 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬
 ‫ א‬W‫א‬
 E‫א‬–‫א‬FW‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٤٢٦ 

 ‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬
 W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 


 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؛‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬        ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ،  
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ،‫א‬   
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬? ??‫?א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
   ‫؛‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬

 K‫א‬
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬













 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ o
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

‫א‬‫א‬ o

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

 ‫א‬‫א‬ o
 ‫א‬‫א‬ o
 

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WE٣٨٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٢٦٤F

KE١١٦F









 

W‫א‬‫א‬
 



 

W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o
 

 
 
 
KE٣٥FW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 
 

-١-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 E١F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

E١F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬

‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﺰ‬:(١) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ،  ‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K

 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬E٣FK
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،  ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J١
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
-٢-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬E٢F‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ،‫א‬W‫א‬  J١
 ،،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬EK٩F‫א‬
 E٣F‫א‬W‫א‬ J٢
 K،،
 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ J٣
 K
 K‫א‬W‫א‬ J٤
 ،‫א‬W‫א‬ J٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢F‫א‬
 ،‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ J٦
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ J٧
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J
 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬، ، ‫א‬ 

 K

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
‫א‬E٣F‫א‬‫א‬
 W،‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫ ﺗﺮآﻴﺐ ﻣﺤﻮر ﻧﻘﻞ اﻟﺤﺮآﺔ‬:(٣) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
 KE J٣F‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE J٣F‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬ J
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٤F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫ ﺗﺮآﻴﺐ رأس اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﺰاﻟﻌﻤﻮدﻳﺔ‬:(٤) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
 K ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬،٥
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE٤F‫א‬،‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE٥F‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K(Filler Gauge)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫( رﺑﻂ ﺑﺮاﻏﻲ رأس اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﺰ اﻟﻌﻤﻮدي‬٥) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 W‫א‬–
 W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
-٤-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 W‫א‬ J
F‫א‬‫א‬
 

‫א‬،‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

، ‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬
‫ ﺿﺒﻂ رأس اﻟﻔﺮﻳﺰة ﻣﻮازﻳًﺎ ﻟﻄﺎوﻟﺔ‬:(٦) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫أﻟﺔ اﻟﻔﺮﻳﺰﻩ‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١
 KE٦F‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬ J٢
 KE٧F‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫ ﺿﺒﻂ رأس اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﺰ‬: (٧)‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻣﺪًا ﻣﻊ ﻃﺎوﻟﺔ ﺁﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﺰ‬

 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J٣
 E٨F‫א‬

 

 
‫ ﺿﺒﻂ رأس اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﺰ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻣﺪًا ﻣﻊ ﻃﺎوﻟﺔ ﺁﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﺰ‬:(٨) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

-٥-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٩F‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 W‫א‬–

،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫ اﻟﺤﺮآﺎت اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻵﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﺰ اﻟﻌﻤﻮدﻳﺔ‬:(٩) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 W‫א‬ J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٩F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٩F

 KE٩F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

،
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،

 K‫א‬‫א‬
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١

 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢

 ،‫א‬W‫א‬ J٣

(١٠) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 K،،

-٦-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ J٤
 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ J٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ J٦

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ J٧
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K( Sprockets)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 E J١١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬ J

‫ ﻓﻚ ﺳﻨﺪة اﻟﺬراع‬: (١١) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 E J١١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 KE J١٢F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

(١٢) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E، J١٢F

 K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
-٧-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 E J١٣F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 KE J١٣F

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 ‫א‬

 KE J١٣F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J

‫ﺗﺮآﻴﺐ ﺳﻨﺪة اﻟﺬراع‬:(١٣) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 

 KE١٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫ ﺷﺪ ﺻﺎﻣﻮﻟﺔ ﻋﻤﻮد ﺣﻤﻞ اﻟﺴﻜﺎآﻴﻦ‬:(١٤)‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 W

 WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬–

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E١٥F‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬ J١

 K‫א‬ J٢

(‫ ﻋﻤﻮد ﺣﻤﻞ اﻟﺴﻜﺎآﻴﻦ اﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ)اﻟﻨﻮع ب‬:(١٥)‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J٣

 K‫א‬ J٤

 K‫א‬ J٥

 WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J

-٨-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 KE١٦F‫א‬،

 

 W‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K

(‫ﻋﻤﻮد ﺣﻤﻞ اﻟﺴﻜﺎآﻴﻦ اﻟﻘﺼﻴﺮ)اﻟﻨﻮع أ‬: (١٦) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 ‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬

 KE J١٧F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KE١٧F‫א‬،E،،F
 W‫א‬ J

 W?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫ ﺗﺮآﻴﺐ ﻋﻤﻮد ﺣﻤﻞ اﻟﺴﻜﺎآﻴﻦ‬:(١٧) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

-٩-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 E١٦F،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬E١٨F‫א‬KEStandardF

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬ J١

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J٣

‫ ﺿﻮاﺑﻂ اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺁﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﺰ اﻷﻓﻘﻴﺔ‬:(١٨) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 K‫א‬ J٤
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٥

 K‫א‬ J٦

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J٧

 K‫א‬–٨

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J٩
 K‫א‬ J١٠

 KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٣

 KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٤

 KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٥
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬،، ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬ J١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬LF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬ J

 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

E‫א‬LF‫ﻣﺤﻴﻂ اﻟﺴﻜﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻠﻤﻴﺘﺮ × ﺳﺮﻋﺔ دوران اﻟﻤﺤﻮر‬

 ELFZ
Z‫א‬
١٠٠٠
 
 C × π
 ١٠٠٠

 

 Z

 

 

 ٣{١٤Z‫א‬‫א‬π

 K‫א‬Z

 KE‫א‬LF‫א‬‫א‬Z

 ‫؟‬‫א‬،L١٤٠E١٠٠FW
 

١٤٠C١٠٠C٣{١٤

 

 KL٤٤ZZ‫א‬
 ١٠٠٠

- ١١ -

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬ J٢
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KL،EF،L‫א‬
 W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 KLEF،E‫א‬

 W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KLE١F

 

 ELF



 ELF



 W‫א‬

 CZ١

 ELF CCZC١Z


 CLZ
 

 ،E‫א‬LF‫א‬‫א‬Z،‫א‬Z

 ،ELF‫א‬Z،E‫א‬LF‫א‬Z١
 E‫א‬LF‫א‬‫א‬Z

 WL٠{٠٢٥L١٠٠،٣٠W
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 L٧٥Z٣٠C٠{٠٠٢٥ZCZ١Z‫א‬

 KL٧٥Z١٠٠C٠{٧٥Z‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬ J٣
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J
 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٤
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬WE١F‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

- ١٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 EOFFF‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE١٩F‫א‬

 
 
 
 

‫ ﻣﻔﺘﺎح اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ وﺿﻊ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ‬:(١٩) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 

F‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE‫א‬

EAF‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٢٠F‫א‬

(A) ‫ ﺿﺒﻂ اﻟﺬراع‬:(٢٠) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 

 

 

 

 EBF‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻗﺮص اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺎت‬:(٢١) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٢١F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-

 KE٢٢F‫א‬EONF

(ON)‫ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻣﺤﻮر اﻟﺪوران اﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ‬: (٢٢) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 
 

- ١٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E٢٣F‫א‬

 W‫א‬
 
 
 
 
 
 

‫ اﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ اﻟﻴﺪوﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺎوﻟﺔ‬: (٢٣) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 
 

 KE٢٤F‫א‬ENEUTRALF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫ א‬ 
 
 
 
 
 
 

‫ ﺗﻔﻘﺪ اﺗﺠﺎﻩ أذرع اﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ‬: (٢٤) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 
 

 ‫א‬ J

 KE٢٥F‫א‬EF

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KEF
 

‫ ﻓﺤﺺ أذرع ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ اﻟﻄﺎوﻟﺔ‬: (٢٥) ‫ﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
- ١٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 



 E٢٦F‫א‬، ‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬
 KE٦F‫א‬
 

‫ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ اﻟﻄﺎوﻟﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻷﻣﺎم واﻟﺨﻠﻒ‬: (٢٦) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬E٢٧F

  ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٦‫א‬، 
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ اﻟﻄﺎوﻟﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻷﻣﺎم واﻟﺨﻠﻒ‬: (٢٧) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫واﻷﺳﻔﻞ‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬،E٢٨F

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬٢

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬،‫א‬E٢٩F‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ اﻟﻄﺎوﻟﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬: (٢٨) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫واﻷﺳﻔﻞ‬

 (lock Levers)‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬

 
 

‫ اﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ اﻵﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺎوﻟﺔ‬: (٢٩) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

- ١٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 L٥٠٠‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE٣٠F‫א‬
 
 
‫ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ‬: (٣٠) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬‫א‬E–F
 KE٣١F‫א‬

 
 
 

‫ ﺿﺒﻂ اﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺣﺮآﺔ اﻟﻄﺎوﻟﺔ‬: (٣١) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ،‫א‬EF

 KE٣٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 

 

‫ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ اﻟﻄﺎوﻟﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻷﻣﺎم‬: (٣٢) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫واﻟﺨﻠﻒ‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ،E٣٣F‫א‬،E‫א‬‫א‬F

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
 

‫ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ اﻟﻄﺎوﻟﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻷﻋﻠﻰ واﻷﺳﻔﻞ‬: (٣٣) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

- ١٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 ،‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ J
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٣٤F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 
 

‫ ﺿﺒﻂ اﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ اﻟﺴﺮﻳﻌﺔ‬: (٣٤) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 KE، J٣٥F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J
 
 
 
 
 
‫ إﻋﺎدة ﺁﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﺰ إﻟﻰ وﺿﻌﻬﺎ اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‬: (‫ ب‬، ‫ أ‬-٣٥) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬E٣٦F
 ‫א‬

‫ ﺿﺒﻂ اﻻﺳﺘﻮاء ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﺰ‬:(٣٦) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ،E–F‫א‬
 ‫א‬،‫א‬

 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ اﻟﻤﻠﺰﻣﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻄﺎوﻟﺔ ﺁﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﺰ‬:(٣٧) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ‫א‬
- ١٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬،‫א‬ J٦

 ‫א‬E٣٧F‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 W‫א‬

‫ إزاﻟﺔ اﻟﺨﺪوش ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﺣﺠﺰ اﻟﺰﻳﺖ‬:(٣٨) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 

