liquid obtained through the fermentation of a sugar containing liquid. There are many members of the alcohol family, but ethyl is the one, which concerns us the most, as it is the principle alcohol to be found in all alcoholic beverages. Any potable liquid containing from 1% to 75% of ethyl alcohol by volume is known as an alcoholic beverage. However, social and economic factors so also taxation laws determine why, governments have to set certain definite certain definite standards as to what constitutes an alcoholic by volume are taxable, certain bitters and medicinal compounds, which often contain 40% alcohol and above are not taxable because they are not considered alcoholic beverage. What is an Alcoholic Beverage HOW IS POTABLE ALCOHOL OBTAINED Fermentation Sugar in fruit or grain (developed by germination and malting) is converted into alcohol by the action of bacteria. The degree of fermentation can be controlled. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a by-product and can be retained as in the case of beers and champagnes. Distillation The fermented mash of fruit or grain is heated. Alcohol, which evaporates at a lower temperature than water and the flavoring agents, can be trapped and condensed to a liquid, by cooling. Pure alcohol has no color, taste or smell and is used in compounding other beverage such as liqueurs (sweetened after dinner drinks). Alternatively, the alcohol, water and congeners can be drawn off and blended again to obtain the required flavor of the original ingredient. All distilled drinks are colorless and may be colored by the addition of synthetic colours or by keeping them in contact with wood when maturing. A spirit is a potable alcohol-containing liquid. In distillation all the alcohol can be separated from the liquid. What is a spirit?
LESSON Wines Wine is an alcoholic beverage obtained from the fermentation of the juice of freshed gathered grapes. Fermentation is conducted in the district of origin according to local customs and traditions. 2 Definition of wine History of wine- making Wine is one of God’s choicest gifts to man and its history is almost a romance. The Old Testament in the Bible gives evidence of wine existing but there is definite evidence of its use in china in 2000 B.C and in Egypt 3000 B.C as well. We are told by sir John Malcohn in his first account of Persia that during that during the reign of king Jamshed, viticulture flourished and it is he who is credit with the discovery of fermentation. The Phoenicians from Lebanon introduce the wine and its secrets to the Roman and the Greek who subsequently propagated wine-making and even dedicated a god to wine – the Roman Bacchus and the Greek Dionysus. They took viticulture into the lands that they conquered. The Greeks introduce it from Southern France into the Black Sea and from Sicily into North Africa. There is evidence that they exported it to Egypt . The Romans planted vines in Bordeaux, the valleys of the Rhone, Marne and Seine and along the Mosel and Rhine. They are responsible for introducing viticulture to Hungary, Germany, England , Italy and Spain. The Romans embraced . Christianity and when their empire collapsed it is the church that propagated wine-making for sacramental wine. Thus the clergy perfected wine making and blending. In 1153, King Henry II of England married Eleanor of Aquitaine who brought a long as her dowry the provinces of Bordeaux and Gascony . In view of this a wine trade flourished between England and France. Since French wines were excellent the English viticulture fell into decay. Classification of Wine The main classifications of wine are on the basis that the grape juice is fermented and not distilled. Table Wines These include Red, White and Rose wines and are referred to as still wines as they lack carbonation. These wines are further classified into dry and sweet wines. Dry would mean that there is little or no sugar content. These are wines, which normally accompany a meal. The alcoholic content of these wines is between 14 and 16 %. Wines which have carbon dioxide to make it fizzy. Champagne is the monarch in this category. Alcoholic content is less that 14%. These wines are drunk on festive occasions and throughout a meal. These are wines fortified by the addition of alcohol either during or after fermentation. This increases the alcoholic content from 15 to 21%. Examples of these wines are sherry, port, Maderia and Marsala. These wines are drunk either before or after a meal. Sparkling Wines Fortified Wines
MAKING A TABLE WINE Harvesting Grapes are plucked when the density of the bloom, or natural yeast on the skin taken from a number of bunches is constant, so that the grape is fully ripened and has nothing more to gain from the plant. As far as possible, a spell of dry weather is chosen. Grapes are graded according to quality. Grapes are weighed, to determine the quality The ripe grapes are plucked off from the stalks. Modern methodology incorporates destalking machine. The stalk have a bitter taste due to the presence of tannin thus it should not come in contact with the juice. Grapes are crushed with the feet in some regions or more conveniently by mechanical presses to extract the juice called must. At this stage the wine- maker uses a hydrometer to measure the specific gravity of the must, which indicates the sugar content and thus the alcoholic content. The procedure is necessary as there are laws in most countries, which specify the minimum alcoholic strength of wines. These laws may allow the wine –maker to add small quantities of sugar should the must show insufficient alcohol potential. This process of enrichment is called ‘capitalization’. At this ‘crushing ‘ stage if red wine has to be made, the skins of red grapes are allowed to come in contact with the juice, which gets the color fro the skin. In the case of white wines the skin is separated immediately. Rose wines are made by allowing the skins of red grapes to come in contact for a short while with the juice to get the desired pink color. Sulphur dioxide is added fairly early in the fermentation process to prevent air from oxidizing the juice and converting the alcohol into vinegar. The air has bacteria, principally acetobacter, which is aerobic, i.e. it is alive in the presence of oxygen. These acetobacters can convert alcohol into vinegar. Sulphur dioxide, being hungry for oxygen, takes up the oxygen from the must to let the wine yeast, which is anaerobic (able to work in the absence of oxygen) to convert the grape sugar into alcohol. Sulphur dioxide also forms a coating on the surface of the juice to prevent the air from entering the juice and the thereby letting the wine yeast to do its work. Fermentation is the process of adding wine yeast (known in technical terms as Saccharomyces ellipsoidus) to fresh grape juice to convert the natural sugar in the grape of ethyl alcohol. sulphur dioxide is simultaneously in the grape to ethyl alcohol. In this process carbon dioxide is simultaneously released making fermentation violent at first and then slow. The yeast added is 3 to 5 % of the volume of juice. The fermentation process takes two days to two weeks according to the tradition of the house. During this process the temperature is maintained between 64 and 77F. the wine-maker may control the acidity caused by grape acid by adding water or acidifying agents such as gypsum. Once fermentation is complete the “running wine” or vin de goutte is run off into for maturing. The casks are filled to the full to exclude air. There are methods of purging the casks of any acetobacter by steaming and adding sulphur dioxide. The filled casks are put in cellars for the wine to mature. This is called “cellaring”. The residue of pipes and skin (called marc) left in the fermentation tank or vat is sent for further pressing and the resultant juice, called vin de press is rich tannin. The winemaker may decide whether to add vin de press to vin de goutte. The pips and skins are sent for a third pressing and the juice fermented and distilled to produce eau-de-viedemarc. We see then that nothing is wasted and the sugar in the grape is completely utilized. The wine must be separated from the dead yeasts which decompose and give an odd flavor to the wine. This dead yeast settles at the bottom of the casks .the wine is Grading Weighing Removal of Stalks Crushing Sulphuring Fermentation Cellaring and second casks Pressing Racking
carefully pumped into another cask without disturbing the dead yeast leaving some wine at the bottom called lees which is sent for distilling into eau – de-vie demarc. Fining and Filtration This is the process of converting the cloudy wine into clear ‘fine’ wine. This may be done with a gelatinous substance such as isinglass (bladder of sturgeon fish), white of egg or Bentonite – colloid clay, which collects the protein haze in the wine during its passage to the bottom of the cask. The wine may then be passed through fine filters. The young wine is pumped into a refrigeration unit to stabilize the wine. This is an art that require considerable experience, judgment and sensitivity. It is a legitimate, natural and honest way of improving the quality of a wine. Blending is done of wines from different vineyards and different years. This process ensures a consistent quality. This takes place naturally by allowing the wine to rest in oak barrels for one or two years to gain maturity and pick up a soft and mellow character from the oak wood. Refrigeration Blending Maturing of Wine Motorization can be induced artificially by agitation, heating, refrigeration and electrical impulses. Bottling This is done before the blended wine has lost its bouquet, fines, quality and color. Bottles are cleaned and dried with hot air. Cool and dry weather is chosen. Pasteurization Pasteurization is the process to age the wine and free the wine from further fermentation. The wine in bottles is immersed upright in double boilers with water, heated to temperature between 180 and 190F. The immersion is for 1-2 minutes. Aging of Wine Wine is aged in bottles. The period of aging may differ from house to house. For example Bordeaux and Burgundy wines are aged for 3-4 years while Chablis is aged for 18 months. SPARKLING WINES Pressing and Fermentation Blending Bottling Sparkling wines among which champagne is universally accepted as the finest, have a distinct preparation process: The initial steps in wine making are the same as for the others. After the primary fermentation, wines of different vineyards and varying qualities are blended to form the cuvee, or store of wine. The base wine is bottled in champagne bottles stoutly made to contain the gas pressure of up to 90 Ibs per square inch which develops during the secondary fermentation. At this stage sugar and yeast is added to the wine. A cork, which is larger in diameter than the mouth of the bottle, is squeezed to shut the bottle and is secured with a steel wire clip called an agrafe. This occurs after the wine has been bottled, and it is at this stage that the carbon dioxide bubbles from and remain captive in the wines. The bottles are left undisturbed for a year or two so that the wine can mature. The bottles are stocked in chalk cellars at around 60-65F During its long rest in the chalk cellars the wine gives off sediment, which must be removed before the wine moves into the final stages of preparation. Remuage is the initial part of the process of removing the sediment when the bottles are placed in special racks, known as ‘ pupitres’, at a slight angle. The object is to encourage the sediment as to slide down the bottle and settle on the base of its temporary stopper. At the end of the process the bottles are completely inverted. Secondary Fermentation Maturing Remuage REFRANCE Degorgement the Wine Companion, David Burroughs and Norman Bezzane William Collins Sons and Company (P) Ltd.1975. Still inverted, the bottles necks are dipped into a freezing mixture.
The sediment and the small quantity of wine around it become ice. The cork is the sediment is ejected as a frozen bullet. Dosage The bottle is topped up with champagne and expedition liqueur. The liqueur content depends on how sweet the wine is intended to be. Gradations are from the driest to the sweet Brut, Extra Sec, Sec, Demi Sec, and Doux. Some Brut champagnes contain no final liqueur at all and are completely dry. Bottles are sent back to rest again for perhaps, a year or more before they are marketed. Pink champagne is made by allowing the skins of black grapes to remain in contact with pressed grape juices, at the time of the vintage. Vintage champagne is made only in years when there is more sunshine than in a normal year. Deluxe brands are costlier than other champagnes, as they are made in what makers claim to be the particularly good years. Some are “blanc de blancs”, which is champagne made only from white grapes. Grandes Marques are high quality champagnes produced by major champagne houses. Aging
FORTIFIED WINES Port There are wines to which alcohol is either during or after fermentation. Some of the popular fortified wines are: It can claim to be the world’s greatest fortified wine. It was created at the beginning of the eighteenth century in the Douro Valley in Portugal. There are different types of port. Ruby port, which is matured in the shortest time in casks, is full bodied, robust and deep ruby in colour. Tawny port is kept longer in casks (two years or more) giving the brownish colour that gives it its name. Tawnies are less sweet and lighter in body than Rubies. Crusted port is a blend of high quality wines usually from different vintages. Kept for several years in casks and for more in bottles it develops a crust in the bottle. It is an elegant and well-balanced wine. White port is mad from white grapes and is made in the same way as Tawany. Late Bottled port is aged in casks instead of bottles for six to eight years. This is characteristic of vintage port. Is declared when the marker finds the crop good in the particular year. It is aged for 10 to 30 years before it is ready for consumption. It is a delicate and mellow wine. Is a blended and fortified wine that comes from the town Jerez in Spain. There are two basic categories: fino and oloroso which both start life as pale, dry wines but get converted into medium or sweet wines by blending. Secondary wine can be used for medium or sweet wines by blending. Secondary wine can be used for colouring. The difference is that fino develops with the appearance of a curious yeast growth called “flor” which appears on the surface of the fermenting wine in casks, which are kept open to the air. Those wine casks, which do not have this growth, are called rayas or ‘wines for burning’ from which oloroso developes. The Solera system is another notable feature of sherry. In this system the next oldest wine. The second oldest cask is in turn replenished with the third oldest wine and so on. Sherry has no vintage year. The most important grape used for sherry is Palomino. Well-known Fino sherries are Fino, Mauzavilla and Amontillado. Madeira is one of the most versatile of the fortified wines. It can be served as an aperitif, soup wine, dessert wine or an after dinner wine. The most distinctive feature of Madeira is its curious smoky after taste. This is derived partly from the soil and climate of the Island of Madeira, but chiefly from the “cooking” process to which it is subjected. The wine is put into a “hot room” and heated to a temperature of 90-140 o F for several months, before being fortified with spirit and matured in wood. The Hamlyn Book of Wines, Hamlyn Publishing Group Ltd., England (P) 1973. Vintage Port Sherry Madeira REFERANCE
Lesson Whisky Whisky is a spirit obtained by the distillation of a fermented mash of grain (usually barley, maize or rice, or all together) and is aged in wood. There are approximately 200 brands of whiskies available and they vary in taste from distiller. There is no similarity in taste between Scotch, Irish, Canadian or the tow American whiskies-rye and bourbon. 3 Scotch Whisky Scotch whisky is distinctive product of Scotland where it is believed that the first whisky was made in the Highlands in the sixteenth century. Its Gaelic name Usquebeathe meaning “water of life” was later anglicized to “whisky”. It must be noted that the Scottish water itself plays an important part in the final products. Two types of whiskies are necessary to produce scotch. The first is Scotch malt whisky, which gives the body and character. This is blended with Scotch grain whisky, which is used for lightness. This blending was invented in the 1860’s. In the production of Scotch two distillation processes are used: 1. The pot-still process, which has individual distillation according to lots. Malt whisky is produced by this process. 2. The patent (or Coffey)- still process permits continuous distillation. Grain whisky is produced by this process. Scotch malt whisky is made from malted barley only and is manufactured by the potstill process. This process has the following sequences: Cleaning The barley is washed to separate the husk and is then dried. Malting The selected barley is soaked in water for two or three days till it sprouts a shoot, a thumbnail long. It is the water in Scotland that imparts the unique quality to Scotch. The barley is spread on the concrete floor to germinate for 8-12 days. The sprouting barley is constantly turned by hand or by a “Saladin” machine to aerate it. Drying and Grinding Germinating is stopped at a certain time and the barley is subjected to heat over fires of smokeless coal and peat. The peat gives smoke which flavours and gives an aroma to the malt during this process. The malt is then ground, not too finely, into vast vats. Mashing The ground malt is crushed with hot water and the conversion of soluble starch into maltose is completed. The sweetish liquid produced (wort) is drawn off and the remaining husks removed for cattle food. Fermentation The wort is cooled and then passed into vessels where it is fermented by yeast, which attacks the sugar and converts it into crude alcohol. The result is a sort of beer- the wash, an alcoholic strength of about 10%. Distillation The wash is distilled twice in pot-stills. The wash heated. As alcohol has a lower boiling point than water, it becomes vapour, which is then cooled and condensed back
into liquid. This produces a fairly weak and impure spirit called ‘low wines’. This is distilled again to produce pure scotchmalt whisky. Maturation This new whisky is poured into oak wood casks where it is matured into a pleasant mellow spirit for as long as fifteen years, thought not less than three years. Finer whiskies are matured in actual sherry casks or wine treated casks. Blending After the malt whisky and grain whisky are matured, they are blended and “married” to achieve consistent quality and bouqet. Each major blend differs and the maintenance of a precise standard of quality and task is the blenders function. There are as many as forty different malt and grain whiskies blended according to a secret formula handed down from generations to produce the Scotch whisky we know today. These may be matured after blending to “marry” the blend completely. Filtering and Boiling The Scotch whisky is finally filtered and bottled. Cocktails Rob Roy : 30 ml Scotch whisky 30 ml vermouth Whisky Mac : 30 ml Scotch Whisky 30 ml Ginger wine Shake, do not chill. Training AIDS 1. Variety of scotch bottles with labels. 2. Glassware and ingredients to prepare cocktails.
