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JUGOIMPORT-SDPR broj 25, Jul 2008.

DVA VEKA SRPSKE ARTILJERIJE
TWO CENTURIES OF SERBIAN ARTILLERY

VIŠECEVNI RAKETNI SISTEMI
MULTIPLE ROCKET SYSTEMS
8

U OVOM BROJU - CONTENTS .
Izdavač • Publisher

YUGOIMPORT-SDPR
10
Glavni Editor-in-
i odgovorni urednik • Chief DVA VEKA SRPSKE
ARTILJERIJE
Nenad Miloradović TWO CENTURIES OF
JUGOIMPORT-SDPR NA
SERBIAN ARTILLERY
Zamenik glavnog i Deputy Editor-in- MEĐUNARODNIM
odgovornog urednika • Chief IZLOŽBAMA NVO U 2008.
Aleksandar Lijaković 26 YUGOIMPORT-FDSP ON
INTERNATIONAL DEFENSE
Izvršni urednik • Executive Editor EXHIBITIONS IN 2008
Svetlana Šujak-Marković
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Likovni urednik • Art Director
Marko Kopitović VIŠECEVNI RAKETNI
SISTEMI
Uređivački odbor • Editorial Board MULTIPLE ROCKET
SYSTEMS "LASTA – 95"
Zoran Jelić, Milić Jauković, Vesna D.
Stupar, Predrag Milićević, Slobodan Jolkić, "LASTA – 95"
Vesna I. Stupar i Violeta Kalanj

Prevod • Translation 54
Odeljenje za prevodilačke poslove
Translation department of

64
Yugoimport-SDPR
Prepress - DTP • Prepress – DTP
VOJNOTEHNIČKI INSTITUT HOLDING KOMPANIJA
Marko Kopitović
MILITARY-TECHNICAL INSTI- „KRUŠIK“A.D.
TUTE HOLDING COMPANY
Fotografija • Photo
“KRUŠIK” A.D.
Branko Todorović

Štampa • Printed at

Cicero Print

Adresa redakcije • Editorial Office
Bulevar umetnosti 2 2, Bul.umetnosti St
Beograd Belgrade

telefoni: (381-11) • phone (381-11) 78
222 44 00 222 44 00
222 44 44 222 44 44 72 GODINA VELIKOG JUBILEJA
KOMPANIJE “SLOBODA“
faks: (381-11) • fax (381-11)
222 45 77 222 45 77 IRITEL AD BEOGRAD ČAČAK
222 45 99 222 45 99 IRITEL AD BEOGRAD “SLOBODA“ ČAČAK
COMPANY
e-mail: fdsp@eunet.yu THE YEAR OF THE GREAT
ANNIVERSARY
http://www.yugoimport.com
UVODNIK INTRODUCTION
UVODNIK - EDITORIAL

Piše By
dr Nenad Miloradović dr Nenad Miloradović

Jugoimport-SDPR je i ove godine, po treći put za redom, For the third time in a row, Yugoimport-FDSP partici-
nastupio na međunarodnoj izložbi naoružanja i vojne opreme pated in the International Defence Exhibition EUROSATO-
EUROSATORY 2008, koja je upravo ovih dana, u periodu RY 2008 held in Paris from June 16-20. This year, we shared
od 16. do 20. juna održana u Parizu. Ove godine smo nas- the exhibition stand with the Ministry of Defense of the
tupili na sajamskom prostoru koji je zajedno sa sajamskim Republic of Serbia within the Serbian National Pavilion. The
prostorom Ministarstva Odbrane Republike Srbije činio presence of the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Serbia
jedinstveni sajamski prostor u vidu srpskog nacionalnog also contributed to greater impact of Yugoimport-FDSP, the
paviljona. Nastup Ministarstva odbrane Republike Srbije na Ministry’s strategic partner for many years.
izložbi doprineo je, svakako, između ostalog, i ukupnoj efek-
tnosti nastupa Jugoimoprt-SDPR, kao svog dugogodišnjeg We are particularly proud of the fact that today, after many
strateškog partnera. years of extraordinary efforts of Yugoimport-FDSP as a mar-
keting and commercial integrator, as well as development
Posebno smo ponosni na to da danas, posle višegodišnjih and production system integrator of the Serbian Defense
izuzetnih napora Jugoimport-SDPR, kao marketinško-komer- Industries, both the Serbian Defense Industries and other
cijalnog integratora, ali i razvojno-proizvodnog sistema sis- institutions of the Ministry of Defense comprising research,
tem integratora srpske odbrambene industrije, odbrambe- development, testing, as well as maintenance and overhaul
na industrija Republike Srbije, kao i ustanove Ministarstva of defense equipment are indisputably becoming significant
odbrane čiji delokrug nadležnosti obuhvata istraživanje, players in global defense mar, as well as noteworthy devel-
razvoj, ispitivanje, kao i održavanje i remont naoružanja i opment components of the economy of the Republic of
vojne opreme ponovo postaju nesumnjivo vrlo značajan sub- Serbia.
jekat na globalnom tržištu sredstava naoružanja i vojne
opreme, te i značajan elemenat privrednog razvoja Republike Furthermore, we are proud to point out that the leading
Srbije. position of the Defense Complex in industrial and overall
development of the country throughout the history of the
Štaviše, sa ponosom možemo da istaknemo da je avan- modern Serbian State is still prominent today – it dates back
gardna pozicija koju je vojnoindustrijski kompleks kroz čitavu to the times of the Serbian Revolution, more precisely 1808,
istoriju moderne srpske države – počev od perioda srpske when the first artillery weapons were cast at the Kalemegdan
revolucije, preciznije od 1808. godine, kada su pod Fortress, throughout the history of the Principality of Serbia,
Kalemegdanom izlivena prva savremena artiljerijska oruđa, the Kingdom of Serbia, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and the
preko Kneževine Srbije, Kraljevine Srbije, Kraljevine SFR Yugoslavia. Thus, today, on unofficial 200th Anniversary
Jugoslavije i SFR Jugoslavije, pa do ovih dana, imao u indus- of permanent development of modern Serbian Defense
trijskom, te i šire, privrednom razvoju Zemlje, i danas uočlji- Industry, its modern manufacturing and research and devel-
va. Danas, dakle na nezvaničnu 200 - godišnjicu od počet- opment projects and programs have become distinguished
ka kontinuiranog razvoja savremene srpske odbrambene quality brands in the international market of armament and
industrije, njeni savremeni proizvodni i razvojni projekti i military equipment.
programi postaju prepoznatljivi brend kvaliteta na svetskom
tržištu NVO. Modern self-propelled gun-howitzer NORA, ALAS guid-
ed rocket system for use against long-range mobile and sta-
Savremeni sistem samohodnog oruđa vatrene podrške tionary spot targets, command & information system for
NORA, sistem vođene rakete namenjen dejstvu na pokretne combat vehicles, multi-sensor and multi-purpose optoelec-
i nepokretne tačkaste ciljeve na vrlo velikim daljinama ALAS, tronics platform, the heavy APC (MUNJA), the anti-tank
komandno-informacioni sistem za borbena vozila, multi- transportable rocket system for short-range combat (BUM-
senzorska višenamenska optoelektronska platforma, MUN- BAR) have all become subject of more frequent and more
JA teški oklopni transporter, BUMBAR protivoklopni prenos- extensive studies in defense literature; significant export
ni vođeni raketni sistem za protivoklopnu borbu na malim defense contracts signed between Yugoimport-FDSP and
daljinama - postaju predmet sve češćih i obimnijih napisa u foreign partners, like the one for export of defense equip-
vojnotehničkoj stručnoj literaturi; značajni pojedinačni ment to Iraq, are being analyzed in media all over the world.

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izvozni poslovi Our defense

UVODNIK - EDITORIAL
Jugoimport – industries with
SDPR, kao što je major state-
nedavni ugovor o owned capital,
izvozu NVO sa like: Krušik,
Irakom, postaju Sloboda, Prva
predmet analiza u iskra from Barič,
globalnim mediji- Milan Blagojević
ma. from Lučani, Prvi
partizan from
Naše fabrike Užice, Zastava
odbrambene indus- Arms from
trije sa većinskim Kragujevac and
državnim kapitalom other factories
- Krušik, Sloboda, with substantial
Prva iskra Barič, defense capaci-
Milan Blagojević ties, have served
Lučani, Prvi parti- as generators and
zan Užice, Zastava models of indus-
Oružje Kragujevac, trial and techno-
kao i druge fabrike, čiji značajni kapaciteti pripadaju odbram- logical development in their respective areas for decades.
benim tehnologijama, bili su decenijama pokretačka snaga Owing to continuous investments in new development pro-
i uzor privrednog i tehnološkog razvoja u svojim sredinama. jects, in addition to marketing, development, commercial
Zahvaljujući kontinualnom ulaganju u nove razvojne pro- and sometimes financial support of Yugoimport-FDSP, the
jekte, a uz marketinško-razvojnu, komercijalnu i u nekim defense industries have preserved their production facili-
slučajevima, investicionu podršku Jugoimport-SDPR, pre- ties and continue to improve the manufacturing programs
duzeća odbrambene industrije očuvala su svoje kapacitete i they have become renowned for. The quality of their prod-
nastavila da unapređuju proizvodne programe, po čijem ucts has always been the best guarantee of their reliability
kvalitetu su bila i ostala prepoznatljiva. Taj kvalitet bio je i as partners and it is this quality that brings about new busi-
ostao najbolja garancija njihove pouzdanosti kao partnera te ness ventures. Significant new contracts of recent origin
danas obezbeđuje ugovaranje novih poslova. Aktuelna znača- reaffirm new beginnings for these companies.
jna povećanja obima ugovaranja, koja smo nedavno postigli
upravo doprinose značajnoj reafirmaciji tih preduzeća. However, we have not yet realized our vision of the mar-
ket position that would be commensurate with our actual
Međutim, smatramo da još nismo dostigli našu viziju o potentials and therefore we continue our campaign to get a
mestu na tržištu koje je srazmerno našim realnim potenci- better share of the market and improve our business strate-
jalima, te u tom smislu nastavljamo kampanju osvajanja tržiš- gies.
ta i iznalaženja poboljšanja poslovne strategije.
With this objective in mind, Yugoimport-FDSP has in
Upravo u tom cilju poslednjih godina Jugoimport-SDPR recent years shifted its focus from the marketing and com-
proširio je svoju osnovnu misiju sa osnovne delatnosti, dak- mercial promoter of defense industries of the Republic of
le od marketinškog i komercijalnog eksponenta odbrambene Serbia to becoming a system integrator for development and
industrije Republike Srbije, postavši sistem integrator razvo- manufacture of complex armament systems.
ja i proizvodnje složenih sistema naoružanja. Osnovni cilj te The main objective of this transformation, respectively
transformacije, odnosno proširenja funkcije, jeste upravo enhanced role, was actually based on the need to extend the
baziran na potrebi za proširivanjem obima i kvaliteta ponude, scope and quality of the products, and improve overall defense
te unapređenja ukupnog poslovanja odbrambene industri- industry business activities, same as in other companies
je, kao i drugih preduzeća iz kompleksa metalne i elektronske belonging to the metal and electronics industries – our tech-
industrije, - naših tehnoloških partnera u Republici Srbiji, nological partners in the Republic of Serbia – which have
čije su određene celine specijalizovane za proizvodnju kom- production facilities specialized in manufacture of compo-
ponenata sistema NVO ili čiji proizvodni kapaciteti nents for armament and military equipment or which have
omogućavaju učešće u proizvodnji složenih sistema ample production facilities that may be used in production
naoružanja. Projektima su obuhvaćena, pre svega, sredstva of sophisticated systems of armament, too. These projects
vatrene podrške, borbena i neborbena vozila, uključujući primarily comprise fire support units, combat and non-com-
kombinovane programe modernizacije, modifikacije i kon- bat vehicles, including combined retrofitting, upgrading and
verzije, zatim raketnih sistema, optoelektronike, radarske conversion projects, rocket systems, optoelectronic devices,
tehnike, komandno-informacionih sistema i umrežavanje radar equipment, command & information systems and inter-
kompleksnih sistema za kontrolu teritorije, koji imaju ras- facing of complex systems for homeland security which have
tući značaj u aktuelnim uslovima zaštite objekata i prostora become increasingly important for protection of buildings
od različitih vidova terorističkih akcija (homeland security). and land against possible acts of terrorism.

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JUGOIMPORT- YUGOIMPORT-

AKTUELNOSTI - TOPICAL ISSUE
SDPR NA FDSP ON
MEĐUNARODNIM INTERNATIONAL
IZLOŽBAMA NVO DEFENSE
u 2008. EXHIBITIONS IN
2008
Piše By
Aleksandar Lijaković Aleksandar Lijaković

P raksa kontinualnog prisustva na najznačajnijim svetskim The practice of our continuous presence at the most impor-
izložbama naoružanja i vojne opreme, koja uključuje nas- tant international exhibitions of armament and military
tupe na praktično svim značajnijim izložbama koje su region- equipment started in 2003 and included participation in vir-
alno usmerene na naša osnovna ciljna tržišta, kao i nastupe tually all major exhibitions targeting our prime markets, as
na izložbama globalnog karaktera, započeta je 2003. godine well as exhibitions of global character, covering 3-4 defense
i obuhvata učešće na 3 do 4 takve izložbe godišnje. Budući exhibitions each year. Since, as a rule, international defense
da se međunarodne izložbe NVO održavaju po pravilu jed- exhibitions are biennial events, it means that our regular
nom u dve godine, ostvaruje se redovno učešće na 7 do 8 presence includes 7-8 important defense exhibitions.
značajnijih izložbi NVO.
In 2007, Yugoimport-FDSP participated in three
Jugoimport-SDPR ostvario je tokom 2007. godine učešće International Defense Exhibitions, one focused primarily on
na tri međunarodne izložbe NVO, i to na izložbi koja obuh- the markets of the Near East and Middle East, as well as
vata pre svega tržište Bliskog i Srednjeg istoka, ali i Azije Asian markets, giving it more of a global character (IDEX
(IDEX 2007 - Abu Dabi, UAE, februar 2007), te ima, osim 2007 - Abu Dhabi, UAE, in February 2007); then, in the
regionalnog, i izvesni globalni karakter, zatim regionalnoj regional exhibition dedicated to Latin American markets
izložbi koja obuhvata tržište Latinske Amerike (LAAD 2007, (LAAD 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in April 2007), as well

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Rio de Žaneiro, Brazil, april 2007), kao i na jednoj globalnoj as in one exhibition of global importance (DSEi 2007,
AKTUELNOSTI - TOPICAL ISSUE

izložbi DSEi 2007, London, Velika Britanija, septembar London, Great Britain, in September 2007). In June 2007,
2007). Juna meseca 2007. godine ostvaren je nastup Yugoimport-FDSP was a co-organizer of PARTNER 2007,
Jugoimport-SDPR, u svojstvu koorganizatora, na međunar- an International Defense Exhibition. Since this exhibition
odnoj izložbi NVO PARTNER 2007. Sledeća izložba plani- is held every second year, the next event is due in June 2009.
rana je za jun 2009. godine. Tokom 2008. godine učestvo-
vali smo na četiri izložbe, od kojih su tri regionalnog, odnos- In 2008, we participated in four exhibitions, out of which
no nacionalno-regionalnog karaktera: DEFEXPO 08, Nju three had regional, respectively international/regional char-
Delhi, Indija, održana februara ove godine, SOFEX 2008, acter: DEFEXPO 08 in New Delhi, India, in February this
Aman, Jordan, održana marta meseca, DSA 2008, Kula year, SOFEX 2008 in Amman, Jordan, held in March, DSA
Lumpur, Malezija, održana u aprilu, i najzad, EUROSATO- 2008, Kula Lumpur, Malaysia, held in April, and finally,
RY 2008, Pariz, Francuska, koja je održana ovog meseca. EUROSATORY 2008, in Paris, France, which was held this
Time je praktično zatvoren dvogodišnji ciklus marketinškog month. This marked the closing of a two-year long market-
prisustva na našim osnovnim ciljnim tržištima. U narednom ing cycle on our target markets. In the forthcoming period,
ciklusu unećemo neke izmene u odnosu na prethodni, u cilju there will be some changes which should provide our more
što ravnomernijeg prisustva na tržištu. balanced marketing presence.

To je potrebno istaći imajući u vidu tendenciju čiji smo This is important to emphasize since during the last few
svedoci poslednjih godina, a koja se sastoji u učestalom years, we have all witnessed frequent “emerging” of new,
«nicanju» novih, nacionalno-regionalnih odbrambenih national-regional defense exhibitions; increased number of
izložbi; tako izrazito povećanje broja izložbi sve više potisku- such exhibitions is gradually diminishing the importance of
je značaj regionalnog karaktera izložbi u odnosu na nacional- regional in favor of national exhibitions. This is what makes
ni. Ta pojava donekle usložnjava i izbor izložbi na kojima the right selection of defense exhibitions for marketing and
treba učestvovati radi marketinško-promotivnog pokrivanja promotional coverage in a specific region rather difficult.
određenog regiona. Sa druge strane, iskustvo i dugogodišn- On the other hand, long experience and tradition, in addi-
ja tradicija, kao i određene specifičnosti zemlje organizato- tion to certain specific properties of organizing country still
ra i dalje favorizuju nekoliko poznatih svetskih izložbi. Štaviše, favor several defense exhibitions renowned all over the world.
te izložbe karakteriše neprekinuta tendencija porasta broja Furthermore, it is these exhibitions that bring together more
učesnika, površine sajamskog prostora i sadržaja izložbe, participants, more exhibition space and more versatile items
što, zajedno sa povećanjem broja izložbi NVO nedvosmis- of equipment each year which, combined with increased
leno ukazuje na sve veći značaj koji ovaj tip promocije ima number of defense exhibitions undeniably illustrates the

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u globalnom prometu NVO. Jugoimport-SDPR, saglasno toj growing importance attached to this type of promotion in

AKTUELNOSTI - TOPICAL ISSUE
tendenciji, a srazmerno rastu obima prodaje, iz godine u global trade of armament and military equipment. In light
godinu realizuje svoj nastup na sve većim i u arhitektonskom of these events, and in proportion to increase of its sales each
smislu bogatijim štandovima, hvatajući korak sa vodećim year, Yugoimport-FDSP participates in these exhibitions in
svetskim proizvođačima. Svedoci smo sve veće zastupljenosti more spacious and architecturally more attractive exhibition
nacionalnih paviljona, na kojima nastupaju grupacije stands, keeping up with the world’s leading defense manu-
proizvođača iz jedne države, često uz prisustvo institucija facturers. We are witness to progressively larger number of
Ministarstva odbrane ili drugih državnih institucija ili aso- national pavilions comprising groups of defense producers,
cijacija. U tom smislu nastup Jugoimport - SDPR koji je in addition to frequent presence of MoDs or other state insti-
ostvaren ovog meseca u Parizu, gde je realizovan nastup na tutions or associations from the same country. Likewise,
sajamskom prostoru «ostrvskog» tipa, koji je deljen sa Yugoimprt-FDSP in Paris shared an island-type exhibition
Ministarstvom odbrane Republike Srbije, čime je nezvanično stand with the Ministry of Defense of Serbia, a kind of an
dobijen srpski paviljon. unofficial Serbian pavilion.
Osim nastupa na međunarodnim izložbama NVO u inos- Apart from International Defense Exhibitions abroad, in
transtvu, u saradnji sa MO i Beogradskim sajmom realizo- cooperation with the Serbian Ministry of Defense and
van je nastup Jugoimport-SDPR na izložbi PARTNER 2007, Belgrade Fair, Yugoimport-FDSP took part in PARTNER
koja je održana u Beogradu početkom juna, i u kojoj je 2007 which was held in Belgrade at the beginning of June;
Jugoimport-SDPR, kao i na prethodne dve izložbe, nastu- same as on the previous two exhibitions, Yugoimport-FDSP
pio kao integrator promocije Srpske odbrambene industri- acted as a promotion integrator of Serbian Defense
je. Industries.

JUGOIMPORT-SDPR je nastupao prikazujući eksponate Yugoimport-FDSP has presented items of armament and
sredstava NVO koji brojem, dimenzijama i raznovrsnošću military equipment in quantities, size and assortment which
uglavnom prevazilaze i izlagače koji nastupaju i na znatno generally surpass those shown by other exhibitors in much
većim sajamskim prostorima, dok su na posterima prikazi- larger exhibition stands; however, large items of defense
vani eksponati i ponuda pre svega u oblasti «krupne tehnike», equipment as well as systematic summaries of full-scale
kao i sistematizovana potencijalna ponuda. capabilities were presented on posters.

9
DVA VEKA TWO CENTURIES
SRPSKE OF SERBIAN
INTERVJU - INTERVIEW

ARTILJERIJE ARTILLERY

Od Arsenala i Topolivnice do „Jugoimportovog“ razvo- From Arsenal and Gun Foundry to
jnog i proizvodnog centra „BORAC“ „Jugoimport’s“Development and Manufacturing Center
„BORAC“

Piše By
Anastas Paligorić Anastas Paligorić

Vreme početka - Prvi srpski ustanak Time of Origin – First Serbian Uprising
Na samom početku Bune protiv dahija (februara 1804.) At the time of rising to the arms in Uprising against Dahias
srpski ustanici su bili vrlo slabo naoružani. Imali su nešto (in February 1804), Serbian rebels were very poorly armed.
ručnog vatrenog oružja, ali ne i „gvozdene“ topove. Ipak, They possessed some personal (small) firearms but had no
snalažljivi ustanici su posle tri godine borbe protiv dahija “iron” guns. Nevertheless, owing to their ingenuity, after three
posedovali i topove, a vrednije od toga bilo je stečeno saz- years of fighting the Turkish overlords, forces of the uprising
nanje o značaju artiljerije za vođenje rata sa regularnom had their own artillery but, perhaps of more value than this fact,
turskom vojskom. was firm and clear recognition of artillery’s importance in wag-
Priča o nabavci prvog topa za ustanike ima, kao i mnoge ing the war against regular Turkish army.
druge srpske priče, više verzija. Po jednom izvoru „prvi gvoz- The story of acquisition of the first gun for rebel forces has,
deni top crkveni, nešto duži od pola hvata“ nabavio je vojvo- like many other Serbian stories, differing versions. One source
da Jakov Nenadović preko novosadskog vladike. Po drugom claimed that “the first ‘church’ iron gun, a bit longer than two
izvoru „prvi topčić“ za ustanike nabavio je prota Mateja fathoms”, was procured by Vojvoda Jakov Nenadović through
Nenadović u Austriji, preko jednog trgovca iz Sremske the bishop of Novi Sad. Another source stated that the first
Mitrovice. “small gun” was procured by Bishop Mateja Nenadović in
Iz sačuvanih zapisa saznajemo da je vožd Karađorđe uvideo Austria, through a merchant in Sremska Mitrovica.
da mu za uspešno ratovanje treba artiljerija, te je naredio Even before getting hold of the first metal gun, the rebels
da se izrade trešnjevi topovi, opšiveni volujskom kožom i had homemade cherry wood guns. Some records indicate that
okovani gvozdenim obručima. Borbeni učinak tih topova bio Karadjordje concluded that he needed artillery in order to suc-
je mali (brzo su se raspadali zbog male otpornosti drveta ili ceed in fighting, so he ordered making of cherry-wood guns,
lošeg baruta), ali su imali snažan moralni efekat (da „poplaše“ clad in sewn ox skin and reinforced with iron hoops. Combat
Turke i ohrabre ustanike „da kao bajagi imaju topove“). effect of these guns was negligible (they would quickly disin-
tegrate because of low strength of the wood or poor quality of
Formiranje srpske artiljerije – Prva vlada powder), nevertheless they had strong impact on the morale
kneza Miloša (to scare-off the Turks
Završetkom Drugog and encourage the
ustanka ustanička nar- rebels “who ostensibly
odna vojska je have guns”).
raspuštena, a zadržani
su samo „panduri“ za Formation of
lično obezbeđenje Serbian Artillery
kneza Miloša i nahi- – First Cabinet of
jskih knezova i čuvan- Knez (Prince)
je javnog reda i carskih Miloš
drumova. Knez je brzo By the end of the
shvatio da, zbog Second Uprising, rebel
učestalih pobuna pro- people’s army was dis-
tiv njegove samovolje, banded and Serbia was
ne može da se osloni left with minimal
na malobrojne pandure forces, “pandours”,
pa je marta 1825. protecting Knez Miloš
formirao prve jedinice and local leaders, keep-
stajaće srpske vojske. ing the law and order

10
and safeguarding
1 Aronim BORAC je skraćenica za BEOGRADSKI OKLOPNO-RAKETNI-
ARTILjERIJSKI CENTAR 1 BORAC is acronym for BELGRADE ARMOR-ROCKET-ARTILLERY CENTER
Arsenal i topolivnica u beogradskom Donjem Arsenal and gun foundry in Lower Town of
gradu Belgrade

INTERVJU - INTERVIEW
Skupština ustaničkih starešina, održana marta 1807. godine Assembly of leaders of the uprising, held in Belgrade in
u Beogradu donela je odluku da se u beogradskoj tvrđavi (u March 1807 decided to “set up an arsenal, a gun foundry and
Donjem gradu, u jednoj boljoj turskoj kući) “podigne arse- gunsmith shop, casting shop for bullets and forming of gun-
nal, zasnuje topolivnica i radionica za oružje, za livenje tana- powder pouches and forging shop for bayonets and spears”
di, savijanje fišeka i da se podigne kovačnica za bajonete i in a better Turkish house in Lower Town of Belgrade fortress.
koplja”. Ova topolivnica je radila do 1813. godine, a u njoj This gun foundry operated until year 1813, mostly casting
su livene cevi lakih topova od 1 do 4 funte (top “Hajduk”), light gun barrels (so-called “Hajduk”) of 1 to 4-pounder cal-
cevi merzera, većih i manjih haubica, koje su zatim monti- iber, mortar, smaller and larger caliber howitzer barrels, lat-
rane na lafete i podvoske u drugim radionicama Donjeg gra- er on mounted on suitable cradles and undercarriages made
da. at other workshops of Lower Town.
Rad beogradske topolivnice je obnovljen 1848. godine, u Operation of Belgrade gun foundry was reinstated in 1848.
vreme kada se Srbija opredelila za Lihtenštajnov sistem By then Serbia had opted for the Liechtenstein’s field gun sys-
poljskih topova od 3 i 6 funti (kalibar se u to vreme označavao tem of 3-6 pounder caliber (at that time the caliber was des-
masom đuleta, mera jedna funta ~ 0,5 kg). Nažalost, iskust- ignated by the mass of solid cannonball - one pound ≈ 0.5
vo domaćih majstora nije bilo dovoljno, a oprema nije odgo- kg). Expertise of domestic artisans was insufficient and avail-
varala potrebama, pa kvalitet izlivenih cevi nije bio zado- able equipment was inadequate, so that the quality of the first
voljavajući. To je bio povod da se od belgijske firme La Šose cast barrels was not satisfactory. This prompted procurement
(La Chaussé) naruči i dopremi u Srbiju krajem 1849. godine from the Belgian firm La Chaussé of the first steam genera-
prva parna mašina od 20KS. tor of 20 HP which arrived in Serbia in late 1849.

U očekivanju rata sa Turcima knez Miloš je tajnim kanal- imperial roads . Knez Miloš was soon to learn that, due to fre-
ima nabavljao naoružanje za stajaću ali i raspuštenu narod- quent unrests caused by his autocratic rule, he could not rely
nu vojsku. Pri tome lukavi knez je pomoć za naoružavanje solely on small number of pandours. Therefore, in March 1825
svoje vojske tražio i od turskog sultana. Kada je sultanov pok- he formed the first units of Serbia’s standing army.
lon (6 topova sa kompletnim priborom i municijom) stigao Expecting conflicts with Turkey, Knez Miloš used under-
u Srbiju, početkom 1836. godine, u sastavu stajaće vojske cover channels for procurement of arms for the standing army
formirana su dva odeljenja artiljerije (jedno u Požarevcu, but also for disbanded popular army. At the same time, resource-
drugo u Kragujevcu) sa po jednom baterijom topova (3 topa ful Knez Miloš made an effort to seek military assistance from
u bateriji). Nema bližih podataka o tim topovima, ali su the Turkish Sultan. When the Sultan’s grant (consisting of 6
najverovatnije bili „šestofuntaši“. cannons with full equipment and ammunition) arrived in Serbia
early in 1836, the standing army was complemented with two
Artiljerija srpske regularne vojske naglo je uvećana kupovi- artillery detachments (one in Požarevac, the other in Kragujevac)
nom u Beču 1837. godine 16 topova sa opremom i munici- each consisting of a battery of 3 guns. No closer information is
jom (za svaki top je nabavljeno po 500 đuladi). Tako su se available about these guns; they were probably 6-pounders.
stekli uslovi da se već formirana dva odeljenja artiljerije reor- The power of Serbian artillery was greatly enhanced by pur-
ganizuju u divizione sa po dve baterije. Za dalje opremanje chase in Vienna in 1837 of 16 guns with equipment and ammu-
vojske bila je potrebna planska i stručna podrška nekog nition (500 cannonballs per every gun). It was now feasible to
državnog tela, pa je na zahtev kneza Miloša održano „glavno reorganize the two artillery detachments into battalions, each
sobranije“ o naoružavanju 21. januara 1837. u Državnom containing two batteries.
savetu u Kragujevcu. U Protokolu sa tog savetovanja Savet The clever Knez understood that further equipping of the
predlaže da se izgradi Topolivnica u Kragujevcu, od koje bi army required planning and expertise of a competent state
bila dvostruka „polza“: prvo, topovi i „druge stvari“ koje bi authority, accordingly, upon his initiative, “main assembly” was
ona lila ne bi se kupovali na strani, te bi velike pare ostale u convened by the State Council in Kragujevac on January 21,
narodnoj kasi; drugo, izradom topova kod svoje kuće ne bi 1837, to deal with the issue or arming. In the protocol of the
davali povoda Turcima da pitaju šta to Srbi čine i što će session, delegates suggested building of a gun foundry in
Srbiji topovi. Ostale potrebe (oružje, „džebana“ i drugo) po Kragujevac that would ripe twofold benefits: firstly, guns and
predlogu Saveta bi trebalo nabavljati preko trgovaca „od kud “other articles” to be cast locally would obviate the need for
mu drago, gde se najbolje nađe i po najboljoj ceni“. purchasing abroad, thus large sums of money from the nation-
Na kraju prve vlade kneza Miloša srpska vojska imala je al treasury would be saved; secondly, making of guns at home
oko 78 artiljerijskih oruđa (od toga je 18 odliveno u
First Serbian Decoration – Cross of Takovo
Prvi srpski orden –Takovski krst One of the guns cast in Serbia was melted to cast the first
Od cevi jednog topa odlivenog u srpskim livnicama izliv- Serbian order “Cross of Takovo” to decorate 313 surviving
en je prvi srpski orden „Takovski krst“ kojim je odlikovano participants in the Second Uprising on 50th anniversary of
313 živih učesnika Drugog ustanka prilikom proslave 50- the Uprising (on 5 May 1865). Memorial medals were cast
godišnjice ustanka (5. maja 1865.). Od istog topa izlivena je from the same gun and awarded to families of 47 deceased
i spomen medalja i dodeljena porodicama 47 umrlih ili pogin- or killed in action who were the first to joind the Knez in fight-
ulih ustanika koji su prvi sa knezom krenuli 1815. protiv ing the Turks in 1815. The order was gold-plated, medals
Turaka. Orden je bio pozlaćen a medalja posrebrena. were silver-plated.

11
beogradskoj Topolovnici), uglavnom su to bili poljski topovi would dispel doubts by the Turks and their questioning what
INTERVJU - INTERVIEW

(jedno, tri, šest i dvanaestofuntaši) i haubice (osmo i are the Serbs doing and what for the guns. The Council also
dvanaestofuntovne). decided that other needs (weapons, ammunition, etc.) should
be purchased via commercial channels “from whatever sources”
Početak industrijske proizvodnje where those could be found and at best prices.
artiljerijskih oruđa u Srbiji By the end of the first rule of Knez Miloš, Serbian army had
78 artillery pieces in service, out of which 18 pieces cast in
Dramatični evropski događaji 1848. nisu mimoišli ni malu Belgrade foundry, mostly field guns (1, 3, 6 and 12-pounders)
srpsku kneževinu Aleksandra Karađorđevića, te je državni and howitzers (8 and 12-pounders).
Savet preduzimao mnoge mere da se konsoliduje vojska i
obezbedi njeno naoružavanje. Uviđajući značaj proizvodnje Beginning of industrial production of artillery
u zemlji a i zbog teškoća uvoza naoružanja tadašnji ministar weapons in Serbia
unutrašnjih dela Ilija Garašanin predložio je Savetu da se
formira zavod u kome će se liti i izrađivati sredstva za vojne Dramatic events occurring in Europe in 1848 did not bypass
potrebe. Knez Aleksandar je usvojio predlog, pa je beograd- the small Serbian Principality, ruled by Aleksandar Karađorđević,
ska livnica ponovo proradila oktobra 1848. godine. Vrlo brzo, and the government had to take numerous steps for consoli-
zbog pritisaka Austrije i Turske da se obustavi rad beogradske dation of its army and its further equipping. Recognizing the
Topolivnice knez Aleksandar je doneo odluku, marta 1851., importance of indigenous manufacture (primarily due to dif-
da se oprema iz Beograda preseli u Kragujevac. Izbor lokaci- ficulties related to arms imports), the then home minister Ilija
je za topolivnicu obrazlaže se time što položaj Kragujevca u Garasanin proposed to the Council formation of an establish-
središtu Srbije garantuje sigurnost proizvodnje i mogućnost ment that would cast and turn out defence equipment. Knez
čestog ličnog kneževog nadzora proizvodnje. Aleksandar approved the proposal and Belgrade Foundry offi-
cially commenced its operation in October 1848. Because of
Artiljerijski komitet je odlučio, maja 1883. godine, da se pressures from Austria and Turkey to stop the work of Belgrade
srpska artiljerija preoruža uvoznim topovima, a da se artil- gun foundry, Knez Aleksandar decided in March 1851 to trans-
jerijsko-tehnički zavodi osposobe samo za proizvodnju muni- fer its equipment from Belgrade to Kragujevac. Explanation
cije. Dve godine kasnije Komitet je doneo odluku da se u offered regarding the choice of the site for the foundry was that
naoružavanje srpske vojske uvede francuski ostragpuneći position of Kragujevac in the center of Serbia warranted secu-
top 80 mm De Banž (De Bange) M1877/85. Tim odlukama rity of the production and enabled frequent supervisions of
praktično je obustavljena delatnost Topolivnice na izradi manufacturing process by the Knez.
topova, te se u od 1886. pa sve do posle Drugog svetskog rata The committee for artillery decided in May 1883 to re-equip
u Srbiji nisu proizvodila artiljerijska oruđa. Serbian army with imported artillery pieces and to convert the
artillery-technical establishment to production of ammunition
Vreme posle Drugog svetskog rata - Brdski only. Committee’s commission decided to adopt two years lat-
top 76 mm M48B1, prvi moderan
jugoslovenski i srpski top er the rear loaded French 80 mm gun De Bange M1877/85.
Owing to that decision, Gun Foundry ceased to exist as weapons
Odmah posle oslobođenja zemlje odlučeno je da se pris- manufacturer and thus from 1886 no artillery weapons have
tupi stvaranju razvojnih i proizvodnih kapaciteta za samostal- been made in Serbia until the end of the WWII.
nu proizvodnju naoružanja. Jedna od prvih odluka
Genaralštaba JA 1946. godine bila je da se pristupi razvoju
brdskog topa 76 mm pogodnog za dejstvo u planinskim Formation and Operation of Gun Foundry in
Kragujevac
Osnivanje i rad Topolivnice u Kragujevcu With approval of Emperor Napoleon III, Frenchman Mr.
Uz saglasnost cara Napoleona III angažovan je i doveden Charles Loubry was engaged and employed as the head of
u Kragujevac januara 1953. godine za glavnog livca i direk- casting and director of the Kragujevac foundry in January
tora Topolivnice francuz Šarl Lubri (Charles Loubry). Prvo 1853. First successful casting of four 6-pounder (90 mm) bar-
uspešno livenje četiri šestofuntovne cevi (90 mm) švajcarskog rels of Swiss field gun and two 12-pounder (120 mm) how-
poljskog topa i dve dvanaestofuntovne cevi (120 mm) haubice itzer barrels took place on 27 October 1853. This date is cur-
izvršeno je 27. oktobra 1853. godine. Taj datum se slavi kao rently celebrated as the founding date of the Military-
dan osnivanja Vojnotehničkog zavoda Kragujevac, danas Technical Establishment Kragujevac (today: “Zastava
„Zastava oružje“. Arms”).
Za četiri godine rada (od oktobra 1853. do decembra 1857.) In four years of operation (October 1853 to December 1857)
proizvodilo se prosečno 22 oruđa godišnje, što je za ono vreme an average of 22 weapons were made per year, which was
bio veliki uspeh. Međutim, zbog dinastičke promene i pratećih quite outstanding result at the time.Because of dynastic
promena u vlasti u periodu od 1859. do 1862. bio je praktično changes and associated power changes in the period 1859 –
prekinut rad u kragujevačkoj Topolivnici. Proizvodnju novih 1862, operations at the Kragujevac foundry were practically
oruđa (spredpuneći top francuskog sistema La Hitte sa trapezn- halted. Manufacture of new weapons (front-loading French
im žljebovima, austrijski tip karteča i lafet sopstvene kon- gun of La Hitte system, featuring trapeze grooves, Austrian
strukcije) Topolivnica je osvojila 1865. godine, pa je vojsci ubr- type of cartage shell and carriage of domestic construction)
zo isporučeno 80 teških, 144 laka poljska i 16 brdskih četvoro- was introduced in 1865 and soon 80 heavy, 144 light field and
funtovnih topova. 16 mountain 4-pounder guns were delivered to Serbian army.