 ‫א‬،‫א‬ J
 K

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE٣٨F‫א‬،‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J
 

‫ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ اﻟﻤﻠﺰﻣـﺔ‬: (٣٩) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬







K

 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE٣٩F‫א‬

 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫ إزاﻟﺔ اﻟﺨﺪوش ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﺣﺠﺮ اﻟﺰﻳﺖ‬: (٤٠) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 KE٤٠F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬ETF‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬،

  ‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE٤١F‫א‬

‫ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ اﻟﻤﻠﺰﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻄﺎوﻟﺔ‬: (٤١) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 
 

- ١٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ 1 ‫א‬‫א‬ 3

  KE٤٢F‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬‫א‬  KE J٤٣F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬

1 ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬
3

 E١F‫א‬

‫ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ اﻟﻤﻠﺰﻣﺔ‬: (٤٢) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 KE J٤٣F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ -

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE J٤٣F‫א‬
 
 
 
 

 
 


‫( ﺿﺒﻂ ﻓﻜﻲ اﻟﻤﻠﺰﻣﺔ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻘﺎﺋـﻢ‬٤٣ ) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 

- ٢٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE٤٤F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K
 
 

‫ إﺟﺮاء اﻟﺸﺪ اﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻠﺰﻣﺔ‬: (٤٤) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
،  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
، ‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 KE٤٥F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 
 
 
‫ اﻟﺴﻜﺎآﻴﻦ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺮآﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻮد ﻣﺤﻮر اﻟﺪوران‬: (٤٥) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 
 

‫א‬
 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٤٦F
 
 
 

‫ اﻟﺴﻜﺎآﻴﻦ ذات اﻟﺴﺎق اﻟﻄﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬: (٤٦) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

- ٢١ -

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬،W
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٤٧F‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 

‫ اﻟﺴﻜﺎآﻴﻦ اﻟﺠﺒﻬﻴﺔ وﺗﺮآﺐ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮة ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺤﻮر‬: (٤٧) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 

 W‫א‬

 K،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 W J

‫ ﺳﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﺰ ﺳﻄﺤﻲ وﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ‬: (٤٨) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 E٤٨F‫א‬‫א‬

 ،٢٠‫א‬
 

‫ ﺳﻜﻴﻦ ﻣﺪﺣﻠﻴـﺔ‬: (٤٩) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬





 

KKK٢






 W–

 ‫א‬E٤٩F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 K١٦٠C١٦٠

- ٢٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E٥٠F‫א‬

‫ﺗﻔﺮﻳﺰ اﻟﻤﺠﺎري‬
‫ ﺳﻜﻴﻦ‬: (٥٠) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬


‫اﻷﻓﻘﻴﺔ‬

‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 



 
 

 W J

 E٥١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫ ﺳﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﺰ‬: (٥١) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺳﻄﺤﻲ وﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ ﻣﺰدوﺟﺔ‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KKK٢،K٢‫א‬
 





 



 W‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE 90o ، 60o ، 45o F‫א‬‫א‬E٥٢F‫א‬
 

‫ ﺳـﻜﻴﻦ ﻓـﺮز‬: (٥٢) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺠﺎري ذات زاوﻳﺔ ﻣﺰدوﺟﺔ‬

 
 
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬ J

 E٥٣F‫א‬،EF‫א‬
  5o  80o – 60o ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫ ﺳﻜﻴﻦ ﻓﺮز اﻟﻤﺠﺎري‬:(٥٣) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ذات زاوﻳﺔ ﻣﻔﺮدة‬

 
 
 

- ٢٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W–

 E٥٤F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ،‫א‬

 KE١٦٠ J٤٠F‫א‬،‫א‬
‫ ﺳﻜﻴﻦ وﺟﻬﻴـﺔ‬:(٥٤) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 











 



 W‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ،‫א‬E٥٥F‫א‬

 ١{٥ERadiusF‫א‬

 KK٢

‫ ﺳﻜﻴﻦ ﻓﺘﺢ‬: (٥٥) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫أﺳﻨﺎن أﻗﺮاص ﻣﺴﻨﻨﺔ‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 WESlot drillF J

 ‫א‬،‫א‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 ،‫א‬

‫ ﺳﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ ﺟﻴﻮب ﻃﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬: (٥٦) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 KE٥٦F‫א‬،٥٠

 W(End-milling)‫א‬‫א‬ J
 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ،E٥٧F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬،

 ‫א‬،‫א‬

‫ ﺳﻜﻴﻦ ﻓﺮز اﻟﻤﺠﺎري اﻟﻄﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬: (٥٧ ) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
KK٥

 

- ٢٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 WEDovetail CutterF–

 ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 E٦F،‫א‬

 ،‫א‬

 KE٥٨F‫א‬ 60o  45o ‫א‬،٣٨

‫ ﺳﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﺰ ﻃﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻏﻨﻔﺎرﻳـﺔ‬: (٥٨) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 
 
 

 W (T-Slot Cutter)T–

 ‫א‬T‫א‬
(T) ‫ ﺳﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﺰ ﻣﺠﺎر ﺣﺮف‬:(٥٩) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 

 ‫א‬



 ،٢٤‫א‬Standard








 KE٥٩F‫א‬

 W(Corner rounding cutter) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬¼‫א‬‫א‬

‫ ﺳﻜﻴﻦ ﻃﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬:(٦٠) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 

 ERadiusF








KE٦٠F‫א‬١٢
 
 

 :(Corner rounding cutter)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–
 



‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫ ﺳﻜﻴﻦ ﻃﺮﻓﻴﺔ اﺳﺘﺪارات داﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬: (٦١) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 K

KE٦١F‫א‬K٥،‫א‬
 
 
- ٢٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬  J

 K‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،
 

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬EJaw CapsF
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦٢F‫א‬

‫ ﺗﺮآﻴﺐ ﻗﻄﻌﺘﻴﻦ‬:(٦٢) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ رﻗﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻌﺪن اﻟﻠﻴﻦ‬

 









 

 ‫א‬Protective blocks    ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٦٣F‫א‬

‫ ﺿﺒﻂ اﻟﻤﺸﻐﻮﻟﺔ‬:(٦٣) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 

‫ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ اﻟﻤﺸﻐﻮﻟﺔ‬: (٦٤) ‫ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٣‫א‬‫א‬













KE٦٣F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٦٤F‫א‬

- ٢٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫ رﺑﻂ اﻟﻤﺸﻐﻮﻻت ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮل‬:(٦٥) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻣﺪ‬

 KE٦٥F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 













 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E٦٦F‫א‬
 ،‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬WE٦٦F‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬،(V-Block)V‫א‬
 E٣F‫א‬

 ‫א‬،E٦٧F‫א‬،
‫ رﺑﻂ اﻟﻤﺸﻐﻮﻻت اﻷﺳﻄﻮاﻧﻴﺔ‬:(٦٧) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 



 K‫א‬








 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٦٨F‫א‬

‫ رﺑﻂ اﻟﻤﺸﻐﻮﻻت ﺻﻐﻴﺮة اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬: (٦٨) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

- ٢٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 Thin plate‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EHold downF
 KE٦٩F‫א‬
 



 
 

‫א‬‫א‬WE٦٩F‫א‬

 

 

 













‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ J
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧٠F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J١

‫( اﻷﺟﺰاء اﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻴﻨﻴﺔ اﻟﺪوارة‬٧٠) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J٣

 





 K‫א‬ J٤

 K J٥

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫( ﺿﺒﻂ اﻟﺼﻴﻨﻴﺔ اﻟﺪوارة‬٧١) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٧١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

- ٢٨ -



 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ،‫א‬E٧٢F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﻤﻞ اﻟﺼﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬: (٧٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،EºK٣٦F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬،E٤F‫א‬

- ٢٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬

 KE٧٣F‫א‬EA,B,C,F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
‫ ﻧﻘﺎط ﻣﺒﻴﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮى اﻟﺰﻳﺖ‬: (٧٣) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 
 

 E٧٥F‫א‬
 KE٧٤F‫א‬،‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫ ﻣﺒﻴﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮى اﻟﺰﻳﺖ‬: (٧٤) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KE، J٧٥F‫א‬،

 
 
 
 

‫( ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ اﻷﺳﻄﺢ اﻟﻤﻨﺰﻟﻘـﺔ‬٧٥) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬
- ٣٠ -

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٧٦F‫א‬

 

  

‫ اﻟﻤﻀﺨﺔ اﻟﻴﺪوﻳﺔ اﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮﻳﺰة‬: (٧٦) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬

 KE، J٧٧F
 
 
 
‫ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ اﻟﺘﺰﻳﻴﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺰﻳﺘـﺔ‬: (٧٧) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KE‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K(Neutral Position)‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
- ٣١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J

- ٣٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬ J١
  J

 ‫א‬ J
  J

  J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢
  J

  J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬ J

 W‫א‬‫א‬ J٣
 ‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬ J
 W‫א‬L١٤٠١٠٠‫א‬–٤
 K‫א‬L٤٤–
 K‫א‬L٤٠٤ J
 K‫א‬L٤٤٠ J
 K‫א‬L٤٤ J
 WT‫א‬–٥
 ١ J
 ٢ J
 ٣ J
 ٤ J
- ٣٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬ J٦

 ‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J
 ‫א‬ J

 K J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٧

 °٤٥ J

 °٩٠ J

 °١٥٠ J

 °٣٦٠ J

 W‫א‬L٥٠،١٥٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٨

 ‫א‬L‫א‬ ١٠٦ J

 ‫א‬L ١٦٠ J
 ‫א‬L ١٠٠٦ J

 ‫א‬L١٦٠٠ J

 W‫א‬ J٩

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J
 ‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٠
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J
 ‫א‬‫א‬–

 °٧٥‫א‬‫א‬–
 
 
 
- ٣٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1
3

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 

 

- ٣٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 E١F‫א‬
 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬



 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J١

K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٢

K‫א‬‫א‬  J٣

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
- ٣٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 E١F‫א‬
 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١

 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣

 WE،‫א‬FW‫א‬‫א‬W
‫א‬،،
 ، ،،‫א‬،‫א‬
 

 K‫א‬،
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 

 ‫א‬،‫א‬ J١

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٢
 K ‫א‬

(١) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬  J٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 E١F‫א‬
 
 
 