BOURBON WHISKY The Rev.Elijah Craig is credited with the production of the first Bourbon Whiskey in 1789 in Bourbon in the United States. But it was only May 4,1964 that a resolution was by the U.S. Senate and the House of Representatives, that Bourbon was recognized as a “distinctive product of the U.S.”. Most Bourbons are straight whiskies, which means that they are obtained from a spirit distilled from maize or rye and aged in new charred oak barrels for at least two years. Sour mash whiskey is made through a variation of the fermentation method. The distiller uses part of the previous day’s mash and fresh yeast in previous batch. Cocktail Bourbon Mint Julep 60 ml Bourbon ½ teaspoon sugar 4 springs mint Cracked ice Dash of dark rum or brandy Mint, lemon and cherry for decoration Mix Bourbon, sugar and mint. Fill a 10 oz. glass with cracked ice. Add ingredients and stir till outside of glass is frosted. Top with a dash rum or brandy. Decorate with a sprig of mint, lemon and cherry. Serve with straws. Popular Drinks Some very popular Bourbon drinks are: 30 ml Bourbon over ice topped with soda Bourbon with Coke Bourbon with dry ginger ale Bourbon with lemonade Training AIDS 1. Sample of bourbon whiskey bottle. 2. Glassware and ingredients for making for a cocktail.
IRISH WHISKY Irish whisky is made from a mash of cereal grains (wheat, rye) mostly, with perhaps, 20% oats and wheat in a manner similar to the malt of Scotland and it is distilled in pot-stills. Triple distillation and long maturation contribute to the uniqueness of Irish whisky for even the youngest is aged in sherry casks for at least seven years by law. Irish whiskies were mostly straight whiskies highly flavoured and smooth. But now a number of blended (malt and grain) whiskies are available and are found to be lighter bodied products. Cocktails Irish Coffee Hot black coffee 60 ml Irish whisky Sugar Lightly whipped fresh cream Fill an 8 0z. glass with hot black coffee. Add sugar to taste. Add Irish whisky. Float cream on top. Do not stir. Serve. Training AIDS 1. Irish whisky bottle with label. 2. Glassware and ingredients to make the cocktail.
CANADIAN WHISKY The principal grains used in Canadian whisky are maize, wheat and barley malt. The proportion of grain used and the distilling and redistilling processes are the trade secrets of the master distiller. Canadian whisky is a product of blended whiskies, which may be done before aging or during the aging period. Maturation takes place in charred, white oak barrels for two or more years but most Canadian whiskies are at least six years old. Cocktails Manhattan (Dry) 45 ml Canadian whisky 20 ml Dry Vermouth 1-2 dashes Angostura bitters Ice Twist of lemon, olive Manhattan (Sweet) Same ingredients as the Manhattan Dry recipe, except that Sweet Vermouth is used instead of dry. Garnish with Maraschino cherry instead of lemon Popular Drinks Some very popular Canadian whisky drinks are: Canadian whisky with dry ginger ale 30 ml Canadian whisky over ice topped with soda water Canadian whisky with Coke Canadian whisky with lemonade Canadian whisky with 3 parts lemonade and 1 part dry ginger ale with a twist of lemon. TRAINING ADIS 1. Sample of Canadian whisky bottle. 2. Glassware and ingredients to make a cocktail.
PROOF Proof is a term found on the label of alcoholic beverage bottles to indicate the alcoholic content of the said beverage. Proof was evolved from the days when there was no way of measuring the strength of spirits. The system of assessing proof was adding spirit and water to gunpowder. The mixture was made progressively stronger till such time the water portion had no effect on the gunpowder and allowed it to explode when ignited. The spirit that caused explosion was said to be “proved”. There are three Proof Systems: 1. British System, which is used in all commonwealth countries. Under this system Proof Spirit was 100 and absolute alcohol 175.25. British proof spirit was thus 57% alcohol. 2. U.S. System in which absolute alcohol was 200 and Proof spirit was 100. Thus U.S> Proof indicates 50% alcohol. 3. Metric System (Gay Lussac), which indicates tne volume of alcohol in a beverage. Thus, if 100% was the beverage volume, 40% on the label would indicate the volume of alcohol in that volume of beverage.
Lesson 4 Brandy Brandy comes from the Dutch word brandewijn, which means, “burnt wine”. Distillation was referred to by them as ‘burning’ process. Grape brandy is a mixture of distillates obtained from the fermented juice or mash of grapes. There are brandies from other fruits as well such as peach, apricot and apple. Brandies are aged in oak casks for a minimum of tow years while the usual aging period is from three to eight years. Grape brandy is produced in many countries but experts consider Cognac as the best. Cognac is only produced in the French district of Charente, in which the city of Cognac is situated. In order to be labeled Cognac, the grapes must be grown, fermented and distilled in this area where there are seven famous districts, listed below, in order of top quality production. 1. La Granda Champagne 2. La Petite Champagne 3. Les Borderies 4. Les fine Bois 5. Les Bons Bois 6. Les Bois Ordinaire 7. Bois Commums Cognac brandy had its birth in the seventeenth century when the art of second distillation was discovered. The white wine from which cognac comes is harsh. This is distilled in pot stills producing 30% alcohol. The second distillation gives cognac with an alcoholic content of not more than 72%. The cognac is matured for years in oak casks and then blended to give a fine cognac. There is no vintage brandy. * One star ــــMatured for two years ** Two stars ــــMatured for two to four years *** Three stars ــــMatured for five to eight years V.O. V.O.P. V.S.O. V.S.O.P. V.V.S.O.P. ـــــvery old ـــــvery old Pale ـــــvery Superior Old ـــــvery Superior Old Pale (matured for 50 years) ـــــVery Very Superior Old Pale Another worthy French brandy is Armagnac, which comes from the region of that name in the south-west of France. Armagnc is fuller bodied and drier than cognac. It is best to use the younger brandies for mixed drinks. The more mature expensive brandies are better appreciated when drunk neat. Cocktails Brandy Alexander 1/3 proportion Brandy 1/3 proportion Cream de cacao Nutmeg
Shake brandy, crème de cacao and fresh cream with ice. Strain into a 6 oz. champagne glass. Serve with sprinkled nutmeg on top. Side Car ½ proportion Brandy ¼ proportion Cointreau ¼ proportion Lemon Juice Ice Shake brandy, cointreau and lemon juice with ice. Strain into 3 oz. cocktail glass and serve. Popular Drinks Some very popular brandy drinks are: Brandy with Dry ginger ale Brandy with Lemonade Brandy with Coke Brandy with orange Juice
Lesson Gin 5 Gin was first produced in Holland in the sixteenth century as a medicinal spirit, flavoued with the oil of juniper (“genievre” in French; “jenever” or “genever” in Dutch-Anglicised to gin). The spirit was brought to England and acquired sufficient popularity in places such as London, Portsmouth, Plymouth and Bristol. Gin production was given full encouragement when William III from Holland and his English consort ruled England. Since then gin consumption accelerated till well after the Industrial Revolution when in 1870 Mr. Gladstone passed a bill to cut down the Victorian Gin palaces which were focal social points. His bill was overruled by the House of Commons and has come to stay as a popular social drink. Distilled gin is obtained by orginal distillation of mash or by the redistiallation of distilled spirits, with juniper berries and other plants. The grain formula consists of 75% corn, 15% barley malt and 10% other grains and the resulting spirit has to be mixed with distilled water, as it is too strong to drink. Each distiller has his own secret formula, which, in some cases has not altered since the first distiller mad gin. Most brands use the word “dry” and even “London dry” on their labels. This means that the gin lacks sweetness and pronounced aromatic flavour or bouqet. London Dry originally applied to gin produced near London but is now descriptive of many gins. Gin does not have to be aged. There are several kinds of gin. Altogether “London dry” is the most commonly used. There are others not at all alike in flavour. Old Tom gin is slightly more perfumed and sweeter; golden gin is a dry gin and because it is aged, is gold or straw coloured, but the distiller by law cannot make any age clam; Plymouth gin is the driest of all and is produced by one distiller only-Coats and Co. the sweetest is Sloe gin-a mixture of dry gin and sloe berries. Dutch gin, which is sold under the name of “Geneva” or “Holland” and distilled in Holland, differs from English gins. It is heavy in body and very aromatic. Cocktails Bronx 30 ml dry gin 15 ml orange juice 1 dash of French Vermouth 1 dash of Italian Vermouth Cracked ice Shake gin, orange juice, French and Italian Vermouth with cracked ice. Serve in 2 ½ oz. cocktail glass. Pink Lady 60 ml gin 4 dashes Grenadine 1 dash egg white
Shake Grenadine, gin and egg white. Strain into a cocktail glass and serve. Gimlet 60 ml gin with a dash of lime cordial topped with water or soda. It is garnished with a lemon wedge. Popular Drinks Some very popular gin drinks are: 30 ml gin, ice and topped with tonic water Gin with bitter lemon Gin with lemonade Gin with Coke
Lesson 6 Rum “Rumbullion” meaning “rumpus” was the drink of the slaves on plantations in the British; West Indies as early as the seventeenth century and from this came the drink we know as rum today. British law in 1904 defined Rum as a spirit distilled from the by-products of sugar-cane from sugar-cane growing countries. Puerto Rico is a big rum producer and other suppliers are Britain, the West Indian, Venezuela, Brazil, Jamaica, Australia and Cuba. White Rum: Is a distillate of molasses. White rum become popular via the precastro Havana, a sort of Caribbean Paris then. American tourists imbibed large quantities of white rum with their preferred mixerCoca Cola. This drink was called “Cuba Libra”. This rum is white because the spirit is not given a colouring. It is made by the pot distillation process (though the Coffey-still process has become popular nowadays). A mash is made of molasses (a by-product of cane sugar and water). Natural yeasts, plus special strains cause the residual sugar in the molasses to ferment. The resultant alcohol wash is distilled in Coffey-stills. This method allows the distiller to draw off the required amount flavour from the wash. Dark Rum: The production process is the same as in white rum except that a highly refined sugar-cane syrup or caramel is added to give colour and flavour. This is adjusted according to the brand. Golden Rum: This is basically white rum matured in casks that lend the golden colour to the rum. Cocktails Bacardi 3 parts Bacardi (white) 1 part lemon juice 1 part Grenadine 1 dash egg white 1 Maraschine cherry Shake Bacardi, lemon juice, grenadine and egg white. Daiquiri 3 parts Bacardi (white) 1 part lemon or limejuice 3 dashes of Gomme syrup or 1-teaspoon sugar Thoroughly shake Bacardi, lemon or lime juice, and syrup or sugar. Strain into chilled cocktail glasses and serve. Hot buttered Rum 45 ml of Jamaican Rum 1 lump of sugar Small slice of butter Boiling water
Nutmeg Combine rum, sugar and butter. Fill a glass with boiling water poured over silver spoon (to prevent the glass from breaking) and stir. Sprinkle nutmeg on top and serve.
