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Trigonometric Functions

1Definition of triangle

Sin A= a/c
Cos
b/c

A=

Tan A= a/b
Cot A =b/a
Sec A= c/b
Csc A=c/a
For every angle in the triangle, there is the side of the
triangle adjacent to it (from here on
denoted as adj), the side opposite of it (from here on
denoted as opp), and the hypotenuse
(from here on denoted as hyp), which is the longest side
of the triangle located opposite of the

right angle. For angle , the trigonometric functions are


defined as follows

sine of = sin =opp/ hyp


cosine of = cos =adj/hyp
tangent of = tan =sin/cos=opp/adj
cotangent of = cot = 1 / tan= cos / sin=adj / opp
secant of = sec =1 / cos = hyp / adj
cosecant of = csc =1 / sin = hyp / op p

Definitions of Trigonometric Functions For a Unit Circle


In the unit circle, one can define the trigonometric
functions cosine and sine as follows. If (x,y) is
a point on the unit cirlce, and if the ray from the origin
(0,0) to that point (x,y) makes an angle
with

the

positive

x-axis,

(such

that

the

counterclockwise direction is considered positive),


then,
cos = x/1 = x
sin = y/1 = y

Then, each point (x,y) on the unit circle can be written


as (cos, sin). Combined with the
equation x2 + y2 = 1, the definitions above give the
relationship sin2+cos2=1. In addition, other
trigonometric functions can be defined in terms of x
and y:
tan = sin/cos = y/x
cot = cos/sin = x/y
sec = 1/cos = 1/x
csc = 1/sin = 1/y
Fig.3 below shows a unit circle in the coordinate plane,
together with some useful values of angle
, and the points (x,y)=(cos, sin), that are most
commonly used (also see table in the following

Angles

Exact Values
for

Trigonometric Functions of Most Commonly Used

Angles
Trigonometric

30

45

60

90

2
2

3
2

1
2

3
2

2
2

1
2

3
3

3
3

Functions

sin

cos
tan
cot

sin^2()+cos^2()=1
tan^2()+1=sec^2()
cot^2()+1=csc^2()

sin=tan*cos cos=cot*sin
tan=sin*sec cot=cos*csc
sec=tan*csc csc=sec*cot

tancot=1

0
0

sincsc=1
cossec=1

cos(+)=coscos-sinsin
cos(-)=coscos+sinsin
sin()=sincoscossin
tan(+)=(tan+tan)/(1-tantan)
tan(-)=(tan-tan)/(1+tantan)

sin(2)=2sincos
cos(2)=cos^2()-sin^2()=2cos^2()-1=12sin^2()
tan(2)=2tan/[1-tan^2()]

sin3=3sin-4sin^3()
cos3=4cos^3()-3cos

sin^2(/2)=(1-cos)/2
cos^2(/2)=(1+cos)/2
tan^2(/2)=(1-cos)/(1+cos)
tan(/2)=sin/(1+cos)=(1-cos)/sin

sin^2()=(1-cos(2))/2
cos^2()=(1+cos(2))/2
tan^2()=(1-cos(2))/(1+cos(2))

sin=2tan(/2)/[1+tan^2(/2)]
cos=[1-tan^2(/2)]/[1+tan^2(/2)]
tan=2tan(/2)/[1-tan^2(/2)]

sincos=(1/2)[sin(+)+sin(-)]
cossin=(1/2)[sin(+)-sin(-)]
coscos=(1/2)[cos(+)+cos(-)]
sinsin=-(1/2)[cos(+)-cos(-)]

sin+sin=2sin[(+)/2]cos[(-)/2]
sin-sin=2cos[(+)/2]sin[(-)/2]
cos+cos=2cos[(+)/2]cos[(-)/2]
cos-cos=-2sin[(+)/2]sin[(-)/2]

tanAtanBtan(A+B)+tanA+tanB-tan(A+B)=0
()
sinx=[e^(ix)-e^(-ix)]/(2i)
cosx=[e^(ix)+e^(-ix)]/2
tanx=[e^(ix)-e^(-ix)]/[ie^(ix)+ie^(-ix)]
Question
Figure, repair a direct road between a, B between the two places, to from a measured highway is
North East 48 degree. A, B between the two places at the same time start, several days later, on the
road is accurate, then another highway towards is South West ___________ degrees.

sin260+cos260=__________
In a right angled triangle in front of ABC, A=, BC=13, AB=12,
is _________
According to the data in the figure, obtain the lightning rod

CD length is about _______m (results accurate to 0.01M. (for)


by calculator, also available are the following reference data
for: sin43 degrees sin40 degrees = 0.6802, = 0.6428, cos43
= 0.7341 degrees, cos40 degrees = 0.7660, tan43 = 0.9325
degrees, tan40 degrees - 0.8391)

D
C

43
40
A

52m

As shown in figure, the escalator AB segment length of 20


meters, the tilt angle A is alpha, height BC as ___________
meters
(delta
results
containing
alpha
than
the
representation).

1 calculation:

sin 30 cos 60 cot 45 tan 60 tan 30

2
calculation:

2 (2 cos 45 sin 90 ) (4 4 ) ( 2 1) 1

As in Figure 3, in BC, AD is high, by.


(1) verification: AC = BD
(2) if, for AD long

From A observation tower at the top of the elevation angle


is 30 degrees, to move forward 100 meters to arrive at the
top of the B, the observation tower elevation angle is 45
degrees, for high tower
D

300 boat
450 in a moment in the position of A B C
In figure, a fishing
A
B
C
(observation lighthouse,
lighthouse
near distance A B), two
beacon at exactly 65 degrees 45 minutes north easterly
direction, fishing boats to sail east to positive after L hours
and 45 minutes at point D, the observed B just in the North
Lighthouse direction, known between two lighthouse is a
distance of 12 nautical miles, fishing boat speed of 16
knots /, and know there is reef lighthouse in the C around
18.6 nm, ask this fishing boat according to the original
direction to sail on the rocks, there is no danger?

North

C
B

East