(٢) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬  J٤

 KE٢F‫א‬‫א‬
- ٣٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J٥
 KE٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 

(٣) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

  

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J٦
 KE٤F‫א‬

 
 
 

 

 

 

(٤) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

- ٣٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 E٢F‫א‬
 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬





‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬ J١

 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J٢
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣

 K‫א‬٢٥٠C٢٠٠ J٤
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
- ٣٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 E٢F‫א‬
 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬







‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ J١

 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J٢

 K–‫א‬ J٣

 K‫א‬٢٥٠C٢٠٠‫א‬
 ‫א‬ J٤
 WE،،‫א‬FW‫א‬‫א‬W
‫א‬ ‫א‬،ECOLLETF‫א‬،‫א‬،

 ،،A 4،،٢٥٠C٣٥٠ 
 K‫א‬،،‫א‬،E،

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١
 K

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢
 KT‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣

 E١F‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٤
 ECOLLETF‫א‬

 KE ١F‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٥
 E‫א‬L٤٠F‫א‬

KE٢F‫א‬

 

(٢) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 
- ٤٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ،‫א‬L١٥‫א‬‫א‬ J٦
 KE٣F‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 

(٣) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 

 

 F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٧
 ‫א‬،‫א‬E
 KE٤F‫א‬

 

 
 

 E٤F‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٨

 ‫א‬EF
 KE٥F‫א‬
 

(٥) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٩

 ‫א‬EF
 KE٦F‫א‬
 

 

(٦) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 

- ٤١ -

 


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

–‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٠
 KE٧F‫א‬E‫א‬–‫א‬
 
 
 
 

(٧) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–١١

 K‫א‬ J١٢

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٣

(٨) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ‫א‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 KE٨F‫א‬KK٢

 

 

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ J١٤
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٤،١٣F‫א‬  J١٥
 K‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J١٦
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٧
 ‫א‬‫ א‬-

K‫א‬‫א‬ -

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-

 K‫א‬ J١٨

 

- ٤٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 E٣F‫א‬
 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، J١

‫א‬٣٥CK٤CK٦‫א‬ J٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

- ٤٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 E٣F‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬



‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J١
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣

 WE،‫א‬FW‫א‬‫א‬W
،،K٥CK٧CKK١،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
،،،‫א‬،،،،

KK١CK٣‫א‬ ،K٩‫א‬‫א‬،

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١

 KE١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢

 
 
 
 
 
 

(١) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 

 

 

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J٣
- ٤٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٤
 KE٢F‫א‬‫א‬
 

 

 

 
‫א‬

 

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J٥
 ‫א‬ J٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٣F‫א‬‫א‬
 

‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٧

E٤F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٤F‫א‬ 

 
 
 

 

- ٤٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٨
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٩
 KE٥F‫א‬

 
 

(٥) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 

  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٠
 

 

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ J١١
 KE٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 
 

(٦) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 
 
 

 
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J١٢

 KE٧F‫א‬

‫א‬

 

 

 K‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٣
K٣‫א‬‫א‬ J١٤

- ٤٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E٢٥F‫א‬   J١٥
 KE٨F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 K ‫א‬‫א‬ J١٦
 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٧
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٩F‫א‬

(٩) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 
 
 
 
 

 
 

 K ‫א‬‫א‬ J١٨
 

 
- ٤٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٣٠W‫א‬‫א‬









‫א‬W‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬‫א‬
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

- ٤٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٢

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬ o
 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ o
 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

 KE٧٠F

- ٤٩ -

 
 

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬WE١F‫א‬

‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE١F‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬ 


 ‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬

 KEF

 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ -

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

- ٥٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE٢F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٢F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  J

 ‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J

 K‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

، ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

، ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬(Backlash)‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬
 

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 

- ٥١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬

K ‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E٣F‫א‬،‫א‬
 K

 ‫א‬WE٣F‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬
(‫دﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬/‫ﻣﺤﻴﻂ اﻟﺴﻜﻴﻦ )ﻣﻢ( × ﺳﺮﻋﺔ دوران اﻟﻤﺤﻮر )دورة‬
١٠٠٠

 CπC

 

 ZELF‫א‬

 Z

 ١٠٠٠





 

 
 

 K‫א‬Z

 ٣{١٤Z‫א‬‫א‬Zπ

 KELF‫א‬‫א‬Z
 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 
 

- ٥٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١F‫א‬
‫א‬

 (HSS)‫א‬

 

EF

 

 EF



 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ٣٢

 ٦٠ J٥٠

 ١٥٠ J١٢٠

 E‫א‬F‫א‬

 ٢٤

 ٦٠ J٣٠

 ١٠٠ J٧٥

 E‫א‬F‫א‬

 ٢٤

 ٧٥ J٣٠

 ١٠٠ J٥٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٧

 ٧٥ J٥٠

 ١٥٠

 E‫א‬F‫א‬

 ١٥

 ٢٥

 ٣٥

 E‫א‬F‫א‬

 ١٥٠

 ٣٠٠ J٩٥

 ١٢٠٠ J٣٠٠

 ٦٠

 ٢٤٠

 ١٨٠

 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 ٥٠

 ١٥٠

 ٣٠٠

 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 ٥٠

 ١٥٠ J٧٥

 ٢٤٠ J١٥٠

 ‫א‬

 ٥٠

 ٢٤٠ J١٥٠

 ٣٠٠ J٢٤٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 KL٩٠‫א‬،١٥٠‫א‬‫א‬W

 W

٩٠C١٠٠٠

 ١٥٠C٣{١٤

 

 ZEF‫א‬‫א‬

 L٢٠٠Z





 

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE١F‫א‬
 
 
 

- ٥٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ELF‫א‬‫א‬WE١F‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
L
 ٥٠‫א‬‫א‬،٨٠‫א‬‫א‬W
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ،٨٠‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،٥٠‫א‬‫א‬٨٠‫א‬

 K٢٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 
- ٥٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 KELF‫א‬
 WCCZ‫א‬

 KELF‫א‬Z
 KELF‫א‬‫א‬Z
 K‫א‬Z

،L٢٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
 KL٠{٢‫א‬،‫א‬٨‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 KL٣٢٠Z٨C٢٠٠C٠{٢ZCCZELF‫א‬
E L F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ELF‫א‬E٢F‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
 ELF‫א‬‫א‬WE٢F‫א‬

 
 *C
 **HSS

 
 *C
 **HSS

 ‫א‬

 ٠{٢٥

 ٠{٢٨

 ٠{٥٠

 ٠{٥٥

 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 ٠{١٣

 ٠{١٣

 ٠{٢٥

 ٠{٢٣

 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 ٠{١٥

 ٠{١٥

 ٠{٣٠

 ٠{٣٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٠{١٥

 ٠{١٥

 ٠{٣٠

 ٠{٢٨

 E‫א‬F‫א‬

 ٠{١٨

 ٠{١٥

 ٠{٣٥

 ٠{٣٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٠{١٨

 ٠{١٣

 ٠{٣٥

 ٠{٢٥

F‫א‬‫א‬

 ٠{١٨

 ٠{١٠

 ٠{٣٥

 ٠{٢٠

 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 ٠{١٣

 ٠{٠٥

 ٠{٢٥

 ٠{١٠

 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 ٠{١٣

 ٠{٠٨

 ٠{٢٥

 ٠{١٥

 (SS)

 

- ٥٥ -

 E‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 KG

 K‫א‬‫א‬GG
 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬٢‫א‬

 ‫א‬E٤F‫א‬،٠{٥–٠{٣
 K‫א‬
 W

 ‫א‬WE٤F‫א‬

 K‫א‬W
 K‫א‬W

،‫א‬C‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٣F‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 ٠{٥–٠{٣
 ٥ J٣
 ١٥ J٦

 

 ‫א‬
 (Finish – milling)
(Rough – 
 milling)
 (Heavy – duty milling) 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٥٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
 ‫א‬

(Heavy –
 duty)
(Light- F
 duty
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣
‫א‬،H.s.s‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬E
 ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٥F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٥F‫א‬

 
 
 
 

- ٥٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 

 (Hand cut)‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٦F‫א‬

 KE٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
 

 K(Hand of helix)‫א‬ J

E J٧F‫א‬،

،E J٧F‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٧F‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 35o – 25o 
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬10o 

‫א‬ 10o 
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 

 K(No.Of flute)‫א‬ J

‫א‬،،‫א‬

 ‫א‬WE٨F‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٨F

- ٥٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 (Length of cut) ‫א‬ J

 K––W‫א‬

 (Peripheral cutting edge)‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬،E٩F‫א‬،––W‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(Heavy- ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،duty)
 

 
 

 ‫א‬WE٩F‫א‬

 

 ( End cutting edge) ‫א‬ J

،  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E١٠F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬WE١٠F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 (Shank)‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬،(MT, BS,NT)‫א‬،‫א‬W
 KE١١F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١١F‫א‬
- ٥٩ -

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 
 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 (Throw-away tips)‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،E١٢F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 

 ‫א‬WE١٢F‫א‬

 
 
 

 EInsert blade typeF‫א‬
 

،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ E١٣F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K،‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 
 ‫א‬WE١٣F‫א‬

 
 
 

- ٦٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 
 
 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،E١٤F‫א‬

 K٢٠٠،٢٠
 

 WE١٤F‫א‬

 
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬E١٥F
 K١٦٠١٦٠
 

 WE١٥F‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٦F‫א‬
 
 
 
 
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٦F‫א‬

 
 

 
- ٦١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE١٧F‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ J
 KE١٧F‫א‬

 
 
 

‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ J
 KE١٨F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬WE١٨F‫א‬

 
 
 
 

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J

 

 KE١٩F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬WE١٩F‫א‬

 
 
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 
 ‫א‬WE٢٠F‫א‬

 KE٢٠F‫א‬،‫א‬C

 

 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ٦٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢١F‫א‬

 K‫א‬
 
 
 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢١F‫א‬

 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٢F‫א‬

 KE٢٢F‫א‬،

L٥٠ J٤٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬

 
 

  ‫א‬ J
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٢٣F‫א‬

 ‫א‬ WE٢٣F‫א‬

 
 
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
،‫א‬C‫א‬

 KE٢٤F‫א‬

 ‫א‬WE٢٤F‫א‬
- ٦٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬

 
 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٥F‫א‬

 KE٢٥F‫א‬،‫א‬ J
 

‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE٢٦F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 