Lesson 7 Vodka Vodka was produced in Poland and Russia in the twelfth century and has been a favourite drink in these countries ever since. The tradition way of drinking vodka is to gulp the chilled drink neat accompanied by nibbles of food. Caviar and smoked salmon go very well with vodka. In Russia, vodka has different flavourings, from chocolate to cayenne pepper. This drink has now gained global popularity as a good cocktail mixer. It is an alcoholic distillate from a fermented mash of grain. In the making of genuine vodka, nothing is added to the neutral spirit. All its characters are removed, leaving it odourless, tasteless, colourless and smooth. This gives you the advantage of being able to add to it your favourite nonalcoholic beverage while mixing drinks. It has an alcoholic content of 40%. Cocktails Bloody Mary 60 ml Vodka 1 dash Worcestershire sauce 2 drops Tobasco sauce 7 ml drops lemon juice Salat and pepper Ice cubes Tomato juice In a 10 oz. glass put Worcestershire sauce, Tabasco sauce and lemon juice. Add salt and pepper. Mix together and then add ice cubes, vodka. Top with tomato juice. Serve with swizzle stick. Saky Dog 3 cubes ice 45 ml Vodka Grape-fruit juice Slice of orange 1 Maraschine cherry. In 10 oz. highball glass place ice and vodka. Top up with grapefruit juice and serve. Garnish with slice of orange and Maraschine cherry. Screw Driver 3 cubes ice 45 ml Vodka Orange juice 1 Maraschine cherry In a 10 oz. highball glass place ice and vodka. Top up with orange juice. Garnish with a slice of orange and cherry and serve.
Popular Drinks 30 ml vodka ice topped with your favouite juice Vodka with Coke Vodka with Tonic Vodka with lemonade Vodka with ginger ale
Lesson 8 Tequila Tequila dates back to Aztek times long before the Spanish conquered the country. True comes from the city of Tequila in south west Mexico. Tequila is made from the sap of the wild mescal plant (similar to cactus) and is produced near the city of Tequila where the mescal plant is found in abundance. The mescal is fermented and distilled, the end product being tequila. There are two varieties-white and gold label. The white label is not aged where as the gold is aged in used whisky barrels, just long enough to impart the gold colour ready for bottling. Tequila is known to have a very strong alcoholic content but it is much the same as gin of vodka. It probably earned its mule kick reputation because of the way the peons drank it. A piece of lemon and some salt were put on the clenched fist of the left hand. Tequila was drunk from the right hand followed by a lick of lemon and salt. Today the Mexicans drink tequila with tomato juice and call it “Sangrita”. Cocktails Margarita Salt 45 ml Tequila 15 ml Triple sce or cointreau 30 ml fresh lemon juice Slice of lemon Rim the glass with salt by first moistening the rim with a slice of lemon then sprinkle salt over the moistened area. Vigorously shake Tequila, Triple sec or Cointreau and lemon or lime juice. Strain into cocktail glasses. Garnished with a slice of lemon and serve.
Lesson 9 Sake This rice wine is a traditional drink and is usually served warm in small cups called “Sakazuki” and poured from a narrowmouthed bottle called “Tokkuri”. Its colour can vary from clear to pale amber with each brand having a distinctive character and taste. It does not need aging. It has 18 per cent alcohol. Cocktails 90 ml sake Juice of ¼ lemon 1-teaspoon castor sugar Ice Soda water Slice of lemon Stir sake, lemon juice and castor sugar with ice and top with soda water. Garnish with a slice of lemon and serve. Tamage Sake 180 ml sake 1 egg 1-teaspoon sugar Bring Sake to boil and light with a match. Allow to burn for 1 second. Remove from heat. Add egg and sugar and stir. Pour into a drinking cup and serve.
Lesson 10 Beer Beer is a potable alcoholic beverage fermented from cereals and malt, flavoured with hops. The alcoholic content is between 3% to 5% and is known to be a very refreshing drink especially in summer. Raw Materials in the Making of Beer Barley Barley is preferred to other cereals as it can be more easily malted for brewing and the solubles extracted from barley malt are more complete than those of other grains. When the grain has been steeped and dried, it is termed malt, and is ready for grinding or stoning. Actually any cereal containing starch or sugar maybe used in the brewing of beer, e.g. maize, rice, corn or wheat. But these grains lack essential enzymes (chemicals which facilitate the extraction of sugar) and when used require special treatment. If used alone, the final product would not be beer. Hops Hops belong to the nettle family. The female plants used bear cone-shaped formations, which impart a bitter flavour and pleasant aroma, increasing the refreshing quality and stimulating digestion. Sugar Sugar is an important addition as it helps to produce a beer of pale colour, less filling and with a better taste and of course, increased stability. Brewers’ Yeast Brewers’ Yeast is a micro-organism belonging to the saccharomyces species and is capable of reproducing at a fantastic rate. Its work is to propagate and split up the sugar components into equal quantities of alcohol and carbon dioxide. At this stage it may be well to mention that it is the carbon dioxide content of the beer, which determines the amount of the foam formation. A consistent carbon dioxide level means that the barman will not have any trouble handling beer at normal temperatures. The process of making beer can be broadly divided into three distinct stages: Brewing The barley is steeped in water until it germinates. It is then kiln-dried upto 18oF to stop germination. The resultant product is termed malt and is ready for grinding. Mashing The crushed malt is mixed with water at a given temperature for the proper length of time. The resultant solution “wort” is then used to make beer and the residue (spent grain) is as stock fodder.
Fermentation Fermentation is the next process where the yeast splits the sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide. This is the most decisive phase in the brewing for attaining brews of fine taste and aroma. BEER PRODUCION Malt Hops Sugar Water Yeast Ingredients Made from barley. Impart a special bitter flavour and aroma and have preservative value. Invert sugar is used-a produce of cane sugar. Mountain spring water is preferred. As used in known as Saccharomyces and Carevisiae. Different Stages Storage Bin Screen Mill Grist Case Mashing Tun Grain Copper Hop Back Spent Hops Wort Receiver Refrigerator Fermenting Vessel CO2 Dropping Vessel Malt received from the producer is weighed and stored in the “Storage Bin”. Foreign matter is removed. Where malt is crushed and is known as ‘Grist’. Storage for “Grit” above the mashing tun. Mashing is the mixing of grist and hot water. The liquid drawn-off is malt extract known as “Wort”. The husk of the malt left behind and used for cattle food. Wort runs in copper kettles where hops and sugar are added. Boiling is necessary to sterilize and concentrate-hops are afterwards extracted. Hops are strained off in the hop back. Spent hops are used for cultivating gardens. Wort pumped to the tank above the refrigerator. Where the product is cooled to 60o F and run into a fermenting vessel. Where yeast is added to start fermentation. Yeast splits up wort into alcohol and CO2 gas. The latter is used for bottled beer. Wort is converted to beer, and fermentation is complete when the beer is sent to the Dropping Vessel. Yeast reproduces by itself and is used for subsequent fermentation. Used for cattle food and supplementary diets. Cask beer is packed. Yeast Cask
Cellar Finings Conditioning Room Cold Room Filter Bottling Beer is sent to cellar for the conditioning period. Finings are made from isinglass and are used to help in clarification. Bottled beer is sent here for a conditioning period and further for chilling where excess CO2 gas is rejected. Bottled beer is sent here for a conditioning period and further for chilling where excess CO2 gas is rejected. Beer is passed through a filter to make it brilliant. Beer is filled into various size bot Note : Invert Sugar is a product of cane sugar which has been treated in the course of refining with small amount of acids. The process of inversion has the effect of converting the cane sugar into Dextrose and Levulose. Both these sugars are fermentable and thus more readily assimiable by yeast. Without inversion the use of either raw or refined sugar imposes a heavy strain upon the strength of yeast. Finings are made from isinglass, which is manufactured from the swimming bladder of the sturgeon fish. The choice of isinglass is important since some brewers find one type more effective than the other. It consists chiefly of proteins and water, but it is in no sense a constituent of beer and is used purely for the purpose of clarification Lager Beer Lager beer is distinguished by the fact that the wort is fermented by a bottom fermentation type of yeast (i.e. yeast which is introduced at the bottoms of the fermenting tanks) and then is stored in refrigerated cellars (lager) at freezing point for a period of six months. The process matures the beer. Lager is a German word meaning ‘store’. Plisener large is stored in the limestone caves of Pilsen in Czechoslovakia. Ale is synonymous with beer except that it is a term used for ordinary mild beer while better beer is referred to as “beer” Porter is a black beer achieved by roasting malt. It is more malty in flavour, with less flavouring of hops, but sweeter than stout. This name originated from the fact that London porters used to drink this beer. Stout is similar to porter in as much as the malt is roasted. It has a strong malt flvour and a sweet taste, but is heavier and has a stronger hop character than porter. This is a name given by the Irish and is almost similar to porter. Most people like their beer as beer but there are some variations for drinks using beer. Beer and Tomato juice. Ale Porter Stout Beer Drinks Red Eye
Boilermarker Shandy 1 lager jigger or Scotch whisky served straight with a glass of beer as a chaser. Beer with lemonade.
LESSON Non-alcoholic Beverage 11 Consuming non-alcoholic beverage has become a way of life .we start with the morning bed tea; career through the morning and afternoon with cupfuls of coffee; refresh ourselves with carbonated drinks at the end of tiring day or at a party and finally go to bed with a warm nourishing drink. This aspect of a person’s life is fully understood and propagates by hotels and restaurants. It is essential to know a little about these beverages because they certainly add a sizeable contribution to the establishment’s profits. Non-alcoholic beverage may be classified into three categories stimulating, refreshing and nourishing. STIMULATING Tea It is believed that the origins of tea are from China where the tea plants were introduced from an unknown source. The East India Company introduced it into India around the seventeenth century and tea became a popular drink in India and Europe through London. Tea is drunk hot by boiling water, adding tea leaves to it and stirring till the water imbibes the co lour and flavour. Milk is added with sugar to taste. Iced tea has a similar process except that one can add or not add milk and refrigerate the mixture. Coffee The origins of coffee are mysterious but many tropical countries have thriving coffee trade. Ground coffee captures the best essence of coffee beans and is made by boiling it with water in a closed apparatus. Cona coffee is the best under closed systems. Turkish coffee is made by the common method of boiling water, adding a teaspoon of powered coffee and drinking it with or without milk, with sugar to taste. Espresso coffee is made by the infusion of steam through a special espresso machine that gives a frothy texture to the coffee when served. Cappuccino is the same espresso machine that gives a frothy texture to the coffee when served. Cappuccino is the same espresso coffee with a sprinkling of cinnamon powder on top. Cold coffee is very popular and is made as Turkish coffee is made with milk and sugar and then chilled. Refreshing These are mostly aerated water which comprises combination of water, gas, sugar and artificial essence. Common essence used belongs to the citrus family. Thus we have lemonade and orangeade. Basically bottles with water and essence are infused with carbon dioxide and the bottle sealed immediately. Soda is just purified carbonated water. Mineral water is original medicinal water from mineral springs. Imitations of mineral water are called Tonic water or bitter lemon in which a dosage of quinine is injected. Under the category of refreshing drinks, it would not be complete not to mention the commercial colas that have flooded every market Coca cola is the most popular with a consumption of approximately 150 million bottles a day. Other aspirants to the top place are Pepsi cola, 7’ up, etc. Most manufacturers have their own formula for the basic flavor or essence. Colas have a generous infusion of carbon dioxide to give the drinks the fizz. Syrups and squashes are concentrates of fruit essences sweetened with concentrated sugar syrup. These are not carbonated. Common syrups and squashes available are strawberry, raspberry, orange and lemon. We usually associate nourishing drinks with fresh juices or milk. Amongst drinks with the fruit juices are fresh and tinned orange, mango, grape fruit, pine-apple and lime; while tomato juice is loner from the vegetable family. As regards milk based nourishing drinks we have popular coca based drinks like drinking Chocolate, Ovaltine and Bournvita. These are sweetened powder mixes that dissolve readily in milk to give a rich coca flavor. NOURISHING
LESSON Food Preparation 12 There are certain aspects of food preparation that all restaurant personnel should be familiar with. They are. 1. Methods of cooking 2. Basic Soups 3. Basic Sauces 4. Preparation of menu items. Methods of Cooking (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) Steaming Boiling Roasting Poaching Grilling Frying Baking Broiling Smoking Stewing Braising Water media Water media Fat media Water media Fat media Fat media Radiant heat media Dry heat media Smoke media Water media liquid media Steaming Cooking is done by moist heat (vapors). There are two types steaming – indirect steaming where food is sealed with cloth or aluminum foil and placed in a closed container which is immersed in another container which generates steam from boiling water or from a steamer , eg. Steam pudding. In direct steaming food items are in direct contact with the vapors. Boiling Food items are cooked in boiling water (100 c). Green vegetables are put in boiling water and root vegetables are put in cold water and then boiled, e.g. Boiled potatoes, boiled green peas, etc. Roasting Food is cooked in direct contact with heat. Fat is basted to moisten and soften the meat. There are four traditional methods of roasting: Pot Roastingquality meats like game birds are trussed to retain their shape and placed in a pot, which has crossed rods within to prevent the meat from sticking to the bottom. The meat is basted with fat. This is sealed and heated from below on a slow fire. Root vegetables may be added later for flavor. After the meat is cooked, stock may be added to the liquid inside to make a sauce. Otherwise, the natural liquid formed called "Jus Roti" may act as the gravy. Oven roasting – the meat is basted and roasted in a tray in the oven at temperatures of 300F. The meat is constantly basted and turned round for even cooking and color. Spit roasting – the meat is skewered into a rod and roasted above direct flames. The meet needs constant basting with fat and is rotated over the flame to ensure even cooking. Tandoori roasting – an Indian concept where meat is marinated with spices and curd and skewered on rods, which are placed into mud ovens which are heated from within. Poaching Food items are cooked in shallow water. The water never boils but simmers that is, it is kept below boiling point, e.g. poached eggs, poached fish, etc.