12
Period after the World War II. Mountain Gun
područjima, sa mogućnošću brzog rasklapanja na sklopove

INTERVJU - INTERVIEW
cal. 76 mm M48B1 – First Yugoslav and
pogodne za transport tovarnim grlima, a uz uslov da se za Serbian gun to enter the service
izradu topa koristite isključivo domaći materijali.
Zadatak za razvoj i projektovanje topa je dat Studijskom
odeljenju naoružanja Ministarstva narodne odbrane, a Immediately after the country’s liberation, it was decided to
rukovođenje projektom je povereno pukovniku Bošku undertake formation of developing and producing capacities
Stanisavljeviću, dipl. inž., kasnije profesoru i osnivaču Katedre for autonomous manufacturing of armaments. Among signif-
za vojno mašinstvo na Mašinskom fakultetu u Beogradu. icant decisions adopted by the General Staff of YA, it was decid-
Idejno rešenje i projekat izrade topa B1 Studijsko odel- ed in 1946 to develop a mountain gun cal. 76 mm capable of
jenje je završilo marta 1947. Detaljnu razradu konstrukcije operations in mountainous regions, with the possibility of being
sklopova oruđa i tehnološke pripreme za izradu prototipa dismantled to assemblies suitable for transport by animal pack;
oruđa preuzeo je Institut broj 11, koji je bio u sastavu in manufacturing, to use solely domestic materials.
preduzeća broj 44 u The design and development assignment was given to
Kragujevcu (kasnije Ordnance Study Group at the Ministry of Defence, project lead-
Zavodi „Crvena zas- ership was entrusted to Col. Boško Stanisavljević, B.Sc.Eng.,
tava“ a danas “Zastava future professor and founder of the Group for Military
Oružje”). Uz izradu Engineering at the Mechanical Engineering Faculty in
konstrukcione doku- Belgrade.
mentacije lansirana je izra- Preliminary solution and design to build the B1 gun was
da prvog prototipa, koji je completed by Study Group in March 1947. Detailed
završen i ispitan sredinom design of weapon assemblies and technological prepa-
1948. godine. Zbog potrebe rations for construction of prototype were entrusted
da se sprovedu izvesna kon- to Institute No. 11, a part of Enterprise No.
strukciona poboljšanja 44 in Kragujevac, (later
odlučeno je da se izradi Zavodi
drugi prototip. Od osni-
vanja VTI-a (novembra
1948.) dalje vođenje razvo-
ja topa B1 preuzima Odeljak
za naoružanje VTI, a poslovi
izrade konstrukcione doku- “Crvena
mentacije za drugi prototip su i dal- Zastava”, presently
je obavljani u kragujevačkom Institutu broj 11. Drugi pro- “Zastava Oružje”). Together with
totip je završen sredinom 1949. godine i posle uspešnog ispi- elaboration of engineering documentation,
tivanja doneta je odluka da se usvoji u naoružanje JNA pod production of first prototype was launched and the prototype
službenim nazivom brdski top 76 mm M48. completed and tested by mid 1948. Because of the need to intro-
Tokom 1949. godine u kragujevačkoj fabrici je dokom- duce certain design improvements, it was decided to build sec-
pletiran proizvodni park, lansirana izrada alata i puštena u ond prototype. Since foundation of Military Technical Institute
rad prva serija od 32 oruđa. U toku 1950. godine je završe- (MTI) in November 1948, further development of B1 gun was
na izrada samo 4 oruđa “nulte” serije, sa ciljem da se proveri taken up by Ordnance Department of VTI, while engineering
valjanost tehnoloških rešenja. Odlukom Ministarstva naro- documentation for the second prototype still remained with
dne odbrane krajem 1949. godine je u Novom Travniku Institute No. 11 in Kragujevac. Second prototype was completed
formirano preduzeće “Bratstvo”, a tokom 1950. godine je by mid 1949 and, after its successful testing; it was officially
odlukom Vlade FNRJ (motivisanom stanjem uzemlji posle adopted in service with the YPA under formal designation moun-
Rezolucije IB, a potrebom da se strateški proizvodni kom- tain gun 76 mm M48.
pleksi prenesu u središte Jugoslavije – sa istim obrazložen- In the course of 1949 Kragujevac factory was subjected to
jem je Savet kneževine Srbije tačno vek ranije doneo odluku completing of its production plant and it started the produc-
da se oprema beogradske topolivnice prenese u Kragujevac!) tion of tooling and the first lot of 32 guns was placed in pro-
kompletan artiljerijski program iz “Crvene zastave” prenet duction. During year 1950 only “zero” lot of 4 guns were pro-
u “Bratstvo”. Uspeh završetka i predaje prve serije oruđa B1 duced with object to test the validity of technological solution.
pripao je (opravdano ili ne, ali uz prigušeno nezadovoljstvo By decision of the Ministry of Defence (late in 1949) a new
kragujevačkih inženjera i majstora) novembra 1951. godine defence factory “Bratstvo” was set up in Novi Travnik and in
mladom i ambicioznom kolektivu “Bratstva”, koji je dugo 1950 Yugoslav government decided (motivated by conditions
godina posle toga vrlo kvalitetno serijski proizvodio i preko in the country after Resolution of Informbureau and the need
„Jugoimporta“ izvozio topove 76mm M48B1. to move strategic manufacturing complexes to the heart of
Yugoslavia – the same explanation as given by the Council of
Beogradska škola razvoja klasičnih i raket- Serbian Principality exactly one century earlier: to move gun
nih artiljerijskih sistema foundry from Belgrade to Kragujevac!) to shift the entire artillery
program from “Crvena Zastava” to “Bratstvo”. The successful
Shodno spomenutom opredeljenju na sopstveni razvoj i handing over of the first lot of B1 guns was thus enjoyed by the
proizvodnju načelnik Generalštaba JA 3. novembra 1948. young and ambitious staff of “Bratstvo” in November 1951

13
godine izdao naredbu o formiranju Vojnotehničkog
Kraljevina Jugoslavija, 1939. - Razvoj prvog Kingdom of Yugoslavia, 1939 - Development
modernog srpskog topa of first modern Serbian gun
INTERVJU - INTERVIEW

Za one koji budu pisali istoriju srpske artiljerije neka bude Who those who will write the history of the Serbian artillery
zapisano da je brdski top 76mm B1, prvi srpski top uveden u let it be written that mountain gun B1 76 mm was the first
naoružanje. Ipak, slava razvoja prvog srpskog modernog topa Serbian gun that entered the service. Nevertheless, the glory
pripada protivtenkovskom topu 76,5 mm, čiji je razvoj započet of development of the first modern gun in Serbia belongs to
1939. godine u Vojnotehničkom zavodu u Kragujevcu.. U toku antitank gun cal. 76.5 mm, development of which commenced
1940. godine je završena prototipska partija od 8 komada. in 1939 in Military Technical Establishment in Kragujevac.
Napadom Nemačke na Kraljevinu Jugoslaviju obustavljen In the course of year 1940, first prototype lot of 8 guns was
je dalji rad na ovom projektu, a jedna baterija od 4 topa je completed. Upon German assault on Yugoslav Kingdom, fur-
11. aprila 1941. godine bila postavljena u Donjoj Sabanti (7 ther activities were halted but one battery of 4 guns was
km južno od Kragujevca) radi odbrane grada pri napadu deployed on April 11, 1941 in Donja Sabanta (7 km to the
Nemaca. Po preuzimanju Zavoda Nemci su svu tehničku South of Kragujevac) to defend the town from German attack.
dokumentaciju i sve preostale delove ovih topova odneli. After taking over the Establishment, Germans took away all
Razvoj je realizovala grupa inženjera i majstora Zavoda na technical documentation and all remaining components of the
čelu sa (tada) majorom Boškom Stanisavljevićem i kapetanom gun.
prve klase Dušanom Jankovićem. Development of the 76.5 mm antitank gun was realized by
a team of engineers and artisans from the Establishment,
instituta JA. Iste godine, na Mašinskom fakultetu u Beogradu headed by (then) Major Boško Stanisavljević and Capt. I
formirana je Katedra za vojno mašinstvo, kao jedna od četiri class Dušan Janković.
katedre fakulteta. Time je postavljen temelj za školovanje
diplomiranih inženjera specijalizovanih za poslove razvoja i (with, justified or unjustified, but suppressed displeasure of
projektovanja različitih sistema naoružanja, municije i ubo- engineers and technicians in Kragujevac) who continued for
jnih materijala, osmatračkih i nišanskih uređaja. Zahvaljujući many years to turn out high quality series production of 76mm
tim sinhronizovanim aktivnostima i planskim vođenjem i M48B1 guns, many of which were exported by “Jugoimport”.
finansiranjem zadataka razvoja Beograd postaje snažan vodeći
razvojno-istraživački centar, od posebnog značaja ne samo Belgrade school for development of
za teritoriju Jugoslavije već i za jugoistočnu Evropu. U toku conventional and rocket artillery systems
višedecenijskog uspešnog rada razvijen je i uveden u seri-
jsku proizvodnju veći broj klasičnih i raketnih sistema namen- Pursuant to the resolve that army shall rely on its own devel-
jenih za vatrenu podršku. Nosilac razvoja je uglavnom bio opment and production resources, the Chief of General Staff
VTI, a rukovodioci projekata inženjeri zaposleni u VTI i na YA issued a decree on 3 November 1948 to establish Military-
Mašinskom fakultetu u Beogradu, te se sa razlogom može Technical Institute of Yugoslav Army. In the same year, depart-
govoriti o „beogradskoj školi“ razvoja artiljerijskih sistema. ment for military engineering, as one of four departments, was
Reference te škole su ne samo brojna sredstva uvedena u formed at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Thus the
naoružanje već i školovanje velikog broja inženjera (domaćih foundation was laid for schooling of graduate engineers spe-
i stranih) specijalizaovanih za cialized in design and development of different weapon sys-
poslove projektovanja sis- tems and their platforms, of ammunition and explosive mate-
tema naoružanja. U protek- rials, of surveillance and sighting equipment. Owing to thus
lih 60 godina na Odseku za synchronized activities and planned management and financ-
vojno mašinstvo odbranili su ing of development projects, Belgrade became a strong lead-
svoje radove - preko 510 dilomi- ing research & development center, of special significance not
ranih inženjera, više od 115 magistara only for Yugoslavia, but also for the South-Eastern Europe.
i preko 30 doktora tehničkih nauka. During decades of these thriving activities, that ended in year
U periodu od 1950. do 1965. godine 1990, there were developed and introduced in industrial pro-
uvedeno je naoružanje JNA nekoliko duction numerous conventional and artillery fire support sys-
značajnih artiljerijskih sredstava prve tems. Development leader in most cases was MTI, with
generacije i to: MTI engineers and professors of the Faculty of
- Univerzalni minobacač 120mm Mechanical Engineering in Belgrade heading indi-
M52, koji zahvaljujući ugrađenom protiv- vidual projects; it is therefore proper to single out
trzajućem uređaju može da se koristi za “Belgrade school” of artillery systems
gađanje sa svih vrsta terena, te predstavlja jedin- development. References of that
stveno konstrukciono rešenje, aktuelno i school include, not only
danas zbog mogućnosti ugradnje na borbe- numerous weapon sys-
na vozila; tems placed into ser-
- Vučena haubica 105mm M56, koja vice, but also education
spada u grupu najuspešnijih svetskih rešen- of large number of
ja, te je pored JNA uvedena u naoružanje engineers (domestic
još 7 stranih armija; odlikuje se vrlo velikom and foreign) specialists
pouzdanošću rada i odličnom preciznošću in weapon systems
gađanja na svim dometima do maksimalnog design. In the past 60 years, over
(11,6 km pri gađanju sa američkim projektilom M1 510 graduate mechanical engi-

14
i 13,5 km sa specijalnim barutnim punjenjem); neers and over 115 post-graduate
Vučena haubica 155 mm M65 – uvedena u Towed howitzer cal. 155mm M65 – entered
naoružanje JNA 1965. godine service with YPA in 1965

INTERVJU - INTERVIEW
(Prva generacija - balistički sistem cevi dužine 23 kali- (first generation – ballistic system employing barrel of 23
bra) calibers)
Posle uvođenja u naoružanje domaće haubice 105 mm M56 After introduction in service of Yugoslav howitzer cal.
doneta je odluka da se pristupi osvajanju proizvodnje haubice 105mm M56, it was decided to undertake production of how-
155 mm M1J snimanjem američke haubice M1 (jer je na itzer 155mm M1J, by reverse-engineering the US model M1
osnovu Sporazuma o vojnoj pomoći, yaključenog sa SAD (because pursuant to Military Assistance Agreement con-
novembra 1951., JNA dobila je određenu količinu tih haubi- cluded with the US in November 1951, YPA received a num-
ca). ber of these howitzers). This work was suspended in 1960,
Radovi su obustavljeni 1960. godine, formalno zbog formally because of deficiencies on the trial lot of 4 weapons,
nedostataka na proizvedenoj probnoj partiji od 4 oruđa, a actually the reason was changed position of military leaders
suštinski zbog izmenjenog odnosa vojnog rukovodstva pre- on domestic arms
ma sopstvenom razvoju i proizvodnji posle obnavljanja odnosa Early in 1964 it was decided to resume the work and to
sa SSSR-om. Početkom 1964. godine doneta je odluka da se build one “zero” unit. In record-breaking 16 months complete
radovi nastave izradom „nulte“ serije od jednog oruđa. U technical documentation was revised and “fifth” howitzer
rekordnom roku od 16 meseci izvršena je revizija tehničke was built and tested.
dokumentacije, izrađena i ispitana „peta“ haubica. By acquiring the production and introducing in service of
Osvajanjem proizvodnje i uvođenjem u naoružanje haubice cal. 155mm M65 howitzer, its sighting devices and ammuni-
155 mm M65, nišanskih sprava i municije kompletiran je tion, army’s fire support system was rounded up based on two
borbeni sistem vatrene podrške zasnovan na dva kalibra - calibers: 105mm and 155mm.
105 mm i 155 mm.
masters and over 30 doctors of science have completed their
studies at the department for military engineering.
- Vučena haubica 155mm M65, realizovana sniman- In the period from 1950 to 1965, several important artillery
jem američke haubica 155mm M1 (odnosno M114); treba weapons of first generation were placed into service with the
istaći da je haubica M1 u to vreme bila osnovno američko YPA, including:
oruđe vatrene podrške, da je uvedeno u naoružanje više od - General-purpose mortar cal. 120mm M52 which,
50 zemalja sveta; owing to its recoil compensating mechanism, can be fired on
- Vučeni višecevni lanser raketa 128mm M63 every type of terrain, therefore it represents unique design solu-
„Plamen“, sa 32 lansirne cevi i dometom 8,6 km; uvođen- tion of topical interest even today because of its suitability for
jem u naoružanje ovog lansera naša vojska je u to vreme bila mounting on combat vehicles;
jedna od retkih koja je samostalno razvila u proizvodila više- - Towed howitzer cal. 105mm M56, one of most suc-
cevni lanser raketa. cessful designs in the world; apart from serving with YPA, it is
Program modernizacije artiljerije JNA, koji je usvojen 1975. operated by 7 foreign armies. Its main properties are high reli-
godine, predviđao je radikalne promene u organizaciji i opre- ability in service and excellent precision of fire at all ranges (11.6
manju jedinica novim sredstvima naoružanja. km using US round M1 and 13.5 km using special propelling
Programom je bilo predviđeno da se smanji broj kalibara charge);
u sistemu vatrene podrške na samo tri (umesto 105 mm - Towed howitzer cal. 155mm M65, reverse-engineered
uvodi se 122 mm, za opremanje jedinica do nivoa divizije; US howitzer 155mm M1 (resp.M114); it may be noted that M1
130 mm i 152 mm umesto 155 mm, za opremanje jedinica howitzer was main fire support weapon of the US Army at the
višeg nivoa) i da se u sastav mehanizovanih jedinica uvedu time; it had entered service with over 50 countries around the
samohodna oruđa kalibra 122 mm i 152 mm, kao i samo- world;
hodni višecevni lanser 128mm povećanog dometa.
Kao rezultat realizacije ovog programa u periodu
do 1984. uvedeno je naoružanje JNA nekoliko
klasičnih i raketnih oruđa druge generacije, čije
su borbene karakteristike bile u samom vrhu svet-
skih rešenja.
U postupku realizacije navedenog programa pod
vrlo povoljnim uslovima od SSSR-a kupljena je
licenca za proizvodnju vučene haubice 122 mm D-
30 i municije, a za opremanje mehanizovanih
jedinica kupljena je određena količina samohod-
nih haubica 122 mm 2S1 (Gvozdljika).
Pored toga od SSSR-a je kupljena manja količi-
na vučenih topova 152 mm D-20 i konstrukciona
dokumentacija, a na bazi savremenog rešenja topa
D-20 pristupilo se razvoju vučene top-haubice 152
mm M84 (kodni naziv „NORA-A“). Danas, sa
dovoljne istorijske distance, treba istaći da su
donete odluke bile vrlo dobar kompromis „koman-

15
dantskih“ mera (hitno opremanje jedinica uvezen-
Familija minobacača 120mm M74 i M75 Family of mortars cal. 120mm M74 and M75
Polazeći od iskazanog trenda razvoja sredstava za With consideration of trends in development of direct fire
INTERVJU - INTERVIEW

neposrednu vatrenu podršku i potreba domaćih i stranih koris- support systems and the needs of domestic and foreign users,
nika u VTI je početkom 70-tih godina prošlog veka započet in early 1970-ies MTI commenced development of light mor-
razvoj lakih minobacača 120 mm. U toku razvoja je odlučeno tars cal. 120mm. During the development, it was decided to
da se realizuju dva modela, prvi M74 optimiziran po kriter- finalize two types: M74, optimized for minimum mass and
ijumu minimalne mase namenjen teritorijalnim i desantnim intended for territorial and airborne units and designed for
jedinicama za izvršenje kratkih vatrenih udara, a drugi M75 short fire strikes; and M75, optimized for the criteria of car-
optimiziran po kriterijumu izvršenja zadataka pune artiljer- rying out full artillery preparation, intended for infantry bat-
ijske pripreme namenjen pešadijskim bataljonima. Zajedničko talions. Common to both models was the same ballistic solu-
za oba modela je isto balističko rešenje (najveći domet oko tion (maximum range of about 6400m) and high level of stan-
6400m) i visok stepen unifikacije podsklopova i delova. Za dardization of sub-assemblies and components. For design
idejno i konstrukciono rešenje familije lakih minobacača concept and construction of light mortars, (then) Lt.Col.
(tada) ppukovnik Anastas Paligorić dobio je nagradu „22 Anastas Paligorić was awarded the prize “22nd December”.
decembar“.

im sredstvima) i „programiranih“ potreba (domaći razvoj i -Towed multiple rocket launcher cal 128mm M63 „Plamen“
sopstvena proizvodnja oruđa, municije i prateće računarske with 32 tubes and range of 8.6 km; by introduction into service
i optoelektronske opreme). Realizacija programa u segmentu of this launcher, our army was among the very few who had
razvoja bila je poverena Vojnotehničkom institutu kopnene indigenously developed and manufactured multiple rocket
vojske, koji je imao tehnički kompetentan kadar (formiran launchers.
od inženjera srednje generacije i većeg broja odabranih tal- Modernization program for YPA artillery, adopted in 1975,
entovanih inženjera mlade generacije) i stabilne izvore finan- envisaged radical changes in organization and outfitting of units
siranja programa razvoja (najveća ugalanja u naučno-istraži- with new weapons. The program called for reduction of the
vački rad u oblasti odbrambene tehnike u drugoj Jugoslaviji number of calibers used in fire support system to three cal-
bila su krajem sedamdesetih godina prošlog veka – oko 20.000 ibers only (caliber 122mm replaces cal. 105mm in units up to
dolara po jednom istraživaču godišnje). division level, cal. 130mm and 152mm replace cal. 155mm in
U okviru projekta razvoja novog sistema armament of higher level units) and to introduce in mecha-
osnovnog oruđa vatrene podrške nized units the self-propelled howitzers cal. 122mm and 152mm
NORA bilo je planirano da se, and self-propelled multiple rocket launchers 128mm of
pored bazne verzije increased range. In implementation of that modernization pro-
vučenog oruđa gram, by 1984 there were entered in service with YPA several
NORA-A, razviju još dva conventional and rocket systems of second generation, pos-
modela oruđa kalibra 152 mm sa sessing combat characteristics among the best in the world.
odgovarajućom municijom i to: Within implementation of artillery modern-
Samopokretni top 152 mm NORA-C (cev ization program, licence was purchased in
dužine 45 kalibara); razvoj započet 1985. godine, a USSR, under very favorable terms, for pro-
prekinut 1991. godine, duction of towed howitzer cal. 122m D-30
Samohodni top 152 mm NORA-B (cev dužine 45 and its ammunition, while a number of
kalibara); razvoj započet 1987. godine, a prekinut self-propelled howitzers cal. 122mm 2S1
1991. godine. (Gvozdljika) were procured to equip
Razvoju navedenih modela oruđa prethodila je real- mechanized units. In addition, a lim-
izacija projekta konverzije ruskog vučenog topa ited num-
130mm u konvertovani top
155mm M46/84, za
potrebe izvoza. ber of towed
Razvoj konver- guns cal. 152mm D-20 were purchased from

Vučena haubica 122mm D-30J Towed howitzer cal. 122mm D-30J
U postupku pripreme serijske proizvodnje (1975/6. godine) In the process of preparation for series production (in
VTI je izvršio modifikacije osnovnog ruskog modela D-30 u 1975/6), VTI carried out modifications of the basic Russian
model D-30J (u cilju olakšanja rada posluge pri prevođenju model D-30 into model D-30J (aimed at facilitating opera-
oruđa iz marševskog u borbeni položaj i smanjenja dejstva tions of the crew during transition from traveling to firing posi-
nadpritiska udarnog talasa barutnih gasova na poslužioce) tion and reducing the effects of powder gases’ overpressure
i razvio novi razorni projektil 122 mm M76 dometa 17,6 km upon the crew), as well as by developing new HE projectile
(domet ruskog projektila OF482 bio je 15,3 km). 122 mm M76 with the range of 17.6 km (compared to maxi-
Kasnije, u prvoj polovini 80-tih godina, u okviru projekta mum range of 15.3 km of Russian round type OF482).
KOL -7, izvršen je kompletan transfer tehnologije Iraku, pro- Later, during early 1980-ies, complete technology transfer
jektovanjem kompletne infrastrukture i osvajanjem proizvod- of D-30J howitzer with associated sighting devices was made
nje modela oruđa D-30J i pripadajućih nišanskih sprava, za to Iraq (Project KOL-7), including design of entire infra-
godišnji kapacitet 200 komada oruđa. stucture and introduction in production, rated for annual
capacity of 200 units.

16
Vučena top-haubica 152mm M84 (NORA-A) Towed gun-howitzer cal. 152mm M84
(Druga generacija – balistički sistem cevi dužine 39 (NORA-A)

INTERVJU - INTERVIEW
kalibara (second generation – ballistic system using barrel of 39 cal-
Razvoj je započet 1976. a posle uspešno završene i u TOC- ibers
u ispitane probne partije oruđe je uvedeno u naoružanje 1984. Development commenced in 1976 and the weapon was
godine. Koncept rešenja oruđa je zasnovan na radikalnoj accepted into service in 1984 after completed testing of trial
modernizaciji ruske haubice 152mm D-20 (povećanje dometa lot by Technical Test Center. Design concept is based on rad-
sa 17 km na 24 km sa standardnim projektilom, odnosno na ically modified Russian howitzer D-20 cal. 152mm (maxi-
preko 28 km sa projektilom sa generatorom gasa, prevođen- mum range extended from 17 km to 24 km with standard pro-
je oruđa iz klase top u klasu top-haubica), sa ciljem da se uz jectile, or over 28 km using base bleed shell; conversion from
maksimalno korišćenje sklopova oruđa prve generacije uz gun to gun-howitzer class). The object was to create an
minimalno povećanje mase realizuje avangardno rešenje advanced second-generation weapon of performances equal-
oruđa druge generacije, jednako po performansama svetskim ing the best in the world, while retaining maximum number
ekvivalentima. Za uspešno rešenje oruđa NORA-A pukovnik of assemblies from the fist generation weapon and with only
Anastas Paligorić, rukovodilac projekta dobio je 1984. godine slight increment of unit’s mass. For successful realization of
nagradu „22 decembar“. NORA-A system, project leader Colonel Anastas Paligorić,
Kao član radne grupe za program modernizacije naše artil- was awarded annual prize “22nd December” in 1984.
jerije rukovodilac projekta NORA predlagao je da kalibar As a member of the working group for modernization of our
novog oruđa bude 155 mm zbog: logističke kompatibilnosti sa artillery, project leader of NORA project proposed adopting
oruđem 155 mm M65, većeg izvoznog potencijala oruđa čiji of caliber 155mm for the new weapon, with consideration of
kalibar odgovara NATO standardu, a i zbog potrebe da sis- logistical compatibility with existing cal. 155mm M65 how-
tem vatrene podrške može da bude potencijalno podržan od itzers, higher export potential for weapon using NATO stan-
strane zemalja NATO i SSSR-a (po jedan istočni i zapadni dard caliber and considering the need that fire support sys-
kalibar); ipak, usvojen je kalibar 152 mm, u skladu sa voj- tem could be potentially supported both by NATO and USSR
nopolitičkom orijentacijom i opredeljenjem JNA i državnih (one Western and one Eastern caliber); nevertheless deci-
organa SFRJ u to vreme. sion was reached to adopt caliber 152mm, in line with mili-
tary-political orientation and the position of YPA and state
tovanog topa realizovan je u poslovno-tehničkoj saradnji SDPR authorities at the time.
sa internacionalnom kompanijom SRC, čiji je vlasnik i glavni
projektant bio dr Geri Bul (poznati naučnik i vizionar, pro- the USSR with their engineering documentation so that, based
jektant artiljerijskog sistema HARP kojim je u orbitu oko on advanced design of the D-20 gun, development of towed
zemlje lansiran satelit). gun-howitzer cal. 152mm M84 (code named NORA-A) was
Program NORA nastavljen je razvojem samopokretnog topa initiated.
152 mm NORA-C, čije je balističko rešenje bilo bazirano na Today, with sufficient time distance, it is possible to con-
rešenju konvertovanog topa 155 mm M46/84. clude that decisions taken then represented a sound compro-
Razvoj poslednjeg oruđa u programu NORA, samohodnog mise between “command” measures (rapid equipping of units
topa 152 mm NORA-B bio je iniciran taktičkom potrebom with imported arms) and “programmed” needs (domestic devel-
da se u formacije mehanizovanih jedinica uvedu samohod- opment and indigenous manufacture of weapons, ammuni-
na artiljerijska oruđa povećane pokretljivosti, koja automa- tion and associated computerized and optoelectronic equip-
tizacijom funkcija opsluživanja treba da obezbede kraće ment). Program implementation in the segment of develop-
vreme reagovanja sistema i povećanu verovatnoću preživlja- ment was entrusted to MTI of land forces which employed
vanja na vatrenom položaju. technically competent cadre (consisting of medium generation
Razmatrane su tri varijante rešenja: samohodni top sa engineers and a number of selected talented young engineers),
kupolom ugrađenom na šasiju tenka M84; samohodni top
Converted towed gun cal. 155mm M46/84
Vučeni konvertovani top 155mm M46/84 (Third generation – ballistic system employing barrel of 45
(Treća generacija – balistički sistem cevi dužine 45 calibers)
kalibara) Subject of the project and business-technical cooperation
Program razvoja imao je sledeće faze: (a) - konverzija consisted of the following phases: (a) conversion of Russian
ruskog topa 130 mm M46 ugradnjom cevi 155 mm dužine 45 cal. 130mm gun M46 by retrofit of cal. 155mm barrel, 45 cal-
kalibara sa barutnom komorom zapremine 23 dm3; (b) – ibers long, and powder chamber of 23 dm3; (b) acquisition of
osvajanje novih barutnih punjenja M11 i M2 za novopro- new propellant charges M11 and M2 for newly designed
jektovanu produženu mesinganu čauru i projektil 155 mm extended length brass cartridge case and new 155mm pro-
tipa ERFB-BB; (v) – osvajanje proizvodnje generatora gasa jectile of ERFB-BB type; (v) acquisition and production of
po licencnoj dokumentaciji dobijenoj po ugovoru sa firmom base bleed device against licence documentation contracted
SRC; (g) – ispitivanje konvertovanog topa 155mm i projek- with SRC Company; (g) testing of converted gun cal. 155mm
tila ERFB-BB (sa jedinicom BB strane i domaće proizvod- and ERFB-BB projectile (fitted with BB units of domestic and
nje). U postupku ispitivanja 1983/84. godine bilo je ispaljeno foreign manufacture). During the testing in 1983/84 about 800
oko 800 metaka. rounds were fired.
Glavne borbene prednosti konvertovanog topa M46/84 u Main advantages in combat of converted gun M46/84 com-
odnosu na top M46 su : (a) – povećanje dometa za oko 45% pared to original M46 are: (a) – increased range by about
(sa 27km na 39km); (b) – povećana efikasnost parčadnog 45% (from 27 km to 39 km); (b) fragmentation effect on tar-
dejstva projektila na cilju za čak 3 puta! get increased as much as 3 times!

17
Samopokretni top 152mm NORA-C Mobile gun cal. 152mm NORA-C
Na prototip oruđa bio je ugrađen sklop cevi konvertovanog A prototype of the gun was fitted with barrel assembly from the
INTERVJU - INTERVIEW

topa M46/84 u kalibru 152mm (dužina cevi 46 kalibara). converted gun M46/84 in caliber 152mm (length of barrel 46 cal-
Projektovan je novi gornji lafet i poluautomatski potiskivač ibers). New upper carriage and semi-automatic projectile thruster
projektila. Na donji lafet oruđa bila je ugrađena pogonska were designed. Lower carriage was outfitted with power plant
grupa (sa dizel motorom snage 76 kW, proizvodnje IMR (diesel engine developing 76 kW, made by IMR Beograd) to pow-
Beograd), radi opsluživanja automatizovanih funkcija oruđa er automated functions of the gun (transition from traveling to fir-
(prevođenje iz marševskog u borbeni položaj i sopstvenog ing position and limited autonomous movement within fire posi-
kretanja po vatrenom položaju. Prenos snage pri samostal- tion). Power transmission during autonomous movement achieved
nom kretanju se vršio preko hidromotora velike snage through hydraulic motors of high power, mounted in undercar-
ugrađenih u točkove vozila. Brzina kretanja sa samostalnim riage wheel hubs. Travel velocity with autonomous propulsion
pogonom bila je do 14 km/sat. was measured up to 14 km/h.

sa kupolom ugrađenom na šasiju novog terenskog automo- had stable resources for financing of development programs
bila formule 8x8 (sa bočnim prenosom transmisije) i samo- (highest investing in defence-related research and develop-
hodni top sa «otvorenom» ugradnjom (bez kupole) naoružan- ment in the second Yugoslavia was during late 1970-ies – about
ja na platformu točkaškog vozila FAP 2832 formule 8x8. $ 20,000 per one research worker a year).
Usvojena je varijanta otvorene ugradnje naoružanja, najpo- Within development project of the base fire support weapon
voljnija sa stanovišta cena-efikasnost. Izvršenom analizom NORA, the plan was to develop, in addition to basic version of
bilo je utvrđeno da je cena samohodnog topa sa otvorenom towed NORA-A, two additional versions in cal. 152mm with
ugradnjom naoružanja na platformu vozila 8x8 samo za oko appropriate ammunition, namely:
20 do 30% veća od cene vučenog topa i formacijskog vozila Locally mobile gun cal. 152mm NORA-C (with barrel of 45
za vuču oruđa. Varijanta samohodnog topa sa kupolom calibers); development started in 1985, terminated in 1991,
ugrađenom na šasiju novoprojektovanog vozila 8x8 bila je Self-propelled gun cal. 152mm NORA-B (with barrel of 45
skuplja za oko 2,2 puta, a varijanta samohodnog topa sa calibers); development started in 1987, terminated in 1991.
kupolom ugrađenom na šasiju tenka M84 bila je za oko 4 Development of above mentioned artillery weapons was pre-
puta skuplja od usvojene varijante rešenja. ceded by realization of conversion of the Russian towed gun
cal. 130mm into converted gun cal. 155mm M46/84 intended
Taktičkom analizom upotrebe artiljerijskih sistema for export. Development of the converted gun has been real-
pokazano je da se klasični i raketni sistemi vatrene podrške ized as business-technical cooperation between SDPR and
skladno dopunjavaju, sa specifičnostima u tretiranju odgo- international company SRC, headed by its owner and chief
varajućih ciljeva i izvršavanju tipičnih borbenih zadataka. designer Mr. Gerald Bull (well-known scientist and visionary,

18
Samohodna top-haubica 152mm NORA-B Self-propelled gun-howitzer cal. 152mm
Idejno rešenje oruđa NORA-B bilo je inicirano taktičkim NORA-B

INTERVJU - INTERVIEW
zahtevom da se smanji dužina na maršu tandema vučeno Preliminary design of the weapon NORA-B was initiated
oruđe – formacijsko vozilo, što je bila jedna od mana oruđa by tactical requirement to reduce physical length in travel-
NORA-C. ing position of the tractor-towed gun combination, which
Koncepcija rešenja - otvorena ugradnja (bez kupole) was a drawback of NORA-C system.
naoružanja na platformu točkaškog vozila FAP 2832 formule Conceptual solution – open, turretless mounting on chas-
8x8. Koncept „top natovaren na vozilo“ (Truck-Mounted sis of wheeled truck 8x8 FAP 2832. The concept of truck-
Gun), po prvi put u Evropi i svetu lansirali su (1987. godine) mounted gun was launched for the first time in Europe and
projektanti beogradske škole razvoja artiljerijskih oruđa in the world (in year 1987) by designers of the Belgrade
(nekoliko godina kasnije pojavilo se francusko oruđe school of development of artillery weapons (several years lat-
CAEZAR, zatim izraelsko ATMOS i druga, po istom kon- er French system CAESAR appeared, followed by Israeli
ceptu). ATMOS and others, all based on the same concept).
Konstrukcija rešenja - maksimalna unifikacija sklopa Design solution: maximum standardization of base weapon
osnovnog naoružanja sa oruđem NORA-C (sklop cevi 152 assemblies with those of NORA-C (barrel assembly cal.
mm dužine 45 kalibara, protivtrzajući uređaj, gornji lafet i 152mm, length 45 calibers, recoil damper, upper carriage
poluautomatski punjač), sa mogućnošću da se konvertuje u and semi-automatic loader), with capability of converting to
kalibar 155 mm. cal. 155mm.