 ‫א‬WE٢٦F‫א‬

‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 (Adjusting – nut)‫א‬ J
 K

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE٢٧F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬WE٢٧F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE٢٨F‫א‬،

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 ‫א‬WE٢٨F‫א‬

 K١٥‫א‬

- ٦٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬ J

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   
 KE٢٩F‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬WE٢٩F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J

،‫א‬

 KE٣٠F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬ J
 ‫א‬WE٣٠F‫א‬

 KL٢٢٧

 K‫א‬L١٨٠‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE٣١F‫א‬،‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬ J

 

 ‫א‬WE٣١F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬،‫א‬
 ‫א‬٢

 KE٣٢F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 ‫א‬WE٣٢F‫א‬

١

 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 J
٤
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
 

- ٦٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

،‫א‬‫א‬٠{٥‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE٣٣F‫א‬

 
 
 

 

 

 ‫א‬WE٣٣F‫א‬

 
 
 

 ،‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬

 
 ‫א‬WE٣٤F‫א‬

‫א‬ ،‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KE٣٤F
 
 

 K‫א‬
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 
 ‫א‬WE٣٥F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE٣٥F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

- ٦٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K١٥‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 

،‫א‬

 KE٣٦F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬WE٣٦F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J
 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬WE٣٧F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE٣٧F‫א‬،‫א‬

 
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬WE٣٨F‫א‬

 KE٣٨F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 
 
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬WE٣٩F‫א‬

 KE٣٩F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 
 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
- ٦٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 KE٤٠F‫א‬

،،‫א‬ J
 E٤٠F‫א‬

 
 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬WE٤١F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KE٤١F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K١٥‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬WE٤٢F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J
،‫א‬ 
 KE٤٢F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J
 KE٤٣F‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J
 ‫א‬WE٤٣F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬
 
 

- ٦٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

،‫א‬١‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KE٤٤F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J
 
 

 
 ‫א‬WE٤٤F‫א‬

 

،‫א‬  KE٤٥F‫א‬

 
 
 

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٤٥F‫א‬

 

١A‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE٤٦F‫א‬A‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬B‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬

 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٤٦F‫א‬

‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬

‫א‬D‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬

‫א‬A‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬WE٤٧F‫א‬

،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٤٧F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

- ٦٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 P

A

B

C

D

E

A

 KE٤٨F‫א‬

 
 
 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٤٨F‫א‬

 
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE٤٩F‫א‬،‫א‬

 
 
 

 ‫א‬WE٤٩F‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE٥٠F‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬WE٥٠F‫א‬

 
 
 

- ٧٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J١
 K‫א‬  J٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J٣

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٤
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

 KE‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J٥

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J٦

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٧
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٨

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٩
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J١٠
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J١١

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J١٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J١٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J١٤

‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  J١٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 
 

- ٧١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬W

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J١

 ‫؟‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٢

 ‫؟‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫ א‬ J٣

 K‫א‬L٩٠‫א‬١٥٠‫א‬‫א‬  J٤

‫א‬L٨٥‫א‬،٢٠٠‫א‬‫א‬  J٥
 KE١F‫א‬‫א‬

L٢٥‫א‬١٢،٧٠‫א‬‫ א‬ J٦
 KE٠{٠٨F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢
 K J

 K J

 K J

 K J
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣

 K‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬ J

K‫א‬ J
- ٧٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 E١F‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 
 

 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 

 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
 
 K١٠،١٥٠‫א‬
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 

- ٧٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 
 

‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
   W‫א‬‫א‬

 
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 J١

 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 J٢

   WE،،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W 

 ٥٠
 C٥٠C٧٥،‫א‬‫א‬
،،
 ‫א‬،‫א‬،،F
،،E،
 
،‫א‬‫א‬،،،،

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

،،‫א‬
E‫א‬F،،٣٠W‫א‬

 
K،١٥٠‫א‬
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J١  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -  
‫א‬ -  
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 E١F

 K‫א‬ J٢  
 K١٥٠ -  
 KL٢٣٠‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-

‫א‬‫א‬ J٣
 KE١F‫א‬،‫א‬

- ٧٤ -

‫‪ ‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬

‫א‪‬א‪ ‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬

‫א‪ ‬‬

‫‪‬א‪‬א‪ ‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬

‫‪ -٤‬اﻧﺰع ﺣﻮاﻓﻆ ﻓﻜﻲ اﻟﻤﻠﺰﻣﺔ وﺛﺒﺖ اﻟﻮﺟﻪ اﻷول اﻟﻤﺸﻐﻞ ﺟﻬﺔ اﻟﻔﻚ اﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‬
‫‪‬‬
‫ﻣﺮاﻋﻴًﺎ وﺿﻊ ﻗﻀﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻌﺪن اﻟﻄﺮي ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﻔﻚ اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮك وﻗﻄﻌﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫‪ ‬آﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪.(٢‬‬

‫‪‬‬
‫‪ -٥‬أ‪‬ﺟﺮ ﻗﻄﻌًﺎ ﺗﺨﺸﻴﻨﻴًﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﺟﻪ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺘﺒﻌًﺎ اﻟﺨﻄﻮات ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ آﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻮﺟﻪ اﻷول‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬
‫‪ -٦‬أ‪‬ﺟﺮ ﻗﻄﻌًﺎ ﺗﻨﻌﻴﻤﻴًﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﺟﻪ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺘﺒﻌًﺎ اﻟﺨﻄﻮات ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ آﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻮﺟﻪ اﻷول‪.‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬

‫‪ -٧‬اﻓﺤﺺ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﺪ اﻟﻮﺟﻪ اﻷول ﻣﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺮاﻋﻴًﺎ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ اﻟﺤﻮاف ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺒﺮد ‪،‬آﻤﺎ‬
‫‪ ‬ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪.(٣‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪(٢‬‬

‫‪‬‬
‫‪ -٨‬ﺛﺒﺖ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻜﻮن اﻟﻮﺟﻪ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻟﻸﺳﻔﻞ واﻟﻮﺟﻪ اﻷول ﺟﻬﺔ اﻟﻔﻚ‬
‫اﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‪ ،‬وأﺟﺮ ﻗﻄﻌًﺎ ﺗﺨﺸﻴﻨﻴًﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﺟﻪ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ ،‬آﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪.(٤‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬

‫‪ -٩‬ﻗﺲ ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮوﻣﺘﺮ اﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﻮﺟﻪ اﻷول واﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ وﺻﻔﻲ اﻟﻘﻴﺎس‬
‫‪ ‬ﺣﺴﺐ اﻟﺒﻌﺪ اﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺘﻨﻌﻴﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﻮﺟﻪ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪.‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬

‫‪ -١٠‬ﺛﺒﺖ اﻟﻮﺟﻪ اﻷول ﻟﻸﺳﻔﻞ واﻟﻮﺟﻪ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﺟﻬﺔ اﻟﻔﻚ اﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‪ ،‬وأﺟ ِﺮ ﻗﻄﻊ‬
‫‪ ‬ﺗﺨﺸﻴﻨﻴًﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﺟﻪ اﻟﺮاﺑﻊ ‪،‬آﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ .(٥‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪(٣‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪(٤‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪(٥‬‬

‫‪- ٧٥ -‬‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
  

(٦) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 KE٦F‫א‬،‫א‬  
  

 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٣
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ 
 KE٧F‫א‬،٥٩٠  
  

 
 K‫א‬   J١٤

(٧) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

(٨) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

 K‫א‬   J١٥
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٦
 
  ،‫א‬‫א‬
 
 KE٨F‫א‬،‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٧
 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 
 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٨

- ٧٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 E٢F‫א‬‫א‬
 W ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 

 
 ‫א‬E٣٨C٦٠C٧٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 






 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

- ٧٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 E٢F‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬

 

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
 
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١

 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢

 
 ‫א‬
 
 WE،،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W 
 
،،E٣٨C٦٠C٧٠F ،‫א‬‫א‬
 
، ‫א‬،‫א‬،،F
 
،،،،، ،E
 
، ٣٠‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫א‬،،‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬
 
 K
 

- ٧٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   J١

 
 KE١F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  J٢
،٢٠،‫א‬
(١) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

 
 K‫א‬
  J٣
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 KE٢F‫א‬
  
  
 

(٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

- ٧٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W

 
 EAF‫א‬‫א‬

   J٤
‫א‬‫א‬
 
 KE٣F‫א‬،‫א‬

(٣) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

   
 

 ،‫א‬‫א‬١٠‫א‬‫א‬–٥
 KE٤F‫א‬

 

(٤) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

 

١٠EF   J٦

‫א‬‫א‬٤–٣

 K‫א‬L٢٠
 
 

(٥) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

E٦F‫א‬–٧
 ٠E٥F‫א‬،٩{٥
 

EF   J٨
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬٤ J٣
 KE٦F

(٦) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

 
 

- ٨٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W

(٧) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

(٨) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬


E٨F‫א‬ J٩

 K١٧{٥

‫א‬ J١٠

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢٠

 KE‫א‬F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٧F‫א‬،‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬ J١٢

 KE٨F‫א‬،‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬ J١٣













‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  
 KE٩F  
  
‫א‬ J١٤ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 KE١٠F‫א‬،‫ א‬ 

(٩) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

  
 
 

(١٠) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

- ٨١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٥
 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(١١) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

 
 EBF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ J١٦
 
 K‫א‬

EF   J١٧
 
٤ J٣١٠‫א‬

(١٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

 
 KE١١F‫א‬،L٢٠
١١{٥E١٧F‫א‬ J١٨
 
 K‫א‬E١١F‫א‬،
٤ J٣EF   J١٩
 
١٧{٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 KE١١F‫א‬،

(١٣) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

٩{٥(B)   J٢٠
 
L٢٠‫א‬‫א‬٤ J٣
 
 KE١٢F‫א‬،
 
‫א‬‫א‬ J٢١
 
،(B)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 
 KE، J١٣F‫א‬
 
‫א‬(B)‫א‬‫א‬ J٢٢
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 

- ٨٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 E٣F‫א‬‫א‬
 W ‫א‬‫א‬

 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 

 
 W‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬٤٢C٦٠C٧٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 K‫א‬
  
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

- ٨٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 E٣F‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W ‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
 W‫א‬‫א‬ 