Grilling The fasted method of cooking expensive meat cuts done on hot grid iron with heat coming from top or below. This meat is marinated before grilling and never pricked while cooking as the juices flow out, e.g. steaks, grilled chicken, etc. This method of cooking uses fat as a cooking media. There are three types of frying: 1. Sauté- done on slow (very slow) fire and used for tender items. Food is partially cooked or colored. 2. Shallow frying – very little fat used but cooking is done fully. 3. Deep frying – Done in hot oil or fat, the food is submerged in the oil and cooked. The method by which cakes, pudding, pies, biscuits, are cooked in dry radiant heat, at different temperature in an oven. It is a dry method of cooking by direct heat either from above or below. It can be done on grids or pans where food is cooked uncovered. It is used as a method of preserving food. Food is preserved with the help of smoke from wooden shaving and sawdust, in a closed room, e.g. smoked salmon, smoked ham, etc. Very slow method of cooking in a utensil with a closed lid where tough meats and joints are cooked in water to soften them. Herbs and spices are added for flavour and the juice is served as gravy. It is cooked on low fire or in an oven at a low temperature, e.g. mutton stew or Irish stew, etc. It is a combination of roasting and stewing. Tough meat is used. It is first browned to seal off pores so as to retain the juices. The meet is then placed on a bed of vegetables, herbs, bacon and ham in a casserole. The casserole is sealed with a lid to prevent evaporation and then placed in an oven to cook. Stocks are flavored and nutritious liquids used as foundations for sauces, soups, stews, gravies, etc. There are two basic stocks. White Stock – The type of stock is determined by the source of meat and bones e.g. chicken stock, beef stock, mutton stock, veal stock, fish stock. Discarded bones and cartilage, which contain albumen and gelatin, are used. For flavoring, carrots, turnips, onions, leeks, bay leaf, parsley and thyme are used. Stock is prepared by adding sufficient cold water to submerge all the bones. The water is brought to a boil, and then simmered for six hours. Whole vegetables, and aromats as mentioned above, are added for flavor. In case of chicken the simmering time is 20 minutes. Bones are first roasted till they are rich brown and the stock process is followed as above. Types of brown stock are brown beef stock, brown mutton stock, brown veal stock and brown game stock. K.Arora, theory of cookery Frank Bros and Co., Delhi Frying Baking Broiling Smoking Stewing Braising STOCKS Brown Stock REFERNCE LESSON Sauces
13 A sauce is a liquid accompaniment, which goes with a dish. The role of a sauce is to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Enhance flavor Give color Help in digestion Moisten dry food Enhance nutritional Lend a name to a dish, e.g. Fish Portuguese Give a balanced taste. There are six basic sauces from which derivates are made: 1. Béchamel (white sauce) 2. Espagnole (brown sauce) 3. Veloutes 4. Tomato 5. Mayonnaise 6. Hollandaise Bechamel This is prepared by making a white roux out of flour and butter in equal proportions, till it reaches a sandy texture. Milk is added a little at a time and stirred to avoid lumps. An onion with one clove is added for flavour. Seasoning is added for taste. The product is then passed through a fin strainer. This is prepared by making a brown roux of flour and butter. Tomato puree is added and stirred to avoid lumps. Brown stock is added vigorously to blend with the roux, on a gentle fire. Mirepoix, which consists of onion, carrots, bacon trimmings, bayleaf, thyme and peppercorns, are introduced for flavor along with sated vegetables. The product is simmered gently for 4 or 6 hours and then strained. Salad oil is incorporated into the beaten yolk of an egg. It is a basic cold sauce used for salad dressings and hors d'oeuvres. Tomatoes are cooked with bacon, carrots, chopped onions and garlic in stock and passed through a sieve. Light brown roux is used for thickening. These are made by adding stock to light brown (blond) roux. The type of volute is determined by the type of stock added, e.g. fish Volute, chicken Volute, etc. Hollandaise is a warm sauce served over grilled or baked fish, vegetables and eggs. It is prepared by first reducing peppercorn and vinegar and adding eggs yolks, which are whisked to a thick consistency. Melted butter is added until it blends smoothly. Espagnole Mayonnaise Tomato Sauce Volutes Hollandaise Sauces may be thickened by thickening agents or liaisons: Roux Cooking of flour and butter in the proportion of 1:1. The degree, to which it is browned, i.e. white, blond or brown, adds color to the sauce.
Starch Buerre Maine Items such as corn flour, arrow root, etc are made into a paste with a liquid and then added to boiling liquid. Flour and butter are Kneaded in the proportion of 1:1 and added a little at a time to a boiling liquid and stirred to form a smooth consistency. Basically for fish sauces. Yolks of Eggs/Cream These liaisons are added as a finishing agent. When added the liquid is never boiled. It is added to thicken cream and volute soups. Blood Added to give natural flavors especially in game cooking.
LESSON Soups Soups are wholesome cereals or poultry. is the first course classifies the soup 14 Soups Cold Hot Thick Cold/ Jellied Consommés Cream soups Thin Thick Vegetable Cream Soups Fruit Cream soup Unpassed Broths Passed Consommés Puree Cream Chowders Bisques Volutes Consommé It is a richly flavored clear soup. The base is stock of beef; mutton or chicken to which raw, lean mince meat is added along with finely diced or chopped carrots, onions, celery seasoning and egg whites. It is brought to boil and simmered. The protein in the egg white and meat, coagulate and bind most of the cloudy material. The soup is strained through a muslin cloth. Broth is a cloudy soup which contains a mixture of vegetables, meat, chicken, etc. these are cut in regular shapes. Bouillon is more or less the same except that it is clearer and has a strong meaty flavor. Broth (Bouillon) SOUP GARNISHES nutritious liquid food made from meat, seafood, vegetables It is the second course in a French classical menu, though it in many meals and acts as an appetizer . The following table for easy reference.
A garnish is an important aspect flavor, color and wholesomeness. service. Cereals Croutons Cheese Dices or other even shaped bread cheese grilled on croutons, e.g. e.g. with consommés. Unsweetened mushroom, Cream of tomato soup.
of soup preparation and presentation. It enhances It is put into a prepared soup just before Cream Boiled rice, e.g. with mulligatawny soup. or toast, e.g. with cream soups. Grated Parmesan with French onion soup; cottage cheese diced, whipped cream or sour cream, e.g. cream of
Meats, Poultry, Seafood Diced into small pieces or juliennes, e.g. Cream of chicken soup, Bisque d'Homard. Pasta Vegetables Noodles or spaghetti, e.g. with minestrone soup. Cut in various shapes and sizes such as juliennes, rounds, dices, etc. as in mixed vegetable soup. Tips for the service of soup 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Garnishing must be small, light and easily eatable. Light soups should precede heavy dishes. Heavy soups must come in small portions. Hot soups must be served very hot, and cold soups chilled. Clear soups must enable you to see the bottom of the soup bowl. Soup accompaniments are toasts, breadsticks, cheese croutons, etc. These must be hot and crisp.
LESSON Cheese Cheese is a product of pure, fresh milk, cream, or milk and cream mixed together. It is made by first pasteurizing good quality milk, curdling it with the addition of bacteria and rennet. The solid portion –crud is separated from the liquid portion – whey. The crud is put into moulds to mature and becomes cheese. It is also subjected to pressure, which determines the type of cheese. Cream cheese is subjected to heavier pressures. The character, texture and flavor are dependent on the land on which the cattle graze. The method of manufacture could also be determinant. 15 2. 3. 4. HARD CHEESE English Cheeses are divided into: 1. Hard Semi-hard Soft or cream Blue Cheddar Cheshire European : Has nutty flavors and is creamy in color. : A mellow open textured cheese. There are different types of Cheshire – Cheshire red and Cheshire white, both with the same flavor and crumbly; the Cheshire blue is richer and rare. Lancashire : Possesses a mild flavor when young but increase in pungency as it matures. Its loose texture makes it ideal for kitchen use. It is creamy white in color. Derby : Has a honey color and close texture, and develops a strongflavor as it matures. The sage- flavored Derby cheese is popular at Christmas time. Double Gloucester A straw colored cheese with a nutty flavor similar to Cheddar. It has a close texture. Wensleydale : The white Wensleydale has a soft flaky texture, is pale in color with a honeyed after taste. Edam : A cheese from Holland, pale yellow in color with a waxy texture. It is global shaped and has a yellow or red rind .It is sold in grades of 40%, 30% and 20% fat. Gouda : Another cheese from Holland, paler yellow than Edam, It comes as a flat cheese with rounded edges and has a soft texture. It has a yellow or red rind. Emmentaler : A pale yellow cheese from Switzerland. With cavities all over. Gruyere Parmesan : Another cheese from Switzerland. It is pale yellow, firm and dry. It also has cavities and is a popular Kitchen cheese. : A cheese from Italy. A dry cheese having an appearance of pinpricks all over it. It is exclusively used for cooking purposes.
SEMI- HARD CHEESES English : Made from skimmed full cream milk, it is creamy white in color with a mild delicate flavor and smooth texture. It has a very thin rind. : This cheese is made in France. It gains full flavor when ripe. It has a thin rind and comes in square shapes. European SOFT OR CREAM CHEESE English European Camembert : there are no noteworthy English cheeses in this category. : A French cheese which comes in two sizes- Petit Brie and Grond Brie. It is made from cow's milk : A French cheese made from cow's milk which softens on ripening. It is a small flat round cheese yellow in color with a very thin rind. : A French cheese made from pasteurized cow's milk and packed in square boxes. It has a mild flavor and softens on ripening. : A French cheese made from sour milk. It is flat and square in shape and comes wrapped in foil, normally pre-portioned. Camember Demi- Sel BLUE CHEESE English Dorset Blue Wensleydale Stilton European Danish Blue Gorgonzola Roquefort : Made from skimmed milk it has a very close texture being a hard pressed cheese. It is straw colored with with deep blue veins : The blue veined Wensleydale cheese matures slowly. : The surface is wrinkled and brownish – grey in color. It is a close texture cheese. : It hails from Denmark as the name suggests. It is made from cow's milk. It is sold wrapped in foils. : Made in Italy, it has a white crud intersected by blue veins. It has a soft semi-solid textures and rinds which crumble. A French cheese made from cow's milk. It is creamy but crumbly in texture .It has unique characteristic as it is matured in the caves of Roquefort.