Shodno tome u periodu od 1970 do 1987. godine u naoružan- designer of HARP artillery system designed to launch satellite
je JNA i za potrebe izvoza realizovana su dva respektabilna in earth orbit).
sistema samohodnih višecevnih lansera raketa. Program NORA continued with the development of limited
mobility gun cal. 152mm NORA-C ballistics of which being
Vreme sadašnje - „Jugoimport-SDPR“, lider based on the solution of converted gun cal. 155 mm M46/84.
razvoja i proizvodnje artiljerijskih oruđa
Imajući u vidu iskazan interes potencijalnog kupca u drugoj polovi-
ni 2002. godine »Jugoimport-SDPR« doneo odluku da se pristupi Self-propelled multiple rocket launcher cal.
128mm M77 „Oganj“
Samohodni višecevni lanser raketa 128mm 128 mm Multiple Rocket Launcher has been developed in
M77 „Oganj“ order to enforce the fire support combat system with a weapon
Višecevi lanser raketa 128mm razvijen je sa ciljem da se suitable for rapid and powerful division artillery action against
borbeni sistem vatrene podrške popuni sredstvom pogodnim area targets of tactical value. The launcher has a 32-barrel
za brzo i snažno dejstvo divizijske artiljerije na površinske container, and the loader with the container carrying the same
ciljeve taktičkog značaja. Lanser ima kontejner sa 32 cevi, a number of barrels makes it possible to fire the seocond salvo
punjač sa kontejnerom koji nosi isti broj cevi i raketa omoguća- in a very short time after the first one, at the maximum range
va da se u vrlo kratkom vremenskom intervalu posle prvog of 20 km. The weapon subsystem is mounted on 6x6 FAP 2026
ispali i drugi rafal raketa na maksimalni domet od 20km. cross-country vehicle.
Podsistem naoružanja je ugrađen na terensko vozilo FAP Oganj system was introduced in the Yugoslav People's Army
2026, formule 6x6. (YPA) in 1977. With high level of service automation, it
Sistem „Oganj“ uveden je u naoružanje JNA 1977. godine, belongs to the most successful international solutions. For the
a po visokom nivou automatizovanih funkcija opsluživanja masterly development of Oganj the then colonel (later major
na nivou je najuspešnijih svetskih rešenja. Za uspešan razvoj general) Obrad Vucurovic was awarded the «22 December»
sistema „Oganj“ tada pukovnik (kasnije general-major) prize.
Obrad Vučurović dobio je nagradu „22 decembar“.
Self-propelled multiple rocket launcher cal.
Samohodni višecevni lanser raketa 262mm 262mm „Orkan“
„Orkan“ The development of 262 mm multiple rocket launcher Orkan
Razvoj višecevnog lansera raketa 262mm „Orkan“ započet started in 1980 within the frame of the commercial-technical
je 1980. godine, u okviru poslovno-tehničke saradnje SDPR cooperation between SDPR and Iraq (Project: KOL-15). This
sa Irakom (projekat KOL-15). Ovaj vrlo ambiciozan pro- very ambitious project dealing with fully automated long-
jekat potpuno automatizovanog raketnog sistema velikog range (50 km) 12-barrel rocket launcher, featuring high
dometa (50km) sa 12 lansirnih cevi, sa velikim manevarskim maneuveribility, ranks this system among the most powerful
sposobnostima svrstava ga u red najmoćnijih svetskih tak- surface-to-surface tactical rocket systems in the world. Owing
tičkih rakertnih sistema zemlja-zemlja. Primenjen pogon, to its propulsion, rocket accuracy, efficient cargo warheads
dostignuta preciznost rakete, efikasnost kasernih bojnih gla- and TV correction providing for accurate terminal efficien-
va i korišćenje televizijskog korektora koji obezbeđuje tačnost cy, this unguided rocket system stands high among other sim-
dejstva svrstavaju ga u najuspešnija rešenja sistema ilar solutions.
nevođenih raketa. The designer of the “Orkan” system and the leader of the
Idejni tvorac rešenja sistema „Orkan“ i rukovodilac zajed- joint Yugoslav-Iraqi team was Major General Obrad
ničkog jugoslovensko-iračkog tima bio je general-major Obrad Vučurević and a number of research workers and designers
Vučurović, a u projektu su učestvovali brojni istraživači i from Yugoslav companies and institutes participated in the
projektanti iz jugoslovenskih preduzeća i instituta. project.

19
Samohodna top-haubica 155mm NORA-B52- Self-propelled gun-howitzer cal. 155mm
verzija K0 NORA-B52-version K0
(Četvrta generacija – balistički sistem cevi (fourth generation – ballistic system with

INTERVJU - INTERVIEW
dužine 52 kalibara) barrel of 52 calibers)
U toku razvoja oruđa verzije K0 izvršene su bitne kon- In the course of development of K0 version essential con-
cepcijske i konstrukcijske izmene u cilju otklanjanja nedostata- ceptual and design changes have been introduced, to elimi-
ka na PT oruđa verzije NORA-B52 i to: nate shortcomings noted on prototype of the NORA-B52 ver-
o Umesto vozila FAP 2832 koristi se vozilo KAMAZ 63501, sion, namely:
formule 8x8. o Truck FAP 2832 was replaced with truck KAMAZ
o U cilju: (a) - smanjenja vibracija i ubrzanja koja se 63501, 8x8 wheel drive.
prenose na nepokretnu i pokretnu platformu vozila, odnosno o Objective: (a) – to reduce vibration and accelera-
na poslužioce oruđa koji stoje na tim platformama; (b) – sman- tion transmitted to fixed and movable platforms of the vehi-
jenja vremena prevođenja oruđa iz marševskog u borbeni cle, i.e. on crew members standing on these platforms; (b) -
položaj i obrnuto; (c) – smanjenja broja poslužioca, fizičkog to reduce weapon’s time of transition from traveling to firing
naprezanja i bezbednog rada poslužilaca pri prevođenju position, and vice versa; (c) – to reduce number of operators,
oruđa iz marševskog u borbeni položaj, posle izvršenih raču- their physical strain and to enhance safety of operators engaged
narskih provera i dopunskih ispitivanja gađanjem odlučeno in transition from traveling to firing position. After carrying
je: out computer calculations and performing additional firing
- da se promeni sistem oslanjanja vozila pri gađanju; tests, it was decided:
umesto krutog oslanjanja na stope i krakove usvojeno je polue- - to change the weapon support system during firing: instead
lastično oslanjanje na dva kraka i dve stope (sa ugrađenim of rigid support by outriggers and trails, semi-elastic support
teleskopskim cilindrima sa gasnom fazom) i točkove vozila. was adopted consisting of two trails and two outriggers (with
o Da bi se: (a) - izbeglo stajanje poslužilaca oruđa na telescopic gas operated cylinders) and wheels of the truck.
pokretnoj i nepokretnoj platformi oruđa, a time i prenošenje o Objective: (a) – to avoid standing of crew members
na njih vibracija i ubrzanja pri gađanju; (b) - izbegla on fixed and movable platforms; (b) - to avoid safety haz-
mogućnost nebezbednog rukovanja municijom pri stavljan- ards in handling of ammunition while projectile is placed on
ju projektila na kašiku poluautomatskog punjača i ručnog receiver of semi-automatic loader and during manual plac-
stavljanja barutnog punjenja u ležište metka u cevi; (c) – ing of propelling charge in ammunition chamber; (c) – to
povećala brzina gađanja, a posebno obezbedilo brzo izvršen- increase the rate of fire and, in particular, to ensure rapid fir-
je kratkog vatrenog udara sa najmanje 6 do najviše 12 meta- ing strikes of minimum 6 and maximum 12 rounds; it was
ka, odlučeno je: decided:
- da se umesto poluautomatskog razvije i ugradi - instead of semi-automatic loader, to develop and install
automatski punjač projektila i barutnih punjenja (sa dve automatic loader of projectiles and propelling charges (con-
kasete u kojima su po 12 projektila i barutnih punjenja). sisting of two cassettes, each containing 12 projectiles and 12
o Bitno je izmenjena arhitektura ugradnje naoružanja, tako charges).
što se nepokretni prsten ležaja ugrađuje u dopunski ram vozi- o Architecture of weapon mount was significantly changed,
la, a pokretni prsten vezuje za pokretnu platformu. Na pokret- so that fixed ring of the bearing is now attached to vehicle
nu platformu je ugrađeno zvono donjeg lafeta (čija unutrašn- sub-frame and rotating ring is attached to movable platform.
jost služi za smeštaj opreme hidro i električne instalacije Mounted on movable platform is lower carriage cup (that
oruđa), na čiju se gornju ploču vezuje gornji lafet oruđa. accommodates hydraulic and electrical installations for the
o Na pokretnu platformu, ispred desne kasete punjača, weapon), upper plate of which is attached to weapon’s upper
ugrađena je kabina za komandira oruđa, sa sedištem i carriage.
nosačem displeja komandira. Ispred leve kasete punjača o Attached to movable platform, in front of loader right-
ugrađena je kabina za nišandžiju, sa sedištem i nosačem dis- hand cassette, is gun commander’s cab, provided with a seat
pleja nišandžije i ručica za elektrohidraulično pokretanje cevi and commander’s display console. In front of loader left-hand
topa po visini i pravcu; ostali članovi posade prevoze se u cassette is gunner’s cab with a seat, gunner’s display console
kabini vozača (vozač i dva operatora). and handle for electro-hydraulic laying of gun barrel in ele-
o Na nepokretnu platformu ugrađeni su kontejneri za smeš- vation and azimuth. Other crew members are transported in
taj preostalog dela borbenog kompleta (BK) i to: kontejner za driver’s cab which accommodates the driver and two opera-
smeštaj preostalog dela projektila i barutnih punjenja iz BK tors.
(po 24 komada). o Mounted on fixed platform are containers storing balance
o Novi sistem oslanjanja oruđa pri gađanju, uz konstruk- quantity of the combat set, namely 24 projectiles and 24 pro-
cione izmene na pokretnoj i nepokretnoj platformi vozila i pelling charges.
zvonu donjeg lafeta, omogućio je: (a) - da se u osnovnom sek- o New system of weapon support during firing, now enables:
toru dejstva (suprotno smeru kretanja vozila) poveća polje (a) - in main sector of action (opposite from the direction of
dejstava po visini od - 3° do + 65°, uz zadržavanje polja vehicle movement) an increment in elevation of the field of
dejstva po pravcu levo do + 30° i desno do + 30°; (b) – da action from –3o to +65o while retaining the same field of action
se uvede i pomoćni sektor dejstva (u smeru kretanja vozila, in azimuth of +30o to the left and +30o to the right; (b) –
gađanjem preko kabine vozača) i to polje dejstva po visini od introduction of secondary field of action (in the direction of
+ 20° do + 65°, a po pravcu levo do + 25° i desno do + 25°. vehicle movement, firing over driver’s cab) of +20o to +65o
o Uvođenje automatskog punjača zahtevalo je da se umesto in elevation, and in azimuth of +25o to the left and +25o to
ručnog uvede poluautomatsko otvaranje zatvarača i da se the right.
ugradi sistem za automatsko punjenje i opaljivanje kapisli. o Introduction of automatic gun loader necessitated

21
o Određivanje stajne tačke oruđa vrši se pomoću GPS ure- incorporation of semi-automatic breech opening, instead of
đaja ugrađenog u GD (Gun displey), a komunikacija sa manual, and fitting of a system for automatic loading and fir-
INTERVJU - INTERVIEW

komandnim mestom se održava pomoću radio modema ing of gun primers.
ugrađenog u GD. Antene radio modema i GPS-a ugrađene o Weapon position is determined by means of GPS
su spolja na kabinu komandira. device built in gun display (GD) while communication with
o Usmeravanje oruđa vrši se goniometrom sa optičkom command post is made possible by modem incorporated in
spravom G-RS (ovaj uređaj je sastavni deo SUV), a određen GD. Radio modem and GPS antennas are externally mount-
osnovni pravac oruđa se materijalizuje kolimatorom. ed on driver’s cab.
o Weapon laying is by means of direction finder with
finansiranju razvoja samohodnog oruđa 155 mm NORA-B52 četvrte optical device G-RS (this device is an integral part of FCS);
generacije (balistički sistem cevi dužine 52 kalibara), čiji domet tre- weapon main course is materialized with collimator.
ba da bude veći od 41 km (korišćenjem municije koju čine projek-
til tipa ERFB-BB i barutno punjenje zona 10). Development of the last version in NORA project, self-pro-
U prvoj fazi razvoja doveden je u radno stanje FM samohodnog pelled gun cal. 152mm NORA-B was initiated by tactical require-
oruđa 152 mm NORA-B i kompletiran sistemom za upravljanje ment to introduce self-propelled artillery weapons of enhanced
vatrom. mobility in mechanized formations, which, owing to adopted
U drugoj fazi razvoja izvršeno je prevođenje FM oruđa 152 mm automated procedures, would ensure shorter response time of
NORA-B u FM samohodnog oruđa 155 mm NORA-B52 (izradom the system and improve survivability at fire position.
i ugradnjom cevi 155 mm dužine 52 kalibara i izvršenjem drugih Three options of the system were in consideration: self-pro-
neophodnih dorada i unapređenja FM). Posle internog ispitivanja pelled gun with turret, mounted on chassis of M84 tank;
FM oruđa NORA-B52 pristupilo se razvoju i ispitivanju prototipa self-propelled gun with turret, mounted on newly developed
samohodnog oruđa 155 mm NORA-B52-verzija K0, baterijskog 8x8 wheeled vehicle (with transmission train mounted at vehi-
sistema za upravljanje i komandovanje vatrom, kao i municije sa cle sides) and self-propelled, open mounted gun (without
razornim projektilima 155 mm tipa ERFB-BT i ERFB-BB i weapon turret), mounted on 8x8 truck FAP 2832. The version
monoblok sagorljivim barutnim punjenjem zona 10. finally adopted was open mounted weapon which was most
acceptable from the aspect of cost effectiveness. Conducted
„Jugoimport-SDPR“ je u periodu posle 2002. godine ostvario analysis indicated that the cost of open-mounted gun fitted on
značajne reference u oblasti razvoja, remonta i serijske proizvodnje chassis of 8x8 truck is only 20-30% higher than the cost of towed
novih i modernizovanih artiljerijskih oruđa: gun and its towing tractor. The variant of turreted gun mount-
- Samohodna top-haubica 155mm NORA-B52-K0; za poz- ed on specially designed wheeled carrier 8 x 8 would be about
natog kupca je izrađeno i isporučeno do sada 18 komada oruđa; u 2,2 times the cost of first version, while turreted gun mounted
toku je završna montaža i prijem gađanjem poslednjeg lota od 6 on M84 tank chassis would cost about 4 times the price of adopt-
komada oruđa. ed version.
- Metak sa projektilom 155mm tipa ERFB-BB i monoblok
sagorljivim barutnim punjenjem zona 10; za poznatog kupca je Present time - „Jugoimport-SDPR“, leader
izrađeno i isporučeno do sada 3000 komada metaka. in development and production of artillery
- Baterijski sistem za upravljanje i komandovanje vatrom weapons
namenjen za sistem NORA-B52; u sastavu sistema je oprema
(optoelektonski laserski osmatrački senzori, računari, pokazivači ele- With consideration of the interest expressed by potential buy-
menata gađanja na oruđima, uređaji za usmeravanje oruđa, komu- er in the second half of 2002, “Jugoimport-SDPR” decided to
nikaciona oprema) za dva osmatračka mesta, jedno komandno mesto undertake financing of development of self-propelled gun cal.
baterije i za 6 oruđa baterije; za poznatog kupca je izrađeno i 155mm NORA-B52 of the fourth generation (ballistic system
isporučeno do sada četiri baterijska kompleta. using barrel of 52 calibers) that would have maximum range in
excess of 41 km (utilizing projectiles type ERFB-BB and zone
10 propellant). First phase consisted of bring-
ing in serviceable condition functional model
(FM) of self-propelled weapon cal. 152mm
NORA-B and completing it with fire control sys-
tem. In second phase, FM of the weapon cal.
152mm NORA-B was converted to FM of self-
propelled weapon 155 mm NORA-B52 (by fab-
rication and mounting of cal. 155mm barrel 52
calibers long and by performing necessary
reworking and modifications of FM ). After inter-
nal testing of NORA-B52 FM, “Jugoimport-
SDPR” went ahead with development and test-
ing of the cal. 155mm prototype of self-propelled
weapon NORA B52 version K0, of battery fire
control and command system, of cal. 155mm
ammunition with HE shells type ERFB-BT and
ERFB-BB and of monoblock combustible pro-
pelling charge zone 10.

22
In the period following year 2002 “Jugoimport-
SDPR” had secured other references in
Ispitivanje samohodne top-haubice 155mm Testing of self-propelled gun-howitzer cal.
NORA-B52, 8. decembar 2005. godine 155mm NORA-B52, 8th of December 2005

INTERVJU - INTERVIEW
Mesto vatrenog položaja – Poligon Crni Rt iznad Sutomora Venue of fire position – Crni Rt range above Sutomore
Projektil mase 48 kg, ispaljen iz osam metara dugačke cevi Projectile weighing 48 kg, fired from 8 meters long barrel
samohodne top-haubice 155 mm NORA-B52, krenuo je „nebu of self-propelled gun-howitzer NORA-B52, caliber 155, head-
pod oblake“- na svoj put za istoriju. Prisutni ovom događa- ed for the sky on its historical journey. Witnesses of the event
ju zadivljeno pogledom u nebo prate svetleći trag generato- watch with admiration bright trail in the sky of base bleed
ra gasa ugrađenog u dno projektila. Dole, visoki talasi mora device fitted to shell base. Way down, tall waves of the
Jadranskog zapljuskuju hridine stenovite uvale, jak i hladan Adriatic crash against rocky coast cove, strong, cold wind
vetar praćen olujnom kišom čupa i diže u vazduh krila šato- bears heavy rain, detaches and lifts in the air tent fly of Crni
ra komandnog mesta na Crnom Rtu, a majstori Goran, Paja, Vrh command post while specialists Goran, Paja, Žika and
Žika i Rale iz VTI i Kompanije LOLA, mokri i blatnjavi, Rale from MTI and LOLA Company, drenched and mud cov-
prkosno stoje iza oruđa, i - brišu znoj sa čela! Sa zebnjom ered, defiantly stand behind the gun – wiping sweat from their
čekamo izveštaj sa osmatračnice koja je u brdima iznad foreheads! With apprehension, we await report from obser-
Platamuna. Vreme leta projektila, duže od 120 sekundi, sporo vation post located in the hills above Platamun. Time of pro-
protiče. Najzad, javljaju – domet je veći od 43 km. jectile flight, over 120 seconds, seems to run slow. Finally,
Svi su značajno radosni i čestitaju jedan drugom. Niko od report announces – achieved range is over 43 km.
prisutnih, a to je ta životna nepravda, nije se tog trenutka Everyone is elated, congratulating each other. None of those
setio da u ovom uspehu pobednika ima i znoja livaca present, as injustices of life would have it, remembered at that
beogradske topolivnice u Donjem gradu. Davno, pre dva moment that the achievement just witnessed contains the sweat
veka neki drugi Rale i Žika odlili su kratku cev od četiri funte of casting workers from Belgrade gun foundry in Donji grad.
za top „Hajduk“ i isto se tako pobednički radovali. Ipak, sve Long time ago, two centuries before, some other Rale and Žika
je različito, drugo je sada vreme i drugačije su tehnologije, took part in similar celebration after casting short barrel of
samo je vonj znoja srpskih majstora isti! the 4-pounder gun “Hajduk”. Although everything is differ-
ent, times and technologies are changed, only the odor of sweat
- Modernizovana jugoslovenska haubica 105mm M56/33 (ugrad- of Serbian artisans remains the same!
njom modernizacionog seta i upotrebom novoprojektovanih pro-
jektila domet povećan na čak 18,2 km); za poznate kupce je izrađeno development, overhaul and series production of new and upgrad-
164 komada oruđa, do sada isporučeno 134 a preostaje isporuka još ed artillery pieces:
30 komada; - Self-propelled 155 mm gun-howitzer NORA-B52-K0 – 18
- Modernizovana američka haubica 105mm M101/33; za poz- weapons have been made and delivered to a customer. Final
natog kupca je izrađeno i isporučeno 36 komada; assembly and firing tests of the last lot of 6 weapons are in
- Metak sa optimiziranim projektilom 105mm HE-ER M02; za progress.
poznatog kupca je izrađeno i isporučeno 5000 komada; - Round with 155 mm projectile, type ERFB-BB, with
- Metak sa optimiziranim projektilom sa generatorom gasa 105mm monoblock combustible cartridge case zone 10- 3000 rounds
HE-ERBB M02; za poznatog kupca je izrađeno i isporučeno 5000 have been made and delivered to a customer.
komada; - Battery command and control system intended for NORA-
- Minobacač 120mm M74; ugovorena značajna količina za poz- B52 – the system includes equipment (optoelectronic laser sur-
natog kupca, a do sada je izrađeno i isporučeno kupcu 30 komada; veillance sensors, computers, gun-based firing data visualisa-
- Završen je razvoj i osvojena tehnologija serijske izrade samo- tion, laying mechanisms, communications equipment) for two
hodnog višecevnog lansera raketa sa softiciranim rešenjem uređa- observation posts, one battery command post and for 6 battery
ja za pokretanje, optoelektornskih uređaja za upravljanje vatrom i weapons. Four battery kits have been made and delivered to a
navigaciju oruđa, uključujući i automatski tragač severa. customer.
- Upgraded Yugoslav-built howitzer cal. 105 mm M56/33
Tendencije daljeg razvoja artiljerijskih sistema (with installation of modernization kit and when firing newly
designed projectiles, maximum range of the weapon is extend-
Dalji razvoj samohodnih oruđa vatrene podrške zasigurno će ići ed to 18.2 km); total of 164 such upgraded weapons have been
u pravcu povećanja dometa, skraćenja vremena reagovanja i sman- ordered by known customers, 134 units have been delivered so
jenja broja članova posade, smanjenja mase u cilju ostvarenja veće far and 30 pieces remain to be shipped;
pokretljivosti oruđa na terenu i višeg nivoa taktičke pokretljivosti - Upgraded US-built howitzer cal. 105mm M101/33; 36 units
(vazdušni transport), uvođenja u upotrebu novih tipova municije have been reworked and delivered to known customer;
posebne namene sa ciljem da se oruđa podrške osposobe i za duge - Round with optimized projectile cal. 105mm HE-ER M02;
namene (neutralisanje oklopljenih ciljeva na velikim daljinama, 5000 rounds were made and supplied to a customer;
gađanje pokretnih ciljeva), povećanje preciznosti i tačnosti sistema - Round with optimized base bleed projectile cal. 105mm
municija-oruđe. Navedeni trendovi će se ostvariti većim stepenom HE-ERBB M02; 5000 rounds of this model were produced and
robotizacije i automatizacije funkcija sklopova oruđa, grafičkim prika- delivered to a customer;
zom borbene situacije na svakom oruđu, uvođenjem novih osma- - Mortar cal. 120mm M74; significant number contracted
tračkih i drugih senzora u SUV, uvođenjem u upotrebu novih osma- with one customer, 30 units produced and delivered so far;
tračkih i drugih senzora u sistem za upravljanje vatrom, primenom - Completed development and finalized technology for series
novih materijala i tehnologija za izradu vitalnih delova oruđa. production of self-propelled multiple rocket launcher that incor-
Konkretno, navodimo nekoliko atraktivnih projekata iz plana razvo- porates sophisticated laying equipment, optoelectronic fire con-
ja „Jugoimport-SDPR” u segmentu artiljerijskih sistema: trol and weapon navigation system that includes automatic seek-

23
er of the North.
Razvoj prototipa oruđa NORA-B52-verzija K1 na kome će se
povećati nivo automatizacije oruđa i koje će moći da koristi novu Trends in further developments of artillery
INTERVJU - INTERVIEW

municiju većeg dometa i municiju posebne namene. Prva i neposred- systems
na faza modernizacije je da se primenom koncepta «automatske
nišanske linije» (oprema za usmeravanje i navigaciju oruđa na bazi Further developments in self-propelled fire support artillery
GPS i / ili INS tehnologije, oprema za automatsko praćenje cilja na weapons will undoubtedly focus on further increase of firing
bazi digitalnih senzora i procesora) skrati vreme reagovanja sistema range, shorter reaction time and reduced number of operators,
i poveća tačnost gađanja. Ono što je nekada bilo san vrlo brzo će biti on further reduction of weapon mass for higher terrain mobil-
realnost – sve funkcije oruđa biće automatizovane, sa daljinskim ity and greater tactical mobility (transport by air), development
upravljanjem svih funkcija oruđa – vojnik će biti isključen iz petlje of dedicated munitions for other applications by support
upravljanja. weapons (neutralization of armor at long ranges, engaging of
moving targets), higher precision and accuracy of ammuni-
Osvajanje novih projektila za municijski komplet uvođenjem u tion-weapon system. These trends may be achieved with
upotrebu kasetnog projektila dvostruke namene (dejstvo protiv oklo- increased use of robots and automation in operation of weapon
pljenih ciljeva i žive sile). Već sada iz postojeće cevi oruđa NORA- assemblies, by graphic presentation of combat situation avail-
B52-K0 može da se lansira ruski sistem rakete KRASNOPOLJ u able on every gun, by introduction of novel surveillance and oth-
kalibru 155 mm, laserski navođen za završnom delu putanje. er sensors in FCS and fire commanding, by application of new
U saradnji sa beogradskom firmom EdePro započet je razvoj materials and technologies in production of vital components
novog projektila 155 mm sa ugrađenim raketnim motorom i gen- of artillery weapons.
eratorom gasa. Projektovani domet novog domaćeg projektila oznake As a case in point, we will outline several promising projects
155 mm RA-BB je oko 50 km iz cevi dužine 52 kalibara sa posto- from “Jugoimport-SDPR” development plan, sector of artillery
jećom zapreminom barutne komore. Novim balističkim rešenjem systems:
sa barutnom komorom zapremine 25 litara domet se može povećati Development of prototype of NORA-B52 weapon, ver-
do preko 58 km. sion K1, that would feature increased level of weapon automa-
Razvoj i osvajanje tehnologije izrade sistema bi-modularnih pun- tion and would be able to fire ammunition of extended range
jenja za municiju 155mm, namenjenih za korišćenje iz cevi dužine and special-purpose ammunition. First, imminent, phase of
39 i 52 kalibara. Do sada su uspešno izvršena ispitivanja prvih i drugih modernization is adopting of “automatic line of sight” concept
probnih komada BMC i TMC punjenja, u sadanji sa preduzećem (weapon laying and navigation based on GPS and/or INS tech-
MBL. nology, automatic target tracking equipment based on digital
Osvajanje proizvodnje samohodnog topa 130mm po koncepciji sensors and processors), reduction of system reaction time and
TMG, na šasiji vozila 8 x 8, u verzijama ručnog i automatizovanog enhanced firing precision. What used to be only imagination
opsluživanja oruđa. will become a reality in the near future – all weapon functions
Razvoj samohodne top-haubice 105mm i 122mm velikog dometa will be automated and remotely
(preko 28km), na šasiji vozila 6 x 6, u verzijama ručnog i automati- controlled and soldier will be
zovanog opsluživanja oruđa. excluded from the control
Razvoj nove generacije minobacača kalibara 81mm i 120mm, loop.
povećanog dometa, pogodnih za ugradnju na platforme različitih Acquisition of
vozila (borbenih, izviđačkih i transportnih). new projectiles for
the combat set,
introduction
of dual-pur-
p o s e
(anti

24
Umesto zaključka – Monolog na FORUMU armor and manpower defeating) cluster projectile. Already now,
it is possible to launch from the barrel of NORA-B52-K0 gun

INTERVJU - INTERVIEW
Kakav, zapravo, treba da bude borbeni sistem artiljerije za podršku? Russian rockets KRASNOPOLJ cal. 155mm that have laser
Evo mogućeg odgovora: guidance in terminal stage. In cooperation with EdePRo com-
• neprekidno spreman za dejstvo po zahtevu korisnika vatre; pany of Belgrade, it is planned to develop new 155mm projec-
• spreman za otvaranje vatre u najkraćem mogućem vremenu; tile with rocket motor and base bleed.
• sposoban da istovremeno dejstvuje na vrlo veliki broj ciljeva; The range of new domestic projectile cal. 155mm, designat-
• veoma visokog intenziteta vatre na veliki broj ciljeva (divizion sa ed RA-BB, is projected to about 50 km, when fired from 52 cal-
tri baterije od četiri do šest oruđa delovaće u toku jednog časa na 54 iber barrel and current powder chamber volume. New ballis-
različita cilja); tic design with powder chamber of 25-liter volume may signif-
• prihvatljivog odnosa cene i efikasnosti dejstva na tipične utvrđene icantly increase the range to over 58 km.
i neutvrđene ciljeve, odnosno niske cene i troškova izvršavanja bor- Development and acquisition of technology to fabri-
benog zadatka; cate bi-modular propellants for 155mm ammunition, for bar-
• dometi diviziona od tri baterije mora da pokriju front širine naj- rels of 39 and 52 calibers. By now, first and second trial units
manje 50 kilometara; of BMC and TMS charges have been successfully tested in
• po obavljanju jednog borbenog zadatka, odmah spreman da se cooperation with MBL Company.
posveti izvršavanju novog; Acquisition for production of self-propelled gun cal.
• precizan u dejstvu na tačkaste ciljeve - slika rasturanja neće više 130mm employing TMG concept, mounted on 8x8 truck chas-
zavisiti od dometa; sis, including versions with manual and automated weapon
• osposobljen da izazove različite efekte i uništi razne vrste cilje- operation.
va. Development of self-propelled gun howitzers cal.
Veliki dometi, sve širi raspon mogućih vrsta dejstva na sve tipove 105mm and 122mm of extended range (over 28 km), mount-
ciljeva, male mase oruđa, visoka svojstva prohodnosti i pokretljivosti, ed on 6x6 truck chassis, in versions for manual and automated
težnja ka visokom stepenu autonomije oruđa i smanjivanju brojnosti weapon operation.
oruđa u bateriji, stalna trka u modernizovanju postojećih i razvoju Development of new generation of mortars cal. 81mm
novih sistema, ... sve je to, zapravo, rezultat opšteg napretka tehnike and 120mm of extended range, suitable for mounting on dif-
i tehnologije i njihovog stavljanja u službu projektanta i korisnika. ferent vehicles (combat, scout and utility).

Gde će biti kraj? Instead of Conclusion – Monologue at
Možda će neki novi Gerald Bull klonirati vanvremenski top HARP FORUM
i dati mu drugačiju namenu!
Artiljeriji, ipak ostaju vatra i manevar! What should artillery fire support systems be like? Here are
possible answers:
• always ready for action upon request from fire users;
• ready to open fire in shortest possible time;
• able to simultaneously engage large number of targets;
• capable of high intensity fire against large number of tar-
gets (battalion with three batteries, each consisting of four to
six guns, capable of engaging 54 different targets within one
hour);
• acceptable cost-effectiveness ratio when engaging typical
fortified and soft targets, i.e. low cost and expenditures in car-
rying out of combat missions;
• firing range of a battalion with three batteries must be able
to cover the front minimum 50 km wide;
• after completing one combat mission, it shall be ready to
immediately accept new mission;
• precision in action against point targets – hit pattern will
no longer depend on the range;
• capable of causing different effects and annihilation of dif-
ferent kinds of targets;
Longer ranges, expanding range of possible actions against
all types of targets, low weapon mass, superior terrain negoti-
ation and maneuverability, striving toward higher level of weapon
autonomy and reduced number of weapons in a battery, con-
tinuous race to adopt new and to upgrade existing systems ……
all this is the result of overall progress in techniques and tech-
nologies and their placing in the service of designers and end
users.
Where will all this end?
Perhaps a new Gerald Bull will clone a time-free HARP gun
and assign it with different mission!
Artillery, however, will stick to the fire and maneuver!

25
VIŠECEVNI MULTIPLE
RAKETNI SISTEMI ROCKET SYSTEMS

ODBRAMBENE TEHNOLOGIJE - DEFENCE TECHNOLOGIES
MOGUĆNOSTI RAZVOJA I PROIZVODNJE U NAŠOJ PROSPECTS OF THEIR DEVELOPMENT AND PRO-
ZEMLJI DUCTION IN OUR COUNTRY

Piše By
Ristić Predrag, dipl.inž. Predrag Ristić, dipl.inž.

S amohodni, višecevni raketni sistemi se smatraju jed- S elf-propelled, multiple rocket systems are regarded
nim od najefikasnijih borbenih sredstava vatrene podrške as one of the most effective fire support weapon systems
kopnene vojske. Odlikuju se iznenadnim i snažnim vatren- for land forces. They are capable of inflicting surprise
im udarima velike gustine vatre i brzine gađanja, pri čemu and powerful onslaughts with high density and high rate
je isključena mogućnost elektronskog ometanja. Poseduju of fire that is completely immune to any electronic coun-
veliku manevarsku sposobnost, brzo zauzimanje vatrenog termeasures. These systems are distinguished by high
položaja, kratko vreme reakcije i vreme dejstva i brzo mobility, rapid taking of fire positions, short times of
napuštanje vatrenog položaja. Navedene karakteristike u response and engagement and quick evacuation from fire
potpunosti ispunjavaju zahteve savremenog ratovanja. positions. All these features fully meet the requirements
of present-day warfare.
Razvoj višecevnih raketnih sistema u našoj zemlji
započeo je davne 1963. godine. Vojnotehnički institut KoV- Development of multiple rockets systems in our coun-
a je zajedno sa preduzećima namenske industrije razvio try was initiated way back in year 1963. The Military-
pet raketnih sistema koji su usvojeni u naoružanje naše Technical Institute of Land Forces, in cooperation with
vojske. enterprises of the defence industry, was engaged to devel-
op five distinctive rocket systems that were later adopt-
- Višecevni bacač raketa 128mmM63 ”Plamen” ed into service with our army:
maksimalnog dometa 8,6km,
- Samohodni, višecevni raketni sistem 128mm M77 - Multiple rocket launcher cal. 128mm M63
”Oganj”, maksimalnog dometa 20,6km, ”Plamen”, with maximum range of 8.6km;
- Samohodni, višecevni raketni sistem 262mm M87 - Self-propelled multiple rocket system cal. 128mm
”Orkan”, maksimalnog dometa 50km, M77 ”Oganj”, with maximum range of 20.6km;
- Samohodni, višecevni raketni sistem 128mm M94 - Self-propelled multiple rocket system cal. 262mm
”Plamen-S ”, maksimalnog dometa 12,5km i M87 ”Orkan”, with maximum range of 50km,
- Lanser raketa, samohodni, četvorocevni 262mm - Self-propelled multiple rocket system cal. 128mm
M95 ”Orkan”, maksimalnog dometa 50km. M94 ”Plamen-S ”, with maximum range of 12.5 km; and
- Self-propelled quadruple rocket launcher cal.
Po svojim taktičko tehničkim karakteristikama i kvalite- 262mm M95 ”Orkan”, with maximum range of 50km.
tu bili su u samom vrhu svetskih rešenja tako da su našli
svoje mesto i na stranom tržištu gde su još uvek u oper- With their tactical-technical specifications and their
ativnoj upotrebi. quality, these systems were among the best in the world,
finding their place in international markets and they are
still in operative service today.

27
Tendencije daljeg razvoja i usavršavanja Trends of further development and
MLRS u svetu upgrading of MLRS systems in the world
ODBRAMBENE TEHNOLOGIJE - DEFENCE TECHNOLOGIES

Danas se od višecevnih raketnih sistema zahteva što veći Present-day requirements for multiple rocket systems
domet i vatrena moć, maksimalno mogući stepen autom- are longer range and greater firepower, highest extent of
atizacije funkcija opsluživanja, visok stepen autonomnosti automated handling, high capability for autonomous
oruđa (samostalno dejstvo), automatska kontrola vatre i engagement, automatic fire control and adequate
dobra samozaštita. Savremeni lansirni sistemi su kon- self–defence capability. Current rocket launching sys-
cipirani kao modularni, što podrazumeva postavljanje lan- tems are designed as modular systems that comprise
sirnih kutija-kontejnera sa raketama različitih kalibara i mounting of rocket-launching containers of different cal-
dometa na univerzalnu lansirnu platformu. ibers and firing ranges on singular launching platform.
Maksimalni dometi se postižu korišćenjem raketa sa Maximum ranges are achieved by the use of compos-
kompozitnim raketnim gorivima, vatrena moć povećan- ite rocket fuels, fire power is increased by employing mul-
jem broja lansirnih cevi i efikasnosti bojevih glava, autom- tiple launch tubes and more effective warheads; auto-
atizacija lansera se zasniva na automatizaciji pogona meh- mated launcher operation means automatic setting of
anizama pravca i elevacije, oslonih stopa i dr. Autonomnost azimuth and elevation, outrigger stabilization, etc.
dejstva se postiže opremanjem svakog oruđa najsavre- Autonomous engagement of the system means equipping
menijim senzorima za određivanje pozicije i orijentacije every weapon with advanced position locating and North
prema severu, inercijalnim navigacionim sistemom (INS) orienting sensors, with inertial navigation (INS) and/or
i/ili GPS sistemom, zemaljskom meteo stanicom, raču- GPS systems, equipping with ground meteo station and
narskim i upravljačkim jedinicama. Automatska kontro- with computing and control units. Automatic fire control
la vatre se postiže korišćenjem savremenog SUV-a, a is achieved by incorporation of an advanced FCS; self-
samozaštita upotrebom dimnih granata, protivpožarnih defence includes fitting of smoke pots, fire extinguish-
sistema i detektora laserskog zračenja. ing system and laser radiation detectors.