 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١ 
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢ 
 
 ‫א‬
 
 WE،،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W 
 
،،E٤٢C٦٠C٧٠F، ‫א‬‫א‬ 
 
،،E،‫א‬،‫א‬،،F
 
،‫א‬‫א‬،،،،‫א‬
 
‫א‬،،‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬،٣٠‫א‬
،

- ٨٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE١F‫א‬

 E١F

 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢
 KE٢F‫א‬

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

  

 E٢F

- ٨٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W

  J٣
L٢٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٠{٥٠

 ٠٤ J٣L
  J٤
 K‫א‬٢٠
  J٥
‫א‬‫א‬

(٣) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

 
 K‫א‬
  J٦
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٠{٥‫א‬

‫א‬،٤‫א‬
 
 KE٣F‫א‬،١٧{٥‫א‬

(٤) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

  J٧
‫א‬٤١٧{٥‫א‬
 
،٣٩‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 KE٤F‫א‬
  

  J٨
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(٥) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

(٦) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

 
 
‫א‬‫א‬٤ J٣‫א‬ J٩
 
٤٧‫א‬١٠{٥‫א‬
 
 KE٥F‫א‬،٧{٥
 
‫א‬‫א‬ J١٠
 
 K‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J١١
 
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٦F‫א‬

- ٨٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W


EF J١٢
‫א‬٠{٢،L٠{١L ٣٠
 
 E٧F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
  

(٧) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

  

‫א‬٢٠‫א‬‫א‬ J١٣

 
‫א‬،٤٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE ٨F

  
  

(٨) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬


 K١٠‫א‬ J١٤
  

 
‫א‬،
٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٥
 KE٩ F‫א‬،٤٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(٩) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

 

 

 

 

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ J١٦
 
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 
 
 

- ٨٧ -

 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 E٤F‫א‬‫א‬
 W ‫א‬‫א‬

 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 

 
 W‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬٣٨C٦٠C٧٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 K‫א‬
  
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

- ٨٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 E٤F‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 
 

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 

   W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 J١

 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 J٢
 

WE،،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴًﺎ‬
 
،،E٣٨C٦٠ C٧٠F،‫א‬‫א‬

،E ،‫א‬،‫א‬،،
F
 

،‫א‬‫א‬،،،،،

،،‫א‬E‫א‬F،،٣٠‫א‬


 ‫א‬٢٠



- ٨٩ -

K

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

(١) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١
 
 KE١F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢
 
 K‫א‬٢٠ J٣
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬ J٤
 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 
 

- ٩٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬٢{٥     J٥
 
١
 KE٢F‫א‬، ‫א‬
٢

 E٢F

  
 ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٦
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 EA

D

A
 
 
 KE٣F‫א‬
  

B

C

 K٤{٩‫א‬  J٧
  

(٣) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٨
  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٩

 
 
 K‫א‬١٠  J١٠
 
 

 KE٦F‫א‬‫א‬٠{١‫א‬ J١١
(٤) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬
o
E 90 F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬FG
 KE٤F‫א‬،E
 

- ٩١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 ٣
 ١٠٠

 
 ‫א‬
 ‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ ١ 
 
‫א‬‫א‬E٥٠C٣٢C٦٠F
 
 K‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 E١F‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

- ٩٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

٣

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬
F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 KE–T JV

 K

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
TV
 ‫א‬ o
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

 ‫א‬‫א‬ o

 ‫א‬‫א‬ o

 
 

 KE٧٠F

- ٩٣ -

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 E‫א‬–T JVF‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬H.S.S.‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W
 

  JV J
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 W

WE J١FW‫א‬‫א‬ J
،
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WE J١FW‫א‬‫א‬–

‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 K JV J‫א‬

 WE J١FW‫א‬‫א‬–

،‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬45٦٠٩٠‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫ ﺳﻜﺎآﻴﻦ اﻟﺰاوﻳﺔ‬: (١) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬



 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



- ٩٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

  JT–
‫א‬(Shank)‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 

،  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   
 
 KE٢F‫א‬‫א‬

 K JT–‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W

(٢) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١
‫א‬‫א‬E٣F‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K٩٠،٦٠،45
 

‫ ﺳﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﺰ ﻏﻨﻔﺎرﻳﺔ ذات زاوﻳﺔ ﺧﺎرﺟﻴﺔ‬:(٣) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢
‫א‬E٤F‫א‬

45‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K٩٠،٦٠،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤F‫א‬

- ٩٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 U
 ‫א‬‫א‬ J١
،E٥F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K JU– -

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬ -

 

‫א‬WE٥F‫א‬

 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢
‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬١٦ J٨‫א‬

 KE J٦F‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KE J٦F‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬U

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٦F‫א‬

- ٩٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬T

‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬WE٧F‫א‬

،‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،H.S.S.‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬–
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬–

 KE،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
- ٩٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫= دورة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬

π

١٠٠٠×‫ﺳﺮﻋﻪ اﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬
× ‫ﻗﻄﺮ اﻟﺴﻜﻴﻦ‬

 

 Z‫א‬‫א‬
 

 ١٠٠٠C  Z
 C
 

π

 W‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z

 E‫א‬F‫א‬Z

 KEF‫א‬Z

 K٣{١٤Zπ

E١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬WE١F‫א‬
‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

٣٥٠


 H.S.S.
١٢٠ J٩٠

٢٥٠–٢٠٠

٨٠–٥٠



٨٠ J٥٠

٢٠ J١٥



٣٠٠–١٠٠

٦٠–٤٠



٦٠ J٥٠

١٥–١٢



١٥٠–١٠٠

٣٥ J٢٥



 ٢٠٠–١٠٠

 ٥٠–٣٥



 ‫א‬
 

- ٩٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 WE١F

‫א‬T‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ETF‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،٤٥E١٢F

 W‫א‬

١٠٠٠× ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬

 Z‫א‬‫א‬

π × ‫ﻗﻄﺮ اﻟﺴﻜﻴﻦ‬

 

١٠٠٠× ‫س ع‬

 LZ π × ‫ق‬

 Z
 

 L١٠٠ZEF‫א‬‫א‬

١٠٠٠×١٠٠
L ٧٠٧Z ٣٫١٤×٤٥

 

 Z
 

 WE٢F

H.S.S١٢‫א‬ JV–‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،L١٥‫א‬‫א‬
 

 ١٠٠٠C‫א‬
π × ‫ﻗﻄﺮ اﻟﺴﻜﻴﻦ‬

 W‫א‬

 Z‫א‬‫א‬

١٠٠٠× ‫س ع‬

 LZπC

 ١٠٠٠C١٥
 ٣٩٨Z

 ٣{١٤C١٢

 

Z
 

 Z
 

 KL٤٠٠Z
 

 
 
 
- ٩٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 WE٣F

٨٠ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L٦٠‫א‬‫א‬

 

١٠٠٠C‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 Z‫א‬‫א‬

π C ‫א‬
 
١٠٠٠C
 LZ
Z
πC
 

١٠٠٠×٦٠
 L٢٣٨Z
٣٫١٤× ٨٠  Z

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 L‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬W‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ٠{٠٥
 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬E٢F‫א‬،‫א‬٠{٠٠٢

 K‫א‬

- ١٠٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ELF‫א‬‫א‬WE٢F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ٠{٢ J٠{٠٥

 ٠{١ J٠{٠٥

‫א‬

L‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 T‫א‬

 ٠{١ J٠{٠٥

 ‫א‬

 ٠{٢ J٠{٠٧

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٠{٢ J٠{٠٧

‫א‬‫א‬

 ٠{٠٨ J٠{٠٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 T‫א‬

 ٠{٠٧ J٠{٠٣

 ‫א‬

 ٠{١٥ J٠{٠٥

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٠{١٥ J٠{٠٥
٠{٠٨ J٠{٠٣

  HKSKS

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٠{٢ J٠{٠٥

 ٠{٠٦ J٠{٠٣

 



 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬–

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬–

EF‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬C‫א‬Z‫א‬

 LZCC١Z

- ١٠١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W 

 Z‫א‬ J

 ١W‫א‬ J

 W‫א‬ J
 


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

 WE٤F

 

–‫א‬ JT–‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬،٨K٦‫א‬‫א‬ JT
 W‫א‬

١٠٠٠× ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬

π × ‫ﻗﻄﺮ اﻟﺴﻜﻴﻦ‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 Z‫א‬‫א‬

١٠٠٠× ‫س ع‬

 LZπ × ‫ ق‬

 

Z

 ZEF‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬LK٢–١٥

١٠٠٠× ٢٠
L١٠٦Z٣٫١٤×٦٠

 

 Z
 

 Z‫א‬E٢F‫א‬

 ٠{١ J٠{٠٥

 CC١Z‫א‬

 L٤٢{٤Z١٠٦C٨C٠{٠٥KZ
 

 

- ١٠٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 WE٥F

‫א‬ JV–L١٠٠ ‫א‬

، ٠{٠٥‫א‬١٤ ٨٠‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 

 W‫א‬

١٠٠٠× ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬

π × ‫ﻗﻄﺮ اﻟﺴﻜﻴﻦ‬

 Z‫א‬‫א‬
١٠٠٠× ‫س ع‬

π × ‫ق‬
 LZ

 
 Z

١٠٠٠× ١٠٠
٣٫١٤×٨٠
L٣٩٨Z

 
 Z

 CC١Z‫א‬

 L٢٧٨{٦Z٣٩٨C١٤C٠{٠٥Z
 

 WE٦F

L٢٢٠١٤‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،L٠{٠٣
 

 W‫א‬

 CC١Z‫א‬

 ٢٢٠C١٤C٠{٠٣Z

 L٩٢{٤Z
 
 
 
 
- ١٠٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

  JV–

‫א‬ JV–

E‫א‬‫א‬F

E J٨F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 J٨F ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 

 KE J٨F‫א‬،

 

 

 

VWE٨F‫א‬

  

 V‫א‬ J١
‫א‬ V‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬،
 ‫א‬

،E٩٠،٦٠،45F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

VWE٩F‫א‬


 ٩٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٩F‫א‬١٨‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E٩٠F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬١٨
 

- ١٠٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

  JV–‫א‬ J٢
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ JV–‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬–