Lesson Tobacco Tobacco is a fastidious plant that requires a proper soil and a moderate climate. In countries where tobacco plants flourish, the temperature does not fall below 45o F. It is grown in countries with a tropical or semi-tropical climate such as Cuba, Sumatra, Jawa, Jamaica and Philipines. In their original home the USA, tobacco leaves acquire characteristics that are internationally favoured and are as popular as the tobaccos of India, Syria, Greece, Turkey and Rhodesia. The time span from the moment the plants are prepared to raise a new crop to the time when the tobacco is ready for the shipment is about two years. There are three phases that are important to from the time the seed is planting to the time it is ready for consumption: (1) Planting (2) Harvesting (3) Curing 16 Planting The seeds are plants in nurseries and are carefully tended till the young plants are strong enough to be transplanted. As they grow, a constant eye has to be kept on them, specially against pests. In about two months when the plants have grown upto seven feet high (according to their type) expert hands nip off the flower buds. This results in bigger and juicier leaves. The plant is further pruned off dead stems and leaves. The general health of the plant determines the number of leaves that are ultimately permitted to reach maturity and these may number anything between 9 and 20. If all goes well, the plant ripens in about six months, the leaves turning yellowish green. The leaves are sticky and sear anything that comes into contact with them. This characteristic of tobacco leaves is the main reason why tobacco planting is regarded as one of the dirtiest jobs a farmer can tackle. A cloudy day is preferred for harvesting as a precaution against a disease known as sun-burn, to which tobacco leaves are quite sensitive. The selected plants are the ripest and are cut to the root and then gently laid in rows in the field where they are left to wilt before being taken away to be dried and cured. In general, intended for cigars are more carefully selected and gathered one by one. Then they are straddled (put in bundles) carefully across sticks, the plant with their preyious leaves are conveyed to the barn where they undergo two important processes of drying and curing. Drying comes first followed by curing, which is done by one of two well-known methods. 1. Fermentative method. 2. Nonfermentative method. The former is used if the leaves are dark and heavy and the sun-cured or yellow tobacco is desired. Harvesting Curing
Fermentative Method The barn used for fermentative processes is a building with tiers of poles, form one end to another. The sticks to which the cut plant have been tied are laid across the poles, with the tobacco leaves hanging downwards. When the barn is full, there is an impression of a forest of tobacco plants. Several flues uniformly distribute heat from a fire for 4-5 days. The temperature is maintained at about 170o F. this heat makes the leaves dry and brittle. They are then taken down to be stripped. ‘First’ is the name given to the finest and the brightest leaves. ‘Second’ to those of slightly lower quality. ‘Lugs’ is used for the remainder unsuitable for any smoking purpose. Incidently, it is the second, which forms the bulk of the tobacco production. The selected leaves are gathered into bundles, which are piled, on the floor. Heat is generated naturally in these mounds of raw tobacco, and to ensure fermentation, the piles are constantly turned over. This process takes between 3-4 weeks, during which the leaves turn brown, glossy and pliable and develop a distinct flavour. NonFermentative Method Chewing tobacco is made from this sun-cured process. In this method the sun plays the largest part. The leaves are placed on a platform within well-ventilated shelves or upon unsheltered scaffoldings. A certain degree of moisture in the air is essential plus a fairly low even temperature, which should not fall below 65o F or rise above 75o F. under good conditions 4-5 days are enough following which the leaves are cured or dried. They then go to the manufacturer of chewing tobacco for which, nowadays there is little demand. When a permanent yellow leaf is desired the tobacco is subjected firstly to a temperature of 99o F and subsequently the temperature is constantly increased until it reaches 180o F and this is maintained for 4-8 hours. Then decreased to 125o F, which is retained again for 4-8 hours and is then slowly increased until it reaches 170o F the tobacco can then be said to be cured and the yellow colour permanently fixed. VARIETIES OF TOBACCO Latakia and Perique Latlkia is a dark strong variety made from plants grown in Syria and other eastern countries. This is smoke cured by the fire of the Asiatic oak, which turns it into a dark shade. Sometimes camel or cow dung is used as fuel for the fire. Perique is another of the same variety grown in Lousiana. These varieties are used to increase the strength of pipe mixture. Pipe Tobacco The tobacco factory is usually a large and airy building. The cured leaves are spread out on the floor in a lightly compressed mass; they are too dry for immediate use. Bundles of tobacco are separated and put in steam heated chambers in which the temperature is raised to anything between 120o F and 160o F. then the stalks and the mid-ribs are removed by hand or machine. The stripped leaves are left in ordinary heaps for about 24 hours during which they become thoroughly impregnated with additional moisture, which renders them supple and usable. The blending of the various mixtures is in the hands of experts who know the exact proportion in which stronger tobacco like Latakia a d Perique should be blended with lighter tobacco.
When the different brands have been made up, the leaves are placed in a machine, which compresses them in the form of a hard cake. They are then shredded finely or coarsely with knives or cutting machines. Any excess moisture is removed by panning or stoving- a different process which brings out the aroma. After panning, the tobacco is spread out evenly on trays to enable it to cool down to the temperature of the air following which tests are carried out to ensure that the moisture content does not exceed the legal limit of 32%. Most of today’s popular pipe mixtures are composed almost entirely of Empire tobacco, the Rhodesian leaves being mainly favoured. Cigarette Tobacco In the manufacture of cigarettes, Viringian Rhodesian leaves are used separately or in carefully blended mixtures. As pipe tobacco, bundles from the warehouse are received and stripped of the midribs by machine or hands. The leaves then go to a machine, which cuts them into fine shreds. Excessive moisture is removed from the tobacco and also the impurities. The tobacco is left for a day or two to mature following which it goes to a cigarette-manufacturing machine. The papers for the cigarettes are unloaded from a disc and enter the machine and receive the tobacco flowing in a constant stream. Paper and tobacco move together on their journey. The paper is rolled the tobacco and gummed at the end. The continuous tube of cigarette the runs beneath knives, which cuts it into cigarettes of, required lengths and stocks them neatly. The cigarettes are not packed immediately but are left to dry for 24 hours. The machines used for packing are equally ingenious as those, which make cigarettes. So human is this equipment that a carton or packet incompletely filled is automatically rejected. The tins if required for export are vacuum-sealed. Comparatively small quantities of cigarettes are still made by hand. Considerable practice is necessary for making cigarettes by hand as it requires a high degree of skill. Service of cigarettes Cigarettes should never be carried by hand to the customer but placed on a salver or plate. The packet should be opened (pulling out a few cigarettes partially). The waiter should stand by with a match to light the cigarette. It should be made sure that the ashtray is on the table. Ashtrays should never be allowed to collect too much of ash, it is the waiter’s duty to exchange them frequently for fresh ones. GIGARS The best leaf for the production of cigars is grown in Cuba, Jawa, Jamica, Borneo and the East Indies. Less good tobacco but still acceptable to all but the true connoisseur, is produced in India, Japan, South Africa, Germany, Holland, Russia and Hungary. The plants are grown in the same way as other tobacco plants. As they ripen, they are hung in a shed for drying and curing by the fermentative method. Thereafter they are backed in bundles and dispatched to the cigar manufacturers. Originally all cigars were made by hand and were straight in shape. Then a wooden mould came into use in which the leaves could be pressed into any desired from-into generally what is known as the bellied or torpedo shape. On arrival at the market, the bales are emptied and the customary process of removing the leaves from the mid-ribs is carried out by hand. The leaves are stored according to the purpose for which they are to be used: (1) As filler (shredded tobacco) (2) Wrapper or binder or second (3) Outside wrapper or third
The only accessories used for hand-made cigars are a hard, wooden board, a sharp knife to cut the wrapper and scissors to trim the leaves. The process, which followed, is simple to describe but amazingly difficult for anyone except the expert. After selection of large leaves used for binding, a number of pieces of filler tobacco are so arranged as to produce roughly the desired length, thickness and shape. The filler tobacco is skillfully rolled in the binder leaves, a wrapper leaf of a required characteristic is selected and cut into proper shape and the whole is rolled in such a way as to ensure up or straight down the cigar. Moulded cigars are made in much the same way except that the filler tobacco is pressed into the mould instead of being shaped by the expert hands. Afterwards it is covered with wrapper in the usual way. Judging A good cigar should form grayish ash, which will last for along time before falling off. A whitish ash denotes a mild cigar while a darkish ash indicates a strong cigar. Cigars are also judged by their appearance, by touch, by shape and by aroma. The crude way of testing a cigar is by pressing it in between the fingers but it will only spoil it and even break the leaves. Smoking There is an art involved in smoking a cigar. It should never be rushed through but smoked slowly. The end, which joins the mouth, is ‘V’ shaped or straight cut or pierced with care and never bitten off. The paper band must be removed before smoking a cigar. The cigar is then lit evenly from all sides with a match and never with a cigarette lighter, which may taint it with aroma of the spirit. The butt-end is bitter due to the accumulation of oil and tannin and, therefore a cigar is never smoked to the end. Service Cigars should be offered in their own boxes to allow the customer to choose his own. The type of cigar will be printed on the box. The customer having chosen the cigar he wishes, the waiter should offer to remove the band. A cigar cutter of piercer should be given. The waiter should then offer a matchbox to the customer. Storage All tobacco should be kept in a dry place and at even temperature. That is why it is best to keep cigars and cigarettes in the dining room or bar in glasscase. The cigars will keep well in their own boxes, which are made of cedar-wood. Cigars should never be overhandled for fear of breaking the outer leaf. The best temperature for storage is 65o F to 70o F. temperatures above 75o F may cause mould to set in. never store in a refrigerator as it dries and ruins the tobacco. Strength 1. Colorado 2. Colorado Claro 3. Claro Length 1. Corona 2. Corona Corona 9 ½” 4 ½” C C.C C.C.C (Strong) (Medium) (Light)
3. Half Corona 4. Grown Corona 5. Petit Corona 4 ½” 4 ½” 4 ½” Some Famous Brands of Mild Havana Cigars 1. Bolivar 2. Larranga 3. Romeo 4. RomeoY-Julieta 5. Upman 6. La Corona (outstanding) 7. Bock 8. Havana 9. Henry Clay 10. Byrons 11. J.S Murais 12. Cahana
Lesson Menu 17 The restaurant supervisor must be ware of certain points regarding each dish on the menu: 1. Method of preparation and all the ingredients used 2. Time taken for the preparation 3. Sauces used with the dish 4. Accompaniments and garnishes 5. Whether the dish is vegetarian or non-vegetarian 6. Method of service 7. Appropriate wine/spirits to be served with each dish according to traditional practice 8. Price 9. Which course each dish belongs to 10. Alternatives, if any 11. Place of preparation, e.g. pantry, hotrange, Garde Manager, etc. 12. Appropriate cutlery, crockery and silver used with each dish 13. Portion sizes 14. When and where to serve, who to serve, e.g. occasion, time, type of outlets, type of clientele 15. Popular selling items An establishment may have several menus. It is important to know which menu is applicable, where and when. Here are few menus that establishments have: Breakfast menu Luncheon menu Dinner menu Snack menu Sunday menu Children’s menu Dessert menu Room service menu Poolside menu Bar b’que menu Banquet menu Health menu Wine list TRAINING METHODOLOGY
Get the menu of your restaurant and determine whether the trainees know all about it on the basis of the check-list given above. The Restaurant
Supervisor Skills Lesson Sales Orientation 18 A. Wines are expensive and thus, earn more revenue for the restaurant. Wine sales must be rushed to the maximum. Suggest the appropriate wine with each dish. Given below are the wines, which go with the different courses or different types of preparation: Hors d’oeuvres Soups Pasta Fish Game Poultry Roast and Joints Cheese Dessert Soave, Corbieres, Champagne, Dry Sherry Pouilly Fuisse. Amouitillado or Olorso Sherry, Madeira Wine. Italian wines (Chanti, Classico, Valpolicella, Barbera). Light white wines, always chilled (Muscadot, chabils, Riesling, Moselle). Red burgundy, Rhone or Italian (Nuits St. Geogres, Cevery Chambertin, Cotes de Rone, Chateauneuf du Pape, Barolo). German wines, white burgundy or light red Italian (piesporter Gold Tronichen, Liebfraumtich, Meursault, Volpolicelia, Boaujolais). Red wines (Medoc, St, Emilion). Port, Rubywine or tawny. Sweet white wine or sparkling wine. Served well chilled (voyvary, Sauterne, Champagne, Lacrimi, Christi). B. Propose the expensive food items on the menu first. This is done by making the proposition attractive. Here are some approaches. (i)“I would recommend the Lobster Thermidor today. The lobsters are freshly caught and are very succulent.” (ii) “Why don’t you try the Chefs special Steack au Poivre.” (iii) “Our restaurant is famous for its Chateaubriand for two”. C. Whenever explaining a dish (in the menu) conjure up a delightful picture to the guest, e.g. “Shrimp Cocktail is made of succulent shrimps on a bed of crisp lettuce and topped with tangy cocktail sauce”. “Chicken Stroganoff is strips of soft breast of chicken cooked in wine flavoured brown sauce, garnished with fresh cream and mushrooms and served with steaming Indian pillauf”
D. Display of wines, cheese, hors d’oeuvres in the restaurant, if attractively done, can motivate a guest to order them. E. Food prepared in the restaurant (gueridon) lends an aroma to the environment that stimulates appetites. F. Place tent cards or small display material on tables. The matter on these cards could either promote another outlet in the hotel or promote a speciality of the restaurant, e.g. “Have your after dinner liqueur at Maddok Bar on the first floor”. “Our Chefs Fish Portugaise is the talk of the town”. If flowers are easily available, present a rose to the lady guests in the group from the management. This little gesture will bring them back again. G. H. Try remembering the favourite dishes of regular guests, and if possible, of irregular guests also. A statement like: “The Chef has conveyed that he has kept aside for you a juicy portion of your porkchops today”. I. Try remembering names of gests. A guest feels special and may visit your restaurant just because he is know to the management and feels wanted. J. When a guest leaves the restaurant it is important to invite him to visit your establishment again. K. Above all, give clean and efficient service. A guest demands this if he is to come back again.