28
Mogućnosti razvoja i proizvodnje VRS u Prospects for MLRS development and

ODBRAMBENE TEHNOLOGIJE - DEFENCE TECHNOLOGIES
našoj zemlji production in our country

Projektovanje, razvoj i proizvodnja VRS (višecevni raket- Design, development and manufacturing of multiple
ni sistemi) podrazumeva postojanje iskusnih rocket launching systems pre-suppose availability of expe-
visokostručnih kadrova i proizvodnih kapaciteta u oblasti rienced highly educated specialists and of manufactur-
VRS. ing capacities in that area.
Dugogodišnji plodotvorni istraživačko-razvojni multi- Decades of fruitful multi-disciplinary research and
disciplinarni rad u oblasti raketnih sistema stvorio je veli- development of rocket systems have created generations
ki broj svestrano obrazovanih i iskusnih stručnih kadro- of broadly educated and experienced engineers.
va. Bez obzira na teškoće koje smo imali predhodnih god- Irrespective of adverse circumstances encountered in the
ina (desetogodišnje sankcije, tromesečno bombardovan- past (ten years of sanctions, three months of devastating
je Srbije, transformacija vojske, vlasničke transformacije bombardment of Serbia, transformation of the army,
preduzeća vojne i civilne industrije i tako dalje), u transformation of ownership in the civil and defence
Vojnotehničkom institutu je sačuvano stručno jezgro industries, etc.), the Military-Technical Institute was
osposobljeno za projektovanje i razvoj izuzetno složenih able to save its core of expertise, capable to design and
i visoko sofisticiranih lansirnih sistema i raketa, a takođe develop highly complex and sophisticated rockets and
i proizvodni kapaciteti i stručni kadar u preduzećima launching systems, while manufacturing capacities and
namenske proizvodnje, preduzećima koja su se specijal- skilled manpower of the defence industry, of the compa-
izovala za proizvodnju određenih sredstava NVO i u pri- nies specialized for production of specific defence prod-
vatnim preduzećima osposobljenim za proizvodnju kom- ucts and private companies adapted to produce defence-
ponenata NVO. related components have been preserved.
Danas je u našoj zemlji moguće projektovatovati i real- Presently, it is possible to undertake the design and to
izovati najsavremenije VRS ugrađene na specijalna visoko- realize in our country highly advanced multiple rocket
prohodna točkaška vozila potrebnih veličina i nosivosti, systems, for mounting on all-terrain wheeled vehicles of
različitih kalibara i dometa, sa fiksnim lansirnim kutija- suitable dimensions and payload capacities, of different
ma sa čeličnim cevima za višekratnu upotrebu ili sa caliber and range rockets in reusable steel tubes or, alter-
izmenljivim kutijama-kontejnerima sa kompozitnim lan- nately, in disposable composite launching containers.
sirnim cevima koji se jednokratno upotrebljavaju. Automatic laying mechanisms for azimuth and elevation,
Za automatsko pokretanje mehanizama pravca i ele- stabilizing outriggers, camouflage covers, launching con-
vacije, oslonih stopa, kamuflažne pokrivke, bravljenja tainer locks, ground meteo sensors, etc., may be based

29
kontejnera, zemaljske meteo sonde i dr., mogu se koris- on electrical or hydraulic servo systems with digital con-
ODBRAMBENE TEHNOLOGIJE - DEFENCE TECHNOLOGIES

titi elektromehanički ili hidromehanički servo sistemi sa trols. Every rocket launcher may be equipped with fully
digitalnim upravljanjem. Na svaki lanser raketa je moguće autonomous inertial navigation system of high accuracy
ugraditi potpuno samostalan inercijalni navigacioni sis- in providing the position and orientation angles (azimuth
tem (INS) velike tačnosti koji daje koordinate tačnog and elevation, longitudinal and lateral inclination). Owing
položaja i uglova orijentacije (ugao azimuta, ugao ele- to its high precision, the system also serves as sighting
vacije i uglovi uzdužnog i bočnog nagiba). Zbog velike system. Instead of INS, a GPS system may be adopted,
tačnosti koristi se i kao nišanski sistem. Umesto INS-a using two receiving antennas for precise setting of
može se ugraditi sistem GPS sa dve prijemne antene, koji azimuth and with sensors for determining of inclination
veoma precizno određuje azimut, i sistem senzora za angles. A digital unit that measures ground level meteo
određivanje uglova nagiba. Na lanser se ugrađuje i digi- information is mounted on launcher.
talni uređaj za određivanje prizemnih meteo podataka.
These built-in systems and devices ensure autonomous
Ugrađeni sistemi i uređaji omogućavaju autonomnost operation of the weapon, as well as its direct integration
oruđa, njihovu direktnu integraciju u sistem za upravl- with fire control or weapon control system, resulting in
janje vatrom, odnosno sistem za upravljanje oruđem, i shorter weapon’s ready for action period.
skraćuju vreme spremnosti oruđa za dejstvo.
Special emphasis shall be made of available highly-spe-
Posebno treba istaći postojanje visokokvalitetnih stručn- cialized experts knowledgeable in rocket technologies,
jaka, poznavaoca raketne tehnike, osposobljenih za pro- able to design and develop special-purpose computers
jektovanje i razvoj računara specijalne namene i najs- and highly complex software packages for control of fire
loženijih softvera za upravljanje oružanim sistemima koji and control of firing data execution subsystems, of ori-
objedinjuju softver za upravljanje vatrom, softver za upravl- entation and navigation software, of vehicle suspension
janje izvršnim podsistemima za zauzimanje elemenata compensation software, etc.
gađanja, softver za orijentaciju i navigaciju, softver za The evidence that design and manufacture of MLRS
rasterećenje elastičnog sistema vozila i tako dalje. can be successfully accomplished in our country is the
Potvrdu da se projektovanje i proizvodnja VRS može development of a MLRS prototype intended for the needs
uspešno i efikasno realizovati u našoj zemlji predstavlja of a particularly exacting and choosy foreign partner. The
razvoj PT VRS za potrebe izuzetno zahtevnog i pro- prototype is an achievement of domestic expertise and
birljivog stranog partnera. Prototip je rezultat domaće sound cooperation between Public Company “Jugoimport-
pameti i uspešne saradnje nosioca projekta Javnog pre- SDPR”, the Ministry of Defence of Serbia, respectively
duzeća ”Jugoimort-SDPR” sa Ministarstvom odbrane the Military-Technical Institute being technical project
Republike Srbije, odnosno sa Vojnotehničkim institutom leaders, launcher system final manufacturer IMK ”14.
kao tehničkim nosiocem projekta, finalistom lansera pre- oktobar”, Kruševac and a number of other companies
duzećem IMK ”14. oktobar” Kruševac i mnogim drugim involved in development and production of MRLS sub-
preduzećima učesnicima u razvoju i proizvodnji podsis- systems and components.
tema i komponenata.

30
SISTEM ZAŠTITE PROTECTION
GRANICA, SYSTEM FOR STATE

ODBRAMBENE TEHNOLOGIJE - DEFENCE TECHNOLOGIES
TERITORIJE I FRONTIERS,
OBJEKATA OD TERRITORY AND
POSEBNOG PRIORITY OBJECTS
ZNAČAJA (HOMELAND
SECURITY)
Piše By
Slobodan Jolkić Slobodan Jolkić

K ompleksne i odgovorne zadatke koji su od posebnog C omplex and responsible tasks of primary national
državnog značaja, kako u mirnodopskim, tako i u ratnim interest, in peace time as well in war conditions, com-
uslovima, a koji su vezani za različite vidove osmatranja i prising various forms of surveillance and control of
kontrole određene teritorije, nemoguće je efikasno izvrša- specific territories, can not be effectively achieved with-
vati bez dobro opremljenih i kompleksnih sistema. Kako u out application of comprehenisve, sophisticated sys-
drugim zemljama tako i u našoj, intezivno se radi na opre- tems. Like other countries, our country, too, is inten-
manju kompleksnih sistema zaštite savremenim elektron- sively engaged in equipping its security facilities with
skim sredstvima i stvaranju operativnih centara koji se advanced sophisticated electronic devices and in set-
povezuju u jedinstvenu celinu. ting-up of operative centers combined in a single sys-
Ovakvi elektronski sistemi obezbeđuju dostupnost i brzi tem.
protok informacija o stepenu ugroženosti, prirodi i kom-
pleksnosti pretnje, odnosno omogućavaju efikasno upravl- Such electronic systems provide access and rapid
janje kriznim situacijama. flow of information about the level of peril, nature and
Savremeni međunarodni odnosi, koji podrazumevaju sve complexity of a threat, allowing for efficient managing
bližu regionalnu poveznost zemalja u pogledu zajedničkih of a crisis situation.
odgovora na različite bezbednosne izazove, podrazumevaju,
između ostalog, razmenu podataka o stanju u pogranični Prevailing international relations call for closer ties
zonama, uključujući i podatke o ekološkoj ugroženosti, of countries within a region toward common respons-
odnosno uvezivanje sistema zaštite graničnih zona, kao i es to different security challenges that include, among
drugih značajnih zona i objekata na nivou regiona, koji se others, exchange of information about conditions in
sastoji od više susednih država. bordering areas, including data on ecological threats,
and allow linking of protection systems of bordering
S obzirom na to da se radi o širem međudržavnom intere- zones, as well as of other primary areas and objects on
su može se ubrzo očekivati i standardizacija elektronske i regional level comprising a number of neighboring
druge opreme potrebne za opremanje i efikasan rad sistema countries.
zaštite.
Na svetskom tržištu nude se različite vrste senzora kao Being that broader multi-country interests are
osnovnih elemenata svakog sistema zaštite počev od akustičk- involved, it may be expected that standardized elec-
ih, seizmočkih, pa zaključno sa senzorima na bazi radara,ter- tronic and other equipment will be adopted in the near
movizije i televizije. future for equipping and forming of an efficient secu-
rity system.
Slični sistemi čija je namena nešto drugačija mogu se pre-
poznati u sistemima za vojne primene i uglavnom se danas World markets offer different kinds of sensors as pri-
nude u tom obliku sa mogućnošću prilagođavanja za sis- mary sources in every security system, from acousti-
teme zaštite civilnog karaktera. Međutim, sistemi namen- cal and seismic to radar, thermal imaging and tv sen-
jeni primeni u oružanim snagama su, zbog svojih speci- sors.
fičnosti i visokih postavljenih zahteva u pogledu performan-
si, veoma skupi, tako da bi njihova primena u sistemima Similar systems of somewhat different application
obezbeđenja granica i objekata u mirnodopskim uslovima, are present in military systems which, with certain
a koja po svojoj prirodi zahteva nabavku vrlo veliog broja modifications, are appplicable for civil security uses.

31
sistema, odnosno elemenata, dovela do enormno visokih On the other hand, systems used by defence forces are

ODBRAMBENE TEHNOLOGIJE - DEFENCE TECHNOLOGIES
troškova nabavke i održavanja. very expensive due to their specific requirements and
Proizvođači koji uspešno realizuju ideju smanjenju cene very high perfomance levels, therefore their applica-
senzorskih i drugih elemenata ovih sistema, prvenstveno tion in protection of state broders and priority targets
radara i termovizije, mogu da računaju na masovnost pro- in time of peace, considering the need to procure large
daje odnosno visoku konkurentnost na svetskom tržištu. numbers of systems or components, would be prohib-
itively costly both in purchasing and in maintenance.
Ciljne grupe - direktni korisnici ovakvih projekata su:
-granična policija Manufacturers capable to offer sensors, primarily
-industrijska postrojenja koja rade sa materijama opasnim radar and thermal imaging units, and other compo-
za čovekovu okolinu nents at reduced prices may expect massive sales and
- rafinerije nafte, naftovodi i gasna postrojenja, very competitive position in world markets.
-energetski objekti kao što su velike hidroelektrane i ter-
moelektrane koji imaju strategijski značaj za privredu zeml- Target groups – direct users of these projects
je include:
- aerodromi i luke - border police,
- industrial plants operating with materials hazardous
to the environment,
- oil refineries, pipelines and gas
installations,
- power plants, such as major
hydroelectric and coal-buring
plants of strategic
importance for country’s econo-
my,
- airports and harbors.

For considerable time Jugoimport-
SDPR has been offering sensor ele-
ments based on radar, television
and thermal imaging technologies
that are incorporated in weapon
systems such as tanks, reconnais-
sance and fighting vehicles, ships
and troop air defence units.

Već duže vremena u ponudi Jugoimport-SDPR nalaze se These devices primarily include multiple sensors
senzorski elementi na bazi radara, televizije i termovizije (thermovision, tv and laser range finders), multi-pur-
koji ulaze u sastav oružanih sistema kao što su tenkovi, bor- pose optoelectronic platforms designed for installation
bena i izviđačko-borbena vozila, plovni objekti i jedinice in tanks, armored vehicles, ships and troop air defence,
jedinice trupne PVO. as well as infantry radar type PR-15 designed for detec-
tion and tracking of manpower, vehicles and low-fly-
To su, pre svega, sistem multisenzorske (termovizija, tele- ing aircraft.
vizija i laserski daljinomer) višenamenske optoelektronska
platforma namenjena primeni na tenklovi,a borbenim vozil- In final stage of development are acoustic sensor sys-
ima, stacionarnim objektima, plovnim objektima i trupnoj tems designed to detect and locate artillery and mor-
PVO, kao i radar PR-15 za otkrivanje i praćenje žive sile, vozi- tar fire positions, as well as single small arms fire posi-
la i niskoletećih objekata. tions (primarily snipers) and for detection of person-
U završnoj fazi razvoja nalaze se i sistem na bazi akustičk- nel, based on acoustic sensors.
ih senzora za otkrivanje i lociranje položaja artiljerijskih
oruđa, minobacača, te i pojedinačne streljačke vatre (pre sve- Development is under way to adapt these devices for
ga snajperskih pušaka), kao i sistem za otkrivanje žive sile use in protection of territories and priority objects
na bazi akustičnih seenzora. (homeland security), focusing on cost-to-efectivenss
U toku je postupak prilagođavanja ovih uređaja za nave- ratio.
dene civilne potrebe zaštite teritorije i objekata odposebnog
značaja (homeland securitz), koji podrazumeva optimizaci- Basic unit for territorial and priority objects securi-
ju na bazi odosa parametara cene i efikasnosti. ty protection consists of twelve radar stations based on
IR-15 radars of portable or mobile type (mounted on
Osnovna jedinica sistema zaštite objekata od posebnog off-road vehicles), one cross-country vehicle equipped
značaja i teritorije sastoji se od dvanest radarskih stanica na with optoelectronic system, as well as a supporting sys-
bazi radara IR-15 prenosnog ili pokretnog tipa (ugrađenog tem of acoustic and seismic sensors.

33
na terenskim vozilima), jednog terenskog vozila sa
instaliranim optoelektronskim sistemom, kao i pridodatog Supporting acoustic sensor systems are designed for
ODBRAMBENE TEHNOLOGIJE - DEFENCE TECHNOLOGIES

sistema na bazi akustičnih senzora i seizmičkih senzora. use on critical approach directions within the zone of
Pridodati senzorski sistemi na bazi akustičnih bi se koris- responsibility or in ambushes.
tili na kritičnim pravcima zone odgovornosti ili pri zased-
nim dejstvima.
In addition, depending on expected developments
Takođe, u zavisnosti od očekivane situacije, tj. posebnih i.e. specific terrain conditions, the system is comple-
uslova ne terenu, sistemu se pridodaje i jedan radio-izviđač- mented with a radio surveillance unit employed to
ki uređaj u cilju otkrivanja i praćenja radio-saobraćaja sub- detect and monitor radio traffic by opponents threat-
jekata koji ugrožavaju štićeni objekat. ening the protected object.
Osnovna uloga
sistema senzora Main purpose of
senzora je sensor system is
neprekidno osma- continuous sur-
tranje, otkrivanje i veillance, detec-
slanje radarskih tion and transfer
podataka opera- of radar infor-
tivnom centru kao mation to oper-
i neposredno ative center and
usmeravanje ekipa directing of pin-
za neposrednu point identifica-
identifikaciju i tion teams to
sprečavanja napa- prevent attacks
da na štićeni on the protected
objekat. object.
Uloga opera-
tivnog centra je The role of
prikupljanje, obra- operative center
da, izlaganje i raz- is acquisition,
mena podataka po horizontalnom nivou ( prema opeartivn- processing, presentation and exchange of information
im centrima suseda) i vertikalnom nivou (prema operativnim in horizontal level (with adjacent operative centers)
centrima viših komandi). Pored toga centar vrši funkciju and in vertical level (to higher command operative cen-
neposrednog upravljalja i kontrole operativnog rada sen- ters). In addition, an operative center performs the
zorksih stanica kao i neposredno komandovanje snagama function of direct command and control of sensor sta-
za sprečavanje odnosno odbranu objekta. tion’s operations and direct command with forces
Sistem sa 12 radarskih stanica pokriva zonu odgovornos- assigned for attack prevention and defence of the pro-
ti prečnika 19km ili zonu od 120km po dužini i 14-40km po tected object.
širini u zavisnosti od vrste ciljeva koji otkriva.
A system consisting of 12 radar stations covers a zone
Maksimalna daljina otkrivanja čoveka u pokretu je 7km, of responsibility of 19km in diameter, or a zone 120km
vozilo u pokretu 14km i sporopokretna letilica na 20km (visi- wide and 14-40km deep, depending on potential tar-
na od 0-1000m). gets it has to detect. Maximum range of detection of
Radarske stanice mogu da budu daljinski upravljane i da moving persion is 7km, of moving vehicle it is 14km,
rade automatski bez prisustva posade. U tom slučaju podaci of low-speed aerial target 20km (at altitudes of 0-
otkrivanja automatski se prenose u operativni centar. Broj 1000m).
pridodatih optoelektronskih mobilnih stanica, akustičnih i
kao i seizmičkih i akustičkih semzorskih senzorskih kom- Radar stations may be remotely controlled and able
pleta određuje se u to operate without manned crew. In such configura-
zavisnosti od aktuelne taktičke situacije na terenu, kon- tion, detection information are automatically trans-
figuracije terena i dr. mitted to operative center. The number of supporting
Radarsko računarski podaci i govorni podaci istovremeno optoelectronic mobile stations, acoustic and acoustic-
se prenose radio, radiorelejnim i žičanim putem. seismic sensors and sets is determined by actual tac-
tical situation, configuration of terrain, etc. Radar and
Predviđeno je da se radarske stanice i pripadajuća sredst- computer data and voice information are simultane-
va veze napajaju iz solarnih izvora energije, neprekidno u ously transmitted by radio, radio relay links and by wire.
svim vremenskim uslovima kombinovano sa elektroagrega-
tima sa automatskim startom. Is is invisaged that radar stations and associated com-
Oprema radarske stanice montira se u metalne tornjeve munications equipment are to be powered by solar
sa artičkim kupolama visine 6m pri čemu se obezbeđuje rad cells, continuosly and regardless of weather conditions,
u svim meterološkim uslovima. combined with electric power generators equipped with
Upravljanje i kontrola ispravnosti elektronske opreme i automatic starting.

34
izvora za napajanjeu radarskim stanicama vrši se iz opera-
tivnih centara neprekidno.Tehnički pre- Radar station equipment is

ODBRAMBENE TEHNOLOGIJE - DEFENCE TECHNOLOGIES
gled stanica vrši se jedanput sedmično mounted in metal towers pro-
u trajanju od jednog časa. vided with arctic domes, 6m
Projektovanje multisenzorskog high, capable of operating in
sistema zaštite objekata koji ima all weather conditions.
visok stepen
pozdanosti nimalo nije lak i Management and control of
naivan zadatak uzimajući u obzir proper functioning of radar
ograničenja pojedinih senzora, potre- station electronic equipment
ban stepen obučenosti ljudstva kao i and power supplies are con-
ograničene materijalnofinansiske ducted continuously from
mogućnosti korisnika. operative centers. Technical
Postavljanju radarske stanice koja inspections of radar stations
ima zadatak da kontroliše određeni are made once a week with one
prostor, hour inspections.
najpre predhodi detaljno prouča-
vanje okolnog terena a zatim ispitivanje Design of multi-sensor systems
mogućnosti odabranog radarskog for protection of priority objects
položaja. To podrazumeva kalibraciju built with high level of reliability is
položaja i izrada horizontalnog i vertikalnog dija- by no means an easy or simple task,
grama vidljivosti za različite vrste ciljeva u različitim taking in consideration limitations
klimatskim uslovima. of specific sensors; it requires appro-
Ograničenja koja su proizašla iz mogućnosti priate level of proficiency of the staff
radarske stanice i okolnog terena koji u stvari and has to take into account material-
predstavaljaju nedeljivu celinu po pitanju financial constraints of system users.
mogućnosti otkrivanja moraju se rešavati uvođen-
jem novih senzora istog ili različitog tipa i nji- Setting-up of a radar station assigned to
hovo međusobno uvezivanje. protect specific area requires prior survey
Jednom postavljen sistem predat korisniku of allocated terrain and testing of radar
zahteva neprekidno uvežbavanje i proveru operatora i sis- performance for selected site. This includes calibra-
tema, nadgradnju i usavršavanje u cilju poboljšanja efikas- tion of the position and elaboration of horizontal and
nosti u otkrivanju i identifikaciji ciljeva. vertical visibility diagrams for different types of tar-
gets and under variable climatic conditions.
Kao zaključak svega iznetog može se reći da je JUGOIM-
PORT SDPR prateći kretanja u svetu po pitanju uvođenja Limitations caused by radar performance and effects
elektronske zaštite objekata od strategiskog zanačaja inici- of surrounding terrain, taken as indivisible whole with
rao i realizovao razvoj senzorskih elemenata dvojake namene, regard to detection capability, must be improved by
za borbene sisteme i sisteme zaštite. U mogućnosti smo da introduction of additional sensors of one or more types
izvršimo projektovanje i opremanje sistema obzirom na and their interfacing.
iskustva koje smo stekli u realizaciji senzorskih elemenata
koji ulaze u sastav komandnoinformacionih sistema za Once set-up system, handed over to its users, needs
potrebe tenkovskih jedinica i jedinica trupne PVO. continuos hands-on training and verification of both
operators and system, its enhancement and
improvements aimed at achieving higher effi-
ciency in target detection and identification.

Concluding the study outlined above, if may
be stated that JUGOIMPORT-SDPR, while
keeping in touch with world-wide trends in
development of electronic security systems
for objects of strategic importance, has ini-
tiated and realized development of dual-pur-
pose sensor elements, designed for combat,
as well as for security systems. We are in the
position to design and outfit such systems,
owing to our experience in realization of sen-
sor elements incorporated in command &
information systems used by tank formations
and by troop air defence units.

35
M07G M07G MORTAR
MINOBACAČKI BALLISTIC

ODBRAMBENE TEHNOLOGIJE - DEFENCE TECHNOLOGIES
BALISTIČKI COMPUTER
RAČUNAR
Piše By
Dragan Opačić Dragan Opačić
Predrag Mililćević Predrag Mililćević

I skustva savremenih borbenih operacija, u kojima učešće A nalysis of modern combat operations, where mor-
uzimaju minabacači, ukazuju na neophodnost postojan- tars are involved, point on necessity of existence of reli-
ja pouzdanog, jednostavnog i efikasnog sredtsva za real- able, easy-to-use and efficient asset for ballistic calcu-
izaciju balističkih proračuna uz minimalnu logističku lations with minimal logistic support. Taking into
podršku. Uzimajući u obzir ove, kao i stroge zahteve za account these, as well as stringent requirements call-
pouzdanim funkcionisanjem u oštrim klimo- ing for reliable operation in harsh environmental con-
mehaničkim uslovima, radni tim JI-SDPR ditions, Yugoimport-SDPR has initiated
započeo je razvoj minobacačkog balističkog development of M07G mortar ballis-
računara M07G. tic computer.
M07G mortar ballistic com-
Minobacački balistički računar M07G je puter is of hand-held type,
prenosni računar (klase “hand-held” ili PDA) designed for ballistic calcula-
namenjen za izračunavanje početnih eleme- tion of firing elements, ele-
nata gađanja, elemenata za gađanje u toku ments for fire correction as well
korekture i grupnog gađanja, kako za as for group action of mortars and
minobacače tako i za ostala artiljerijska other artillery fire support
oruđa za vatrenu podršku. weapons.

M07G je prvenstveno namenjen za Main task of M07G is ballistic cal-
izračunavanje i prikazivanje osnovnih ele- culation and presentation of firing
menata gađanje, i to: uglomer, daljinar, elements: quadrant, angle and projec-
mesnu spravu i vreme leta projektila. tile time of flight. There is also provi-
Takođe je obezbeđeno izračunavanje i sion for calculation of other elements:
prikazivanje ostalih balističkih para- trajectory ordinate and probable disper-
metara, kao što su: ordinata temena sion in range and azimuth. In secondary
putanje i verovatna skretanja po mode, M07G performs topo-geodetic fir-
pravcu daljini i visini. U dopunskom ing preparation.
modu računar obezbeđuje reša- Ballistic calculation necessitates following
vanje zadataka iz domena topo- data: topographic data relating to firing
geodetske pripreme. Za real- positions, observation posts, targets, known
izaciju balističkih proračuna points, hazard zones; meteorological data;
neophodni su: topografski ballistic data regarding weapon and ammu-
podaci (o vatrenim položajima, nition as well as data regarding previous fir-
osmatračnicama, ciljevima, poznatim ings. Software architecture enables memo-
tačkama i opasnim zonama), meteorološki podaci, rizing position of 50 targets, 5 firing positions
balistički podaci kao i podaci o prethodno izvršenim and 10 observation posts, either in Cartesian
gađanjima. Softverska arhitektura omogućava pohranji- or geographic coordinates.
vanje podataka za 50 ciljeva, 5 vatrenih položaja i 10 osma-
tračnica, koje se mogu unositi bilo u pravouglim bilo u Main output data are: charge (in automatic mode of
geografskim koordinatama. operation), quadrant, table angle and projectile time of
Osnovni izlazni podaci su: punjenje (kod automatskog flight. Upon operator’s request, other data can be acces-
izbora punjenja), uglomer, daljinar i vreme leta projek- sible as well: trajectory ordinate, probable dispersion
tila. Na zahtev korisnika mogu se dobiti i sledeći podaci: in range and azimuth, change in range with elevation
ordinata temena putanje, verovatno skretanje projektila change of 1 mils, etc.
po pravcu, daljini i visini, promena daljine pri promeni
elevacije za 1 hiljaditi, topografska i popravljena daljina

37
cilja svedena na horizont oruđa.
Pored osnovnog zadatka, M07G realizuje i zadatke iz In addition to its main task, M07G mortar ballistic
ODBRAMBENE TEHNOLOGIJE - DEFENCE TECHNOLOGIES

oblasti korekture gađanja, pri čemu obezbeđuje brzo i computer performs task in the domain of fire correc-
tačno izračunavanje elemenata za gađanje pri prenosu tion, providing rapid and accurate firing elements cal-
vatre sa gađanog na novo-pojavljeni cilj metodom korek- culation in case of fire transfer from existing to novel
turnih ili poboljšanih popravki. target of opportunity.

Balističkim računarom M07G rukuje jedan operator, M07G mortar ballistic computer is used by one oper-
koristeći ekran osetljiv na dodir (“touchscreen”) i virtuel- ator, by use of touchscreen and virtual keyboard. Power
nu tastaturu. M07G ima dve mogućnosti napajanja: iz supply leaves two options: internal power source with
internog izvora napajanja sa autonomy of 6 hours continu-
autonomijom rada od 6 časova ous operation in standard
neprekidnog rada u standardnim conditions or external
uslovima pod maksimalnim source 12V DC and 220 V
opterećenjem ili spoljnim AC.
izvorom napajanja napona 12V
DC i 220V AC. Hardware platform of M07G
mortar ballistic computer is
Hardverska platforma minoba- based on pocket PC comput-
cačkog balističkog računara M07G er with Windows Mobile 5.0
je izgrađena oko džepnog PC (or Windows Mobile 6.0) oper-
računara sa Windows Mobile 5.0 ating system, which makes it
ili Windows Mobile 6.0 operativn- ideal for development of soft-
im sistemom, što ga čini pogod- ware application for ballistic
nim za razvoj i implementaciju computation as well as for
aplikacije za balistički proračun integration of geographic-
kao i ugradnju geografsko-infor- information system (GIS).
macionog sistema (GIS). Usvojena Design philosophy enables
razvojna filozofija ostavlja koris- adopting hardware platform of
nicima mogućnost izbora hard- choice, providing it satisfies
verske platforme, pod uslovom general performance as well as
zadovoljenja postavljenih zahteva environmental requirements.
u pogledu opštih performansi i
klimo-mehaničke kompatibilnos- Appliation software package
ti. provides: presentation of com-
bat deployment of artillery
Aplikativni softverski paket battery on digital map (firing
obezbeđuje: prikaz elemenata position, observation posts,
borbenog rasporeda artiljerisjke targets and known points),
baterije na elektronskoj radnoj mission planning support and
karti (mesto vatrenog položaja, presentation of area of activ-
osmatračnice, ciljeva i poznatih ity of artillery battery.
tačaka), podršku planiranju bor- Application software pack-
benih dejstava, rukovanje age, which supports GIS
vatrom artiljeriske baterije i management, provides topo-
prikaz rejona dejstava artiljer- graphic preparation regard-
ijske baterije. Aplikativni soft- ing: firing positions, obser-
verski paket koji podržava GIS vation posts, targets,
obezbeđuje topografsku crests, hazard zones and
pripremu podataka o: vatrenom known points.
položajima, osmatračnicama, ciljevi-
ma, grebenima zaklona, opasnim zonama i poznatim Software application is of modular type, with sepa-
tačkama. rate sections (modules) tasked with topographic prepa-
Softverska aplikacija računara M07G je modularnog ration by use of GIS (GIS module) and ballistic com-
tipa, sa odvojenim celinama koje se bave topografskom putations (ballistic module).
pripremom korišćenjem gepgrafsko-informacionog sis- Software application of M07G mortar ballistic com-
tema (GIS modul) i celinom za realizaciju balističkog puter has been developed in Visual Studio 2005 IDE,
proračuna sa drugim pripadajućim zadacima (balistički with reliance on existing firing tables by use of rela-
modul). tional database management system SQL Server 2005
Softverska aplikacija balističkog računara izrađena u (SQL Mobile). Application is of “open architecture”,
razvojnom okruženju Visual Studio 2005, koristi kao i.e. modular type, in the sense that upon operator’s
osnovu tablicu gađanja za predmetno oruđe svedenu na request ballistic data for other weapons and ammuni-

38
bazu podataka izrađenu u programskom paketu za razvoj tion can be integrated.
i upravljanje relacionim bazama podataka SQL Server One of the main requirements during software devel-

ODBRAMBENE TEHNOLOGIJE - DEFENCE TECHNOLOGIES
2005 (SQL Mobile). Aplikacija je otvorenog, odnosno opment is simplicity of use, which has been satisfied
modularnog tipa u smislu da se, prema zahtevima krajn- by adoption of .NET development environment where
jeg korisnika, mogu uneti podaci i za druga oruđa, pri user is presented with set of menus, combo boxes and
čemu se od krajnjeg korisnika zahetva da dostavi tablice dialogs commonly encountered in Windows based pro-
gađanja na osnovu kojih će se izraditi baza podataka. grams, with added value of simplified training.

Jedan od osnovnih zahteva prilikom razvoja Application structure embodies all necessary data for
aplikacije bila je jednostavnost upotrebe, firing preparations as well
što je ispunjeno usvajanjem .NET as for later correction,
razvojnog okruženja u kome su koris- including: ammuni-
niku opcije ponuđenje u formi jed- tion type, charge, fuze
nostavnih menija i padajućih listi, svo- type, firing position
jstvenih programskim paketima koji se and target coordinates,
koriste u Windows operativnom siste- observation post coor-
mu, što bi trebalo da značajno olakša i dinates, crests, meteo
ubrza obuku. bulletin, firing mode
Struktura aplikacije obuhvata (individual, group
sve neophodne podatke za pripremu action). Abovementioned
gađanja, kao i za kasniju korekturu data is grouped in appro-
gađanja, među kojima su između osta- priate menus and tables
log: tip municije, punjenje, tip upaljača, in database. Firing prepa-
zona dejstva, koordinate vatrenog ration is performed in
položaja i cilja, kooridnate osma- sequential manner, where
tračnice, grebeni zaklona, meteo bilten, user, after topographic
način gađanja (pojedinačno, grupno). and meteo preparation,
Ovi podaci su grupisani u odgovara- based on target range and
jućim menijima, odnosno u tabelama firing limitations moving
baze podataka, iz kojih korisnik bira through intuitive forms
traženu vrednost. Realizacija zadatka defining in that way crite-
pripreme gađanja vrši se sekvencijal- ria which will result with
nim putem, gde se korisnik, nakon adequate firing elements.
topografske i meteo pripreme, polazeći
od podatka o daljini cilja i ograničen- Regarding target range, it
jima vezanim za gađanje, kreće kroz can be determined by use
povezane prozore aplikacije zadajući of observer; based on rel-
na taj način bazi neophodne upite čiji ative position of target,
su krajnji rezultat elementi gađanja firing position and obser-
za traženi cilj. vation post or by use of
Što se tiče određivanja digital map. In case of use
daljine cilja, traženi podatak može of digital map, operator
biti određen uz pomoć osmatrača, clicks on the map point-
na osnovu relativnog položaja cilja, ing to position of target,
vatrenog položaja i osmatračnice thereby calling routine
ili korišćenjem digitalne karte. U for target range deter-
slučaju korišćenja digitalne karte, mination. Prerequisite
korisnik definišući na karti mesto for this kind of target
vatrenog položaja i cilja poziva pro- range determination is
gramsku rutinu čiji je zadatak određivanje existence of digital maps of
daljine cilja. Preduslov za realizaciju ovakvog određivan- interest. In case of range not existent in firing tables,
ja daljine cilja postojanje digitalnih karata teritorije koja interpolation routine is activated in order to ensure high
je od interesa krajnjem korisniku. U slučaju daljine cil- data accuracy.
ja koja nije unesena u tablice gađanja, pokreće se inter-
polaciona funkcija, u cilju dobijanja što preciznijih Separate part of application relates to correction of
izlaznih podataka. firing elements, based on: wind velocity, air tempera-
ture, air pressure, muzzle velocity. In accordance with
Poseban deo aplikacije vezan je za korekciju ele- request, additional criteria for firing elements correc-
menata gađanja, uzimajući u obzir podatke kao što su: tion can be introduced.
brzina vetra, temperatura vazduha, pritisak vazduha, brz-
ina na ustima cevi. U skladu sa zahtevima krajnjeg koris-
nika mogu se ugraditi i dodatni elementi za korekciju

39
gađanja.
"LASTA – 95" "LASTA – 95"
ODBRAMBENE TEHNOLOGIJE - DEFENCE TECHNOLOGIES

Piše By
Objavljen u godišnjaku srpskog vazduhoplovstva Reprint from the yearbook of Serbian aviation

Krajem 2007. godine Jugoimport-SDPR sklopio je sa Late in 2007 Jugoimport-SDPR concluded a contract with
Ministrastvom odbrane Republike Irak ugovor o isporuci the Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Iraq for supply of
naoružanja i vojne opreme koji obuhvata i isporuku 20 aviona armament and defence equipment that includes the supply of
tipa LASTA 95. Ugovor je veoma značajan za razvoj srpske 20 trainer aircraft type LASTA 95. The contact is very impor-
vazduhoplovne industrije, budući da se njegovom realizaci- tant for development of Serbian aircraft industry since its
jom stvaraju uslovi za punu revitalizaciju njenih razvojnih implementation paves the way for full revitalization of the
i proizvodnih kapaciteta. Nosilac proizvodnje i finalnista industry’s development and manufacturing capacities. Prime
aviona LASTA 95 jeste UTVA Avio Industrija iz Pančeva. contractor and final producer of LASTA 95 aircraft is UTVA
Jugoimport-SDPR ulaže značajna sredstva u obnavljanje Avio Industrija in Pančevo. Jugoimport-SDPR is investing
proizvodnih pogona ovog preduzeća. Isporučilac stajnih significant funds in reconstruction of the company’s manu-
organa i hidraulične opreme jeste industrija hidraulike i pneu- facturing plants. Supplier of aircraft landing gear and
matike PPT Namenska AD, Trstenik, dok u programu hydraulics is the hydraulics and pneumatics factory PPT
učestvuje i veliki broj kooperanata iz zemlje i delom iz inos- Namenska AD of Trstenik and the program involves numer-
transtva. U ovom broju Y-REPORT-a objavljujemo prikaz ous subcontractors from Serbia and partly from foreign coun-
aviona LASTA 95, koji objavljen u godišnjaku srpskog vaz- tries. This issue of Y-REPORT publishes presentation of LAS-
duhoplovstva. TA 95 aircraft, reprint from the yearbook of Serbian aviation.

"LASTA – 95" je avion namenjen za selekciju, početnu i "LASTA-95" aircraft is designed for selection, initial and
osnovnu obuku, sa malim brzinama sletanja i poletanja i basic training of pilots, it offers low landing and takeoff
dobroćudnim ponašanjem, odnosno da prašta greške neiskus- speeds and pilot-friendly handling, forgiving potential errors
nom pilotu. by inexperienced pilots.

40
Avion je projektovan na osnovu vazduhoplovnih propisa The aircraft was designed in compliance with Federal

ODBRAMBENE TEHNOLOGIJE - DEFENCE TECHNOLOGIES
Federal Aviation Regulations (F.A.R. – Part 23: Airworhiness Aviation Regulations (F.A.R. – Part 23: Airworthiness
Standards) i to: Standards), namely:

- U OSNOVNOJ VARIJANTI AVIONA po zahtevima - BASIC VERSION OF THE AIRCRAFT is built
iz propisa koji se odnose na "aerobatic" kategoriju aviona against the requirements for aerobatic category loads of
(nz_max = 6.0, nz_min = -3). (nz_max = 6.0, nz_min = -3).
- U VARIJANTU AVIONA SA NAORUŽANJEM po - ARMED VERSION OF THE AIRCRAFT is built
zahtevima iz propisa koji se odnose na "utility" kategoriju against the requirements for utility category with loads of
aviona (nz_ max = 4.4, nz_ min = -1.8). (nz_ max = 4.4, nz_ min = -1.8).