‫א‬‫א‬WE١٠F‫א‬

 E١٠F‫א‬،‫א‬
  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–

‫א‬‫א‬–

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،E١١F‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬WE١١F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬
‫א‬ JU–‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬ –
 K‫א‬‫א‬

E١F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ J
E٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E J١٢F

٣٦٠ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE J١٢F‫א‬

 WE١٢F‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

- ١٠٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 

‫א‬‫א‬WE١٣F‫א‬

E١٣F‫א‬
 

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  J
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K E١٤F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 

‫ﻓﺘﺢ اﻟﺠﺰء اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺮى‬: (١٤) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

  JV J
 WE١٥Z٣F‫א‬

،
 E K١٠ZF  ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬E١٥F‫א‬

F‫א‬‫א‬ EF

WE١٥F‫א‬V

٣‫א‬‫א‬KE٣٩١Z
 W‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٠٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 EHF JZ٣
 W

 E‫א‬‫א‬FZ

 ٤٥

 ٢C١Z١٠Z

 ٠{٥

 ١٤{١Z

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 E١٠H١٤{١٠KF J٣٩{١Z٣
 ٢٤{١–٣٩{١Z
 ١٥Z

 K‫א‬V‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  JT–

٥٤ J١٠ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬
 ‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬
١٧E١F ‫א‬

،٤٠–٧٥E١F٨٣–

 ‫א‬٥١ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K١٤ J٦‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

،15o ‫א‬‫א‬

 KE١٦F‫א‬

TWE١٦F‫א‬
- ١٠٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

  JT J‫א‬
T‫א‬
،E١F‫א‬‫א‬E٢،١F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

E١٧F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 KT

TWE١٧F‫א‬

 

 
 T‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬T
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 U‫א‬ J١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٨F‫א‬،

 

 JU–WE١٨F‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢
،T‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٩F‫א‬

 
 
 

T ‫ ﻣﺠﺮى ﺣﺮف‬:(١٩) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 

 

 

- ١٠٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

  JT–
‫א‬ JT–‫א‬

‫א‬E،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٢٠F
 

 

 

–T-WE٢٠F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢١F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢١F‫א‬

 E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،٩٠ ٦٠ ٤٥‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٢F‫א‬

‫א‬١٥‫א‬
 ٦٠
 ‫א‬‫א‬
،  ٦٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E٢٢F‫א‬،١٥‫א‬

 K‫א‬

- ١٠٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K٦٠‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KE٢٣F‫א‬،٢٠‫א‬‫א‬ J
 

 

‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٣F‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 
 
 U
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W

 ٢٢–
 E٢٤F‫א‬،

 

 

WE٢٤F‫א‬

 
 

 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE٢٥F‫א‬
 

‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٥F‫א‬

 

 

 
 

- ١١٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
 KE٢٦F‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٦F‫א‬

 

 
 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ J
 KE٢٧F‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 

UWE٢٧F‫א‬

 
 

- ١١١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬
٦٠ ‫א‬–
 KE٢٨F‫א‬،٢٠‫א‬

 
 
 

 
 

‫( ﺳﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﺰ ﻣﺠﺮى ﻏﻨﻔﺎري‬٢٨) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–

 KE٢٩F‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KE J٢٩F

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–

‫ ﻓﺤﺺ دﻗﺔ اﻟﻘﻴﺎس‬:(٢٩) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–
 KE J٢٩F‫א‬

 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬–
 

- ١١٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬W
 W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ –
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F  ‫א‬

 KE‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬–
 K

WE٣٠F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–

 E٣٠F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–

 KE٣١F‫א‬‫א‬–

 ‫א‬WE٣١F‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

‫ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﺰ ﻣﺠﺮى ﻏﻨﻔﺎري‬:(٣٢) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

- ١١٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬–
 K
 K‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE J٣٢F‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬–
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–

 KE J٣٢F‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–
 KE٣٣F‫א‬
 
 
‫ ﻓﺤﺺ دﻗﺔ اﻟﻘﻴﺎس‬:(٣٣) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬KE٢،١F ‫א‬E٣٤F
 ‫א‬،‫א‬E٢،١F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬F
‫( آﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻗﻴﺎس أﺑﻌﺎد ﻣﺠﺮى ﻏﻨﻔﺎري‬٣٤) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ‫א‬،‫א‬

  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K

- ١١٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 E٢٥Z١F‫א‬‫א‬
KE٣٥F‫א‬E
 ١٠ZF ‫א‬ 
 KE٥٢٣F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬

 EHF–Z١W‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬‫א‬

 W
 
 

 
‫ﻧﻖ‬
E‫א‬F ٣٠ ‫ﻇﺎ‬Z

١٠
١٧٣Z٣C١٠Z١

 

Z

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٥ZE١٧٣H١٠F J٥٢٣Z١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E١F‫א‬E٣٥F‫א‬

 E٧٥Z٢F‫א‬‫א‬
،E١٠ZF‫א‬

E٣٦F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EF‫א‬‫א‬

 ،
 ‫א‬

 K٢٠٤Z

‫א‬E٢F‫א‬‫א‬

 KEHF٢HZ٢W‫א‬

E٢F‫א‬WE٣٦F‫א‬

 W

 E‫א‬‫א‬F١٧٣Z
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 E١٠H١٧٣F٢H٢٠٤Z٢

- ١١٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ٥٤٦H٢٠٤Z
 ٧٥Z

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

- ١١٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J١

 K‫א‬–٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٣

 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٤
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٦

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٧
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٨

 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٩
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٠

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١١

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٤

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ J١٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١١٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W

 W‫א‬‫א‬ J١

 K‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–
 KV J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢

 K١٦–٨ J

 K٢٦–١٨ J
 K٣٦–٢٨ J

 K٤٦–٣٨ J

 WT‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣

 K١٠ J٤ J

 K١٤–٦ J

 K٢٠–١٦ J
 K٣٠–٢٤ J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٤

 KT J

 K‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٥

 K٤٥ J

 K٥٥ J

 K٦٥ J

 K٨٥ J
- ١١٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬W

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢

 E٢٠F‫א‬ JV–‫א‬ J٣
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،LE١٥F

 LE١٠٠FE ٣٠F‫א‬‫א‬–٤

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،L٠٠٢٥

‫א‬L١٢٠ JT J‫א‬–٥

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،٨٠–T J

 JT–‫א‬ JT–‫א‬  J٦
 ٢٠٠

 ‫א‬،L٠٠٤‫א‬٨E٤٥FL
 L‫א‬

 E٤٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٧
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،L٦٥‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٨

- ١١٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬



 –V–W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ JV–
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

- ١٢٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 E١F‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬–V–W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 KV J١

 K‫א‬‫א‬V J٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٤

 KV‫א‬ J٥
 KV J٦

 K‫א‬V J٧
 

 WE،،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W 

 

 ،٤٠C٥٠C٦٠‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

E‫א‬F،‫א‬،EF،

،٦٥٠،،

‫א‬‫א‬،،٢٠٦٠٩٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬،،‫א‬

 
 

- ١٢١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١
 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢
،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E١F‫א‬

KE١F‫א‬

‫א‬ J٣
 KE٢F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

L٢٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٤
 L١٦٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

١٠٠٠× ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬
π × ‫ﻗﻄﺮ اﻟﺴﻜﻴﻦ‬ Z‫א‬‫א‬

E٢F‫א‬

 L٣٠Z‫א‬‫א‬
 L٠٠٥Z‫א‬
١٠٠٠ × ٣٠

٣٫١٤ × ٥٠

Z‫א‬‫א‬

 L١٩١Z

 L٢٠٠Z

 ‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬C‫א‬Z‫א‬

 ٢٠٠C١٦C٠٠٥Z
 L١٦٠Z

 K‫א‬  J٥


- ١٢٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J٦

E٣F‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 
 

E٣F‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J٧

 E٤F‫א‬،‫א‬
  J٨
 

 
 
 

E٤F‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬ J٩

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٥F‫א‬،‫א‬

E٥F‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J١٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١١
 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٢

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J١٣

E٦F‫א‬

 ٦٠٩٠‫א‬

KE٦F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
- ١٢٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬ J١٤

‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 KE٧F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 

L١٦٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٥
 L٢٢٤

 W‫א‬‫א‬
١٠٠٠× ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬

(٧) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 Z‫א‬‫א‬
π × ‫ﻗﻄﺮ اﻟﺴﻜﻴﻦ‬
 
 L٣٠Z‫א‬‫א‬

 L٠٠٧Z‫א‬
 ٢٠Z‫א‬

 ٦٠Z‫א‬

١٠٠٠ × ٣٠
٣٫١٤ × ٦٠

 Z‫א‬‫א‬

 

 L١٥٩Z

 L١٦٠Z

C‫א‬C‫א‬Z‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٦٠C٢٠C٠{٠٧Z

 K٢٢٤Z

(٨) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J١٦

 E٨F‫א‬‫א‬ J١٧
 K١٥‫א‬‫א‬ J١٨

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٩

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢٠
K
 ‫א‬ J٢١

- ١٢٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 K‫א‬ ،V‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢٢
 V‫א‬ J٢٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬،E٩F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢٤

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢٥

(٩) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

 KE‫א‬F‫א‬
 
 
 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢٦
 ،٦‫א‬٥٠‫א‬W‫א‬

 KE١٠F‫א‬
 

(١٠) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 
 
 
 

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J٢٧

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J٢٨

 E١١F‫א‬،V
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W

 V

(١١) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٢٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢٩
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J٣٠

 E١٢F‫א‬‫א‬ J٣١
 
 

 ٢٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣٢
(١٢) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 K١٦٠‫א‬L

  J٣٣

 KV

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣٤

  ‫א‬‫א‬ J٣٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣٦
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣٧
 K‫א‬‫א‬

E١٣F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣٨

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣٩

 KE١٣F‫א‬،
 ١٦‫א‬

 
 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٤٠

 K١٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٤١
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٤

E١٤F‫א‬

 KE١٤F‫א‬

- ١٢٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 E٢F‫א‬
 E٣FW‫א‬‫א‬





–T–W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ JT–
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

- ١٢٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬
 ٣W‫א‬‫א‬





 TW‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K  J١
 K‫א‬ J٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٤

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٦
 KT‫א‬–٧

 

 WE،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W
 

‫א‬،،٥٠C٢٠C٣٠،
 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

،،،‫א‬E
 ،F،

،١٠‫א‬٥‫א‬٢٠T،١٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
 

 