Lesson Discipline Discipline is the hallmark of a good hotelier. This is because the temptations a hotel are many. Discipline is of two types-physical, where grooming and physical conduct play a role, and mental, which demands sincerity, honesty and perseverance. Here are some tips to prevent indiscipline. 1. Persist in repearing house rules and standing instructions to the staff. 2. Tell them the benefits of self-discipline and how it can achieve promotions, better tips, etc. 3. Never be overfriendly with the staff. 4. A fault committed must be checked at once. 5. Always reprimand in privacy. 6. Set an example by being self-discipline yourself. 7. Remember a bad apple can spoil the bunch. Given below, on the left are the reasons for indiscipline; while on the right side the suitable action is suggested. 19 Why Indiscipline (a) Unavoidable circumstances Action Sometimes there is a crucial element like sickness or pressing demands-this should be excused provided this not too regular. Don’t kill adventurism but give him challenging jobs with risks. Improve upon the control system and seal loopholes. Ignorance of rules is a crime, so punish him. Ensure that he has had an opportunity to be conversant with the rules before punishing him. Give him attention. Councel him. If positive, sit with him and understand his reasons for rebellion. Motivate him out of rebellion. Win over the group leader who subsequently will influence the group to be positive. Cultivate good habits. Penalize him heavily. Punish. (b) Adventurism (c) System of control absent/ in efficient (d) Ignorance of rules (e) To attract attention (f) Does not accept the system (g) Rebel (h) Affiliation with negative groups (i) Bad habits (j) Short cutting systems (k) Willful motives
Lesson Cost Reducing Methods Cost reduction is one way of increasing profitability. Here are some tips to ensure this: Stop wastage. Check upon the number of portions, size of portions and if found excess, return extra portion to the kitchen. Handle service equipment with care. Switch off equipment like hot case, chilling machine, table lamps, display cabinet lights, gas burners when the restaurant closes. Switch off gas burners of flambé trolley when not in use. Linen is expensive. Do not misuse them by using them as duster cloths. Always use waiters’ dusters for cleaning purposes. Order pads should not be used for rough work. Carry food carefully. A spillage could spoil the carpet plus waste that portion of food. Never forget to make checks for whatever is served. Send back flowers to Housekeeping or store in a cool place so as to re-use them. Tea and coffee should be served according to portions. Send timely maintenance orders. Cancel food or beverage orders as soon as possible so as to avoid wastage (in case of cancellation or duplication). Try not to take orders wrong. Don’t hesitate to clarify doubts. Left over butter and milk can be utilized in the kitchen again. Return the same to the kitchen. Be hawk-eyed for staff pilfering food. Crockery and cutlery is expensive. Do not mishandle them. 20
Lesson Briefing Briefing is an important tool in the hands of the Restaurant Supervisor. It sets a plan of action and check for the shift. How effectively this period of briefing is utilized is the marke of a good supervisor. 1. Be absolutely punctual: Preferably half an hour before the restaurant opens. 2. Be impeccably groomed: Shoes polished. Uniform clean and well pressed. Nail cut. 3. Take attendance and find out reasons for absenteeism. 4. Allot job responsibilities. 5. Check turn-out of staff. 6. See that they are carrying the following items: Waiter Cloth. Ball pen with a small scribbling pad. Bottle opener/can openers. Handkerchief. Name plate, if used. 7. Give special instructions like: Not available items. Du jour items. Omissions or additions to the menu. Price increase. Management policies. Important functions. V.I.B. guests expected in the restaurant. Groups staying in the hotel. In the case of a restaurant where buffet layout is made for lunch allocate staff who are off-time next day to stay back and do the set-up. 8. Questioning: Ask questions regarding service, menu, wines, cocktails, to ensure that staff has adequate knowledge. 9. Use briefing time to train staff. 10. Ask for and solve problems faced by staff on their job. 11. Correct anyone who was observed to have committed faults in services when the restaurant was open last. 12. Allot duties for doing mise-en-place for the next day, e.g. linen exchange, butter and rolls, water, cutlery cleaning, etc. for the restaurant. 13. Give the staff pep talks from time to time to boost up morale. Motivation of staff is important for efficient and smooth running of the restaurant. 14. Listen and ask for suggestions to increase efficiency. 15. Finally ask the staff to make a final check of their station and tables; inspect them personally. 21
Lesson Training Your Team Training is the process of changing a given behaviour to a desired behaviour. That desired behaviour is the excellence in performance wanted of your team in a restaurant. In balanced training it is important to develop knowledge, skill and attitude. Knowledge can be imparted through lectures, films, reading material. Skills are developed through demonstration, practice and on-the-job training, while attitude is developed through rules and regulations, the restaurant supervisor’s personal example, counseling and advice. Why is training important? 1. Training manpower is not easily available in the market. 2. Training costs money, time and effort. 3. Training condenses the experiences that other have gained over several years. 4. Training helps to equip a person to do a job in the shortest possible time. 5. Training connotes self-development to staff, thus presenting the possibility of better assignments and better pay packets. 6. Training removes the anxiety of workers about their workplace. 7. Training helps the management have a well co-ordinate team. A simple blueprint to train your staff in the restaurant: 1. Take half-an-hour off between shifts each day and explain to staff the lessons in Part I of this manual. 2. During briefing take two or three items from the menu and explain them daily. 3. Make spot checks to ascertain whether systems and procedures are cloth, etc. 4. Repeat rules and regulations and ensure they are understood. 5. Keep the poor workers as understudies to good ones. 6. All along ensure physical and mental discipline. 22
Lesson Tip Distribution One of the systems for collections of tips is keep what one receive. The practice, which is followed most widely, is the ‘pooling system’ as under: The captain ensure that all the money received as tips is collected at each station in a box. The entire amount is counted by him and entered into the ‘tip register’ after the restaurant closes. The tips are distributed according to ‘points’. Each staff member is given a fixed number of points depending upon his seniority, i.e. Supervisors get the maximum and Trainee waiter the minimum. The total money received during the week is divided by the total number of the points, which all the staff members have. At the end of the week this figure is multiplied by the total number of points each person has and the money is distributed. This amount is entered in the register and the signature of the recipients obtained. It is the duty of the Restaurant Supervisor to see that distribution is honest and just. 23
Lesson Staff Scheduling 24 The schedule should be prepared at least 2-3 days before it becomes effective. It must be duly authorized by the Restaurant Manager. Any special requests for offdays, shifts, should be granted as far as possible without affecting operations. Staff distribution must be optimal. Thus maximum and most efficient staff must be working during peak and rush hours. Overlapping, whenever necessary, should be done during peak hours. Off-days should be evenly distributed throughout the week with the same number of persons off each day, except on days of rush (see Fig.24). Equal number of persons must be present on each shift as far as possible so as to facilitate proper rotation. Staff must be rotated through all the shifts, weekly or fortnightly as the case may be so as to be impartial to all. Days Name Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Sat Sun OFF ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ Mr. A Mr. B Mr. C Mr. D Mr. E Mr. F Mr. G ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ OFF ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ OFF ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ OFF ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ OFF ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ OFF ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ OFF ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ Fig. 24: Staff Scheduling Chart
Lesson Performance Appraisal The purpose of performance appraisal is to ascertain an individual’s present and future value to the organization. His present value is assessed by his past performance while his future value is determined by his present potential. A good appraisal would bring to light these two aspects. The main fear in handling performance appraisal is the element of subjectivity. In order to avoid subjectivity, the best approach would be to appraise performance and not personality. This would mean setting objectives and targets mutually at the beginning of a performance period and assessing whether they have been achieved at the end of it. Setting standards of performance is also implicit in the system; otherwise quality of performance will be overlooked. If an appraisee cannot achieve the stated objectives and targets, the appraisal system should encourage methods by which individual deficiencies can be met through training and development. Such a system is future-oriented and gives a correct picture as to what potential an individual shows in terms of performance. It also binds the superior and subordinate to act as a team to achieve targets. The actual appraisal becomes less difficult and as appraisal interview helps in bringing about a health exchange of ideas. Here are the things that a supervisor must start to do: 1. Set standards of performance. 2. Set objectives and targets in conjunction with subordinates. Objectives and targets should be realistic. 3. Review mid-way how a person is doing and tell him freely his shortcomings. 4. Approach the system as one that helps in developing an individual and not destroying his personality. 5. Set an appraisal interview in a relaxed atmosphere and open to free exchange of views. 6. Strictly concentrate on the subordinate’s performance and not his personality. 7. Give subordinates an opportunity to explain themselves. 8. Help the subordinate to identify his weaknesses and develop an action plan to overcome them. 9. Show the subordinate the path to future growth. 25
Lesson Assignment of Duties Duties must be rotated once every week to prevent monotony. For example, an Assistant Waiter should be rotated through various duties like bussing, cleaning, wiping glasses, clearance, food pick-up and other similar duties. Different station must be assigned to the staff on a rotation basis. Each station must have a uniform number of staff members: Assistant Waiters, Waiters, and Restaurant Supervisors. The person assigned to the bar must have a good experience and knowledge of beverages. Duties like linen exchange, store requisition, must be assigned on a weekly or fortnightly basis. A Waiter must be assigned to the various trolleys on a daily basis. The allocation of Waiters, Assistant Waiters, Supervisors to a station must be on the basis of the number covers it contains. A standard formula is given below though it may change according to the type of service: One Supervisor per station. One Waiter per 20 covers. One or more Assistant Waiters per station. 26
Lesson Attendance Must be taken daily and shiftwise. Two registers are generally maintained: 27 (a) (b) One, which has all the names together and is used only to mark a person absent or present. A register, which devotes one page to each person and shows the number of hours worked and the days off. This is presented to the labour authorities. This has to be filled in very carefully, taking into consideration the local labour laws. Any person who reports late should be marked late and the records must be sent to the Personnel Department for necessary action like deduction from salary. Use a pen and ensure that there is no over-writing to avoid malpractices. Any changes made should be counter-signed. The register should be carefully handled as it is used for a full year and should be kept in a safe place. The Restaurant Manager should be made aware of late-comers and absentees to take necessary action. Prolonged absenteeism and periodic late-coming should be dealt with severely. Staff should be made to realize that coming to their job on time is of great importance.
Lesson Check Point for supervisor 28 Before the service in the restaurant starts the Senior Captain or Supervisor must check the following: Side station Tables and covers Gueridons Bars Hot cases and plate warmers Show case/tables Salad / dessert trolleys Cutlery according to the menu Reservation cards on tables Butter and rolls and ice water If moultons are fixed properly All table appointments Placement of menu cards The temperature of the air-conditioning Position and condition of tables and chairs Wine and food available or not available If hot cases have been switched on If the glass chiller, wine-chiller are functioning If any dishes are specially recommended by the Chef If KOTs and checks are available. During Service See that none of the staff talks loudly or eats in the restaurants. Ensure that maximum staff is assigned to areas of maximum rush. No one should be missing from his duty. Food pick-up and service should be efficient and quick. Co-ordinate with Chef and Barman and inform in case anything is finished. See that checks are not under or over-priced. Ensure that no malpractices are being followed in the restaurant. See that food is being served according to the courses.
Lesson After Closing 29 All soiled dishes, dirty linen should be removed. Check for missing checks or unsigned checks. See that covers are laid for next day. All electrical equipment should be prepared, linen exchanged. Lock the side stands. See that bar inventory has been taken. Linen should be sorted out and tied in a bundle and left at the appropriate place. Ensure that buffet layout responsibility has been delegated. See that lights are switched off and the restaurant locked up.