Svojim karakteristikama i osavremenjenom opremom avion With its specifications and updated avionics, the aircraft
u potpunosti obezbeđuje obuku pilota po svim elementima will ensure full pilot training for all elements of airplane
namene aviona u: application including:
- basic flying,
- osnovnom letenju, - figure flying,
- figurnom letenju, - navigation flying,
- navigacionom letenju, - basic elements of night flying,
- osnovnim elementima noćnog letenja, - category II instrumental flight,
- instrumentalnom sletanju II kategorije, - basic elements of gunning, rocketing and bombing
- osnovnim elementima gađanja, raketiranja i bom- (GRB).
bardovanja (GRB)
Dimensions Lasta -1 Lasta -2 Lasta -3
Dimenzije Lasta -1 Lasta -2 Lasta -3 Overall length (m) 8,04 7,54 7,97
Dužina (m) 8,04 7,54 7,97 Wing span (m) 8,34 8,92 9,71
Razmah (m) 8,34 8,92 9,71 Overall height (m) 2,965 2,80 3,16
Visina (m) 2,965 2,80 3,16 Wing area (m) 11 11.4 12.9
Površina
Krila (m) 11 11,4 12,9 Lasta-95 landing gear is equipped with mechanical emer-
gency system for landing gear extension (in the event of fail-
Stajni trap aviona Lasta- ure of hydraulics).
95 ima ugrađen poseban This mechanical sys-
mehanički sistem za tem ensures positive
izvlačenje stajnog trapa u extending and locking
nuždi (ako otkaže hidroin- in extended position of
stalacija). Ovaj mehanički all three struts, at hor-
sistem omogućuje pouz- izontal aircraft speeds
dano izvlačenje stajnog tra- up to 180 km/h.
pa i zabravljivanje preklop-
nih upornica u izvučenom Minimizing of struc-
položaju za sve tri noge i pri tural mass was
horizontalnoj brzini aviona achieved by application
do 180 km/č. of advanced stress cal-
culation methods
Minimizacija mase struk- including numerical
ture je postignuta korišćen- simulations to meet
jem savremenih metoda strength and rigidity
proračuna čvrstoće na bazi requirements. Aircraft
numeričke simulacije uz fuselage structural
zadovoljenje zahteva stress was verified by
čvrstoće i krutosti. Izvršena testing, confirming the
je eksperimentalna veri- adopted concept and
fikacija čvrstoće strukture approach for de-
trupa aviona čime je veri- dimensioning of struc-
fikovan takav koncept i tural components. To
pristup koji se bazira na shorten the time need-
oddimenzionisanju struk- ed for minimum
ture. experimental verifica-
tion of the strength of
Da bise skratio vremenski period koji se odnosi na mini- vital Lasta-95 assemblies, required prior to first flight, VTI
malnu eksperimentalnu verifikaciju čvrstoće vitalnih sklopo- has performed numerical simulations of behavior of crucial

41
va aviona Lasta-95 koji se zahtevaju pre prvog leta u VTI-u assemblies and specific verification tests using complex
ODBRAMBENE TEHNOLOGIJE - DEFENCE TECHNOLOGIES

su izvršene numeričke simulacije ponašanja ključnih sklopo- benchmarks. This way, number of assemblies that require
va kao i određena eksperimentalna verifikacija na komplek- testing before flight testing is reduced to the minimum with-
snim epruvetama. To sa svoje strane svodi broj sklopova koji out causing delays for first flight of the prototype.
se ispituju pre prvog leta na minimum, čime se ne zadrža-
va privi let prototipa.

Kratak opis aviona Struktura Aircraft brief description

- Metalni tip tipa "ljuska" sa integralnim vertikalnim Structure
repom, ventrolom i rešetkastim motorskim nosačem
- Metalno krilo sa dve ramenjače - Metal, “shell” type, with integrated vertical tail, and
- Horizontalni metalni rep truss engine support
- Metal wing with two spars
Motor Lycoming AEIO-540-L1B5D - Horizontal metal tail

- šestocilindrični Engine Lycoming AEIO-540-L1B5D
- bokser
- direktno ubrizgavanje goriva - Six cylinders
- vazdušno hlađenje - Flat, opposed
- namenjen za akrobatsko letenje - Direct fuel injection
- elisa Hartzell dvokraka metalna - Air cooling
- maximalna kontinualna (H = 0 m pri 2700 min – - Designed for aerobatic flying
1) 220 kW - Propeller Hartzell twin-bladed
- Maximum continuous output (H = 0 at 2700 r.p.m.)
Komande 220 kW

Sve komandne površine su mehanički pokretne. Controls
Pogon zakrilaca i sva tri trimera sa elektropokretačem.
Električni trimeri za komandu pravca i krilaca. All control surfaces are mechanically controlled.
Mehanički trimer sa oprugom za komandu visine. Flaps and all three trimmers electrically actuated.
Electric trimmers for rudder and ailerons.
Mechanical, spring-loaded trimmer for elevator.

42
Ostale mehaničke komande Other mechanical controls

ODBRAMBENE TEHNOLOGIJE - DEFENCE TECHNOLOGIES
- Engine
- Motorske - Fuel
- Gorivne - Cockpit canopies
- Kabinskih poklopaca - Landing gear, emergency
- Stajnih organa, rezervna - Cockpit heating and ventilation
- Grejanja i provetravanja kabine - Armament controls
- Komande po naoružanju
Cockpit
Pilotska kabina
Aircraft cockpit provides:
Pilotska kabina omogućuje: Ergonomic accommodation for 90% of pilots according
Ergonomski smeštaj 90% sadašnjih pilota srpskog VI PVO to current AF & AD standard, in the range of 5 to 95% of
i kandidata za pilote u granicama od 5 do 95% i bezbedan pilot statures and comfortable accommodation for 99% of
smeštaj za sve pilote do 99%. pilots.

Dobru vidljivost iz kabine, uz obezbeđenje direktne Good cockpit visibility and direct visibility of approaching
vidljivosti piste u prilazu (sa rezervom od 2 stepena) iz pred- runway (with 2o reserve) from the front seat. Rear seat head-
nje kabine. Obezbeđeno je nadvišenje zadnjeg pilota od min- room of minimum 100 mm.
imalno 100 mm. Ergonomically built pilot seat, adjustable in height, accepts
back-carried pilot parachute, provided with harness that
Ergonomski pogodno sedište, podešljivo po visini sa secures the pilot in all stages of flight but allows normal han-
mogućnošću smeštaja leđnog padobrana sa sistemom veza dling of all cockpit controls, as well as rapid and easy aircraft
koje obezbeđuje fiksiranje pilota u sedištu u svim uslovima evacuation on the ground and in the air.
leta i normalnu manipulaciju svim uređajima u avionu, kao
i brzo i lako napuštanje aviona na zemlju i u letu.

Podešljive pedale.

Obezbeđeno je spašavanje pilota uobičajenim napuštan-
jem kabine (bez izbacivog sedišta), sa sistemom za sečenje
kabinskog poklopca detonacionim sečivom.

Upravljanje aviona u toku obuke u osnovnim elementima
instrumentalnog letenja vrši se iz prednje kabine. Ima sis-
tem za simulaciju letenja u instrumentalnim uslovima, koji
se lako postavlja i skida.

Instalacija goriva

Integralni krilni rezervoari u zoni ispred prednje ramen-
jače između rebra broj 1 i 6.
- Kolektorski rezervoar u trupu
- Mlazna pumpa za napajanje
- Električna rezervna pumpa
- Slavina za debalans goriva
- Protivpožarna slavina

Šema instalacije goriva.

Instalacija goriva u trupu
Hidraulički sistem

Namenjen je za uvlačenje i izvlačenje stajnog trapa i pogon
kočionog sistema.
Jednostavni hidraulički sistem sa elektrohidrauličkim agre-
gatom koji ne koristi snagu avionskog motora i rezervnom
ručnom pumpom.
Mala masa hidrauličkog sistema.
Pouzdaniji i lakši hidraulički priključni sistem.

43
Stajni trap Adjustable pedals.
ODBRAMBENE TEHNOLOGIJE - DEFENCE TECHNOLOGIES

Poletanje i sletanje sa betonskih i pripremljenih travnatih
poletno-sletnih staza. Uvlačenje i izvlačenje hidrauličnim Pilot rescue by normal cockpit evacuation (without ejec-
pokretačima. tion seat), by piercing of cockpit canopy with detonating cut-
ter.
Rezervno mehaničko odbravljivanje. Aircraft flying in basic instrumental flight training from
Pneumatik glavne noge 380 h 150. the front cockpit. Provided with instrumental flying simu-
Pneumatik nosne noge 330 h 130. lation system which can be easily mounted and removed.
Disk kočnice na glavnim točkovima.
Upravljanje diferencijalnim kočenjem. Fuel installation
Izgled nosne noge.
Elektro oprema. Integral wing fuel tanks fitted ahead of front spar, between
Električna mreža jednosmernog napona 28 V. ribs 1 and 6.
Glavni izvor: Alternator 2 kW. - Collecting tank in fuselage
Pomoćni izvor: Ni-Cd akumulator 17 Ah. - Jet supply pump
Startovanje motora spoljnim izvorom ili akumulatorom. - Auxiliary electric pump
Sistem naizmenične struje (115/26 V, 400 Hz) pomoću - Fuel unbalance cock
statičkog pretvarača 50 VA. - Fire protection cock
Svetla:
- poziciona Fuel installation schematic.
- reflektor za sletanje
- za taksiranje Fuselage fuel installation
- protiv sudara Hydraulic system
Designed for landing gear retracting/extending and pow-
Elektronska oprema ering the braking system.

Avion opremljen savremenom elektronskom opremom koja Simple hydraulic system, powered by electro-hydraulic
zadovoljava sve postojeće međunarodne standarde i koja generator that does not use power of aircraft engine,
zadovoljava sve postojeće međunarodne standarde i koja equipped with auxiliary hand pump.
omogućava izvršenje sledećih osnovnih funkcija:
Hydraulic system of low mass.
Reliable and simple hydraulic connectors.

Landing gear

Enables takeoff and landing on concrete and prepared
grass runways. Retracted and extended by hydraulic actua-
tors.
Emergency mechanical release.
Main wheel tire dimensions 380 h 150.
Nose wheel tire dimensions 330 h 130.
Disc brakes fitted to main wheels.
Differentially controlled braking.
Nose strut view.
Electrical equipment.
Electric circuit 28V DC.
Main source: Alternator 2 kW.
Auxiliary source: Ni-Cd battery 17 Ah.
Engine starting by external generator or by battery.
Alternating current system (115/26 V, 400 Hz) by means
of static converter of 50 VA.
Lighting:
- Position lights
- Landing spotlight
- Taxi lights
- Anti-collision light

Electronic equipment

The aircraft is outfitted with modern electronic equip-
ment that meets all current international standards and pro-
vides the following main functions:

44
Dvosmernu radio komunikaciju vazduh-zemlja i vazduh Two-way radio communication air-ground and air-air in

ODBRAMBENE TEHNOLOGIJE - DEFENCE TECHNOLOGIES
– vazduh u VHF opsegu sa frekvencijskim skokom od 25 i VHF range, with frequency spacing of 25 and 8.33 kHz, with
8,33 kHz, minimalne izlazne snage 10 W jednovremenim minimum output of 10 W, simultaneous reception of all audio
prijemom svih zvučnih signala u obe kabine i stalnu komu- signals in both cockpits and enabling permanent commu-
nikaciju između pilota. nication between two pilots.
Na zahtev naručioca može se ugraditi i radio uređaj UHF On customer’s request an UHF transceiver could be
opsega sa razmakom kanala od 25 kHz, minimalne izlazne installed, with channel spacing of 25 kHz and minimum pow-
snage od 10 W. er output of 10 W.
Satelitsku navigaciju u radionavigaciju korišćenjem pri- Satellite navigation and radio navigation, employing satel-
jemnika satelitske navigacije i zemaljskih radio farova, VOR- lite navigation receivers and ground radio beacon, VOR and
a i radio kompasa. radio compass.
Sletanje u složenim meteo uslovima kategorije II, danju i Landing in adverse weather conditions of category II, day
noću na bazi postojećeg ILS sistema i GPS uređaja. and night, based on existing ILS system of GPS equipment.
Radarsku identifikaciju letelice pomoću transpondera (sa Radar identification of aircraft with transponder (operat-
modom S). ing in mode S).
Upravljanje kompletnom elektronskom opremom Controls for all electronic equipment provided in front
obezbeđeno iz prve kabine a za uređaje za koje je to moguće cockpit, in second cockpit only for equipment where feasi-
iz obe kabine. ble.

Naoružanje aviona Aircraft armament

Avionom se može izvoditi obuka u gađanju, raketiranju i The aircraft can perform training in gunning, rocketing
bombardovanju, koristeći kolimatorski nišan (opciono, po and bombing with application of collimator sight (optional-
želji naručioca, optoelektronski) sledećim vazduhoplovno ly, upon customer’s request, with optoelectronic sight),
ubojnim sredstvima: engaging the following airborne ordnance:
Mitraljezima kalibra 7,62 mm ili 12,7 mm).
Nevođenim raketnim zrnima kalibra 57 mm i Machine guns cal. 7.62 mm or 12.7 mm
Aviobombama kalibra do 100 kg. Guided rockets cal. 57 mm, and
Aircraft bombs weighing up to 100 kg.
Eksploatacione karakteristike
Operational characteristics
Vek 6.000 sati leta ili 20 godina
Optimalan godišnji nalet je 300 sati. Service life 6,000 flight hours, or 20 years
Opšte opravke strukture i motora posle 1400 sati leta. Optimum annual utilization 300 flight hours.
Srednje vreme između otkaza sistema preko 300 sati, a General repair of airframe and engine after 1400 flight
aviona u celini preko 50 sati. hours.
Mean time of systems failure greater than 300 hours; for
Vreme održavanja: the aircraft as a whole over 50 hours.

- Predpoletni pregled sa punjenjem goriva do 20 min- - Pre-flight inspection and fuel filling, up to 20 min-
uta. utes.
- Posleletni pregled do 30 minuta. - Post-flight inspection, up to 30 minutes.

45
DODATNI OKLOP ADD-ON ARMOR
ZA LAKA FOR LIGHT

ODBRAMBENE TEHNOLOGIJE - DEFENCE TECHNOLOGIES
BORBENA VOZILA COMBAT
VEHICLES
Piše By
Sebastian Baloš Sebastian Baloš

J edan od najvećih izazova sa kojim se suočavaju inžen- One of the greatest challenges that the engineers involved
jeri uključeni u razvoj i održavanje lakih oklopnih vozila in development and maintenance of light armored vehicles
jeste razvoj dodatnog oklopa. Na taj način se stepen zaštite are faced with is development of the add-on armor which
u velikoj meri povećava, čime se odgovara izazovima novog increases the protection level considerably, thus meeting the
doba i produžava životni vek zastarelih, nedovoljno challenges of the modern age and extending the service life
zaštićenih oklopnih vozila. Upravo na ovom planu odbram- of outdated and poorly protected armored vehicles. It is in
bena industrija Srbije nudi niz interesantnih i efikasnih this field that the defense industry of Serbia can offer a range
odgovora. of interesting and efficient solutions.

Prestankom Hladnog rata, bezbedonosna situacija u sve- After the Cold War, the world security situation has under-
tu se u velikoj meri promenila, što je neminovno uticalo i gone profound changes, which inevitably affects the threats
na pretnje sa kojima se oružane snage suočavaju. Umesto which the armed forces are faced with. Instead of large-scale
masovnih sudara oklopno-mehanizovanih snaga, pojavila crashes of armored-mechanized units, ever-increasing ter-
se sve intenzivnija teroristička pretnja ili lokalni sukobi rorist threats and local conflicts have appeared, including
uključujući i ratove na tlu bivše SFRJ. U takvoj klimi, posade the wars on the territory of former SFRY. Under such cir-
oklopnih vozila se znatno intenzivnije suočavaju sa projek- cumstances, the armored vehicle crews are confronted more
tilima ručnih protivoklopnih bacača kao što je RPG-7, pro- intensively with personal anti-armor rocket launchers such
tivoklopnim minama, improvizovanim eksplozivnim as RPG-7, anti-tank mines, improvized explosive devices
napravama i, u poslednje vreme, sve raširenijim teškim sna- and, lately, with all-prevailing heavy 12.7 mm sniper rifles.
jperskim puškama kalibra 12,7 mm. Sva ova oružja ped- All of them make exceptionally dangerous weapons against
stavljaju izuzetno opasna sredstva protiv oklopnih vozila old-generation armored vehicles designed to provide pro-
prethodnih generacija, čija je zaštita projektovana da pruži tection against standard 7.62 mm (7.62x51 mm NATO and
sigurnost protiv streljačke municije stadardnog kalibra 7,62 7.62x54R Russian) small arms ammunition only, or possi-
mm (7,62x51 mm NATO i 7,62x54R Ruski), eventulano bly against 12.7 mm launched towards the front of the vehi-
12,7 mm sa čela. cle.
Veliku poteškoću za ugradnju dodatnog oklopa na laka One of the difficulties with the add-on armor integration
oklopna vozila predstavlja ograničenje u masi, koju takva is limitation of the load that these vehicles can take on. This
vozila mogu da podnesu bez prekomernog opterećenja. Iz is why development of the add-on armor which meets all the
tog razloga, razvoj dodatnog oklopa koji bi trebalo da odgov- stated threats is considered a great challenge. In case of need,
ori na sve navedene pretnje predstavlja velik izazov. Ukoliko i.e. if a threat has changed, an add-on armor kit can be
se ukaže potreba, tj. promeni pretnja, jedan paket dodatne replaced with a more advanced or suitable one. The Serbian
oklopne zaštite se može zameniti drugim, savremenijim ili defense industry designs, develops, tests, manufactures and
onim namenjenim za zaštitu od drugih sredstava. Srpska offers off-the-shelf add-on armor kits that are in service with
namenska industrija projektuje, razvija, ispituje, proizvo- many armies of the world. Since each armored vehicle sub-
di i nudi gotove pakete dodatne oklopne zaštite za oklopna jected to add-on armor works has a different configuration
vozila koja se nalaze u operativnoj upotrebi u različitim - outline, size and layout of hatches - each concrete kit has
zemljama sveta. Naravno, svako oklopno vozilo koje bi tre- to be adapted to make it suitable. We can now have a look at
balo da dobije dodatnu oklopnu zaštitu ima drugačiju kon- the add-on armor protection systems that have been devel-
figuraciju: siluetu, dimenzije i raspored različitih otvora, oped or are currently being improved, developed or tested.
tako da je potrebno izvršiti prilagođavanje konkretnog pake-
ta. Pogledajmo koji su to sistemi dodatne zaštite koji su Small arms ammunition
razvijeni, vrši se optimizacija ili se trenutno razvijaju i ispitu-
ju. As already mentioned, add-on armor is mainly „dimen-
sioned“ for the most widespread small arms ammunition –
Streljačka municija 12.7-14.5 mm from the front, and 7.62 mm from the side.
Fire attacks from heavy 12.7 mm sniper rifles with a com-
Kao što je rečeno, zaštita lakih oklopnih vozila se u velikoj paratively extensive range can be expected in "ambush"
većini slučajeva „dimenzioniše“ prema najrasprostranjenijoj actions directed at the side of the armored vehicle. The same

47
straljačkoj municiji, goes for protection
ODBRAMBENE TEHNOLOGIJE - DEFENCE TECHNOLOGIES

sa čela od kalibra against the new gen-
12,7-14,5 mm, a sa eration of tungsten
boka od 7,62 mm. alloy armor-piercing
Međutim, pri projectiles, or
vatrenom dejstvu iz against subcaliber
teških snajperskih projectiles of 7.62
pušaka kalibra 12,7 mm small arms
mm, koje imaju rel- ammunition, with
ativno velik domet, considerably greater
treba očekivati penetration than the
dejstvo „iz zasede“ steel-core ammuni-
upravo na bok tion which can be
oklopnog vozila. Isto stopped by basic
važi i u slučaju vehicle armor.
zaštite od nove gen- Roughly speaking,
eracije pancirnih this means that the
projektila sa jez- vehicle side protec-
grom od legure vol- tion has to be dou-
frama ili bled by adding to the
potkalibarnih pro- side of the vehicle
jektila streljačke approximately 100 kg
municije kalibra 7,62 mm, čija je probojnost značajno veća of hard steel per square meter. Having in mind the typical
od municije sa čeličnim probojnim jezgrom od koje štiti size of these vehicles, it would mean that a total of almost 2t
osnovni oklop vozila. To znači, da je, grubo govoreći, zašti- has to be added, which is absolutely unacceptable for a light
tu sa recimo boka potrebno udvostručiti, što je približno vehicle with the combat weight of 10 - 15 t. For this reason,
jednako dodavanju oko 100 kg pancirnog čelika po kvadrat- it is necessary to find more efficient types of add-on armor
nom metru bočne površine vozila. Znajući tipične dimen- than hard steel.
zije tih vozila, potrebno je dodati ukupnu masu koja je reda The first solution is engineering ceramics, primarily alu-
veličine gotovo 2 t, što je za lako vozilo čija je borbena masa minum oxside (Al2O3). This material is harder than the
10 - 15 t neprihvatljivo. Iz tog razloga, potrebno je pronaći armor-piercing projectile core, and can break the penetrat-
efikasnije tipove dodatne oklopne zaštite od pancirnog čeli- ing core and make the basic armor protection sufficient.
ka. This type of ceramics is widely used because of its good cost-
Kao prvo rešenje se nameće inženjerska keramika, u efficiency ratio, and because it is much better than some
prvom redu aluminiju-oksid (Al2O3). Ovaj materijal ima more expensive and somewhat more efficient silicon car-
veću tvrdoću od jezgra pancirnog projektila, što izaziva lom bide and boron carbide types of ceramics. However, since
probojnog jezgra, tako da osnovna oklopna zaštita može da the cost of aluminum oxide ceramics is several times high-
pruži potrebnu zaštitu. Ovaj tip keramike se najčešće koristi er than the cost of hard steel, this type of add-on armor is
jer poseduje odličan odnos cene i kvaliteta, znatno bolji od used only in some particular and specific cases, mainly when
prilično skupljih, ali i nešto efikasnijih silicijum-karbidnih other types of protection cannot be used, i.e. when the out-
i bor-karbidnih tipova keramike. Ipak, i cena aluminijum- er vehicle dimensions are not to be remarkably increased.
oksidne keramike je višestruko veća od cene pancirnog čeli- These protection kits have already been developed and are
ka, tako da se upotreba ovog tipa dodatne zaštite koristi u currently being improved.
određenim, specifičnim slučajevima, pre svega gde nema
dovoljno prostora da se primene drugi tipovi zaštite, odnos- The outer armor in the form of a perforated plate or grid
no gde se spoljni gabarit vozila ne sme u većoj meri povećati. is a very efficient alternative to engineering ceramics, but it
Paketi ovog tipa zaštite su već razvijeni, dostupni i trenut- has to be fitted at a certain distance from the basic armor.
no se radi na njihovom daljem usavršavanju. The easiest way to do this is in case of installations such as
side skirts over the vehicle tracks. The mechanism of pen-
Predoklop u vidu perforirane ploče ili rešetke predstavl- etration decrease is based on the effect of slant motion of
ja vrlo efikasnu alternativu inženjerskoj keramici, ali zahte- the armor-piercing projectile in flight, or on its damage when
va ugradnju na određenom odstojanju od osnovnog oklopa. it hits the perforation edge when stress in the penetrating
To je najjednostavnije izvesti u slučaju ugradnje poput core commonly occurs. In the first case, the projectile hits
kumulativnih ekrana, preko gusenica vozila. Mehanizam the basic armor „nose down“, while in the other case, the
smanjenja probojnosti se zasniva na efektu zakošavanja projectile core is broken so that kinetic energy of its parts is
pancirnog zrna u letu, ili njegovog loma usled pogotka u significantly reduced, allowing the basic armor to provide
ivicu perforacije pojavljuju i savojni naponi unutar probo- adequate protection. With its more favorable cost-efficien-
jnog jezgra. U prvom slučaju, zrno u osnovni oklop udara cy ratio, this type of armor is more suitable than ceramics,
„pljoštemice“, dok se u drugom slučaju, pored toga javlja and in addition, it has better protection features against
i lom jezgra, tako da kinetička energija njegovih delova poje- shaped-charge warheads used mainly with the anti-tank
dinačno višestruko smanjuje, čime osnovni oklop može da launchers class RPG-7, by de-focusing the shaped charge

48
pruži adekvatnu zaštitu. Prema odnosu cena – kvalitet, ovaj jet, or increasing the distance at which the warhead is acti-

ODBRAMBENE TEHNOLOGIJE - DEFENCE TECHNOLOGIES
tip oklopa je značajno pogodniji od keramike, a uz to, vated. Perforated plates and grids have also been developed
povećava i zaštitu od kumulativnih bojevih glava, pre- and current trends are to expand the range of materials that
vashodno zastupljenih na ručnim protivoklopnim sredstvi- can be used, in accordance with the needs and requirements
ma klase RPG-7, kroz mehanizam defokusiranja kumula- of different users.
tivnog mlaza, odnosno povećanje rastojanja na kom se boje-
va glava aktivira. Perforirane ploče i rešetke su takođe razvi- Shaped-charge ammunition
jeni i trenutno se radi na proširenju spektra materijala koji
se mogu upotrebljavati, prema željama i potrebama koris- Shaped-charge ammunition used with anti tank recoilless
nika. and rocket weapons, i.e. its warheads outperform the armor
protection of light armored vehicles (over 300 mm compared
Kumulativna municija to 6 - 20 mm). Apart from this, knowing the proliferation of
Kumulativna municija ručnih protivoklopnih bestrzajnih these arms, the Soviet/Russian RPG-7 in particular, but the
i raketnih sredstava, tj. njene bojeve glave imaju višestruko American LAW as well, it becomes clear that efficient pro-
veću probojnost pancirnog čelika od oklopne zaštite lakih tection against these weapons is as important as problem-
oklopnih vozila (preko 300 mm u odnosu na 6 - 20 mm). atic. As has already been said, fitting the outer armor in the
Pored toga, znajući koliko je široka proliferacija ovih sred- form of a perforated plate or grid at a certain distance from
stava, a pre svega sovjetskih tj. ruskih RPG-7, ali i amer- the basic armor provides better protection against shaped-
ičkih LAW, jasno je da je pružanje efikasne zaštite od tih charge warheads, but this protection should not be taken for
sredstava isto toliko važno koliko je i problematično. Kao granted because even defocused jet would be capable of pen-
što je već rečeno, postavljanje predoklopa u vidu perfori- etrating inside the vehicle. However, its efficiency in the
rane ploče ili rešetke na određeno rastojanje od osnovnog vehicle would be markedly reduced.
oklopa pruž povećanu zaštitu od kumulativnih bojevih gla- Currently, a very popular solution for this acute problem
va, ali tu zaštitu ne treba smatrati apsolutno sigurnim rešen- is the so called „slat“ armor made of steel strips installed at
jem, jer će čak i defokusirani mlaz imati dovoljnu probo- a certain distance from the main armor. Although this type
jnost da prodre unutar vozila. Međutim, efekat dejstva u of armor is considered in technical literature as a type of out-
vozilu je znatno umanjen. er armor that only increases the distance at which the war-
Danas vrlo popularno rešenje ovog akutnog problema head is activated and leads to the defocused shaped-charge
predstavlja tzv. kavez, odnosno na Engleskom „slat“ oklop jet effect, which is what actually happens in case of direct

49
od čeličnih traka. Ovaj tip impact of the fuse at the strip, in
ODBRAMBENE TEHNOLOGIJE - DEFENCE TECHNOLOGIES

zaštite podrazumeva some other cases its mechanism
ugradnju čeličnih traka for decreasing the penetrability of
koje se nalaze na shaped-charge warheads is com-
određenom rastojanju od pletely different. Namely, when an
osnovnog oklopa. Iako se older type of warhead used with
u literaturi ovaj tip oklopa RPG-7 launchers hits the steel
smatra vrstom predok- strip with its slanted tip, the sig-
lopa koji samo povećava nal going from the fuse to the det-
razdaljinu aktivacije onator will be interrupted, thus
bojeve glave i pojave efek- preventing the explosive charge to
ta defokusiranja kumula- detonate. However, some war-
tivnog mlaza, što se i heads have inertial fuses which get
dešava u slučaju direk- activated when the projectile
tnog udara upaljača u decelerates. Furthermore, some
traku, u drugim slučajevima je njegov mehanizam sman- projectiles are equipped with secondary, self-destruction
jenja probojnosti kumulativnih bojevih glava sasvim dru- fuses activating the warhead a few seconds after it has been
gačiji. Naime, ukoliko se radi o starijim tipovima bojeve fired, i.e. they self-liquidate. In both cases, steel strips can
glave namenjene ručnim bacačima RPG-7, udarom damage seriously the shaped-charge liner, which will not be
zakošenog čeonog dela projektila u čeličnu traku dolazi do axisymmetric anymore and will help to create improper for-
prekida signala od upaljača do detonatora, tako da uopšte mation of the shaped-charge jet, reducing its penetrability
ne dolazi do detonacije eksplozivnog punjenja. Međutim, effect. The „slat“ armor is still in the stage of development.
neki tipovi bojevih glava imaju upaljače koji dejstvuju iner- An alternative to the „slat“ armor is the explosive–reactive
ciono, tj. kada dođe do usporavanja projektila. Takođe, neki armor (ERA). This type of armor is very popular today and
projektili su opremljeni i sekundarnim, samolikvidacionim is especailly used for tank protection. It consists of two steel
upaljačima koji aktiviraju bojevu glavu nekoliko sekundi plates, and the explosive charge in between. After the shaped-
nakon ispaljivanja, tj. vrše samouništenje. U oba slučaja, charge jet activates the explosive, the two steel plates get
čelične trake mogu da izazovu ozbiljno oštećenje kumula- separated and move through the shaped-charge jet, decreas-
tivnog levka, koji nakon toga više nije osno – simetričan, ing penetrability to a large extent. The ERA second gener-
što u velikoj meri doprinosti nepravilnom formiranju kumu- ation is efficient against kinetic energy projectiles as well.
lativnog mlaza, tj. njegovoj značajno smanjenoj probojnosti. The greatest problem with ERA is high impact energy of the
Kavez-oklop je u fazi razvoja. inner steel plate, which can damage severly the compara-
Kao alternativa „kavezu“ nameće se eksplozivno – reak- tively thin basic armor of the vehicle. This is why different
tivni oklop (ERO). Ovaj tip oklopa je danas vrlo aktuelan solutions are applied. The first one involves installation of a
pre svega za povećanje oklopne zaštite tenkova. Sastoji se multi-layer intermediate layer, where plastic is used in addi-
od dve čelične ploče, između kojih se nalazi eksplozivno tion to the explosive, thus absorbing to a certain extent the
punjenje. Nakon što kumulativni mlaz aktivira eksploziv, energy of the inner plate and reducing it to an acceptable
dolazi do razdvajanja dve čelične ploče, koje se samim razd- level. Still ERA only reduces the penetration of the shaped-
vajanjem kreću kroz kumulativni mlaz, remeteći ga i u charge warhead, meaning that the basic armor has to be thick
velikoj meri smanjuući probojnost. Druga generacija ERO enough to stop the shaped-charge jet. But, even as it is, ERA
ima efikasnost i protiv projektila koji dejstvuju kinetičkom can reduce the post-penetration effects to a large extent.
energijom. Najveći Instead of steel, a brand-new ERA
problem kod ERO je generation uses fiber-reenforced
velika energija udara composite material that splinters
unutrašnje čelične after detonation of the explosive
ploče, što može da charge. These small fragments can
ozbiljno ošteti rela- make some risk for the surround-
tivno tanki osnovni ing area which is the reason why
oklop vozila. Iz tog ERA has not been widely deployed.
razloga, pribegava re The weight of this ERA is by 2/3
različitim rešenjima. lower than the standard type ERA
Prvo rešenje such as Israeli Blazer or Russian
podrazumeva ugradnju Contact 1, and the remaining pen-
višeslojnog međusloja, etrating potential of the shaped-
gde je pored eksplozi- charge jet is reduced by far. All this
va prisutna i plastična makes ERA with the composite
masa, koja u određenoj modules prominently more suitable
meri apsorbuje energi- for protection against light armor
ju unutrašnje ploče, vehicles.
svodeći je na prihvatljiv In place of ERA a somewhat less
nivo. Ipak, ERO samo efficient, but more reliable and

50
smanjuje probojnost safer sandwich-armor with an inert
kumulativne bojeve glave, tako da osnovni oklop mora da intermediate layer (IRA – inert reactive armor) can be used.

ODBRAMBENE TEHNOLOGIJE - DEFENCE TECHNOLOGIES
ima dovoljnu debljinu kako bi potpuno zaustavio kumula- The explosive between the two steel plates can be replaced
tivni mlaz. Međutim, i kao takav, ERO u velikoj meri sman- with a polymer that „puffs up“ the steel plates under the
juje efekte nakon proboja. action of the shaped-charge jet, which also leads to their
movement in the jet and reduces penetrability. Besides, IRA
Poptuno nova generacija ERO ima umesto čelika kom- is more adventageous over ERA because it provides for bet-
pozitnim materijal ojačan vlaknima, koji se nakon detonacije ter protection against repeated hits. Several standard types
eksplozivnog punjenja raspada u sitne delove. Ovi delovi of ERA intended as add-on protection for tanks have been
takođe predstavljaju manji rizik po okolinu što je sprečava- developed and tested, while other types of this group are still
lo da ERO pronađe širu upotrebu. Masa ovakvog ERO je za in the development stage.
2/3 manja nego kod klasičnih tipova ERO kao što je izrael- The last but not least promising protection of the light
ski Blazer ili ruski Kontakt 1, a preostala probojnost kumu- armor vehicle is the so called whipple shield. This method
lativnog mlaza je znatno manja. Sve ovo čini ERO sa kom- has been used for protection of spaceships against very fast
pozitnim modulima značajno pogodnijim i sigurnijim za particles known as „stardust“. It consists of several extreme-
zaštitu lakih oklopnih vozila. ly thin and spaced plates that destroy these particles, and of
Umesto ERO, moguće je koristiti nešto manje efikasan, the inner layers that stops the tinier splinters with far less
ali daleko sigurniji i bezbedniji sendvič oklop sa inertnim kinetic energy. According to technical literature, this method
međuslojem (IRO – inertni reaktivni oklop). Umesto is highly efficient against the shaped-charge jet moving at
eksploziva, između dve čelične ploče se može postaviti the same speeds as the stardust. The efficiency of some con-
polimer, koji pri dejstvu kumulativnog mlaza izaziva „nadi- figurations is comparable with ERA, but without its aggres-
manje“ čeličnih ploča, čime se takođe ostvaruje njihovo sive effect on the vehicle surroundings. Another advantage
kretanje unutar mlaza i smanjuje se probojnost. Osim toga, is that they can be easily mounted on amphibious vehicles,
IRA ima i prednost da obezbeđuje veću mogućnost zaštite because the add-on armor of this type is fitted in hermeti-
od višestrukih pogodaka od ERA. Nekoliko klasičnih tipo- cally-sealed boxes with a comparatively large percantege of
va ERO oklopa namenjenih za dodatnu zaštitu tenkova je air. The whipple shield add-on armor for light vehicles is
razvijeno i testirano, dok su ostali tipovi oklopa iz ove grupe currently in the development stage, and the first tests with
trenutno u razvoju. shaped-charge ammunition are expected.
Poslednji, ali ne i najmanje perspektivan način postizanja
dodatne protivkumulativne zaštite lakog oklopnog vozila Combinations
jeste korišćenjem principa tzv. Whipple shield. Ovaj metod
je ranije korišćen za zaštitu svemirskih letelica od vrlo brz- As one threat rarely comes alone, it is possible to combine
ih čestica poznatih pod nazovom „zvezdana prašina“. Sastoji some solutions to provide protection against armor-pierc-
se od više veoma tankih ploča, postavljenih na određeno ing and shaped-charge ammunition. For instance, certain
međusobno rastojanje, koje izazivaju raspadanje tih česti- types of add-on armor can be efficiently combined by using
ca, nakon čega unutrašnji slojevi zaustavljaju još sitnije two types of modules – one against small arms and the oth-
krhotine koje imaju daleko manju kinetičku energiju. U er against shaped-charge ammunition – to increase the over-
naučnoj literaturi je ovaj efekat pokazao visoku efikasnost all efficiency against both types.
protiv kumulativnog mlaza, koji se kreće upravo brzinama It is thus possible to combine engineering ceramics and
koje su uporedive zvezdanoj prašini. Nivo efikasnosti je pri ERA/IRA, where the engineering ceramics will provide pro-
nekim konfiguracijama čak uporediv sa ERO, ali bez agre- tection not only against small arms ammuntion but also
sivog efekta protiv okoline vozila. Dodatna prednost je vrlo against the remaining potential of the shaped-charge jet. A
pogodna montaža pre svega na vozila kod kojih se zahteva- remarkably cheaper, but as efficient combination could be
ju amfibijske osobine, tj. plovnost, jer se dodatni oklop ovog a perforated plate/grid and whipple shield, with an additional
tipa postavlja unutar hermetički zatvorenih kutija koje advantage of providing, keeping or increasing the amphibi-
sadrže i relativno velik zapreminski procenat vazduha. ous vehicle features. Of course, its drawback would be com-
Whipple shield dodatni oklop za laka vozila je trenutno u paratively increased outer dimensions of the modified vehi-
fazi razvoja i očekuju se prva testiranja kumulativnom muni- cle. Besides, it is possible to have different combinations
cijom. with ERA, especially ERA with composite material on the

51
Kombinacije
outside and conventional material on the inside in order to
ODBRAMBENE TEHNOLOGIJE - DEFENCE TECHNOLOGIES

achieve some immunity against tandem HEAT warheads.
Kako pretnja vrlo retko dolazi sama, postoji mogućnost So the final decison would be the end user’s, depending on
kombinovanja pojedinih rešenja zaštite od zrna pancirne i his needs and requirements.
kumulativne municije. Primera radi, moguće je vrlo efikas-
no kombinovati pojedine vrste dodatnog oklopa čime se Anti-tank mine
korišćenjem dva tipa modula, jedan protiv streljačke muni-
cije, a drugi protiv kumulativne, povećava ukupna efikas- Nowadays, anti-tank mines are the most common anti-
nost protiv obe vrste sredstava. tank weapons used in terrorist actions. They create special
Primera radi, moguće je kombinovati inženjerske difficulties due to the fact that these mines are deployed to
keramike i ERO/IRO, gde inženjerska keramika pored stop tanks, meaning that they are highly efficient against
zaštite od streljačke municije pruža i dodatnu zaštitu vozi- light armored vehicles and have the direst of consequences
la od preostalog kumulativnog mlaza. Znatno jeftinija, a on the crew. The basic protection method is to re-enforce
podjednako efikasna kombinacija bi mogla biti perforirana the most sensitive vehicle parts (primarily the floor and the
ploča ili rešetka i Whipple shield, uz dodatnu prednost mudguards) with additional steel-plates or a sandwich-struc-
obezbeđenja, zadržavanja ili povećanja amfibijskih svojs- ture consisting of steel and a polymer. It is clear that smooth
tava vozila. Naravno, nedostatak ove druge kombinacije je performance of the vehicle would be impossible in case a
nešto veće povećanje spoljašnjih gabarita modifikovanog mine should explode under the wheel, for example, but the
vozila. Takođe, moguće je kombinovati i različite tipove crew will surely survive, which was unimaginable without
ERO, pre svega ERO sa kompozitnim materijalom spolja, this add-on armor. Depending on the protection level, it is
a klasični sa unutrašnje strane kako bi se ostvarila i određe- possible to protect a vehicle even against mines with 6-7 kg
na otpornost na dejstvo tandem – kumulativnih bojevih gla- of explosive charge.
va. Tako, konačna odluka stoji na finalnom korisniku, u zav-
isnosti od njegovih želja i potreba.