- ١٢٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢
E١F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  E١F‫א‬

 
 

E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣

 KE٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٢
 

E٢F‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٤
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٣F‫א‬

 L٦٦٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٥
 KL٦٦

 

 
 

E٣F‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 L٢٥Z‫א‬‫א‬
 L٠٠٥Z‫א‬

 
- ١٢٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ٢Z‫א‬

 ١٢Z‫א‬

 ١٠٠٠C‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬

 πC‫א‬
 

 ١٠٠٠C٢٥Z
 ٣١٤C١٢

 L٦٦٠Z

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬C‫א‬Z
 ٦٦٠C٢C٠٠٥Z

E٤F‫א‬

 L٦٦Z

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٦

 ،
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٤F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٧
 K‫א‬

 KE٥F‫א‬،‫א‬
  J٨
 
 
 

E٥F‫א‬

 

 K٧٥‫א‬‫א‬ J٩

 
 
 

- ١٣٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J١٠
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J١١

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٢
E٦F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٦F‫א‬،‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٣
 ‫א‬٧{٥

 K١٥
 

 ‫א‬ J١٤
 KE٧F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

E٧F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٥

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٦

 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬T‫א‬ J١٧
 ‫א‬٢٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬١٠،٥
E٨F‫א‬

 KE٨F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J١٨
 ‫א‬‫א‬ J١٩

 E٩F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬

 KT‫א‬

- ١٣١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢٠
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J٢١

 E١٠F‫א‬،‫א‬
  J٢٢

 ٤٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢٣

 ،L١٢٠

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 L٢٥Z‫א‬‫א‬

 L٠٠٥Z‫א‬

 ٦Z‫א‬

E١٠F‫א‬

١٠٠٠× ‫ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬

π × ‫ﻗﻄﺮ اﻟﺴﻜﻴﻦ‬

٢٠Z‫א‬

١٠٠٠×٢٥
٣٫١٤×٢٠

 Z‫א‬‫א‬
 Z



 

 L٤٠٠Z٣٩٨Z

 ‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬C‫א‬Z‫א‬
 ٤٠٠C٦C٠٠٥Z
 L١٢٠Z

 T‫א‬ J٢٤
 K١٥‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢٥
 K ‫א‬‫א‬  J٢٦

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢٧
 ‫א‬T‫א‬ J٢٨
 KE١١F‫א‬

E١١F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢٩

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬T

- ١٣٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣٠
 E٣F‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬







 



–‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

- ١٣٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 E٣F‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬









‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬ J١

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬–٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٤

 K‫א‬‫א‬–٥

 K‫א‬–٦

 K‫א‬–٧
 

 WE،،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W 
 

،٥٠C٣٠C٤٠‫א‬‫א‬،
 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

H.S.S.،‫א‬E
 ،F،

‫א‬٣٠‫א‬H.S.S.‫א‬١٤

،،
 ،٦٠‫א‬‫א‬١٤ ‫א‬١٥

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

 

 

 
 
 

 
 
 
- ١٣٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١
 

 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١F‫א‬

(١) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 
 
 

 E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣

 KE٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٤
 
 
 
 
 

(٢) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٤
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٣F‫א‬

 
 

(٣) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 
- ١٣٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 
 ٤٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٥
 KL٤٠L
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 L٢٥Z‫א‬‫א‬

 L٠{٠٥Z‫א‬

 ٢Z‫א‬

 ٢٠Z‫א‬
١٠٠٠× ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬
π × ‫ﻗﻄﺮ اﻟﺴﻜﻴﻦ‬
 Z‫א‬‫א‬
١٠٠٠×٢٥
٣٫١٤×٢٠

 

 Z

 

 L٤٠٠Z٣٩٨Z

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬C‫א‬Z
 ٤٠٠C٢C٠٠٥Z

 L٤٠Z

(٤) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٦
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٤F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٧
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 E٥F‫א‬‫א‬
  J٨
 

(٥) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 K٧٥‫א‬‫א‬ J٩

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J١٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ١٣٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J١١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٢

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
 KE٦F‫א‬
 
 
 

(٦) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬ J١٣

‫א‬١٥‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J١٤
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J١٥

‫א‬‫א‬ J١٦
(٧) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 KEF

 ‫א‬ J١٧
 ‫א‬٦٠‫א‬١٥C٣٠
 KE٧F‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J١٨
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٩
 E٨F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W

(٨) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬
 
 

- ١٣٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KE٩F‫א‬‫א‬
  J

 

 ٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-

 KL١٠٦L
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 ٨Z‫א‬

(٩) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ٣٠Z‫א‬

١٠٠٠× ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬

π × ‫ ﻗﻄﺮ اﻟﺴﻜﻴﻦ‬ Z‫א‬‫א‬
 
١٠٠٠×٢٥
٣٫١٤×٣٠

 Z

 L٢٦٥Z

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬C‫א‬Z
 ٢٦٥C٨C٠٠٥Z
 L١٠٦Z

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K١٥‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬ J

 KE١٠F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

(١٠) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٣٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬–T––V-‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٦W‫א‬

 KE٥٠C٥٠C٥٠F‫א‬
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
- ١٣٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٤٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٤

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

 
 

 KE٧٠F

- ١٤١ -

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ،

 KE٢F‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬
 

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WE١F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١
 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ J٢
 K


  ‫א‬‫א‬ J٣

 

 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬WE٢F‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٤
‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٣F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 WE٣F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E٤F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٤F‫א‬

 
- ١٤٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬WE١F‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫ א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫ א‬ ٥

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١

 

 ‫א‬  ٦

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ ٢

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ ٧

 ١

 ‫א‬‫ א‬ ٣

 

 ‫א‬  ٨

 

 ‫א‬‫ א‬ ٤

 ١

 ٢

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢ J١

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬١ J٢ J١

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،EF
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫اﻟﺨﻄﻮﻩ اﻟﺪاﺋﺮﻳﺔ × ﻋﺪداﻷﺳﻨﺎن‬
٣٫١٤

=

‫اﻟﺨﻄﻮﻩ اﻟﺪاﺋﺮﻳﺔ × ﻋﺪداﻷﺳﻨﺎن‬
π

 

 Z‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ٣{١٤ZE‫א‬‫א‬Fπ
 

 EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 KE٥F‫א‬،‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٥F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ١٤٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 EF‫א‬
 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WE٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬


Z



‫ﻋﺪد اﻷﺳﻨﺎن‬
‫ي‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٦F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


Z


 ‫ اﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ‬
٣٫١٤

 

 

Z‫א‬
Z

 

 

‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬
K ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E٢F‫א‬
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
- ١٤٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢F‫א‬
‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬

EF‫א‬

 EF‫א‬

 EF‫א‬

 E٢F

 E١F

 ٠{٢٣٣

 ٠{٢

 ٠{٤٣٣

 ٠{٦٢٨

 ٠{٢

 ٠{٢٩٢

 ٠{٢٥

 ٠{٥٤٢

 ٠{٧٨٥

 ٠{٢٥

 ٠{٣٥٠

 ٠{٣

 ٠{٦٥٠

 ٠{٩٤٣

 ٠{٣

 ٠{٤٦٧

 ٠{٤

 ٠{٨٦٧

 ١{٢٥٧

 ٠{٤

 ٠{٥٨٣

 ٠{٥

 ١{٠٨٣

 ١{٥٧١

 ٠{٥

 ٠{٧

 ٠{٦

 ١{٣

 ١{٨٨٥

 ٠{٦

 ٠{٨١٧

 ٠{٧

 ١{٥١٧

 ٢{١٩٩

 ٠{٧

 ٠{٩٣٣

 ٠{٨

 ١{٧٣٣

 ٢{٥١٣

 ٠{٨

 ١{٠٥٠

 ٩KK

 K١{٩٥

 ٢{٨٢٧

 ٠{٩

 ١{١٦٧

 ١

 ٢{١٦٧

 ٣{١٤٢

 ١

 ١{٤٥٨

 ١{٢٥

 ٢{٧{٨

 ٣{٩٢٧

 ١{٢٥

 ١{٧٥٠

 ١{٥

 K٣{٢٥

 ٤{٧١٢

 ١{٥

 ٢{٠٤٢

 ١{٧٥

 ٣{٧٩٢

 ٥{٤٩٨

 ١{٧٥

 ٢{٣٣٣

 ٢

 ٤{٣٣٣

 ٦{٢٨٣

 ٢

 ٢{٦٢٥

 ٢{٢٥

 ٤{٨٧٥

 ٦٧KK٧

 ٢{٢٥

 ٢{٩١٧

 ٢{٥

 ٥{٤١٧

 ٧{٨٥٤

 ٢{٥

 ٣{٢{٨

 ٢{٧٥

 ٥{٩٥٨

 ٨{٦٣٩

 ٢{٧٥

 ٣{٥

 ٣

 ٦{٥

 ٩{٤٢٥

 ٣

 ٤{٠٨٣

 ٣{٥

 ٧{٥٨٣

 ١٠{٩٩٦

 ٣{٥

 ٤{٦٦٦

 ٤

 ٨{٦٦٦

 ١٢{٥٦٦

 ٤

 ٥{٢٥٠

 ٤{٥

 ٩{٧٥٠

 ١٤{١٣٧

 ٤{٥

 ٥{٨٣٣

 ٥

 ١٠{٨٣٣

 ١٥{٧٠٨

 ٥

 ٧

 ٦

 ١٣

 ١٨{٨٥٠

 ٦

 

- ١٤٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 E١F‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬W ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬Z‫א‬
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٧F‫א‬

 
 E٢F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Z‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬١L٦H‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬E١L٦F

 ‫א‬WE٨F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٨F

 E١F‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢HZ١
 E٢HFZ
 
 E٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E٢{٣٣٤–FZ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٤٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 EF‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢H١Z
 ١{١٦٧HZ

 ٢{١٦٧Z

 

 EF‫א‬

‫א‬WE٩F‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
٢ J١
٣{١٤



Z

Z

Z
 
 

 EF

 

 EF‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬H‫א‬
 ٢

 KE٩F‫א‬
 Z

 E‫א‬H‫א‬F
 ٢

 

 Z
 

 ‫א‬EF‫א‬
EF‫א‬‫א‬

 KE١٠F‫א‬

 
F‫א‬WE١٠F‫א‬

 E‫א‬ J‫א‬F
٢

 E‫א‬

E‫א‬ J‫א‬F
٢

- ١٤٧ -

 