Lesson Carving Carving of meat in a restaurant is a very skillful art. This requires dexterity and showmanship. High quality restaurants employ a person skilled in this art who is called a trancheur. Here are some tips on this activity. Equipment (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Carving knife Carving fork Carving board Carving trolley Deboning knife Sharpening file Chopping knife Remove cartilage and strings Remove feather bones, if any Trim excesses and tissues Slice it to have a flat side (on one end) 30 Cleaning of Rib Roast (a) (b) (c) (d) How to Carve Stand behind the carving trolley facing the guest. Take guest approval by showing the roast to the host. Place the rib roast upright on the carving board. Take clean, sharpened, carving knife and fork. With a long and smooth motion, cut the roast absolutely flat. The trancheur cuts the rib roast while the waiter transfers it immediately on to a hot plate, portion by portion and serves it to the guest from his right. Serve Jus-deroti in a sauce boat on a dessert plate with a dessert spoon. Serve accompaniments like vegetables French fries separately. Note If the guest wants to carve the roast himself left him do so. In case he wants an English cut, then cut two thin slices weighing 90 gms each. In case he wants an American cut, then one thick weighing 180 grams. Various other meats, which can be carved, are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Lamb leg Roast turkey Baron (two legs with saddle – mutton) Selle (saddle) Chateaubriand (slicing 6-8 slices)
Lesson Banquets Banquets are special functions organized for professional, social or state occasions. Banqueting is the service for these functions and is different from the usual service offered in restaurants. Normally such functions are organized when the number of people involved are fifteen or more. The types of functions normally are: 31 Professional Luncheons Conferences Meetings Exhibitions Social Dinners Wedding receptions Cocktail parties Fashion shows Recitals Coffee parties Balls State Dinners Intra-Government and Inter-government parties for Heads of States. National Days. Banquet Staff: The Banquet staff normally consists of the following: Banquet Manager Banquet Sales Rep. Banquet Supervisor Waiters Asst. Waiters Casual Staff Barman Wine Waiter Secretary Company, Clubs. National or international, Seminars, Training Courses. Board Meetings, Press, Professional Associates, Dealers. Painting, Sculpture, Fabric, Books, Sales, etc. Old Boys Association, Company annual days. In the set-up the Banquet Manager is over0all in-charge of administration, dealing with guests and co-ordinating all arrangements. The supervisor co-ordinates the implementation of function arrangements and controls staff job allocation. The Waiters and Assistant Waiters make the actual arrangements and do the service. The banquet department normally have a skeleton staff and employ casual staff for functions. The banquet representative prepares a sales kit of brochures. The representative is often present in functions to ensure that guests are satisfied with the arrangements. The secretary handles all correspondence and filing and often takes bookings on the phone.
Taking a Banquet Booking A booking is taken on a special information sheet called a Function sheet or Function Prospectus. The type of information recorded is 1. Name of Booking Party. 2. Name of the person to whom the bill is to be sent to. 3. Nature and type of function. 4. Date of function. 5. Time of function. 6. Number of people expected and number guaranteed. A guaranteed number is the minimum number of people for whom a charge will be made. 7. Menu-type of service required. 8. Wines, alcohol and non-alcoholic drinks to be served. 9. Types of table layout. 10. Special arrangements such as, band, microphones, lectures, raps, flowers, icesculptures, etc. 11. Seating plan and named of guest for state banquets. 12. Type of menu. 13. Price to be charged per person. 14. Price for hall and special arrangements. Banquet Menu There should be menus for each type of occasion. The choice should be large, varied and within a wide price range. Sometimes two or three menus are offered for each type of occasion. Each menu is well balanced offering vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. A typical lunch or dinner menu would offer: Hors d’ oeuvre Soup Entre Sweet Dish Coffee Guests may add other courses according to their choice and budget. Care must be taken that the Menu Card is carefully and attractively designed. The Person-in-charge of banquet booking must be fully conversant with the preparation and presentation of each dish. The banquet wine list must offer a good range of wines. However, ensure that stocks are available before committing any wine. Banquet Table Layouts The type of layout is dependent upon (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Nature of function, Number of covers required, Size of hall allocated, The desires of the guest, The type of service to be provided. Procedure to Service a State Banquet
Reception and Preliminaries It is customary for a banquet to be preceded by a cocktail. Snacks are served and the cocktail lasts usually for half an hour. The table plan is usually displayed at the reception room where cocktails are served. The toastmaster or announcer bangs his gavel three times before announcing, “Mr. Chairman, My Lords (in order of importance) Ladies and Gentlemen, dinner (or lunch) is served” in a loud clear, formal tone of voice. Dining Room Preliminaries The doors of the banquet hall are opened and guests take their seats. The waiting staff stand at attention at their respective stations. The announcer calls guests attention and announces the service meal. Once this has been done the meal begins. Mise-en-place All cutlery should be on the table arranged neatly for the number of courses to be served. Fruit knives and fork are not kept but placed on the sideboard. Various wine glasses are kept. Water goblets are placed (liqueur and cordial glasses are never placed). Salt and pepper shakers and the bread and butter are placed on the table before the guests enter. The name of the guest is written on cards, which are placed at the head of the cover where the guest is to sit. Seating should be arranged such that gentlemen and ladies are seated alternately. Husband and wife should sit opposite each other. A station numberstand should be placed prominently for easy identification of waiters. Napkins should be attractively folded for each cover. Flower vases with fresh flowers should be placed on tables. Space and guest per waiter Usually a banquet table accommodates three to six guests on each side. Space between covers should be a minimum of 20” and a maximum of 32” per cover (24” ideally). Space between tables should be a minimum of 4 ½ feet (6 ft ideally). Two waiters are allocated to 8-10 covers. The wine waiter may serve upto 30-35 covers. The banquet supervisor normally stands behind the chairman during the meal. The manager stands right opposite the banquet supervisor for signals or instructions. Timing and Movement The waiters stand at the allotted station when the guests arrive in the banquet hall. Waiter No. 1 behind chair No. 1 of his table and waiter No.2 behind chair No.2 of his chair. Waiters draw the chairs out to enable guests to sit. Ladies are given first preference.
The wine waiter stands near the last chair of the table and also helps in the seating of the guests. After all guests are seated the banquet manager signals the function supervisor to commence service. Note: Timing is the most important element in this service, which should be done with precision and grace. For the first course of horsd’oeuvres, waiter No.1 has the platter with the horsd’oeuvres and waiter No.2 has the plates hot or cold as the case may be. Waiter No.1 stands behind the first chair and waits till the plates are placed by waiter No.2 then, he serves from the left of the table to the right. Service starts only after a signal is received given that the function captain has served the chairman. After the horsd’oeuvres are served, the waiters stand behind the chair where they have finished serving. On getting the signal the function supervisor commences removing the chairman’s plate. Waiter No.2 carried continental trays for clearance and waiter No.1 comes with napkin in hand. They stand behind chair No.1 with waiter No.1 in front and waiter No.2 slightly towards the left of waiter No.2 and behind him. On getting the signal they do the clearance with waiter No.1 picking up the soiled dishes and stacking them properly on the clearance tray held by waiter2. Again they stand behind the last chair and move out for the second course on getting a signal. All the courses are served in this manner. Every time clearance is done, all soiled dishes and cutlery pertaining to that course only, are removed. In the case of main course the vegetables are served by waiter No.2 and main dish by waiter No.1 from the left with a serving fork and knife. Plates are kept before this by waiter No.2. Before the dessert is served, all salt and pepper shakers, sauces, bread and butter along with the soiled dishes and cutlery are removed. Side by side the dessert spoon is placed on the right and dessert fork on the left. Before this, crumbing is done with the help of a waiters cloth (folded) and crumbing tray by No.1. The wine waiters do not go out with other waiters, but stay back and serve wines according to courses and serve water. They may also take orders for drinks. The wine glasses are usually not removed but red wine glasses may be removed before serving dessert. Cognac and liqueurs are served by the wine waiter. Coffee (Black) is served by No.1 from the right and demitasse cups placed by Waiter No.2 from the right. Toast Procedure At the conclusion of the meal, when the coffee cups have been placed in front of the guests, the toastmaster again calls. He announces “My Lords, Ladies and Gentlemen, pray silence for Mr. Chairman who will propose the toast”.
Ashtrays are put by the Wine Water as soon as this has been announced. The toast indicates that formal part of the meal is over and guests are allowed to smoke. Coffee is poured. The speeches continue and the wine butler quickly moves and serves cognac or liqueurs. Glasses should never be empty during speeches. Ashtrays are frequently changed (covering the used ashtrays with the inverted clean one, removing both together and replacing by the inverted clean one). Lesson Flaming Flaming or Flambé is a process that requires showmanship and adds flavour to a dish being cooked. This is done mostly in restaurant in full view of guests. The process is simply to allow flames to should the particular dish being cooked so as to give a visual sensation. The flames itself are momentary in order not to burn the final product. Leaping flames are created while the dish is in the process of preparation while soft 32
blue flames are encouraged at the time of presentation to the guest. To get these flames, alcohol is the best medium as it complements the flavour of the dish also. The choice of alcoholic beverage depends on the suitability of that beverage to the dish. Most alcoholic beverages are capable of being flamed. Once the beverage is exposed to the air, vaporization makes the alcohol inflammable. Obviously those with higher alcoholic content will flame more, e.g. brandy, rum. To be able to flame a fortified wine such as sherry, means keeping it undiluted and having it vessled (in dish, spoon or ladel) for heating it before flaming. Even in the case of the stronger spirits and liqueurs, it is important not to allow the flaming liquid to dilute within a sauce, syrup of juice until it is well alight. It is vital to ignite quickly on the liqueur vapours. Lamp flame is preferable to matches when flaming liqueurs. To get a flame, some alcohol is poured into the pan in which the particular dish is being cooked. The pan is tilted slightly to allow the flames of the gueridon trolley to ignite the alcohol vapours. Once flame is in process, stirring promotes the blaze and basting is therefore more affective and spectacular, if done when the pan is on fire. Sugar sprinkled into the blaze in sweet dishes varies the flame colour. Flaming during presentation to a guest requires a teaspoon or tablespoon of alcohol, which is ignited and poured around the food. This gives a soft blue flame. Lesson Special Food Service 33 Fondue Bourguinonne for Two Serve raw cubes of beef fillet weighing totally 450500 grams. With hot oil in a copper pan. Accompaniments: Sauces (a) Americaine (b) Beanaise (c) Hollandaise (d) Curry Mayonnaise
Rolishes (e) Cold pepper sauce (f) Cocktail sauce (a) Capers (b) Pickled onions (c) Olives Service: Place two long fondue forks on the left (The top of the fork handle has a colour code for easy identification when many forks are in the pot). Place one steak knife on the right Serve hot oil in a copper pan placed on a burner in the center. Serve both portions in separate earthenware fondue plates from the right. Grape-fruit (Half grape-fruit served chilled) Cut grape-fruit in two halves with a grape-fruit knife; loosen the segments in each half. Sprinkle castor sugar and put a cherry in the center. Serve in a grape-fruit cup on top of a dessert plate with doyley paper. Serve a grape-fruit spoon and a sugar dredger. Melon (Half served chilled with or without port wine) Cut the melon into two halves. Scoop out small balls with a scooper. Place back these balls and put on a dinner plat and serve. Serve with a teaspoon or dessert spoon or dessert spoon Caster sugar is served as an accompaniment. Oysters (Huitres) (Usually 6 oysters served at a time per person). Hold the oysters in the palm of your left hand. With right hand insert the tip of the blade of the oyster knife into the lips of the closed shells. Push the knife in and give it a slight twist to break the ligaments. Hold the shell apart with the first finger and draw the knife along the top shell to loosen the muscle holding the shell. Then using the blade of the knife, remove the muscle from the shell. Place on a bed of crushed ice on a bread boat. Serve Americaine sauce in a sauce boat with a dessert spoon placed on a dessert plate. Accompaniments: (a) Cayenne pepper (b) Freshly ground black pepper (c) Chilli vinegar (d) Tobasco sauce (e) Half a lemon (f) Brown bread and butter Snails (Escargota) Clean slice and sauté the snail and stuff it into its shell with Beurre Maitre D’hotel. Grill the snails.
Serve 6 snails per persons with snail tong on the left and the left and snail fork on the right of the cover. Accompaniments: Brown bread and butter Note : Beurre Maitre D’hotel is made as fallows: Make a paste of butter Add finely chopped parsley and garlic and a few drops of lemon juice. Mix well Caviar (Served from a caviar pot in a dish of crushed ice, on an under plate). Generally 1 oz. (approx. 1 dessert spoon) is the portion served with a wooden spoon so as not to crush it. Accompaniments: (a) Hot breakfast toast (b) Butter (c) Segments of lemon (d) Sieve hard boiled white and yolk of eggs (e) Chopped challots. Smoked Salmon Smoked salmon may be served either by using a large fork to roll the salmon slices from a patter and then unrolling it on to the guest a plate or pre-plating it at the gardemanager.
Attitudes Counsel 1 Leadership Social scientists have found it difficult to reach agreement on a common set of leadership traits. There is no leadership style too that is a success in all situations. Situations, therefore, dictate the qualities that are best suited. The absence of those qualities in particular situations could lead to poor leadership. However, there are some basic necessities for leadership in all situations. 1. The need to come to grips with the situation. Anyone who passes the buck or shies away from problems is not a leader.