52
Protivoklopne mine The market

ODBRAMBENE TEHNOLOGIJE - DEFENCE TECHNOLOGIES
Protivoklopne mine danas predstavljaju jedno od najčešće
korišćenih protivoklopnih sredstava u terorističkim akci- There is a great number of vehicles from the age of Cold
jama. Posebnu poteškoću predstavlja činjenica da se koriste War today which are still in operation, but their armor pro-
mine namenjene za zaustavljanje tenkova, koje protiv lak- tection needs to be improved. We are talking about several
ih oklopnih vozila imaju vrlo visoku efikasnost sa nesagle- thousands of these vehicles, and among the typical repre-
divim posledicama po posadu. Osnovni metod zaštite pred- sentatives we can mention the American M113 armour per-
stavlja ojačavanje najosetljivijih delova vozila, prevashodno sonnel carrier (APC) and a whole range of USSR vehicles
poda i blatobrana dodatnim čeličnim pločama, ili, sendvič such as the APC family - wheeled BTR-60, 70 and 80, tracked
konstrukcijom koja podrazumeva korišćenje čelika i BTR-50 in several versions, as well as the tracked infantry
polimera. Na taj način, jasno je da je nemoguće obezbedi- fighting vehicles (IFV) BMP-1 and BMP-2 and the light
ti neometano funkcionisanje vozila u slučaju detonacije amphibious tanks PT-76. This number also includes wide-
mine npr. ispod točka, ali se itekako može računati na ly used French IFV AMX-10P, APC VAB, AMX-13 light tanks
preživljavanje posade, što je bez ovog dodatnog oklopa rani- and Panhard ERC armored vehicles, and British light tanks,
je bilo nezamislivo. U zavisnosti od nivoa postavljene zaštite, Scorpions and all vehicles of this family (Scimitar, Spartan,
moguće je zaštititi vozilo i od eksplozije mine sa eksplozivn- Striker, Sabre, Stormer itd.), armored vehicles Saladin and
im punjenjem mase 6-7 kg. wheeled APCs Saxon and Saracen. Chinese APC Type-63,
IFV Type-85, light tanks Type-63 and many others are also
Tržište «in the game». Besides, one must not forget heavier vehi-
cles such as tanks that are sensitive primarily to projectiles
Danas u svetu postoji velik broj vozila iz doba Hladnog such as RPG-7 particularly when directed at the side or the
rata koja još uvek imaju raspoloživog resursa s jedne strane, roof. The mentioned upgrade kits can therefore be applied
a postoji potreba za povećanjem njihove oklopne zaštite. to older-generation tanks such as T-54/55, T-62, T-72, Type-
Ovaj broj se kreće oko reda veličine nekoliko hiljada, a među 59, 69/79, 85, M-48, M-60, AMX-30, Leopard, Centurion,
tipičnim predstavnicima treba spomenuti američke oklop- etc. Of course, the list of vehicles apt for modernization does
ne transportere (OT) M113 i čitav niz vozila poreklom iz not end here and the add-on armor systems are very adapt-
bivšeg SSSR-a, kao što je serija OT - točkaša BTR-60, 70 able to specific dimensions and configurations of diverse
i 80, gusenični OT BTR-50 u više varijanti, kao i gusenič- armored vehicles.
na borbena vozila pešadije (BVP) BMP-1 i BMP-2 i laki
amfibijski tenkovi PT-76. Dalje, tu su i prilično raširena As a marketing and commercial integrator of Serbian
francuska BVP AMX-10P, OT VAB, laki tenkovi AMX-13 i defense industry, and especially, as the system integrator of
oklopni automobili Panhard ERC, kao i britanski laki tenkovi development and production of complex weapons systems
Scorpion i sva vozila iz ove familije (Scimitar, Spartan, in the Republic of Serbia, Yugoimprt-SDPR pays full atten-
Striker, Sabre, Stormer itd.), oklopni automobili Saladin i tion to the development projects of ballistic protection sys-
točkaški OT Saxon i Saracen. U „igri“ su i kineski OT tems aimed at upgrading the existing combat and non-com-
Type-63, BVP Type-85, laki tenkovi Type-63 i mnogi dru- bat vehicles and integration in new vehicle models.
gi. Pri tome ne treba zaboraviti ni teža vozila poput tenko- Development of protection systems for combat and non-
va, koji itekako mogu biti osetljivi pre svega na projektile combat vehicles is oriented towards finding efficient solu-
ručnih protivoklopnih bacača kao što je RPG-7, pre svega tions for common threats caused by enemy ambush actions,
sa boka ili krova. Spomenuti paketi modernizacije se mogu and for Army operations against terrorist and guerilla actions,
iz tog razloga postavljati i na tenkove starije generacije kao including sverakursnu ballistic protection against small arms
što su T-54/55, T-62, T-72, Type-59, 69/79, 85, M-48, M- ammunition, portable anti-tank weapons (personal rocket
60, AMX-30, Leopard, Centurion, i dr. Naravno, ovaj spisak launchers), and against mines in particular.
potencijalnih vozila interesantnih za modernizaciju nije
konačan i svi spomenuti sistemi za dodatnu oklopnu zašti-
tu su vrlo prilagodljivi specifičnim dimenzijama i konfig-
uraciji najrazličitijih oklopnih vozila.
Jugoimprt-SDPR u svojoj ulozi integratora marketinško
– komercijalnog nastupa srpspke odbrambene industrije,
kao i posebno, u ulozi Sistema sistem integratora razvoja i
proizvodnje složenih oružnih sistema u republici Srbiji,
poklanja značajnu pažnju projektima razvoja sistema bal-
ističke zaštite namenjenih nadgradnji na postojeća borbe-
na i neborbena vozila, kao i integraciji u nove modele vozi-
la. Razvoj sistema zaštite borbenih i neborbenih vozila u
posebno usmeravamo ka iznalaženju efikasnih odgovora na
osnovne pretnje koje nastaju u uslovima zasednih dejsta-
va protivnika, a tokom upotrebe jednica KOV u pro-
tivterorističkim i protivgerilskim operacijama, uključujući
sverakursnu balističku zaštitu od streljačke vatre, prenos-
nih PO sredstava (ručnih bacača i raketnih lansera), kao i,
posebno, protivminsku zaštitu.

53
Holding Holding Company
kompanija “Krušik” a.d.
PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION

„Krušik“a.d.
Piše By
Krušik Marketing Krušik Marketing

Holding kompanija „Krušik“a.d. je Holding Company “Krušik” a.d. is
jedno od najvećih i najznačajnijih pre- among the largest arms manufactur-
duzeća odbrambene industrije ers in Serbia with tradition of many
Republike Srbije, koga odlikuje decades and world-recognized quality
dugogodišnja tradicija i svetski pre- of its products. The state owns 65% of
poznatljiv kvalitet proizvoda. U vlas- the Company.
ništvu je države u procentu od 65 %. HK „Krušik“a.d. se
nalazi u Valjevu, u Zapadnoj Srbiji, 95 kilometara jugoza- HC ”Krušik” a.d. is situated in Valjevo, Western Serbia,
padno od Beograda. about 95 km Southwest from Belgrade.

Kompanija je osnovana 1939. godine sa osnovnom delat- It was founded in 1939 with the main purpose to develop
nošću proizvodnje sredstava ratne tehnike. Od osnivanja do and produce defence equipment. Since its inception, the
danas, kompanija je prolazila kroz različite faze svog posto- Company has passed through different phases of existence,
janja, ali uvek nadograđujući svoj tehnološki, proizvodni i while continually building up its technological, manufac-
razvojni potencijal. turing and developing potential.

54
Osnovna delatnost fabrike danas jeste proizvodnja Main activity of the Company is production of weapons

PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION
naoružanja i vojne opreme za potrebe kopnene vojske, and defence equipment for use by land forces, air force and
ratnog vazduhoplovstva i protivvazdušne odbrane, kao i air defence and the navy. Possessing long tradition and
ratne mornarice. Takođe, zahvaljujući dugogodišnjem employing skilled staff for arms production, HC ”Krušik”
iskustvu i kadru u proizvodnji naoružanja, HK a.d. is accepted as reliable partner of our army and of
„Krušik“a.d. se bavi i kontrolno-tehničkim pregledom i numerous foreign customers for repairs, overhaul and
remontom sredstava naoružanja za potrebe oružanih periodic inspections. All types of weapons produced by
snaga Republike Srbije i inostranih partnera. Sve vrste our Company, but also other weapons similar to our pro-
naoružanja koje proizvodi kompanija, ali i sredstva drugih duction range are subjected to programs designed to ren-
proizvođača analogna njenom proizvod- ovate or extend service life of such materials.
nom programu predstavljaju predmet
radova koji se izvode radi produžetka nji- In recent years and according to requirement to
hovog veka upotrebe ili popravke. reduce the quantities of specific types of arma-
ment, we have been engaged in destruction of var-
Poslednjih godina, u skladu sa aktuel- ious types of rockets with expired service life. Our
nim trendovima smanjenja određenih aim is to become a regional center for disposal of
tipova naoružanja, kompanija se bavi surplus ammunition.
uništavanjem raznih tipova raketa kojima
je istekao rok upotrebe. Kompanija ima We have long tradition in tech-
ambicije da postane regionalni centar za nology transfers to manufac-
uništavanje viška municije. ture arms from our production
range. A number of factories, built
Dugogodišnju tradiciju kompanija ima i as “green field” investments, oper-
u transferima tehnologija proizvodnje sredstava ate in many regions of the world, as well
iz našeg proizvodnog programa. Širom sveta nalaze se as factories re-equipped for more advanced
fabrike koje su podignute po principu „ green field“ invest- technologies. Engineering projects remain as one
cija, kao i fabrike koje su doopremljene sa novim tehnologi- of essential activities within our Company.
jama na osnovu transfera tehnologja HK «Krušik» a.d.
Inženjering poslovi jesu i dalje jedna od najznačajnijh Our technological capacities are offered to third par-
aktivnosti kompanije. ties as services in lathe machining, heat treatment, ther-
mo-plastic pressing and injecting, chemical and electro-
Svoje tehnološke kapacitete kompanija upošljava i usluga- chemical protection and cold deformation processes.
ma za treća lica koristeći opremu za mehaničku obradu stru-
ganjem, termičku obradu, opremu za presovanje i brizganje Pooling on our expertise and experience in defence equip-
termoplasta, hemijsku i elektrohemijsku zaštitu, tehnologi- ment manufacturing, we have introduced production of civ-
ju obrade hladnom deformacijom. il application items that share certain characteristics with
military products, such as anti-hail rockets and general pur-
Koristeći svoja znanja i iskustvo u proizvodnji naoružan- pose launchers and extensive range of electric detonators
ja osvojili smo i proizvodimo sredstva koja se koriste za civil- and mining blasting caps.
nu upotrebu a imaju elemente koji karakterišu naoružanje
- to su raketni sistem protivgradne odbrane koji obuhvata The quality of our products described above is supported
rakete i univerzalni lanser, kao i veliki broj tipova električnih by certified quality management system ISO 9001 which is
detonatora i patrona za primenu u rudarstvu. subject to constant verification, updating and adaptation to
processes in use by the Company.
Visok kvalitet proizvoda garantuje sertifikovani sistem
menadžmenta kvalitetom, ISO 9001, koji je stalno podložan
proveri, osavremenjavanju i usklađivanju sa procesima u Where we excell
kompaniji.
Best-selling product range of HC”Krušik” a.d. that enjoys
Ono po čemu nas prepoznaju worldwide reputation is, undoubtedly, mortar ammunition.

Komercijalno najznačajniji deo proizvodnog programa HK Mortars still represent unbeatable, highly mobile, weapon
”Krušik”a.d, po kojem je preduzeće u svetu posebno pre- systems able to inflict rapid strikes by indirect fire.
poznatljivo, jeste nesumnjivo program proizvodnje minoba-
cačkih mina. HC ”Krušik” a.d. manufactures two families of mortar
ammunition:
Minobacački sistemi jesu i danas veoma značajni borbeni - light mortar shells of shorter range, and
sistemi vatrene podrške, koje karakterišu visoka prenosivost - heavy mortar shells for extended ranges.
i pokretljivost, sposobnost efikasnog nanošenja gubitaka
posrednim gađanjem. Properties that distinguish all mortar shells made by HC
”Krušik” a.d. are:

55
- full safety in storing, handling and use,
HK "Krušik"a.d. proizvodi dve tehnološke - very high reliability exceeding
PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION

generacije minobacačke municije: 98%, or 95% for special purpose
shells,
- lake mine sa kratkim dometima - outstanding target hit preci-
- teške mine sa dugim dometima sion,
- excellent superquick action
Ono što odlikuje sve mine iz proizvodnog that assures high effectiveness
programa HK "Krušik"a.d. jeste: against targets.

- potpuna sigurnost pri skladištenju, ruko- This is achieved by suitable
vanju i upotrebi aerodynamic shape of shell case
- vrlo visoka pouzdanost od preko and the properties of fuze sub-
98%, a za specijalne mine 95% assembly and ignition cartridge.
- izuzetna preciznost na
cilju FUZE is the key element of
- odlična trenutnost mortar shell since it
što omogućava visoku directly affects shell
efikasnost na cilju safety in handling, firing
and storing. Especially
Pored aerodi- important is safety of the
namičkog oblika minobacačkih pro- crew during mortar fir-
jektila, podsklopovi upaljača i osnovnog punjenja ing. True target effec-
posebno doprinose postizanju navedenih osobina: tiveness is directly related to fuze superquick action. HK
”Krušik” a.d. produces modern mortar fuzes of mechani-
UPALJAČ jeste najznačajiji elemenat minobacačkog pro- cal impact type, standardized for all calibers. Fuzes are made
jektila jer od njega zavisi bezbednost i sigurnost mine pri in two versions: single action for smaller calibers, and dual
rukovanju, upotrebi i skladištenju. Posebno je značajna action for larger calibers.
bezbednost posade minobacača pri gađanju. Realna efikas-
nost mine na cilju jeste direktna posledica trenutnosti upal- These fuzes possess safety in front of the muzzle of 70 m,
jača. HK "Krušik"a.d. proizvodi savremeni minobacački as well as:
upaljač udarno-mehaničkog tipa, koji je univerzalan za sve - very high sensitivity (superquick action) on impact against
kalibre. Proizvodi se u dve varijante, jednostrukog dejstva obstacle that greatly increases true target
(samo trenutno dejstvo) za manje kalibre i dvostrukog dejst- effectiveness,
va (trenutno i usporeno dejstvo) za veće kalibre. - fuze status visual indicator showing when fuze is ready
Ove upaljače odlikuje: for use,
- sigurnost ispred usta cevi iznosi 70 metara - wide operating temperatures range expanding from –53o
- veoma visoka osetljivost (trenutnost) pri udaru u C to +71oC,
prepreku, što znatno povećava realnu - manual fuze setting (superquick or delayed) on dual
efikasnost na cilju action fuzes.
- indikator stanja (vizuelno zapažanje) koji ukazuje na
spremnost mine za korišćenje For special ammunition, HC ”Krušik” a.d. produces
- široki eksploatacioni temperaturni interval korišćenja pyrotechnical time fuzes of first generation. The reason for
od -53 do +71 stepeni Celzijusa. retaining this type is because these fuzes are many times
- izbor dejstva kod upaljača dvostrukog dejstva (trenutno less expensive compared to fuzes of second and third gen-
ili usporeno) se vrši ručno erations.

IGNITION CARTRIDGE is another important prime
mover of any mortar shell that should ensure:
-reliable activation of the shell within mortar tube, espe-
cially after long storage and in adverse weather
at the time of firing,
- mortar shell inner ballistics, i.e. timely and complete
ignition of increment charges,
- mortar shell precision which is directly related to its inner
ballistics.

HC ”Krušik” a.d. manufactures quality ignition cartridges
that ensure mortar shell firing in all weather conditions, even
firing of shells that were immersed in water. Our ignition
cartridges are usable within the temperature range from -
40oC to+60oC.

56
Za specijalnu municiju HK "Krušik"a.d. proizvodi With these specifications, our mortar ammunition meets

PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION
pirotehničke tempirne vre- all strict requirements placed by the clients, including
menske upaljače prve gen- those who apply strictest NATO standards in equip-
eracije. Razlog ping of their armies.
njihovog i daljeg
korišćenja je što su Courses of development
višestruko jeftiniji
od upaljača druge i HC ”Krušik” a.d.
treće generacije. keeps develop-
ing its techno-
OSNOVNO PUN- logical capabilities
JENJE je takođe vrlo važan and improving the specifications of
element minobacačke municije od koga zavisi: its products, expanding their
- da li će se minobacački projektil aktivirati u cevi minoba- range where required by
cača pogotovu posle dugotrajnog skladištenja i loših vre- demands of international markets. Thus, forging line that
menskih uslova pri korišćenju forges mortar shell cases, missile warhead cases and artillery
- unutrašnja balistika projektila, odnosno pravovremeno i shell cases for calibers up to 125 mm has been renewed. The
potpuno pripaljivanje baruta u capacity of this forging shop is rated at 800,000 shell cases
dopunskom punjenju. for cal. 60 mm mortar shells. Capacities are expanded and
- preciznost projektila koja je u direktnoj zavisnosti od renewed for processing of duroplast, used to manufacture
unutrašnje balistike. armor plates. Technology of smoke ammunition produc-
tion is modernized and expanded by installation of white
HK "Krušik"a.d. proizvodi savremeno osnovno punjen- phosphorus filling plant. New plant will have the capaci-
je koje omoguđava primenu minobacačke municije u svim ty of 60,000 filled smoke mortar shells cal. 120 mm.
vremenskih uslovima, uključujući i mogućnost izvođen-
ja gađanja municijom koja je izvađena iz vode. Takođe ova Speaking about specific products, intensive development
osnovna punjenja se mogu koristiti u širokom is under way to upgrade the WGAT missile
temperaturnom dijapazonu od -40o C do “Malutka” by introduction of three new war-
+60o heads – tandem, thermo baric and increased
penetration types. The upgrading means
Sa ovim elementima naša minobacačka retaining of all other missile components
municija proizvedena u preduzeću Krušik and replacing the warhead only. In parallel
zadovoljava sve stroge standarde kupaca with this development, work is under way
širom sveta, a naročito najstrožije zahteve to improve the rocket motor propellant.
zemalja koje koriste NATO standarde za
opremanje svojih armija. Cal. 40 mm sub-barrel grenade launcher
ammunition is permanently upgraded and
Razvojni pravci expanded to include new variants.

HK“Krušik“a.d. razvija svoje tehnološke Apart from developments in production of
mogućnosti, a poboljšavanjem karakteris- military equipment, recent years witnessed
tika sredstava iz proizvodnog programa adopting of a number of special products
povećava svoj proizvodni asortiman designed for use by the police and Special
usaglašavajući ga sa zahtevima svetskog Forces. Our mid-term development plans
tržišta. Tako je obnovljena kovačka linija za envisage introduction in production of a
kovanje košuljica za minobacačke mine, number of these special products in com-
košuljice za bojeve glave raketa kao i za artil- ing years. As we are currently introducing
jerijske projektile do kalibra 125mm. technologies for manufacturing of irritants,
Kapaciteti ove kovačnice su 800.000 koma- these will be adopted for application by spe-
da godišnje, svedeno na košuljicu minoba- cial police forces and for expansion of oth-
cačke mine 60mm. Povećava se i kapacitet er production ranges.
opreme za preradu duroplasta koja se koristi
za izradu specijanih pancirnih ploča. Broad range of final products, from hand
Osavremenjava se i povećava kapacitet grenades to heat-seeking missiles; decades
prozvodnje izrade dimne municije postavl- of experience and skilled specialists rec-
janjem pogona nalivanja belog fosfora. Novi ommend HC ”Krušik” a.d. for quality and
pogon ima kapacitet do 60.000 komada reliable partner, open for many type of coop-
nalivenih projektila svedeno na košuljicu eration in development of new products in
minobacačke mine kalibra 120mm. keeping with requirements of the
clients.

57
MILITARY PROGRAMES
Kada je reč o proizvodima, u proizvodnju se uvodi nova,

PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION
modernizovana generacija protivoklopnih vođenih raketa tipa
„Maljutka“, opremljena sa tri vrste novih bojnih glava – AIR FORCE AIR DEFENCE
kumulativnom bojnom glavom povećane probojnosti, tan- UNGUIDED MISSILES (ROCKETS) cal. 57 mm
dem kumulativnom bojnom glavom i i termobaričnom UNGUIDED PRACTICE AIRCRAFT ROCKETS cal. 57
bojnom glavom. Rešenje modernizacije podrazumeva zadrža- mm
vanje svih elemenata rakete jednostavnom zamenom stare PROGRAMMED ROCKET TARGET - 200
bojne glave novom. Paralelno sa ovim razvija se i poboljšana QUICK SIMULATOR OF AIR TARGET
varijanta pogonskog punjenja u raketnom motoru. AIR BOMBS

Municija u kalibru 40mm za podcevne bacače granate se ANTIARMOUR ACTIONS
konstantno osavremenjava i proširuje se asortiman sa novim SEMI-AUTOMATIC GUIDED ROCKET cal. 120 mm
varijantama. 82 mm HEAT CUMULATIVE SHELLS FOR RECOI-
LESS GUN 82 mm M79 and M60A
Pored razvoja proizvodnje naoružanja za potrebe vojske CUMULATIVE MINES 82 mm M80 for 44 mm MANU-
poslednjih godina je razvijen i usvojen određen broj speci- AL LAUNCHERS
jalnih sredstava za potrebe policijskih specijalnih jedinica.
U svojim razvojnim planovima za narednih nekoliko godi- DEVICES FOR MASS FIRE SUPORT AND SPECIAL
na definisali smo određen broj ovih tipova proizvoda koja se ACTIONS
moraju naći u našoj proizvodnji. Kako se trenutno kompanija UNGUIDED ROCKETS cal. 120 mm
nalazi u procesu uspostavljanja tehnologije za proizvodnju 82 mm SHELLS WITH IMPACT GRENADE FOR
iritanata, ona će naći svoju primenu, kako za specijalna sred- RECOILESS GUN 82 mm M79 and M60A
stva policije, tako i za proširenje asortimana ostalih proizvo- MORTAR LAUNCHERS cal. 60 ; 81/82 and 120 mm
da. MORTAR SHELLS cal. 60 ; 81/82 and 120 mm
ARTILERY SHELLS
Široki opseg vrsta proizvoda, od ručne bombe do samon- HAND GRENADE
avođene rakete, dugogodišnje iskustvo, stručni kadar, sve to 40 mm SHELLS
HK” Krušik”a.d. izdvaja kao vrlo kvalitetnog i sigurnog part-
nera otvorenog za sve vrste saradnje u razvoju novih sred- DEMOLITION DEVICES
stava u skladu sa zahtevima kupaca. ANTI-TANK MINES
DEMOLATION CHARGE

59
POLITIKA KVALITETA HK “KRUŠIK”
a.d. NAVY
PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION

DEVICES FOR ANTISABOTAGE ACTIONS
DEVICES FOR CLEAR-
– Poslovni ING OF MINE-
prioritet HK FIELDS
“Krušik” a.d. jeste
zadovoljenje klije- OTHER MILITARY
nata i drugih zain- PROGRAM
teresovanih strana. FUZES
– N a š a INITIAL DEVICES
misija je određena DEVICES USED IN
programom THE FIELD OF
proizvodnje sred- PUBLIC SAFETY
stava naoružanja i AND
vojne opreme, sa cil- PROTECTION:
jem dostizanja nivoa vodećeg proizvođača u ovom delu - SPECIAL AMMUNITION
Evrope. - "SHOCK" HAND GRENADE
– Vizija preduzeća vezana je za strategiju odbram- - ANTI-HAIL ROCKETS AND LAUNCHERS
bene industrije koju određuje Vlada Republike Srbije.
– Opredeljenje NAJVIŠEG RUKOVODSTVA i svih QUALITY POLICY PURSUED BY HC “KRUŠIK”
zaposlenih u HK “Krušik” a.d. je: a.d.
- Uspostavljanje INTEGRISANIH MENADŽMENT SIS-
TEMA i njihovo kontinuirano poboljšavanje; – Business priority pursued by HC ”Krušik” a.d. is
- Isporuka proizvoda u ugovorenim rokovima, koji će u to meet the requirements of the clients and other interest-
potpunosti zadovoljiti zahteve i očekivanja klijenata, ed parties.
zakonske propise i standarde; – Our mission is determined by the production pro-
- Ispitivanja i/ili eteloniranja će se uvek obavljati u skladu gram of arms and defence equipment; our objective is to
sa navedenim metodama i zahtevima klijenata. attain the level of leading manufacturer in our region of
- Ispunjavanje ekoloških zahteva okoline. Europe.
- Aktivna zaštita i prevencija bezbednosti i zdravlja – Vision of our Company is reflected in the strategy
zaposlenih, od bilo kojih rizika koji mogu nastati u toku rada. of defence industry as adopted by the Government of Serbia.
– Determination of HK ”Krušik” a.d. management
- Procesne aktivnosti i stalno poboljšavanje integrisanih leaders and all Company employees is:
menadžment sistema u - Establishing of INTEGRATED MANAGING SYS-
organizaciji TEMS and their permanent improving,
– Sve odluke u organizaciji se donose u skladu sa - Deliveries within the contracted terms that shall fully
ovlašćenjima, na osnovu objektivnih činjenica, što eliminiše meet the requirements and expectations
improvizacije i pogrešne odluke. of clients, as well as legal regulations and standards,
– Rezultate merenja zadovoljenja klijenata, eventu- - Testing and benchmarks shall be always applied accord-
alne reklamacije, primedbe i sugestije, prihvatamo i koris- ing to relevant methods and
timo kao mogućnost za poboljšanje. requirements of clients,
– Opredeljenje menadžmenta je da samo zadovoljni - Fulfilment of environmental protection requirements,
zaposleni mogu dati maksimum u procesima u kojima - Active protection and prevention of the safety and health
učestvuju. Stimulisanje i motivisanje zaposlenih direktno je of those employed from any risks
vezano za kvalitet obavljenog posla. that may be encountered at work.
- Process activities and permanent enhancement of inte-
grated management systems within the
Company.
- Decision within the Company shall be issued in
accordance with relevant authorizations, based on objective
facts in order to eliminate any improvisations and erroneous
decisions.
– Results of customer satisfaction, possible customer
claims, remarks and suggestions shall be accepted and con-
sidered as means for improvements.
– Determination of the management is that only sat-
isfied employees are prepared to give their maximum in the
processes where they are involved. Employee stimulation
and motivation is directly reflected in the quality of per-
formed work.

60
SENZOR INFIZ SENZOR INFIZ
d.o.o. d.o.o.

PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION
Piše By
Marketing SENZOR INFIZ SENZOR INFIZ Marketing

Preduzeće SENZOR INFIZ d.o.o. osnovano je 1994. The enterprise SENZOR INFIZ d.o.o. was founded in 1994
godine tako što se Laboratorija za senzore izdvojila iz by separation of the Sensors Laboratory from the national
nacionalnog Instituta za fiziku Srbije, pri čemu je Institute of Physics of Serbia, whereby the Institute of Physics
Institut za fiziku ostao većinski vlasnik. Preduzeće has remained majority owner of the new entity. The enter-
raspolaže sa 520 m2 laboratorijskog prostora od čega prise possesses laboratory area totaling 520 m2, including a
je oko 170 m2 čisti prostor (clean room) klase 10 000, class 10 000 clean room of about 170 m2 and equipment
kao i opremom za nanošenje tankih slojeva, fotoli- for application of thin layers, for photo-lithographic process-
tografske postupke, projektovanje i izradu elektron- es, for design and fabrication of electronic and optoelec-
skih i optoelektronskih sklopova. tronic assemblies.

Institut za fiziku, sa svojih 200 zaposlenih, pruža The Institute of Physics with its 200 employees provides
podršku SENZOR INFIZ-u, kako stalnu, kroz support to SENZOR INFIZ by permanent engaging of com-
korišćenje zajedničkih službi (računovodstvo, radion- mon services (accounting, workshops) and through specif-
ica), tako i po potrebi kroz angažovanje doktora nau- ic projects by engaging its Doctors and Masters of Science
ka, magistara i tehničara. and its specialist technicians.

Programska orijentacija i proizvodni program pre- Program orientation and manufacturing program of the
duzeća su uglavnom vezani za vojne programe. Od enterprise are primarily related to defence area. Since 1990,
1990. godine preduzeće se bavi održavanjem i remon- this enterprise was assigned to provide maintenance and
tom sistema za upravljanje vatrom tenkova M-84 i T- overhaul of tank fire control systems for tanks type M-84 and
72. T-72.
One of the first products (in 1990) was the meteo sen-
Jedan od prvih proizvoda preduzeća (1990. sor for M-84 tank FCS. Its first developed ver-
godine) je bio meteorološki senzor za SUV ten- sion was the single-axis sensor (MS-2), fol-
ka M-84. Prvo je razvijen jednoosni (MS-2), a lowed by two-axis unit (MS-2d). Both meteo
ubrzo zatim i dvoosni (MS-2d). Oba meteo- sensors measure air temperature and
rološka senzora mere temperaturu vazduha atmospheric pressure, the difference being
i atmosferski pritisak, a razlika među nji- that single-axis version measures only wind
ma je u tome što jednoosni meri samo lateral components, while the two-axis mod-
bočnu komponentu vetra dok dvoosni el measures both wind velocity and wind
meri intenzitet i smer vetra. Početkom direction. Early in this decade both sensors
ove dekade ovi meteorološki senzori su have been digitalized and their output signals
digitalizovani , tako da im je sada are now in format RS-485. In addition to appli-
izlazni signal u formatu RS-485. cation on tanks, these meteo sensors can be used
Osim na tenkovima, ovi meteo- on other combat vehicles.
rološki senzori se mogu koristiti i
na drugim borbenim vozilima. Another important final product is the hand-held
laser range finder, with measuring range up to 20
Jedan od važnijih proizvoda je km. Under development is a hand-held laser range
ručni laserski daljinomer sa finder fitted with eye-safe laser (1540 nm).
opsegom merenja do 20 km. U toku This enterprise also produces laser range finder sub-
je i razvoj ručnog laserskog dalji- system for M-84 tank FCS.
nomera sa eye-safe laserom (1540 In addition, SENZOR INFIZ manufactures laser markers
nm). in visible and in invisible spectrum, as well as combined type.
Za SUV tenka M-84 ovo preduzeće Manufacturing program further includes reflex (red dot)
proizvodi i podsistem laserskog dalji- sights.
nomera.

61
Pored ovoga, SENZOR INFIZ proizvodi više In collaboration with its sub-suppli-

PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION
tipova laserskih obeleživača ciljeva u vidljivom ers, SENZOR INFIZ produces
i nevidljivom spektru, kao i kombinovani. the artillery fire command and
U proizvodnom programu se nalaze i control system for cal.
refleksni (red dot) nišani. 155mm/152mm gun-howitzer
NORA-B.
U saradnji sa svojim kooperantima SEN-
ZOR INFIZ proizvodi i Sistem za koman- Development is under way of
du i upravljanje artiljerijskom vatrom za sniper sight incorporating
oruđe NORA-B 155mm/52cal. laser range finder and ballis-
tic computer. After target selec-
U toku je i razvoj snajperskog nišana tion and measuring of its dis-
sa laserskim daljinomerom i balističkim tance, based on ballistic data
kompjuterom. Posle biranja cilja i entered beforehand for subject
merenja daljine do njega, na osnovu weapon and ammunition type,
prethodno unetih balističkih tabli- ballistic computer calculates pro-
ca za dato oružje i tip municije, bal- jectile trajectory and generates
istički kompjuter proračunava tra- sighting point in reticle of the
jektoriju zrna i generiše u ravni sight, thus ensuring positive hit.
končanice odgovarajuću nišan-
sku tačku, čijim se dovođenjem This is only a brief outline of the
na cilj obezbeđu je siguran capabilities and manufacturing
pogodak. expertise of SENZOR INFIZ
which, in cooperation with its
Ovo je samo kratak prikaz strategic partner Jugoimport
mogućnosti i proizvodnog programa SDPR, continues to develop
preduzeća SENZOR INFIZ, koje, u new products and to upgrade
saradnji sa svojim strateškim existing systems. One of the
parnerom Jugoimport SDPR, nastavlja da units that are the subject of
radi na osvajanju novih proizvoda, kao i na modernization is the day/night
modernizaciji postojećih. Jedan od takvih pro- gun sight DNNS-2 for M-84 tanks which
jekata je i modernizacija dnevno-noćne nišanske will be equipped with thermo vision camera for
sprave DNNS-2 tenka M-84 u koju je za noćni kanal its night channel. At the same time, upgrading of the entire
ugrađena termovizijska kamera. Uporedo sa tim mod- tank FCS is being reviewed.
ernizuje se i SUV.

63
VOJNOTEHNIČKI MILITARY-
INSTITUT TECHNICAL
PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION

INSTITUTE
Piše By
prof.dr. Dragoljub Vujić prof.dr. Dragoljub Vujić

V ojnotehnički institut institut (VTI) je prva The Military-Technical Institute (VTI) ranks
i najveća vojna naučnoistraživačka ustanova u as the first and the largest military scientific
Republici Srbiji, (kao i u prethodnoj SFRJ) and R&D establishment in the Republic of
u oblasti tehničkih nauka i vojnih tehnologi- Serbia (same as it was in the former SFRY)
ja koja ove godine navršava i slavi 60 godi- in the field of technical sciences and
na postojanja i uspešnog rada. Osnovan je defense technologies. This year, the
3. novembra 1948. godine, a status Institute is celebrating 60 years of its exis-
naučnoistraživačke ustanove stekao je 1976. tence and successful work. It was founded
godine. Tada je pod rednim brojem jedan back on 3rd November 1948 and in 1976 it
(1) upisan u Registar vojnih naučnoistraži- gained the status of a scientific and R&D
vačkih ustanova. institution. The same year, it was entered in
the Registry of military R&D establishments
Za 60 godina postojanja i rada VTI je za potrebe under Item No. 1.
vojske razvio preko 1.300 sredstava naoružanja i vojne opreme.
Preko 75 procenata naoružanja i vojne opreme kojom je During its 60-year operation, VTI has developed more than
opremljena Vojska Srbije je razvijeno u VTI. Više od 90 pro- 1.300 weapons and defense equipment for the needs of the
cenata proizvodnog programa naše vojne industrije nastalo armed forces. More than 75 percent of armaments and
je u konstrukcionim biroima i laboratorijama VTI. Neki od defense equipment being in service with the Military of
najznačajnijih borbenih sistema su: savremeni tenk sa Serbia have been developed by VTI. More than 90 percent
usavršenim sistemom za upravljanje vatrom, borbeno vozi- of our defense industry production programs have been cre-
lo pešadije, sredstva za protivoklopnu borbu na malim, sred- ated in design bureaus and laboratories of VTI. Some of the
njim i velikim daljinama, sistemi za protivvazdušnu odbranu, most significant combat systems such as: modern tank with
samohodni višecevni bacač raketa, školski i borbeni avioni... upgraded FCS, infantry fighting vehicle, anti-armour
Institut raspolaže sa više od 20 savremenih laboratorija od weapons for small, medium and long range operations, air
kojih su neke jedinstvene u zemlji, a neke svakako prevazi- defense systems, self-propelled multiple launch rocket sys-
laze nacionalne potrebe i imaju međunarodni značaj kao što tems, training and fighter aircraft.
su aerodinamička laboratorija, laboratorija za eksperimen- Over 20 laboratories are available at the Institute. Some of
talnu čvrstoću, laboratorija za elektro-inercijalne senzore, them are unique at country's level while the importance of
laboratorija za HIL simulaciju i telemetrijska merenja, lab- some others extends beyond national requirements:
oratorija za ispitivanje raketnih motora na čvrsto gorivo i lab- Laboratory of Aerodynamics, Experimental Strength
oratorija za nuklearno-hemijsku zaštitu. Laboratory, Electro-Inertial Sensors Laboratory, Hardware
in the Loom (HIL) Simulation and Telemetry Laboratory,
OSNOVNE DELATNOSTI Solid Propellant Rocket Motor Testing Laboratory and
Nuclear and Chemical Protection Laboratory are interna-
VTI predstavlja matičnu ustanovu za veliki broj naučnos- tionally renowned.
tručnih delatnosti i tehnologija od interesa za Vojsku Srbije,
a koje se isključivo neguju u njegovim okvirima. MAIN ACTIVITIES
Naučnoistraživačka delatnost, kao osnovna delatnost VTI,
obuhvata razvojna i primenjena istraživanja u više desetina VTI is a parent institution for a large number of science-
oblasti tehničkih nauka i vojnih tehnologija. related and technical activities and technologies being of
Pregled naučno-stručnih delatnosti i tehnologija orijenti- interest for the Military of Serbia, which are exclusively dealt
sanih na realizaciju primenjenih istraživanja obuhvata with within the Institute framework.
područja: aerodinamike, balistike (unutrašnje i spoljne), R&D activities, as a basic orientation of VTI, cover R&D
raketnog pogona, raketodinamike, fizike eksplozije, projek- and applied research in tens of technical sciences and defense
tila (klasičnih i raketnih), bojevih glava i upaljača, mehanike technology fields.
balističkih sistema (oružja, oruđa i lansera raketa), sistema The scope of scientific and technical activities cover the
upravljanja vatrom, vođenja letelica, borbenih i neborbenih fields of: aerodynamics, ballistics (internal and external),

64
vozila, vazduhoplova, vazduhoplovne opreme i naoružanja, rocket propulsion, rocket dynamics, blast physics, projec-

PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION
podvodnog naoružanja, optike i optoelektronike, elektron- tiles (conventional and missiles), warheads and fuzes, bal-
skog izviđanja i ometanja, protivelektronske zaštite, teleko- listic systems mechanics (arms, weapons and rocket launch-
munikacija, radarske i računarske tehnike, laserske tehnike, ers), FCS, aircraft guidance, combat and non-combat vehi-
senzora, automatike, informatike, zaštite i dr. cles, aircraft, airborne equipment and armament, underwa-
Osim istraživanja i razvoja novih VTI se bavi i modern- ter weapons, optics and optoelectronics, electronic recon-
izacijom postojećih sredstava naoružanja i vojne opreme za naissance and warfare, ECM, telecommunications, radar
sve vidove vojske, a u poslednje vreme veoma uspešno sprovo- and computer technique, laser technique, sensors, automa-
di konverziju postojećih borbenih sistema i sredstava ratne tion, information technologies, protection etc.
tehnike. In addition to R&D of new armaments and defense equip-
Pored toga, ostvarujući naučnu i stručnu delatnost, VTI ment, VTI also deals in upgrading of the existing armaments
doprinosi i učestvuje u podsticanju i razvoju naučnih oblasti and defense equipment for all three armies, including con-
od značaja za sistem odbrane, obezbeđenju stalnog version of the existing combat systems and materiel con-
unapređenja naučnog i stručnog stvaralaštva za potrebe version in which it has been successfully involved lately.
odbrane i usavršavanju naučnog kadra. Besides, through its scientific and technical activities, VTI
contributes to and gives impetus to development of scien-
tific fields that are important for the system of defense, pro-
RESURSI motes scientific and technical creativity for defense needs
and encourages continuous improvement of scientific per-
Bitan preduslov za realizaciju naučnoistračvačke delatnosti sonnel.
i vizije razvoja su kadrovi i laboratorijski resursi.
Kadrovi. Najveći deo kadra čini naučno-istraživačko osoblje RESOURCES
(76%) kao što je to slučaj i kod drugih tehnološki razvijenih
zemalja u svetu koje se bave ovom problematikom. Human and laboratory resources are an essential prereq-
Laboratorije. VTI raspolaže sa preko 20 većih laboratori- uisite for the performance of R&D activities and for achiev-
ja, od kojih su neke jedinstvene u zemlji, a neke među nji- ing development visions.
ma prevazilaze nacionalne potrebe i imaju međunarodni Human resources. Human resources mostly consist of sci-
značaj. Najveći broj laboratorija predstavlja jedinstvene entific and R&D personnel (76%) which conforms to the
kapacitete velike materijalne vrednosti i neprocenjivog znača- practice of other technologically advanced countries in the
ja za zemlju, jer se mogu koristiti kao podrška naučnim i world that deal with these issues.
razvojnim projektima za raznovrsne vojne i civilne programe. Laboratories. VTI owns more than 20 large laboratories.

65
Specijalizovane Laboratorije su :
Some of them are unique at country’s level but there are

PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION
also laboratories of international importance that exceed
• Aerodinamička laboratorija, national requirements. Most laboratories represent unri-
• Laboratorija za merenje prostornih oblika i dužina valled facilities of great material value and of immeasurable
• Laboratorija za eksperimentalnu modalnu analizu, importance for the country as they can be used as support
analizu vibracija i balansiranje, to scientific and developmental projects within diversified
• Laboratorija za eksperimentalnu čvrstoću, defense and civilian programs.
• Laboratorija za eksperimentalnu balistiku,
• Laboratorija za ispitivanje raketnih motora na čvrsto Specialized laboratories are:
gorivo,
• Laboratorija za energetske materijale, • Laboratory for Aerodynamics,
• Laboratorija za servosisteme, • Laboratory for Spatial Forms and Lengths
• Laboratorija za HIL simulaciju i telemetrijska Measuring
merenja, • Laboratory for Experimental Modal Analysis,
• Laboratorija za elektro-inercijalne senzore, Vibration and Balancing Analysis,
• Laboratorija za NH zaštitu, • Laboratory for Experimental Strength,
• Laboratorija za elektromagnetsku kompatibilnost, • Laboratory for Experimental Ballistics,
• Laboratorija za radio relejne sisteme i multiplek- • Laboratory for Testing of Solid Propellant Rocket
sne uređaje Motors,
• Laboratorija za mikrografiju • Laboratory for Power-Generating Materials,
• Laboratorija za optoelektroniku, • Laboratory for Servo-Systems,
• Laboratorija za vođenje i upravljanje, • Laboratory for HIL Simulation and Telemetry,
• Laboratorija za elektroenergetiku • Laboratory for Electro-Inertial Sensors,
• Laboratorija za ispitivanje goriva i maziva, • Laboratory for NBC Protection ,
• Laboratorija za podsisteme vozila, • Laboratory for Electromagnetic Compatibility,
• Metrološka laboratorija, • Radio-Relay Systems and Multiplex Equipment
• Laboratorija za metalne materijale, Laboratory,
• Laboratorija za akustiku hidroakustiku i senzore, • Laboratory for Micrography,
• Laboratorija za ispitivanje uređaja u uslovima oko- • Laboratory for Optoelectronics,
line • Laboratory for Guidance and Control,
• Laboratory for Electric Power Devices

67
Aerodinamička laboratorija. Laboratorija je namenjena za • Laboratory for Fuels and Lubricants Testing,
PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION

aerotunelska ispitivanja modela letelica, raketa, vozila, vago- • Laboratory for Vehicle Subsystems,
na, mostova, itd. Laboratorija ima pet aerotunela: mali sub- • Metrological Laboratory,
sonični, kavitacioni, veliki subsonični, mali trisonični i • Laboratory for Metals,
trisonični aerotunel. U laboratoriji su izvršena eksperimen- • Laboratory for Acoustics, Hydro-Acoustics and
talna ispitivanja modela svih domaćih aviona, modela rake- Sensors,
ta, kao i niz modela za klijente iz inostranstva. • Laboratory for Environmental Tests
U sastavu laboratorije je i radionica za izradu modela,
opremljena CAD/CAM sistemima i CNC mašinama. Laboratory for Aerodynamics. This laboratory is intend-
ed for wind tunnel tests of aircraft, vehicle, wagon, bridge
Laboratorija za eksperimentalnu čvrstoću. and other models. It consists of five wind tunnels: small sub-
Laboratorija je namenjena za statička i dinamička ispitivan- sonic tunnel, cavitation tunnel, large subsonic, small trison-
ja struktura letelica i drugih konstrukcija, ispitivanja zamo- ic and trisonic wind tunnel. The laboratory was used to car-
ra materijala, vibraciona ispitivanja, kao i karakterizaciju svih ry out experimental tests of all domestic aircraft models,
vrsta materijala. Laboratorija ima decenije iskustva u testi- rocket models as well as of a series of test models for the
ranju svih domaćih vojnih letelica i opreme, raznih vrsta civil- needs of foreign clients.
nih i vojnih vozila, opreme za termoelektrane, železnicu, itd. The laboratory also accommodates a test model manu-
facturing workshop equipped with CAD/CAM systems and
CNC machines.

Laboratory for Experimental Strength This laborato-
ry is intended for static and dynamic tests of airframes and
other structures, material fatigue tests, vibration tests, as
well as for determining characteristics of all types of mate-
rials. It has decades of experience in testing all home-made
military aircraft and equipment, various types of civilian and
military vehicles, thermoelectric plants equipment, and rail-
way equipment, etc.

Laboratory for Testing of Solid Propellant Rocket
Motors. This laboratory has specialized in rocket motors
static tests, environmental tests, combustion phenomenon
test and testing of rocket motors operation in simulated flight
conditions. It is equipped with single-component, three-
component and six-component test stands, test engines and
installations for altitude conditions simulation. It is situat-
ed in special test facilities built for that purpose.
Laboratorija za ispitivanje raketnih motora na čvrsto
gorivo. Laboratorija je specijalizovana za statička ispitivan- Laboratory for HIL Simulation and Telemetry. The
ja raketnih motora, klimomehanička ispitivanja, ispitivanje laboratory has specialized in R&D activities in the fields of
fenomena sagorevanja i ispitivanje rada raketnih motora u simulation of guidance and control systems with real hard-
simuliranim letnim uslovima. Poseduje jednokomponentne, ware, in telemetry, acquisition and signal processing. The
trokomponente i šestokomponentne opitne stolove, opitne laboratory is fitted with a five-axis missile and target
motore i instalacije za simuliranje visinskih uslova. Smeštena flight simulator that enables testing of missile guidance and
je u namenski građenim opitnim prostorima. control system in a close simulation loop.

Laboratorija za HIL simulaciju i telemetrijska Inertial Sensors Laboratory. The laboratory has spe-
merenja. Laboratorija je specijalizovana za poslove istraži- cialized in testing of gyroscopes, accelerometers and other
vanja i razvoja u oblastima simulacije sistema vođenja i upravl- inertial components and systems intended for defense and
janja sa realnim hardverom, telemetrijskih merenja, akvizici- civilian purposes. The main part of the laboratory is the so
je i procesiranja signala. Unutar Laboratorije instaliran je called "Clean Room" with high-class cleanliness, which
petoosni simulator leta rakete i cilja koji omogućava ispiti- accommodates a "Clean Compartment", one-axis and two-
vanja sistema vođenja i upravljanja rakete u zatvorenoj sim- axis test stands.
ulacionoj petlji.
Guidance and Control Laboratory. The laboratory has
Laboratorija za inercijalne senzore. Laboratorija je specialized in applied research of electro-optical guidance
specijalizovana za ispitivanje žiroskopa, akcelerometara i systems for air-to-ground missiles, anti-armour missiles and
drugih inercijalnih komponenata i sistema za vojne i civilne ground-to-air missiles. It consists of three electronic labo-
primene. Glavni deo laboratorije je tzv. “bela soba” sa ratories and a dark room for guidance systems assembling
visokom klasom čistoće u kojoj se nalaze “bela kabina”, jed- and testing.
noosni i dvoosni ispitni stolovi. .

68
Laboratorija za vođenje i upravljanje. Laboratorija je TV homing head for air-to-ground missile Semi-automatic

PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION
specijalizovana za primenjena istraživanja elektrooptičkih system for anti-armour missiles
sistema za vođenje raketa vazduh-zemlja, protivoklopnih
raketa i raketa zemlja-vazduh. Sastoji se od tri elektronske Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory. With its 50-year
laboratorije i crne sobe za asembliranje i testiranje sistema experience, this laboratory is involved in research, develop-
za vođenje. ment and quality tests in the field of production, transport,
storing and exploitation of propellants, lubricants, special
Laboratorija za TV vođenje fluids and liquid propellants.
Letni model TV glave za samonavođenje u toku ispitivan-
ja u vezanom letu TV glava za samonavođenje za rakete vaz- Laboratory for Vehicle subsystems. This laboratory
duh-zemlja is intended for test-
Poluautomatski sis- ing of combat and
tem za vođenje non-combat vehi-
protivok- cle components.
lopnih During its activities on
raketa development of com-
bat vehicles, VTI has
set in place a consid-
erable number of gen-
eral and special-pur-
pose test stands for
laboratory purpos-
es which now rep-
resent the core
part of this laboratory.
Besides, the laboratory carries out all types of vehicle exploita-
Laboratorija za goriva i maziva. Laboratorija s više od tion tests. The laboratory also integrates test stands for inter-
50 godina iskustva, radi na istraživanju, razvoju i ispitivan- nal combustion engine testing, power up to 1900 KW, high
jima kvaliteta u oblasti proizvodnje, transporta, skladišten- pressure pumps, cooling equipment, air filters, power trans-
ja i eksploatacije goriva, maziva, specijalnih tečnosti i tečnih missions up to 900 KW, hydraulic components and tracked
raketnih goriva. vehicles running gear components.

Documentary and publishing activity
Laboratorija za podsisteme vozila. Laboratorija je Technical documentation represents an important
namenjena za ispitivanje komponenata borbenih i nebor- resource of VTI, as an output and quantifier of its sixty years
benih vozila. Tokom rada VTI-a na razvoju borbenih vozila, involvement in R&D missions. The Institute possesses tech-
za potrebe laboratorijskih ispitivanja formiran je veći broj nical documentation for over 1300 items of weaponry and
probnih stolova opšte i specijalizovane namene koji sada čine defense equipment developed at the Institute and introduced
osnovu ove Laboratorije. Osim toga u okviru laboratorije in service in the armed forces. This documentation being
realizuju se i sve vrste eksploatacionih ispitivanja vozila. U intellectual property of MoD, it has an outstanding value.
sastav laboratorije ulaze probni stolovi za ispitivanje moto-
ra SUS snage do 1900 kW, pumpi visokog pritiska, uređaja Organization of Scientific-Technical Gatherings
za hlađenje, prečistača za vazduh, transmisija snage do 900 Within its regular activities that also include following of
kW, hidrauličkih komponenata, komponenata hodnog sis- trends and tendencies in development of technical sciences
tema guseničnih vozila. and defense technologies, VTI regularly takes part in all sci-
entific and technical meetings in the country and abroad,
Bibliotečka i izdavačka delatnost including exhibitions of armaments and defense equipment.
Značajan resurs VTI predstavlja tehnička dokumentacija Very often, VTI also organizes events and symposia of this
kao jedan od izlaza i kvantifikatora šezdesetogodišnjeg rada type bringing together distinguished experts in the field of
VTI na zadacima istraživanja i razvoja. Institut raspolaže defense technologies. Last year, the Institute organized the
tehničkom dokumentacijom za preko 1300 sredstava NVO biggest scientific-technical gathering in our country, OTEX
koja su razvijena u Institutu i usvojena u naoružanje. Ova 2007, with more than 300 participants and took part as
dokumentacija kao intelektualna svojina MO ima izuzetno exhibitor at the Exhibition of armaments and defense equip-
veliku vrednost. ment, PARTNER 2007 which took place at the Belgrade
Fair.
Oragnizacija naučno-stručnih skupova
U okviru svojih redovnih aktivnosti, praćenja trendova i From June 26 to June 29, 2007, VTI participated at the 3rd
tendencija razvoja tehničkih nauka i vojnih tehnologija VTI International Exhibition of ADE, "PARTNER 2007" orga-
redovno učestvuje na naučno-stručnim skupovima u zemlji nized by Belgrade Fair and Yugoimport-SDPR of Belgrade,
i inostranstvu kao i sajmovima naoružanja i vojne opreme. under the auspices of the Ministry of Defense of the Republic
Osim učešća, VTI često i sam organizuje manifestacije i sim- of Serbia. VTI exhibited more than fifty items of ADE from

69
pozijume ove vrste gde se okupljaju eminentni stručnjaci iz its current development.
IMPORTANT PROJECTS THAT HAVE BEEN
IMPLEMENTED
PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION

• Anti-armour missile system BUMBAR.
• Model of an infantry warrior for the 21st century.
• 9mm M97 and M97K Submachine Gun.
• 5.56 mm M21 Automatic Rifle with 40 mm under-
barrel grenade launcher and optical sight.
• Cross-country vehicle FAP 1118 4x4.
• New engineering vehicle MUNJA.
• Fuel blast and fuel fire protection subsystem
• Tank engine protection from wrong start-up.
• Upgraded AD missile system NEVA.
• Upgraded aircraft G-4 SUPERGALEB.
• Aircraft for basic pilots training LASTA 95
• System of mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.

CONCLUSION

oblasti vojnih tehnologija. U protekloj godini Institut je orga- In its sixty years long history, VTI has been, and we hope
nizovao najveći naučno-stručni skup u zemlji OTEH 2007 will continue to be, the leader and the leading institution in
sa preko 300 učesnika i izlagao na sajmu naoružanja i vojne the field of R&D of armaments and defense equipment.
opreme PARTNER 2007 na Beogradskom sajmu. Resources of VTI are significant and, subject to system plan-
ning and definition of priorities at all levels, provide condi-
VTI je od 26. – 29. juna 2007. god. učestvovao na 3. među- tions for development and mastering of state of the art tech-
narodnom Sajmu naoružanja i vojne opreme “PARTNER nologies and for equipping the Military of Serbia with latest
2007” kojeg je pod pokroviteljstvom Ministarstva odbrane generation ADE.
Republike Srbije organizovao Beogradski sajam i Jugoimport
SDPR Beograd. VTI je na ovom sajmu izložio više od pedeset
sredstava i modela naoružanja i opreme iz aktuelnog razvo-
ja.

ZNAČAJNIJI REALIZOVANI PROJEKTI

• Protivoklopni raketni sistem BUMBAR.
• Model vojnika pešadije za 21. vek.
• Automat 9mm M97 i M97K.
• Automatska puška 5.56 mm M21 sa podcevnim
bacačem granata 40 mm i optičkim nišanom.
• Automobil terenski FAP 1118 4H4..
• Novo inžinjerijsko vozilo MUNJA.
•• Podsistem za zaštitu od eksplozije goriva i požara.
• Uređaj za zaštitu motora tenka od nepravilnog star-
tovanja.
• Usavršeni raketni sistem protivvazdušne odbrane
NEVA.
• Modernizovani avion G-4 SUPERGALEB.
• Avion za početnu obuku pilota LASTA 95
• Sistem mini bespilotne letelice.

ZAKLJUČAK

VTI je u svojoj šesdeset godina bogatoj istoriji bio, a
nadamo se da će i u budućnosti ostati nosilac i vodeća ustano-
va u domenu istraživanja i razvoja naoružanja i vojne opreme.
Resursi VTI su veoma respektivni i uz sistemsko planiran-
je i definisanje prioriteta na svim nivoima obezbeđuju uslove
za razvoj i osvajanje najsavremenih tehnologija i opremanje
vojske Srbije sredstvima NVO poslednjih generacija.

70
IRITEL AD IRITEL AD
BEOGRAD BEOGRAD

PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION
Piše By
Verica Marinkovic Verica Marinkovic

IRITEL A.D. Beograd je osnovan 1967. godine kao IRITEL A.D. Belgrade was founded back in 1967 as
Istraživačko-razvojni institut a Research and Development Institute of the Electronic
Elektronske industrije, a od 1991. Industry, and since 1991 it has done its
godine posluje kao samostalno pre- business as an independent company for
duzeće za telekomunikacije i elek- telecommunications and electronics equip-
troniku. Rešenjem Ministarstva ment. It was fully accredited again as R&D
nauke Srbije broj 640-01-1/35 od institute by the Decision of the Ministry of
12.7.2007. godine ponovo je u celini Science of Serbia, No. 640-01-1/35 of
akreditovan kao Istraživačko-razvo- 12 July 2007.
jni institut. IRITEL predstavlja već IRITEL has been a leading company in
40 godina vodeću kuću u zemlji u the country for forty years dealing with
poslovima istraživanja, razvoja, pro- research, development, design, manufacture and
jektovanja, proizvodnje i inženjeringa u oblasti telekomu- engineering in the field of telecommunications. IRITEL has
nikacija. IRITEL ima 200 zaposlenih od kojih su: 110 200 employees out of which 110 engineers (10 with doctoral and
inženjeri (10 doktora nauka i 16 magistara). IRITEL raspo- 16 with master degrees).
laže poslovnim prostorom koji čine dve zgrade i magacin IRITEL also has two buildings and a storehouse (5500 m2
(5500 m2 + 3000 m2+ 800 m2). U proteklih četrdeset + 3000 m2+ 800 m2) for its free use.
godina IRITEL je razvio, projektovao, proizveo i održavao
sisteme i uređaje iz sledećih oblasti u telekomunikacija- Over the past forty years, IRITEL developed, designed, man-
ma i elektronici: ufactured and maintained the systems and devices from the fol-
• Digitalni prenos lowing telecommunications and electronics fields:
• Digitalne komutacije
• Optički prenos • Digital transmission
• Bežične komunikacije • Digital commutation
• Digitalne GSM mobilne radio komunikacije • Optical transmission
• Radio i TV prenos • Wireless communication
• ISDN • Digital GSM mobile radio communication
• CTI • Radio and TV transmission
• Elektronski rat • ISDN
• Telekomunikacioni softver • CTI
• Electronic warfare
Softverski radio • Telecommunication software
• Digitalna obrada signala
Software radio
• Digital signal
FPGA tehnologija processing
• Daljinsko upravl- FPGA
janje i prikupljanje podata- technology
ka • Remote control
• Industrijska elek- and data collection
tronika • Industrial elec-
• H i b r i d n a tronics
mikroelektronika • Hybrid micro-
• Tehnologija electronics
površinske montaže • Surface-mount
• PCB dizajn i technology
proizvodnja • PCB design and
production

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PROIZVODNI PROGRAM U OBLASTI PRODUCTION PROGRAM IN THE FIELD OF
ODBRAMBENIH TEHNOLOGIJA DEFENSE TECHNOLOGIES
PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION

The defense program includes military radio and radar sys-
Namenski proizvodni program obuhvata vojne radio i tems as well as electronic warfare systems.
radarske sisteme i sisteme za elektronski rat.
ELECTRONIC WARFARE SYSTEMS AND
SISTEMI I MREŽE ZA ELEKTRONSKI RAT NETWORKS

• Komandne i kontrolne stanice • Command and control stations
• Goniometri • Direction finders
• VF/VVF/UVF sistemi za radio ometanje • HF/VHF/UHF systems for radio jamming
• Radio izviđački podsistemi • Radio-reconnaisance subsystems
• Komunikaciona oprema • Communications equipment
• TV izviđački i ometački sistemi • TV reconnaisance and jamming systems
• Antiteroristički i potrošni ometači • Anti-terrorist and disposable jammers

Potpuno automatizovani radio izviđački i Fully automated radio reconnaisance and
ometački sistemi jamming systems

IRITEL je razvio, projektovao i realizovao taktičke VF i IRITEL has developed, designed and executed tactical HF
VVF/UVF ometače snage 1 kW i strategijski VF ometač and VHF/UHF 1 kW jammers and a strategic HF 10 kW jam-
snage 10 kW. VF ometač snage 1 kW je namenjen za mer. The 1 kW HF jammer is used for jamming and misin-
ometanje i dezinformisanje operativno-taktičkih radio veza forming the operative and tactical radio-communications in the
u frekvencijskom opsegu od 1,5 MHz do 30 MHz. VVF/UVF 1.5 MHz to 30 MHz frequency band. 1 kW VHF/UHF jammer
ometač snage 1 kW je namenjen za ometanje i dezin- is used for jamming and misinforming the enemy radio com-
formisanje neprijateljskih radio komunikacija u frekvenci- munications in the 20 MHz to 1000 MHz frequency band. It
jskom opsegu od 20 MHz do 1000 MHz. Može da se koristi can be employed in jamming standard VHF/UHF radio equip-
za ometanje standardnih VVF/UVF radio komunikacija i ment and frequency hopping equipment. All the jammers are
komunikacija sa frekvencijskim skakanjem. Svi ometači su fully automated and are capable of independent operation or
potpuno automatizovani i mogu da rade samostalno ili inte- integration in the appropriate ESM/ECM systems. In the inde-
grisani u adekvatne ESM/ECM sisteme. Pri samostalnom pendent mode, the operator controls the jammer via a com-
načinu rada operator preko računara upravlja radom puter while system operation is achieved from a control station
ometača, dok se pri radu u sistemu upravljanje vrši iz via an optical or radio-relay link. Jammers have substantially
upravljačke stanice preko optičke ili radio relejne veze. improved radio reconnaisance and signal analysis features owing
Ometači raspolažu znatno većim sposobnostima radio to the concept with two scanning receivers and signal classifi-
izviđanja i analize signala zahvaljujući konceptu sa dva pre- er. The semi-conductor amplifier and efficient software algo-
traživačka prijemnika i klasifikatorom signala. rithms provide for a very short response time of the jammer.
Poluprovodnički pojačavač i efikasani softverski algoritmi Control software, made in the Visual C++ program language
obezbeđuju vrlo kratko vreme reakcije ometača. Upravljački (MS WINDOWS operating system), controls all jammer func-
softver, urađen u Visual C++ programskom jeziku (MS tions:
WINDOWS operativni sistem), obezeđuje kontrolu svih • various automated operating modes
funkcija ometača:
• Različite automatske načine rada
• Kompletnu analizu signala (uključujući
automatsku klasifikaciju signala u realnom vremenu)
• Upravljanje radio prijemnicima, pobuđivačem,
klasifikatorom signala, generatorom ometačkih signala,
kasetofonom...
• Upravljanje pojačavačem snage preko pobuđi-
vača
• Daljinsko upravljanje ometačem.

Sva oprema ometača je montirana u rekove na amorti-
zacionim postoljima. Moguće su mobilne i stacionarne
varijante ometača.

RMTA- 1004

Potpuno automatizovani radio sistemi za monitorisanje,
pretraživanje i analizu signala RMTA- 1004 Sistem
RMTA-1004 je računarski upravljan radio-izviđački sis-

72
tem namenjen za pretraživanje, monitorisanje i tehničku
analizu radio emisija od interesa u

PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION
frekvencijskom opsegu od 1,6 MHz –
2600/3000 MHz. Svi relevantni podaci se
čuvaju u posebno dizajniranim bazama
podataka. Osnovnu konfiguraciju sistema
čine: antenski podsistem; dva operators-
ka radna mesta za pretraživanje, moni-
torisanje i analizu-TA; dva operatorska
radna mesta za pretraživanje i moni-
torisanje-RM; uređaj za daljinsko upravl-
janje (optički linijski terminal, GPRS
modem, radio relejni link). Antenski pod-
sistem se sastoji od četiri antene i anten-
skog razdelnika i komutatora ARK-1000.
TA operatorsko mesto opremljeno je sa
dva radio-prijemnika AR5000 (AR5000A);
računarom ADVANTECH i jedinicom za tehničku analizu, • full signal analysis (including automatic classification
demodulaciju i dekodovanje signala W 41 PC MK II, koja of signals in real time)
je ugrađena u računar; komutatorom NF signala KNF-4/K • Control of radio receivers, drivers, signal classifiers,
sa ugrađenim modulom za klasifikaciju signala i duplim jamming signal generators, tape-recorders...
kasetofonom PMD 510 za snimanje audio signala. RM rad- • Control of power amplifier via drivers
no mesto je opremljeno sa dva radio-prijemnika AR5000 • Jammer remote control.
(opciono AR5000A) i komutatorom NF signala KNF-4.
All jammer equipment is mounted in racks on supports with
Aplikativni softver ARPK urađen u programskom jeziku shock-absorbers. Jammers are available in mobile and station-
Visual Basic 6 (MS WINDOWS operativni sistem) ugrađen ary variants.
u ADVANTECH računar obezbeđuje kontrolu svih funkci-
ja sistema RMTA-1004: Fully automated radio-systems for signal monitoring, search
and analysis
• Automatske načine rada: rad na jednoj frekvenci-
ji, memorijsko pretraživanje, pretraživanje po opsezima i RMTA- 1004
pretraživanje po bankama
• Upravljanje uređajima iz sistema: ARK-1000, RMTA-1004 system is a computer operated radio-reconnai-
AR5000, KNF-4/K, PMD 510, W 41 PC MK II • sance system used for searching, monitoring and technical analy-
Kreiranje baza podataka sis of 1.6 MHz to 2600/3000 MHz radio emissions. All the rel-
• Daljinsko upravljanje sistemom evant data are stored in the specially designed data bases.
• Klasifikaciju signala i određivanje parametara The basic system configuration consists of: aerial subsystem;
• 3 D predstavljanje spektra (“waterfall”) two operating stations for searching, monitoring and technical
• Analizu spektra. analysis (TA); two operating stations for searching and moni-
toring - RM; remote control device (optical line terminal, GPRS
Antiteroristički ometač WRJ2004 modem, radio relay link). The aerial subsystem consists of four
antennas, an aerial separator and a commutator ARK-1000. The
Širokopojasni radio ometač WRJ2004 namenjen je za TA operating station is equipped with two radio-receivers
zaštitu od daljinski upravljanih improvizovanih eksplozivnih AR5000 (AR5000A), an ADVANTECH computer and a unit for
naprava. Primenjuje se za zaštitu konvoja, VIP osoba, anti- technical analysis, demodulation and decoding of signals W 41
terorističkih jedinica, elitnih vojnih i policijskih jedinica, PC MK II, integrated in the computer; an LF signal commu-
vojnih baza i komandi. tator KNF-4/K with a built-in module for signal classification
Glavne karakteristike su: and a double cassette deck PMD 510 for audio signal record-
• Efektivni zaštitni opseg: vertikalno do 1000m; i ing. The RM working station is equipped with two radio-
horizontalno do 500m (opciono do 3 km) receivers AR5000 (option: AR5000A) and an LF signal com-
• Frekvencijski opseg: 2 MHz - 2GHz mutator KNF-4.
• Karakteristike ometanja: tačkasto i baražno The ARPK application software made in the Visual Basic 6
program language (MS WINDOWS operating system) built in
the ADVANTECH computer controls all the functions of the
RMTA-1004 system:
• Automated operating modes: one frequency mode,
memo search, band and bank search modes
• System control of the following devices: ARK-1000,
AR5000, KNF-4/K, PMD 510, W 41 PC MK II
• Creation of data bases
• Remote system control

73
• Signal classification and parameter settings
ometanje; opseg programabilan • 3D presentation of the spectrum (“waterfall”)
PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION

• Daljinsko upravljanje • Spectrum analysis.
• Konfiguracija prema zahtevima kupca
• Mogućnost instalacije u željeno vozilo WRJ2004 Anti-terrorist jammer
WRJ2004 broadband radio jammer
Celularni ometač CJ-1 is used for protection against
remotely controlled improvised
CJ-1 je visokokvalitetan uređaj za ometanje mobil- explosive devices. It is
nih komunikacija. Jedinstven dizajn obezbeđu- deployed to protect con-
je istovremeno efikasno ometanje željenog voys, VIPs, anti-terrorist
prostora i zaštitu zdravlja ljudi shod- units, elite military and
no međunarodnim standaradi- police forces, military
ma bezbednosti i elektromag- bases and headquarters.
netne kompatibilnosti. U toku Its main characteristics are:
rada ometača obezbeđujno je • Effective protection range: up to
potpuno nesmetano 1000 m vertically; up to 500 m horizontally
funkcionisanje komunikacija u (optional: up to 3 km)
svim ostalim frekvencijskim opsez- • Frequency range: 2 MHz - 2GHz
ima u prostoru koji se štiti kao i van • Jamming characteristics: point and multi-
tog prostora. point jamming; the range is programmable
Glavne karakteristike su: • Remote control
• potpuno je digitalizovan • Customer-tailored configuration
• efikasno ometanje u prečniku 5- • Possibility of installation into the required vehicle
100 metara
• može da blokira do tri frekvencijska opsega istovre- CJ-1 Cellular jammer
meno: GSM 900, GSM 1800 i UMTS
• daljinski upravljan CJ-1 is a high quality mobile communications jamming device.
• ima mogućnost uključenja/isključenja ometanja Its unique design provides both for efficient jamming of the
nezavisno u svakom od podopsega desired area and for health protection according to the inter-
• ima mogućnost podeševanja snage u svakom od national standards of security and electromagnetic compatibil-
podopsega nezavisno, u granicama od 0 – 30 dBm sa rezolu- ity. While in use, it provides for smooth communication in all
cijom od 1dBm. other frequency bands of the protected area as well as out of it.
The main characteristics are:
RADARI • full digitalization
• efficient jamming up to 5-100 meters
U oblasti radara u IRITEL-u vrši remont, tehničko održa- • blocking of up to three frequency bands simultane-
vanje i modernizacija postojećih radara. Takođe, razvijen ously: GSM 900, GSM 1800 i UMTS
je i realizovan digitalni VVF radarski prijemnik, zasnovanog • remote control
na konceptu softverskog radara/ radija I i II generacije. Ovaj • independent turning on/off in all sub-bands
uređaj je uspešno prošao laboratorijska ispitivanja u • independent power adjustment in all sub-bands, from
Tehničkom Opitnom Centru Vojske Srbije, a sada su u toku 0 – 30 dBm and with the resolution of 1dBm.
završna terenska ispitivanja.
RADARS
Digitalni radarski prijemnik VVF DP/P-
12/18 IRITEL deals with overhaul, technical maintenance and mod-
ernization of existing radars. We have also developed and exe-
VVF DR/P-12/18 je digitalni prijemnik razvijen kao zame- cuted a digital VHF radar receiver based on the generation I
na postojećeg prijemnika radara P-12/18 sa softverski razvi- and II software radar/radio concept. This device passed all the
jenim prijemnikom boljih performansi. Bazira se na kon- laboratory tests at the Technical Test Centre of the Military of
ceptu softverskog radara. Namenjen je za prijem i obradu Serbia, and the final field tests are currently in progress.
radarskih signala u opsegu od 150 do 170 MHz. VVF DR/P-
12/18 se lako adaptira za druge tipove radara modifikaci- Digital radar receiver VHF DP/P-12/18
jom samo analognog RF bloka. Opciono je predviđena
mogućnost rada sa izdvojenog mesta: VHF DR/P-12/18 is a digital receiver developed as a substi-
• daljinsko upravljanje digitalnim radarskim pri- tute for the current radar receiver P-12/18 with a better per-
jemnikom VVF DR/P-12/18 formance software developed receiver. It is based on the con-
• prosleđivanje signala iz prijemnika VVF DR/P- cept of software radar and is used to receive and process radar
12/18 do digitalnog pokazivača na izdvojenom mestu signals from 150 to 170 MHz.
• za povezivanje kabine radara P-12/18 u kojoj je VHF DR/P-12/18 is easily adapted to other types of radars by
montiran VVVF DR/P-12/18 sa izdvojenim mestom pred- modifying the analog RF block only.
viđena je veza preko optičkog linka (8/155/622 Mbit/s) i/ili

74
univerzalnog modema. Prijemnik podržava multistatički
Optionally, it can be used from a remote place:
• remote control of the digital radar receiver VHF DR/P-

PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION
12/18
• forwarding the signals from VHF DR/P-12/18 receiv-
er to the remote digital indicator
• radar P-12/18 shelter with VHF DR/P-12/18 is con-
nected to the remote place via an optical link (8/155/622 Mbit/s)
and/or a universal modem.
The receiver supports a multistatic operating mode.
The digital radar receiver VHF DR/P-12/18 consists of:
• Analog RF/MF block in its housing (19” wide and 2H
high) with the intelligent control panel (keyboard and display)
• Digital MF and LF block in the rugged central com-
puter- type PC ADVANTECH (also in a 19” shock-resistant
rack).

This is a universal solution for the P–radar family
P12/P14/P15/P18/P19.
The advantages of this solution are: easy maintenance, low
consumption, small weight and size, flexible design, improved
characteristics (sensitivity, dynamic range, MTI, CFAR, noise
figure) and easy handling.
Platform for system development in software radio/radar
SoftRad field
SoftRad platform enables fast system development and imple-
mentation in the field of software-defined radio, software radar,
Wireless IP,“Signal Intelligence”, digital television, etc...