2. The ability to understand ones own strengths and weaknesses. This requires objectivity and honesty. Through this knowledge of strengths and weakness one can carve out a plan to overcome deficiencies and develop further assets and thus become a better person. 3. Creativity (and initiative) is important to leadership. Unless a leader contributes something new and original to his workplace and takes the risk of initiating and sustaining it, he is not going to etch out himself above the other pedestrian works. This requires a tremendous sense of purpose. 4. Leaders are those who influence people to meet certain objectives. This requires a sensitivity to human feelings. It also requires the ability to know what motivates each man. Here are some immediate things a supervisor can do to acquire leadership qualities. 1. Consider all problems as your own. Come to grips with them and try solving them. The experience itself is worthwhile and brings out the best in a person. 2. Introspect a while. List out all personal strengths and weaknesses and call out an action pan to overcome deficiencies and improve assets. 3. Understand each member of the team working under the supervisors control. Find out what motivates them. Find out their individual strengths weakness and use them to their individual working advantage. 4. Be objective in judgment. Do not let baises override decision. 5. Indulge in self-development through personal reading. 6. Develop a high sense of physical and mental discipline. Demand from yourself a high standard of conduct and honesty. Counsel 2 Motivation Every suervisor is anxious to motivate his team towards greater productivity. He is more often than not frustrated in the attempt-cash prize, recognition pins, a special day
off are some of the several methods. If one looks at the definition of ‘motive’ one realizes the intricate dynamics of this whole process. A motive is an inner drive to achieve an objective. Motivation is thus the process of releasing the inner drive to achieve an objective. From this we see that motivation has to be generated from within an individual and not without. Most methods employed nowadays are carrots’ dangled for individuals to grab at. These methods cannot generate continuous and perpetual motivation. How do we motivate then? The supervisor would have to change his attitude towards people first. The staff under him must be perceived as human beings with feelings and needs. They are not automatons within a complex work machinery. One of the greatest needs of today’s worker is to have a feeling that he is in control of his workplace and not vice versa. The best way is to satisfy this need as far as possible. He must feel firstly, that his work is meaningful. To do this the supervisor must delegate responsibility and limited authority for the man to execute his job well. The subordinate must be properly trained to assume responsibility and authority. Once he is ready to assume these he can be made accountable for his job. Very often supervisors assume all responsibility and accountability for fear of losing control of the workplace. This makes workers under him pawns in a vast chessboard. Delegating accountability gives the worker a purpose in life and the need to do a job well. Most important is to sit with each worker and chalk out common objectives and agreed norms to achieve them. This gives workers a security as to what is expected of them. When he has met his objectives he certainly has a feeling of achievement. This feeling of achievement is the greatest motivator. Another aspect that a supervisor needs to attach importance to is to pay attention to his staff. The modern worker has a tremendous anxiety of alienation. Firstly, he is so far away from the chairman of the company who he perceives as the moderator of his working life. There are many levels in between toget himself and the top. Secondly he has to rub shoulders with workers who come from different backgrounds socially, culturally, educationally and economically. The anxiety of adjustment to different values to maintain harmony and the worker’s own anxiety as to how he is beging perceived, is overbearing. The supervisor can remove some of these anxieties by giving personal attention to each member of his team. Upward communication should be encouraged that feelings may be aired and managed. Recognition of good work done is a fine motivator. Very often supervisors crack down hard when a worker does something wrong but rarely praise good work done. A man likes to feel that his contribution is recognized and that he has a value as a human being and is not a cog in a machine. Finally, the worker should be helped to grow mentally and in skills. No man likes to feel he is static. Growth is an important motivator and can be achieved through training and development. To sum up, the supervisor should: 1. Delegate responsibility and authority to release the achievement motivator. 2. Give attention to give worker security. 3. Make a worker feel worthwhile. 4. Train and develop to give the worker a feeling of growth.
Append ices I Glossary French to English
Vegetables 1. Aubergine 2. Artichaut 3. Asperges 4. Ail 5. Betterave 6. Carotte 7. Chou 8. Choufleur 9. Chou de bruxelles 10. Citron 11. Celeri 12. Cresson 13. Concombre 14. Champignons 15. Epinard 16. Gingembre 17. Haricot vertes 18. Legume 19. Laitue 20. Menthe 21. Navet 22. Oignon 23. Pomme de terre 24. Persil 25. Pois 26. Potiron 27. Raifort 28. Radis 29. Truffe Brinijal Artichoke Asparagus Garlic Beetroot Carrot Cabbage Cauliflower Brussels sprout Lemon Celery Cress Cucumber Mushrooms Spinach Ginger Haricot beans Vegetable Lettuce Mint Turnip Onion Potato Parseley Peas Pumpkin Horse-radish Radish Truffe Fruits 1. Ananas 2. Abricot 3. Banane 4. Cerise 5. Dates 6. Fraise 7. Fruits 8. Grenade 9. Melon 10. Noix 11. Mangue 12. Orange 13. Peche 14. Poire 15. Pamplemousse 16. Pomme 17. Pramboise 18. Papaya 19. Prun 20. Raisin 21. Sultanes Pineapple Apricot Banana Cherry Dates Strawberry Fruits Pomegranate Melon Nuts Mango Orange Peach Pear Grape-fruit Apple Raspberry Papaya Prune Grapes Sultanas
Fish 1. Anchois 2. Anguille 3. Blanchalle 4. Cabillaud 5. Eperlan 6. Fletan 7. Hareng 8. Limende 9. Maquereau 10. Merlan 11. Poisson 12. Plie 13. Stromatee 14. Saumon 15. Sole 16. Turbot 17. Truite Anchovy Bel Whitebait Cod Smelt Halibut Herring Lemon sole Mackerel Whiting Fish Plaice Pomfret Salmon Sole Turbot Trout Shell Fish 1. Crouletache 2. Crevettesroses 3. Crevettesgrises 4. Coquilles st. Jacques 5. Escargots 6. Huttres 7. Homard 1. Chapon 2. Caneton 3. Canard 4. Caills 5. Dinde 6. Dindon 7. Dinonneau 8. Gibbier 9. Lapin 10. Lievre 11. Poulet 12. Poussin 13. Poule 14. Paisen 15. Pigeon 16. Volaille Shell fish Prawns Shrimps Scallops Snails Oysters Lobster Capon Duckling Duck Quail Turkey(hen) Turkey (cock) Young turkey Game Rabbit Hare Young male chicken A spring chicken Common hen Pheasant Pigeon Chicken Poultry and Game
Meat 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Agneau Baeuff Mouton Pore Passion Viande Veau Vache Lamb Beef Mutton Pork Fish Meat Veal Cow Plate Soup plate Large plate Large plate Half plate Half plate Tea saucer Coffee saucer Consommé sauce Butter dish Sideboard Knife Dessert knife Large knife Oyster knife Fish knife Butter knife Steak knife Spoon Dessert spoon Coffee spoon Soup spoon Tea spoon Mustard spoon Service spoon Ice-cream spoon Grape scissors Coffee pot Jam pot Nut cracker Cup Oil and vinegar crus Tea pot Milk pot Sugar tonges Ice tongs Quarter plate Saucer Suger pot Sause boat Cup Glass Restaurant Equipment 1. Assiette 2. Assiette a potage 3. Assiette de viande 4. Assiette anglaise 5. Assiette d’entrement 6. Assiette de poisson 7. Assiette a the 8. Assiette a café 9. Assiette a consommé 10. Beurrier 11. Buffer 12. Couteau a dessert 13. Couteau de table 14. Couteau huitre 15. Couteau a poisson 16. Couteau a beurre 17. Couteau a bifteck 18. Cuiller 19. Cuiller 20. Cuiller a entremet 21. Cuiller a café 22. Cuiller a soupe 23. Cuiller a the 24. Auiller a moutrade 25. Cuiller a service 26. Cuiller a glace 27. Ciseaux a couper les raisins 28. Catetiere 29. Confiturier 30. Casso-nossete 31. Demi-tasse 32. Huilier 33. Pot a the 34. Pot a lait 35. Pince a sure 36. Pince a glace 37. Petite assiette 38. Soucoupe 39. Sucriers 40. Sauciere 41. Tasse 42. Verrs
Miscellaneous 29. Carte du-jour 1. A la 30. Chair 2. A la broch 31. Choix 3. Au beurre 32. Confiture 4. A l’huile 33. Cotellette 5. Au four 34. Cream 6. Au gratin 35. Crepe 7. Au maigre 36. Croute 37. Cru 8. A point 38. Cuisse 9. Alcool 39. Chaud 10. Bain-narie 40. Covert 11. Baquet 41. Couvercle 12. Beurre-manie 42. Corbeille de fruit 43. Cendrier 13. Biere 44. Chandelle 14. Bifteck 45. Dejeuner 15. Biscuit 46. Diner 16. Bisque or doux 47. Couce 48. Eau 17. Beurre 49. Frace 18. Beurre fondue 50. Faric 19. Beurre noir 51. Farine 20. Beurre noir 52. Frappe 21. Beurre maitre 53. Fume d’hotel 54. Froid 55. Fromage 56. Garcon 22. Bien cuit 57. Carnture 23. Boisson 58. Gateau 24. Boisson sucre 59. Goles 25. Buffet 60. Glace 26. Cocoa 61. Glacon 27. Café 62. Huile 28. Canapé 63. Lait 64. Macedoine 65. Mile 66. Neuilles 67. Oeufs 68. Omelette 69. Plate du jour 70. Petit dejeuner 71. Pain 72. Picalitti 73. Petit pain 74. Pain blanch 75. Pain bis 76. Pain grille 77. Patisserie 78. Roohand Menue of the day Flesh In the style of Choice Roasted in spit Jame With butter Cutlet Cooked in or served Cream Backed Pancake Gratinted Crust An expression for dishes Raw prepared without meat Leg,especiallyof chicken Just done Hot Alcohol Cover Double boiler Lid A sumptuous feat Fruit basket Butter and flour-kneaded Ashtray together Candle Beer Lunch Beef steak Dinner Literally”twice baked” Sweet Soup prepared from shell fish Water Butter Stuffing Melted butter Staffed Black butter Flour Nut brown butter Chilled Maitre d’hotel butter, i.e. butter Smoked with parsley and lemon juice Cold Cheese Well cooked or well done Waiter Drink, beverage Garnish Soft drink Cake Sideboard Jelly Coca Ice, ice-cream Coffee Ice cube Bread slice cut to various Oil sharpes and sizes, used plain or Milk fried. Various tit-bits may by Vegetables or fruits placed on these and served. Honey Noodles Eggs Omelet Special dish of the day Breakfast Bread Mixed pickles Bread roll White bread Brown bread Toast Pastry Lamp used for gueridon cookery
79. Rechauffe 80. Rhum 81. Riz 82. Saignant 83. Souper 84. Salade 85. Saucisse 86. Sirop 87. Sucre 88. Serviette 89. Traiteur 90. Vinagre Reheated Rum Rice Under done Supper Salad Sausage Syrup Sugar Napkin Caterer Vinegar
The Restaurant Supervisor Attitudes II Glossary Technical Terms
A la carte Acetobacter Aerobic Anaerobic Alcohol Birioche Brut Bentonite Cuvee Cruet set Liqueur Course Lees Linen Croissant Check Mis-en-scene Clientele Mis-enplace Cutlery Crockery Muffin Marc Cover Order-Taker Décor De jour Dry Ore-plated Distillation Portion Degorgement Dosage Pate Pupitres Etiquette Pot-still process Eau-de-vie-de-more Potent still process Proof Fermentation Fortified Wines Residents Rose Guest Remuage Galantine Spirit Still wine Hors d’oeuvre Sparkling Sakazuki Isinglass Tip Sauted Tokkuri Table d’hote Vin de goutte Vin de presse Yeast Ordered as separately priced items from the menu Bacteria Alive in the presence of oxygen Alive in the absence of oxyg en See page 62 Small sweet cake made with light yeast dough Lacks sweetness completely Colloid clay Stock of blended wine Sprinkler pots for salt, pepper and mustard Sweetened and flavoured spirit time and sequence during Food items eaten at a particular Residual wine with a complete meal dead yeast Tablecloths, napkins, dusters, traycloths Crescent-shaped breadroll Bill of payment Preparing of patrons Customersthe restaurant environment Meaning literally “put in place” but refers to preparation All knives, forks and spoons before the cups, saucers All plates, service starts and servimg dishes made of Light,glass,round spongygenerally earthenware china flat, porcelain or cake Pips, skin on table taken by the wine The place andaresidual fermented cutlery, glassware and line for one individual Person located in room service who takes down food and beverage ordersdecoration ofplaces them from their hotel Furnishing and when guest room room day Of theover the telephone. Lacks sweetness Food served into a guest and before the brought before The process of capturing platecooling it is vapour of a a guest boiling liquid Amount of food allotted to one person See page 66 See page 66 Paste of meat Bottle racks that behaviour around society Rules of personalcan be tiltedin polite an axis See page juice of marc Distilled 68,69 See page 68,69 Alcoholic content in a beverage containing liquid The action of yeast on any sugar Wines strengthened in alcoholic content Person staying in the hotel Pink by the patron of restaurant or hotel Customer oradditionof aalcohol or spirit See page 65 White meat boned, cooked, pressed and served cold in aspic See page 62 Lacking carbonation appetizer before or during a meal Extra dish served as Wines that contain carbon dioxide See pageof sturgeon fish Bladder 83 Small present of money for service rendered Tossed in a shallow pan See page 83 Meal at fixed time and price for guests at hotel Running wine Wine made from residual fermented wine Micro-organism used in fermentation
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