SoftRad platform consists of FPGA-based PCI hardware
accelerator, supported by C/C++ and MATLAB software for
development of PC desktop applications.

režim rada. Digitalni radaski prijemnik VVF DR/P-12/18
se sastoji od:
• Analognog RF/MF bloka smeštenog u kućište
(širine 19” i visine 2H) sa inteligentnom prednjom pločom
(tastatura i displej)
• Digitalnog MF i NF bloka smeštenog u ojačani
centralni računar tipa PC ADVANTECH (takođe i u 19”
rek zaštićen od udara).
On predstavlja univerzalno rešenje za P-familiju radara
P12/P14/P15/P18/P19.
Osnovne prednosti ovakvog rešenja su: lako održavanje,
niska potrošnja, mala težina i dimenzije, fleksibilan diza-
jn, bolje karakteristike (osetljivost, dinamički opseg, MTI,
CFAR, šumna figura) i lako rukovanje.
Platforma za razvoj sistema u oblasti softverskog radi-
ja/radara SoftRad
SoftRad platforma omogućava brzi razvoj i imple-
mentaciju sistema u oblasti softverski definisanog radija,
softverskog radara, Wireless IP,“Signal Intelligence”, dig-
italne televizije, itd...
SoftRad platforma se sastoji od FPGA-baziranog PCI
hardverskog akceleratora, koji je podržan sa C/C++ i
MATLAB softverom za razvoj PC desktop aplikacija.
SoftRad hardver je PCI 64/33 sistem za snimanje, gener-
isanje i procesiranje signala. To je kombinacija do 8 mil-
iona korisničkih gejtova na Virtex-II FPGA ( FF1152 BGA
package), sa dva 105MSPS 14-bit analogna ulazna kanala,
dva 150MSPS 14-bit analogna izlazna kanala i memorijskim
baferom (do 1GB).

75
PROIZVODNE I TEHNOLOŠKE MOGUĆNOSTI
SoftRad hardware is a PCI 64/33 system for signal recording,
PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION

signal generation and processing. It is a combination of up to 8
Razvojni i proizvod- million user gates on
ni kapaciteti IRITEL- Virtex-II FPGA (FF1152
a sa timom stručnjaka BGA package), with two
koji imaju višegodišn- 105MSPS 14-bit analog
je iskustvo u input channels, two 150
mikroelektronskim MSPS 14-bit analog out-
tehnologijama put channels and a mem-
omogućuje IRITEL-u ory buffer (up to 1GB).
da bude lider na tržiš-
tu SMT, hibridnih i PRODUCTION
složenih multi-chip AND TECHNOLOGI-
mikrokola. CAL CAPACITIES
Proizvodnja i mon-
taža elektronskih IRITEL's development
sklopova (SMT) and production capaci-
P r o i z v o d n e ties, including its team of
mogućnosti predstavl- highly experienced experts in microelectronic tech-
jaju: automatska kontinuirana linija za montažu površin- nologies, have made it a leading company on the SMT, hybrid
skih komponenata, linija za montažu prototipova i manjih and complex multi-chip microcircuits market.
serija i ostala proizvodna oprema. Automatska kontinuirana
linija za montažu površinskih komponenata (SMD) ima Production and surface-mount devices (SMT)
kapacitet do 25.000 komponenata na sat. Sastoji se od: Production capabilities include: automatic continuous line
automatskog štampača sa 2D vizuelnom kontrolom (SAM- for assembly of surface-mount devices, line for assembly of pro-
SUNG), dve automatske mašine za pozicioniranje površin- totypes, small batch products and other processing equipment.
skih komponenata (SAMSUNG CP45NEO), konvejerske
peći sa 7 temperaturnih zona (HELLER) i automatske Automatic continuous line for assembly of surface-mount
vizuelne kontrole (SAMSUNG). devices (SMD) has the output of up to
25.000 devices per hour. It consists of an automatic printer
Linija za montažu prototipova i manjih serija sastoji se with 2D visual control (SAMSUNG), two automatic machines
od: poluautomatskog štampača, automatske mašine za mon- for positioning the surface-mount devices (SAMSUNG
tažu površinskih komponenata (SMD) do 9.700 kompone- CP45NEO), conveyor furnaces with 7 temperature zones
nata na sat (SAMSUNG CP20FV) i konvejerske peći sa 4 (HELLER) and an automatic visual control unit (SAMSUNG).
temperaturne zone (DIMA).
Ostalu proizvodnu opremu čine: kalajno kupatilo za The line for assembly of prototypes and small batches con-
automatsko lemljenje, sistem za ultrazvučno pranje u sists of a semiautomatic printer, automatic assembly machine
dejonizovanoj vodi, sistem za ultrazvučno pranje u alko- for surface-mount devices (SMD) that can produce up to 9.700
holnom rastvoru, četiri klima komore i sistem za reparaci- devices per hour (SAMSUNG CP20FV), as well as a conveyor
ju namontiranih štampanih ploča. furnace with 4 temperature zones (DIMA).

Tehnološke mogućnosti obuhvataju: The remaining processing equipment includes a tin bath for
automatic soldering, a system for ultrasound washing in deion-
• Tehnologiju površinske montaže SMT,montaža ized water, a system for ultrasound washing in alcohol solutions,
komponenata veličine od 0402 do QFP 208 four air-conditioning chambers and a reparation system for
• Montažu: BGA, µBGA, komponenata sa finim ras- assembled printed circuit boards.
terom 0,5 mm.
• Montažu klasičnih komponenata TH Technological capabilities:
• Tehnologiju montaže bez olova ROHS • Surface-mount technology, assembly of devices with
• Mogućnost kombinovane montaže SMD i TH the size of 0402 to QFP 208
• Mogućnost montaže komponenata sa obe strane • Assembly of: BGA, µBGA - fine grid 0.5 mm.
štampane ploče • Assembly of standard components TH
• Temperaturno cikliranje modula i uređaja u kli- • Lead-free assembly ROHS
ma komori i • Combined assembly - SMD and TH
• Završnu kontrolu prema zahtevu korisnika. • Mounting of components on both sides of the print-
ed circuit board
Proizvodnja hibridnih mikrokola • Temperature cycling of modules and devices in the
air-conditioning chamber
Proizvodne mogućnosti obuhvataju: tri linije za proizvod- • Customer-tailored final control.
nju hibridnih mikrokola i ostalu proizvodnu opremu.
Linija za proizvodnju Hibridnih mikrokola tehnologijom Production of hybrid microcircuits

76
debeloslojnog filma sadrži: poluautomatski štampač, kon- Production facilities include: three processing lines for hybrid
vejersku sušnicu i peć za žarenje. microcircuits and pertaining equipment.

PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION
The hybrid microcircuits process line using the thick-film
Ostalu proizvodnu opremu čine: laserski trimer, abrazivni technology consists of: a semiautomatic printer, conveyor dri-
trimer, poluautomatski alat za nabacivanje pinova i er and an annealing furnace.
automatska kontinuirana linija za montažu površinskih The remaining production equipment includes: laser trim-
komponenata. mer, abrasive trimmer, semiautomatic tool for pin mounting
and an automatic continuous line for surface-mount devices.
Tehnološke mogućnosti obuhvataju: Technological capabilities include:
• Dizajn prema zahtevima korisnika • Design as per user's requirements
• Brzu izrada prototipa • Fast prototype production
• Višeslojne provodnike • Multi-layer conductors
• RoHS materijale • RoHS materials
• Dizajn otpornika • Resistor design
• Lasersko trimovanje otpornika • Resistor laser trimming
• Foto laboratoriju za izradu sita za štampanje • Photo laboratory for making printing screens
• Kontinuiranu kontrolu • Continuous control
• Temperaturno cikliranje hibridnih kola u klima • Temperature cycling of hybrid circuits in air-condi-
komorama i tioning chambers and
• Završnu kontrolu prema zahtevu korisnika. • Final control as per user requirements.

SARADNJA SA INOSTRANIM
KOMPANIJAMA COOPERATION WITH FOREIGN COMPANIES

Kroz specijalizacije saradnika i zajedničko učešće u Through special trainings of our associates and joint partic-
velikim i složenim projektima u oblasti telekomunikacija ipation in huge and complex projects in the field of telecom-
ostvarivana je saradnja sa velikim i vodećim svetskim kom- munications, we established cooperation with large and lead-
panijama kao što su RACAL, AEG TELEFUNKEN, ing international companies such as RACAL, AEG TELE-
THOMSON CSF i LGT, ROCKWELL COLLINS, FUNKEN, THOMSON CSF i LGT, ROCKWELL
ANRITSU, SAGEM i MPD. COLLINS, ANRITSU, SAGEM and MPD.

REFERENCE OBLASTI ODBRAMBENIH DEFENSE TECHNOLOGY REFERENCES:
TEHNOLOGIJA:
• Development and execution of the digital VHF radar
• Razvoj i realizacija digitalnog VVF radarskog prijem- receiver, based on the software radar/radio concept, 2003-2005;
nika, zasnovanog na konceptu softverskog radara/ radija, • Development-evaluation of FPGA platform SoftRad,
2003-2005.; 2005;
• Realizacija razvojno- evaluacione FPGA platforme • Delivery of ten HFVHF radio-signal automatic
SoftRad, 2005.; classifiers to the British company RACAL, Project Sea Eagle,
• Isporuka deset VFVVF automatskih klasifikatora radio- 1991.;
signala za britansku kompaniju RACAL, Projekat Sea Eagle, • Design, implementation and engineering of SW radio-
1991.; center (receiver, control and emission center with 15 trans-
• Projektovanje, realizacija i inženjering KT radio-cen- mitters), 1987 – 1990, Near East;
tra (prijemno – kontrolni i emisioni centar sa 15 predajni- • Development, design and engineering of eight com-
ka), 1987 – 1990., Bliski istok; plex multi-use mobile TV systems, 1985-1992.
• Razvoj, projektovanje i inženjering osam složenih više- • Development, design and implementation of 30 com-
namenskih mobilnih TV sistema, 1985-1992. plex automatic radio systems for electronic warfare, 1985 – 2003.;
• Razvoj, projektovanje i realizacija 30 složenih autom- • Development, implementation and technical mainte-
atizovanih radio sistema za elektronska dejstva, 1985 – 2003.; nance of four radio systems for monitoring and technical analy-
• Razvoj i realizacija i tehničko održavanje 4 radio- sis- sis of signals ranging from 2 MHz – 2.6 GHz, 1997- 2002;
tema za monitorisanje i tehničku analizu signala u frekven- • Development and implementation of a subsystem for
cijskom opsegu 2 MHz - 2,6 GHz, 1997- 2002.; radar signal detection based on time and frequency, in line with
• Razvoj i realizacija podsistema za detekciju radarskih the multistatic concept, 2002;
signala po vremenu i frekvenciji zasnovanog na multista- • Development and implementation of the family of
tičkom konceptu, 2002.; antennae separators, ranging from 2 - 30 MHz, 30 - 1000 MHz
• Razvoj i realizacija familije antenskih razdelnika u and 950- 2000 MHz;
opsegu 2 - 30 MHz, 30 - 1000 MHz i 950- 2000 MHz; • Development and implementation of antenna fast auto-
• Razvoj i realizacija brzih automatskih antenskih pri- matic matching circuits of 1 kW used in shortwave bands.
lagođenja snage 1 kW u KT radio-opsegu. • Complete technical maintenance of IRITEL electronic
• Kompletno tehničko održavanje IRITEL radio sistema warfare radio systems and mobile TV systems, 1993-2008;
za elektronski rat i mobilnih TV sistema, 1993-2008.; • Technical meintenance and overhaul of radars, 2003-
• Tehničko održavanje i remont radara, 2003-2008. 2008.

77
GODINA VELIKOG “SLOBODA“ ČAČAK
JUBILEJA COMPANY
PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION

KOMPANIJE THE YEAR OF THE
“SLOBODA“ ČAČAK GREAT
ANNIVERSARY
ŠEST DECENIJA POSTOJANJA, TRADICIJE I KVALITETA 60 YEARS OF EXISTANCE, TRADITION AND QUALITY

Piše By
Ozren Marković Ozren Marković
Zoran M. Živković Zoran M. Živković

S lušali smo mnogo o We have heard a lot about the
zlatnim vremenima golden times of “Sloboda”,
"Slobode", o prodoru na about its penetration of the
svetska tržišta, o ljudima world markets, about the per-
koji su znanjem i sons which have marked with
predanošću obeležili više their knowledge and dedication
decenija rada ovog pre- many decades of work of this
duzeća. Mnoge od njih sada srećemo samo na proslavama, company. Nowadays we meet most of them only on celebrations
a neke još uvek na ulazu u fabriku tačno u 7:00 svakoga jutra. and some of them can still be met at the factory entrance at 7.00
Znamo i za teška vremena. Kada je trebalo hrabrosti i viz- o’clock exactly every morning.
ije za prepoznavanje kuda i kako dalje. Iskusni radnici i We have known hard times as well. The times when courage
rukovodstvo nisu poklekli pred tada sumornom stvarnošću and a vision were needed to recognize where and how to go on.
i rezultati sve više postaju vidljivi. Što je najvažnije sačuvana Experienced workers and the management have not given way
je glavna vrednost fabrike: znanje, iskustvo i profesionalnost. faced to the somber reality and the results are becoming more
Nastajanje današnje Kompanije "Sloboda" vezuje se za and more visible. The most important thing is that the princi-
1948. godinu i odluku Vlade FNRJ kada je doneto rešenje o pal values of the Company have been preserved: knowledge,
osnivanju preduzeća sa zadatkom da proizvodi predmete experience and professionalism.
naoružanja i vojne opreme za potrebe vojske. The beginnings of today’s Company “Sloboda” are connect-
Za početak rada „Slobode“ usvaja se 6. oktobar 1948. ed with the year 1948 and with the decision of the FPRY
godine, a novembra 1949. godine počinje zvanično proizvod- Government to establish a company with a mission to manu-
nja. facture armament
Od stvaranja and defense
naše Kompanije equipment for the
do danas, istorija needs of the
Čačka i Slobode armed forces.
se preplitala.
Delili smo ista October 6, 1948
dobra i loša vre- has been adopted
mena, zajednički as the date of
pokušavali da se commencement
razvijemo, gradili of “Sloboda”
ljudima bolje operations, while
mesto za život i the production
rad, međusobno started officially in
se pomagali sves- November 1949.
ni da jedino na taj Since the forming
način možemo of our Company,
uspeti. the history of the
town of Čačak and

78
Zauzvrat „Sloboda“ je uvek imala puno razumevanja, i of “Sloboda” has been closely linked. Both have shared good

PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION
nikada u proteklih 60 godina, kada god su to uslovi dozvol- and bad times, striving together to attain better place for living
javali, nismo ostavljeni bez svesrdne pomoći Čačka i njegovih and working, helping each other, knowing that only so we will
žitelja. be able to succeed.
Šest decenija je bilo sasvim dovoljno da „Sloboda“ postane In return, “Sloboda“ was always full of understanding and
jedna od većih Kompanija metalskog kompleksa u oblasti throughout the past 60 years we never lacked wholesome sup-
naoružanja i vojne opreme. port of the city and its people, to the extent possible under the
Posedujemo modernu proizvodnu opremu, kvalitetne circumstances.
stručnjake u svim fazama proizvodnje, od planiranja do pro- The period of six decades was quite sufficient to make
jektovanja, posedujemo izuzetno opremljene laboratorije i „Sloboda“ one of the major companies of the metalworking com-
centre za ispitivanje i testiranje, tehnološki i poslovno smo plex in the field of armament and defense equipment.
povezani sa vodećim svetskim firmama koje se bave istom
delatnošću. Imamo poznato i priznato ime na svetskom tržiš- We own modern production equipment, capable specialist for
tu, ime koje je sinonim kvaliteta proizvoda i usluga, kvalite- all phases of production, from planning to design, we operate
ta ukupne poslovnosti. highly equipped laboratories and testing facilities, we have busi-
Od nekadašnje jednostavne proizvodnje realizovane na ness ties with leading international companies engaged in sim-
starim strugovima, danas smo došli u situaciju da naši stručn- ilar production. Our name is known and respected on the world
jaci, zahvaljujući znanju i iskustvu već dokazanom na tržiš- markets – a synonym for quality products and services and qual-
tima, pružaju usluge iz oblasti inženjering poslova, od ity of overall business practices.
nabavke i instaliranja From initial simple production utilizing old lathes, nowadays
proizvodne opreme, preko izrade konstrukcione i our skilled staffs with expertise and experience proven in the
tehnološke dokumentacije po zahtevu kupaca, do transfera marketplace are able to offer services in the field engineering
tehnologije po sistemu „ključ u ruke“. projects, procurement and installation of production equipment,
ISTORIJSKI RAZVOJ elaboration of manufacturing documentation according to clients’
requirements and technology transfers on the “turn key” prin-
Razvoj „Slobode“ možemo podeliti u više perioda: ciple.
1948–1958. - Početak proizvodnje i pokušaj iznalaženja HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT
tržišta, sa težištem na prvi izvozni posao 1958. godine.
1958–1991. - Period intenzivnog razvoja proizvoda i fab- Development of „Sloboda“ is distinguished by several peri-
rike kao celine, sa posebnim naglaskom na inženjering ods:
poslove u periodu od 1975-1985. godine. 1948–1958 – Commencement of production and attempts to
1991–1996. - Period raspada SFRJ i sankcija međunaro- find markets, focused on first export business in 1958.
dne zajednice. Posledica ekonomskog i političkog razdruži- 1958–1991 - Period of intensive growth of production range
vanja zemlje bio je raspad Jugoslavije. Novonastala situaci- and the factory as a whole, emphasized by engineering projects
ja podrazumevala je smanjenje primarnog tržišta, zaustavl- realized in the period 1975-1985.
jen protok roba, ljudi i kapitala. Pokidane su veze sa ino-part- 1991–1996 – Period of dissolution of the SFRY and sanctions
nerima koje su decenijama građene i više nismo bili u imposed by the international community. The period saw eco-
mogućnosti da pratimo razvoj tehnologije, što je bilo alfa i nomic and political disintegration of Yugoslavia. Ensued situa-
omega našeg dotadašnjeg uspeha. tion meant reduction of the primary market and ceasing of the
1996–1999. - Ukidanje sankcija i povećanje fizičkog obi- flow of goods, men and capital. Connections with foreign part-
ma proizvodnje. Pun razvojni zamah dostignut je 1998. ners, built over decades, were broken, access to technological
godine. Tendencija ubrzanog razvoja i vraćanja na svetsko developments, the backbone of our preceding progress, was cut
tržište. off.
1999. - Bombardovanje SRJ. Uništeno 85% proizvodnih 1996–1999 – Lifting of sanctions and increasing the physical
kapaciteta „Slobode“. volume of production. Development was in full swing by 1998.
1999–2002. - Ponovno uspostavljanje proizvodnje u krugu Trend of accelerated development and return to international
Kompanije. Obnovljeno oko 80% porušenih kapaciteta. Sa markets.
smanjenim brojem radnika uspostavljena proizvodnja. Veliki 1999 – Bombing of the SRY that resulted in destruction of
uspeh predstavlja i činjenica da izvozni poslovi nisu preki- 85% of „Sloboda“’s manufacturing capacities.
dani. Uspešno je nastavljen kontinuitet. 1999–2002 – Renewal of production within the Company
2002. - Skupština Kompanije „Sloboda“ na sastanku perimeters. About 80% of demolished capacities were recon-
održanom 21. marta 2002. godine usvojila je odluku kojom structed. Production was reestablished with reduced manpow-
Država postaje većinski vlasnik Kompanije „Sloboda“ Čačak. er. The fact that export businesses were not interrupted and
2002–2008. - Tendencija daljnjeg razvoja i osvajanja novih that continuity was retained are viewed as major successes.
proizvoda, sa posebnim osvrtom na izvozne poslove. 2002 – The assembly of „Sloboda“ Company, at its session
PROIZVODNI I TEHNOLOŠKI PROGRAM held on March 21, 2002, adopted the decision that the state is
the majority owner of „Sloboda“ Company, Čačak.
Kompanija „Sloboda“ poseduje QMS sertifikat 2002-2008 – Trend of continued development and acquiring
(Quality Management System). Osnovni ciljevi Kompanije of new products, with the emphasis on export businesses.
su:
• očuvanje liderske pozicije u proizvodnji sredstava

79
NVO.
• očuvanje visokoprofesionalnog kadra i zapošljavan- MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGICAL PRO-
je novih mladih stručnjaka. GRAM
PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION

• očuvanje i kontinuirano poboljšavanje kvaliteta
proizvoda postignutog u prethodnom periodu. The „Sloboda“ Company was awarded the QMS
• nastavak razvijanja mreže ino-kupaca i očuvanje (Quality Management System) Certificate. Main objectives of
stečenog poverenja. the Company include:
Proizvodni procesi • Retaining of leading positions in production of arma-
Proizvodnja sredstava NVO, vojna i tržišna kooperacija: ment and defense equipment,
• Proizvodnja i prerada pirotehničkih smeša. • Maintaining the highly professional cadre and employ-
• PA municija kalibra 20 do 57mm. ing new young skilled personnel,
• Avionska municija kalibra 23 i 30mm. • Retaining and permanent improving of the quality of
• Tromblonske mine svih tipova (sa i products attained to date, and
bez hvatača zrna). • Continued development of the network of foreign cus-
• Ručni bacači raketa kalibra 64, 90 i tomers while retaining the confidence gained.
120mm.
• Municija za automatski bacač Manufacturing processes
granata 30 i 40mm. Production of armament and defense equipment, mil-
• Municija 40mm za podvesni itary and commercial cooperation
bacač granata 40mm tip GP25 i M203. • Production and processing of pyrotechnical
• Artiljerijska municija od 76 do compositions
155mm. • AA rounds cal-
• Upaljači svih tipova sa iber 20 mm to 57mm
sredstva iz svog • Aircraft gun
proizvodnog programa rounds cal. 23 mm and
i za potrebe remonta 30mm
municije. • Rifle grenades of
• Blizinski all types (with and with-
upaljači za PA i artil- out muzzle adapters)
jerijsku municiju i • Hand rocket
tempirani upaljači za launchers cal. 64, 90 and
artiljerijsku munici- 120mm
ju. •
• Topovske Ammunition
kapsle za municiju iz for automatic
svog proizvodnog grenade launchers cal.
programa i za 30 mm and 40mm
potrebe remonta • Ammunition for
municije. underslung grenade
• Signalna launcher cal. 40mm, type
municija 26 i 38mm, i GP25 and M203.
lovačka signalna municija za puške kalibra 12 i • Artillery rounds cal. 76 mm to
16mm. 155mm
• Specijalna municija iz policijskog programa. • Fuzes of all types for ordnance from own production
• Perforatori za potrebe naftne industrije. range and fuzes for ammunition overhaul.
• Vežbovna sredstva. • Proximity fuzes for AA and field artillery, time fuzes
• Remont svih sredstava NVO iz proizvodnog pro- for artillery rounds
grama. • Gun primers for own production range and for ammu-
Proizvodnja građevinske stolarije, enterijera i ambalaže nition overhaul
(za pakovanje municije svih kalibara): • Flares cal. 26 mm and 38mm, and hunting flares for
• Proizvodnja i ugradnja svih vrsta građevinske sto- carbines cal. 12 and 16 mm
larije. • Special ammunition for police forces
• Proizvodnja i ugradnja kompletnog enterijera. • Perforators for oil industry
• Proizvodnja ugradbenih kuhinja, sobnog, kuhin- • Practice ammunition
jskog i baštenskog nameštaja. • Overhaul of all defense items from own production
• Proizvodnja i ugradnja harmonika vrata, sigurnos- program.
nih vrata, krovnih prozora, spuštenih plafona, klasičnih rolet- • Production of building joinery, interiors and packag-
ni, aluminijum „venecijanera“ i platnenih roletni. ing (for packing of ammunition of all calibers)
• Proizvodnja drvene ambalaže, okova, svih tipova • Production and fitting of all types joinery for buildings
košnica, ramova, bežalica za pčele, delova košnica i ostalih • Production and fitting of complete interior items
proizvoda i usluga po želji kupca. • Production of kitchen elements, room, kitchen and
Proizvodnja alata i opreme: garden furniture
• Specijalni i vanstandardni rezni alat. • Production and fitting of sliding/folding doors, bur-

80
• Specijalni kontrolni alat. glar-proof doors, skylights, suspended ceilings, conventional
• Specijalni stezni alat i pribor. window shades, aluminum louvers and canvas shades
• Alati za obradu lima deformacijom (kovač- • Production of wooden cases, fittings, all kinds of bee

PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION
ki lim, alati za formiranje delova od silumina, plas- hives, bee frames, bee hive components and other items per
tičnih masa i gume). customers’ request
Tehnološki procesi
Production of tools and equipment
• Obrada deformacijom. • Special and non-standard cutting tools
• Obrada rezanjem. • Special control tools
• Obrada livenjem. • Special clamping tools and accessories
• Obrada kovanjem. • Tools for sheet metal processing by deformation (forg-
• Termička obrada. ing sheets, forming tools for silumin, plastic and rubber com-
• Izrada i prerada smeša i eksploziva. ponents parts
• Galvanska zaštita. Technological processes
• Hemijska zaštita. • Processing by deformation
• Zaštita lakovanjem. • Processing by cutting
• Obrada drveta. • Processing by casting
Sa aspekta savremenosti i fleksibilnosti naša • Processing by forging
tehnologija je u rangu srednje razvijenih • Heat treatment
zemalja sa tendencijom razvoja. Kod pojedinih • Manufacture and processing of compositions and
tehnologija zastupljene su veoma savremene explosives
tehnološke metode: u oblasti obrade defor- • Galvanic treatment
macijom primer za to je hladno istiskivanje • Chemical treatment
na višestepenim presama, duboko izvlačenje • Varnishing treatment
sa redukcijom debljine zida na automatskim • Wood processing
horizontalnim presama, rotaciono izvlačen-
je i drugo. Viewed in terms of its contemporariness and flexibility, our
U oblasti obrade rezanjem zastupljena je technology compares with moderately developed countries, with
savremena CNC oprema, a u preradi eksplozi- tendency of its further advancement. Certain technologies use
va oprema je na nivou savremenih svetskih up to date processes: in processing by deformation, for exam-
dostignuća. ple, we use cold displacing with multi-stage presses; deep extrud-
ing with reduction of wall thickness employs automatic hori-
POSLOVNE AKTIVNOSTI
zontal presses; extruding by rotation, etc. Processing by cut-
Poslednjih nekoliko godine bio je izrazito ting employs advanced CNC machines; processing of explosives
težak period za tržišno poslovanje. Situacija is at the level of contemporary world achievements.
u državi uslovila je i pad proizvodnje u BUSINESS OPERATIONS
Kompaniji „Sloboda“.
U toku 2005. godine uspešno je sproveden Last several years represented an extremely difficult period
socijalni program u saradnji sa Ministarstvom for market-based operations. Prevailing situation in country led
odbrane i Vladom Republike Srbije. to reduced volume of production at „Sloboda“ Company.
Trenutno 85% prihoda ostvaruje se proizvodnjom, 10% A social program, implemented in cooperation with the
uslugama i 5% trgovinom. Ministry of Defense and the Government of the Republic of
U toku 2007. i 2008. godine potpisani su novi ugovori i u Serbia, was successfully completed in 2005.
toku je realizacija izvoznih poslova. Presently, 85% of revenues come from the production, 10%
from the services rendered and 5% from trading.
RAZVOJNE AKTIVNOSTI
In 2007 and 2008 new contracts were concluded and imple-
Razvojni planovi „Slobode“ vezani su kako za potrebe mentation of new export deals is in progress.
Ministarstva odbrane, u isto vreme i za strane kupce. DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES
„Sloboda“ svoje razvojne kapacitete usmerava u dva pravca.
Jedan pravac je modernizacija postojećih proizvoda NVO, a Development plans of “Sloboda“ Company are linked to
drugi razvijanje i proizvodnja potpuno novih proizvoda na requirements of the Ministry of Defense and to the needs of
našem tržištu. Na osnovu ovakvih razmišljanja dobila se izvoz- foreign customers as well. “Sloboda” is developing its capaci-
na šansa, koja je u ovom trenutku jedini realni izvor priho- ties in two directions. One course is modernization of current
da. defense products; the other course is development and intro-
U periodu od 1994. do 2008. godine razvijeno je nekoliko duction of entirely new products in our market. With such
desetina novih artikala. approach the company has got export prospects which, under
Grupa za razvoj pešadijskih sredstava osvojila je sledeće present circumstances, represents the sole realistic source of
artikle: metak 30mm, T M93, P1 za BGA 30mm sa upala- revenues.
jačem UT M99 SP; metak 30mm,V M93, P1 za BGA 30mm; We have developed several dozens of new products in the peri-
metak 30mm, VM M93, P1 za BGA 30mm sa upaljačem UT od from 1994 to 2008.
M02 VM SP; metak 40mm x 46, T M99 sa upaljačem UT Group for development of infantry ammunition had acquired
M01 SP; metak 40mm x 46, TK M99 sa upaljačem UT M02; the following items: round cal. 30mm, T M93, P1 for BGA 30mm
metak 40mm x 46, VM M99; metak 40mm x 46, signalni M04; with the fuze type UT M99 SP; round 30mm, V M93, P1 for

81
metak 40mm x 46, dimni M99; metak 40mm x 46, dimni–CS BGA 30mm; round 30mm, VM M93, P1 for BGA 30mm using
M99; metak 40mm, T M03–VOG 25 sa upaljačem UT M00, the fuze UT M02 VM SP; round 40mm x 46, T M99 with the
SP; metak 40mm, TK M05–VOG 25; metak 40mm, osvetl- fuze type UT M01 SP; round 40mm x 46, TK M99 with the fuze
PREDSTAVLJAMO - PRESENTATION

javajući sa padobranom M04 – VOG 25; metak 40mm dimni UT M02; round 40mm x 46, VM M99; round 40mm x 46, flare
M99; TTM sa hvatačem zrna M91, P1 sa upaljačem UT M91, M04; round 40mm x 46, smoke M99; round 40mm x 46,
P1; TTM sa hvatačem zrna 40mm, M03 sa upaljačem UT smoke–CS M99; round 40mm, T M03–VOG 25 with the fuze
M00, SP; TTM sa hvatačem zrna 40mm, M03 sa upaljačem type UT M00, SP; round 40mm, TK M05–VOG 25; round
UT M00, SP; VMTTM sa hvatačem zrna, M03 sa upaljačem 40mm, illuminating, with parachute M04 – VOG 25; round
UT M02, VM, SP; VTTM sa hvatačem zrna M99; TOM sa 40mm smoke M99; TTM with muzzle adapter M91, P1 using
hvatačem zrna M04; TDM sa hvatačem zrna M04; signalni the fuze UT M91, P1; TTM with muzzle adapter 40mm, M03
metak ABC; signalni metak žuti osvetljavajući sa padobra- with the fuze UT M00, SP; TTM with muzzle adapter 40mm,
nom; signalni metak dimni ljubičasti; signalni metak beli, M03 with the fuze type UT M00, SP; VMTTM with muzzle
crveni, zeleni; metak 38mm, gumeni; metak 38mm sa adapter, M03 with the fuze type UT M02, VM, SP; VTTM with
gumenom sačmom; metak 38mm šok–fleš; bomba ručna muzzle adapter M99; TOM with muzzle adapter M04; TDM
šok–fleš; bomba ručna dimna–oranž; patrona–praskava with muzzle adapter M04; flare ABC; flare, yellow, illuminating
osvetljavajuća; eksplozivno punjenje–šuplje; patrona praska- with parachute; flare, smoke, violet. Flare, white, red, green;
va 81. rubber round cal. 38 mm; round 38mm with rubber pellets;
Aktivna je bila i grupa za razvoj PVO sredstava: metak shock-flash round 38 mm; hand grenade shock-flash; hand
20mm sa projektilom vežbovnim M79 grenade, smoke, orange; blast cartridge, illuminating; explosive
za umetnute cevi M78 i M79 sa upaljačem UT M00, SM; charge, hollow; blast cartridge 81. Activities of the anti-aircraft
metak 20mm sa projektilom vežbovnim M80 za umetnute ammo group resulted in the following new products:
cevi M78 i M79; metak 23mm sa TFG, M94 za automatske round 20mm with practice shell M79 for subcaliber barrels
topove GŠ–23L/GŠ–23 sa upaljačem UT M94; metak 30mm M78 and M79 with the fuze UT M00, SM; round 20mm with
sa TZP, M91 za avionski top GŠ–301; metak 30mm sa TZP, practice shell M80 for subcaliber barrels M78 and M79; round
M91 za avionski top GŠ–301 sa upaljačem UT M92 i 23mm with TFG, M94 for automatic guns type GŠ–23L/GŠ–23
topovskom kapslom EKV 30M; metak 30mm sa POP, M90 with the fuze UT M94; round 30mm with TZP, M91 for air-
za PA top 2A72; metak 30mm sa TZP, M90 za PA top 2A72 craft gun GŠ–301; round 30mm with TZP, M91 for aircraft gun
sa upaljačem UT M92, SP i topovskom kapslom KV–31; type GŠ–301 with the fuze UT M92 and primer type EKV 30M;
metak 30mm sa POP, M90 za PA top 2A72; metak 30mm sa round 30mm with POP, M90 for AA gun 2A72; round 30mm
POP, M90 za brodski top AK–630M; metak 30mm sa TZP, with TZP, M90 for AA gun 2A72 with the fuze UT M92, SP and
M90 za brodski top AK–630M sa upaljačem UT M93, SP; primer KV–31; round 30mm with POP, M90 for AA gun 2A72;
metak 30mm sa TOP, M90 za brodski top AK–630M; metak round 30mm with POP, M90 for naval gun AK–630M; round
30mm sa PZP, M90 za brodski top AK–630M; metak 30mm 30mm with TZP, M90 for naval gun AK–630M with the fuze
sa POP, M91 za automatski top M53/59. UT M93, SP; round 30mm with TOP, M90 for naval gun
Istovremeno grupa za razvoj ručnih raketnih sredstava AK–630M; round 30mm with PZP, M90 for naval gun AK–630M;
uspešno je izvršila prenos tehnologije za RBR 90mm, M79/A round 30mm with POP, M91 for automatic gun M53/59.
(„OSA“) sa upaljačem UT, PE M80, SP. During the same period, the group for hand rocket launcher
Dolazimo do najvećih kalibara koji se proizvode u „Slobodi“ development was able to transfer the technology for hand rock-
za koje je zadužena grupa za razvoj artiljerijske municije: et launcher RBR 90mm, M79/A („OSA“) using the fuze UT,
metak 76mm sa TFP M70 sa upaljačem UTIU M68; metak PE M80, SP.
76mm sa dimnim projektilom M60; metak 100mm sa TFP Finally, there is the group for development of artillery ammu-
M63 P1 saupaljačem UTIU M72B1 i topovskom kapslom nition, responsible for largest calibers produced by „Sloboda“:
KT M71; metak 105mm sa TFP M1 i topovskom kapslom round cal. 76mm with TFP M70 and the fuze type UTIU M68;
KT M24A2; metak 105mm sa HEER M02 sa upaljačem round 76mm with smoke shell M60; round 100mm with TFP
UTIU M02 i topovskom kapslom KT M02; metak HEER–BB M63 P1 with the fuze UTIU M72B1 and gun primer KT M71;
M02; metak 122mm sa TFP M462A1 i topovskom kapslom round 105mm with TFP M1 and primer type KT M24A2; round
TK M71; metak 125mm sa TFP M86P2 sa upaljačem UTIU, 105mm with HEER M02 with the fuze type UTIU M02 and
M85P1 i topovskom kapslom KT–EU, M84; metak 125mm primer KT M02; round HEER–BB M02; round 122mm with
kumulativni M88 sa upaljačem UTP M87P1; metak 125mm TFP M462A1 and primer TK M71; round 125mm with TFP
sa APFSDS–T M88; metak 155mm sa HEERFB–BB M03 M86P2 with the fuze UTIU, M85P1 and primer KT–EU, M84;
sa topovskom kapslom KT M02. round 125mm shaped charge M88 with the fuze UTP M87P1;
round 125mm subcaliber APFSDS–T M88; round 155mm with
HEERFB–BB M03 and gun primer KT M02.
POGLED U BUDUĆNOST
Ovako duga i kvalitetna ponuda novorazvijenih proizvoda, A LOOK IN THE FUTURE
prava je referenca za proboj na probirljivo svetsko tržište,
gde je kvalitetom i poslovnošću Kompanija „Sloboda“ pre- This long and diverse list of newly developed products out-
poznatljivo ime. lined above represents proper reference for the choosy world
Od „Slobode“ se u narednom periodu realno može očeki- market where thanks to its quality and businesslike attitude
vati da utiče na povećanje spoljnotrgovinskog suficita zeml- “Sloboda” Company is an easily recognized brand name.
je zahvaljujući ovako energičnom razvoju. In the period to come it can be realistically expected that
U borbi za izgradnju brenda Srbija, ne treba zaboraviti na “Sloboda“ will contribute to lower foreign trade deficit of the
brend „Sloboda“ Čačak. country, owing to its dynamic development.

82
In efforts to build up Serbian brands, the brand name of
„Sloboda“ Čačak must not be overlooked.