 Z
 

 Z

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١F‫א‬
 
 
 
 
 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE١١F‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٣F‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 

 ‫א‬

 C

 EF‫א‬‫א‬

 ١

 EF‫א‬

 ٢

 EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٣

 Z

 E١F‫א‬‫א‬

 ٤

 C١{١٦٧Z

 E٢F‫א‬‫א‬

 ٥

 E٢HFZC٢HZ

 E١F‫א‬‫א‬

 ٦

 C٢{٣٣٤–Z

 E٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٧

 C٢{١٦٧Z

 EF‫א‬

 ٨

 EF‫א‬

 ٩

 EF‫א‬

K١

 ٣{١٤

  ١

 ٣{١٤C١

 Z

  ٢Z

 

 Z

  ٢H

 ٢ J١

 Z

 

 ٣{١٤

 ٣{١٤C

 Z

 

 ٣{١٤C

ZCZ
 

 Z

 

 ٣{١٤C

 

 Z

 

 

 Z

 Z

 Z

 C١L٦Z

‫א‬H‫א‬F
 ٢

 
 ٢

‫א‬

Z

 ‫א‬H‫א‬
 ٢
Z

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢

Z

‫א‬

١١

 EF
 EF‫א‬

١٢

 
- ١٤٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E J١٢F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬
 KE J١٢F‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬WE١٢F‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE١٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 

 ‫א‬WE١٣F‫א‬

 

‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٤F‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬
 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE١٤F‫א‬

 
 
- ١٤٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬،E F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬ E١٥F ،E٨F
 K‫א‬
E٥F‫א‬،E٨FE٤F‫א‬
 K E١٥F‫א‬
 KE٨FWE٤F‫א‬
 E٨F
 E٩‫א‬F
 ٨

 ٧

 J١٣٥
 ‫א‬

١٣٤ J٥٥

 ٦
 J٣٥
 ٥٤

 ٥

 ٤

٣٤ J٢٦

 ٣

 J٢١
 ٢٥

K٢ J١٧

 ٢

 ١

 ‫א‬

 J١٤

 J١٢

 ‫א‬

 ١٦

 ١٣

 KK

 K E١٥FWE٥F‫א‬
  E١٥F
 E٩‫א‬F
 ٤{٥

 ٤

 ٣{٥

٢٥ J٢٣

 J٢١

K٢ J١٩

 ٣
١٨ J١٧

 ٢٢
 ٨
 J١٣٥
 ‫א‬

 ٢{٥
 J١٥

 ٢

 ١{٥

 ١

 ‫א‬

 ١٤

 ١٣

 ١٢

 KK‫א‬

 ٦

 ٥{٥

 ٥

 ‫א‬

 J٣٥

٣٤ JK٣

 J٢٦

 ١٦
 ٧{٥
 J٨١
 ١٣٤

 ٧
 K٨ J٥٥

 ٦{٥
 J٤٢
 ٥٤

 ٤١

 KK‫א‬

 ٢٩

 
- ١٥٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،٣{٥‫א‬٣٠WE١F
 K١٠٥Z٣٠C٣{٥Z‫א‬C‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬ J١

 K١١٢ZE٣{٥C٢FH١٠٥ZE‫א‬C٢FH‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬ J٢

 K١١Z٣{١٤C٣{٥Z٣{١٤C‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣

 K٧{٥٨٤Z٣{٥C٢{١٦٧Z‫א‬C٢{١٦٧Z‫א‬ J٤

١١
‫اﻟﺨﻄﻮة اﻟﺪاﺋﺮﻳﺔ‬
٢
٥{٥Z
Z ٢ 

 Z‫א‬ J٥

 K٠{٥٨٣٣٣Z٣{٥C٠{١٦٦٦٦Z‫א‬،٦L١Z‫א‬ J٦

W‫א‬










 

‫א‬‫א‬KE٢F‫א‬EK٥F‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬WE٢F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 K١٠٠Z٢C٥٠ZCZ‫א‬‫א‬  J١

 K٦{٢٨Z٣{١٤C٢Z٣{١٤CZ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J٢

 K١٠٤ZE٢C٢FH١٠٠ZEC٢FHZ١‫א‬‫ א‬ J٣

 K٩٥{٣٣٢ZE٢C٢{٣٣٤F J١٠٠ZEC٢{٣٣٤F–Z٢‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J٤
 K٢ZZ١‫א‬‫ א‬ J٥

 K٢{٣٣٤Z٢C١{١٦٧ZC١{١٦٧Z٢‫א‬‫ א‬ J٦

 K٤{٣٣٤Z٢C٢{١٦٧ZC٢{١٦٧Z‫א‬  J٧

E٣F‫א‬E٦F‫א‬E٢FE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J٨
 K E٥٠F‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٥١ -

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬
 
، EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬،E٤٠F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E ٤٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬٤٠

‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K ١٦،١٧،١٨،١٩،٢،١٥E١F

 K ٣٩،٤١،٤٣،٤٧،٤٩،٣٧E٣F

 K ٢١،٢٣،٢٧،٢٩،٣١،٣٣E٢F

 W

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K ٣٤،٣٧،٣٨،٣٩،٤١،٤٢،٤٣،K٢٤،٢٥،٢٨،٣W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K ٤٧،٤٩،٥١،٥٣،٥٤،٥٧،٥٨،٥٩،٦٢،٦٦،٤٦W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 W

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

- ١٥٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬E١٥F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬
 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE١٥F‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،E١٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٢٤‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 W٢٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE١٦F‫א‬

 ‫א‬

- ١٥٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 KE K٦FE ٤٢FE ١٦F‫א‬،E٢٤١٢٨٦٤٣٢F
٦‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬W
 K ٢٤‫א‬‫א‬

 ٤Z

24
Z‫א‬W‫א‬
6

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٤Z‫א‬
 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٤٠

‫ﻋﺪد اﻷﻗﺴﺎم اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬

 

 Z‫א‬

 

 ٤٠‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬،E٤٠L١F‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،٤٠‫א‬

- ١٥٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

E١٠F ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬WE١F
 W

40
 ٤Z
10 Z‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
 KE٤‫א‬‫א‬F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،EF
 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ EF
 K ١٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢F
 2

10 40
=
= ‫א‬W‫א‬
15 15

E٢L٣FE١٠L١٥F‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬E٢L٣F،E٢L٣F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،E٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 KE١٥F

‫א‬‫א‬E١٠L١٥FE٥F‫א‬E٢L٣F‫א‬‫א‬

10
2
2
2
 
3  15 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬ ١٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،E١٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬WE١٧F‫א‬
 K
E١٨F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١٠‫א‬‫א‬
،١٥‫א‬‫א‬،
E١٠FE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 
 
 ‫א‬WE١٨F‫א‬
 
- ١٥٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،E١٩F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE١٩F‫א‬

 K‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬E٣٦٠F‫א‬
 KE٤٠F‫א‬

 

٣٦٠
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
 K٩Z
Z
٤٠

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

‫א‬‫א‬
 Z‫א‬
٩

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ WE١F

 K٥٣٦

٣٦
 K‫א‬‫א‬٤Z٩Z‫א‬W‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬WE٢F
 WE٣٠١٢F١٢٣٠،

 ٦٠‫א‬

  1 7

18

 

=1

21 75 750 30 + (60 *12)
‫א‬W‫א‬
=
=
=
54 54 540
60 * 9

 

 K ١٨‫א‬٧‫א‬

 
 
- ١٥٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
E٢٠F‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٠F‫א‬

EF‫א‬EF‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K ‫א‬‫א‬
 KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬EF

،EF‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬،E٢٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬،EF‫א‬

 ٥٣‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١F
 K 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬

 
 ٤٠
 KE‫א‬FZZ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
٥٣
 
 ٤٠

،٥٣‫א‬٤٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

- ١٥٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K ٥٤Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
٤٠
  20 = 40 = 
Z‫א‬
27

54

‫ﻋﺪد اﻷﺟﺰاء اﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺔ‬

 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 E٤٤،٤٨،٥٦،٦٤،٧٢،٨٦،١٠٠،٢٤،٢٨،٣٢،٣٦،٤٠،٢٠F
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٢١F‫א‬

EF‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٢١F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E٢٠F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬E٥٣F‫א‬E٥٤F E٢٧F‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬
٤٠
١ 
 KE JF
‫ أ‬ZZ

 K‫א‬W

٢‫ي‬

W

 K‫א‬‫א‬W١

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W

 K‫א‬‫א‬W٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬W

- ١٥٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  20 = 40 = (53 − 54) 40 = 1‫ي‬
27

54

54

2‫ي‬

=‫س‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، 20 ‫א‬‫א‬

27
20
‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
27

 W

  40 * 32 = 8 * 5 * 8 * 4 = 5 * 4 = 20
24 * 72

8*3 8*9

3 9

27

 K‫א‬٤٠،٣٢‫א‬

 K‫א‬٢٤،٧٢‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EHFEF‫א‬‫א‬  J

‫א‬
  ‫א‬E JFEF‫א‬‫א‬  J

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬EF ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬



 

- ١٥٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬EF

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٢F‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬F
 KE٢٢F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 

 WE٢٣F‫א‬

EF
 KE٢٣F‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٢
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٤F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
E‫א‬F
 KE٢٤F‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬EF
 KE٢٥F‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٥F‫א‬
- ١٦٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬E٢٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٦F‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

- ١٦١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢F

 K E١٢٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١٢٣F‫א‬
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
 

٤٠
5 1 40
‫اﻟﻔﺮﺿﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺪداﻷﻗﺴﺎم‬
‫א‬
 = =
= 
15 3 120

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
 ‫א‬
 ٤٠
 KEFZ


‫أﺳﻨﺎن اﻟﺘﺮوس اﻟﻤﻨﻘﺎدة‬
‫ ﻋﺪد‬Z
‫أ‬
  1− = (3−) * 1 = (123 − 120)
3

 

40
120

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E JF
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 


‫א‬‫א‬
Z
  24 = 1− = ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻘﺎدة‬
‫اﻟﺘﺮوس‬
24

 

  1 ‫א‬‫א‬٢٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
1

 K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٢٣F
 K‫א‬‫א‬E١٥F‫א‬E٥F‫א‬‫א‬

 

- ١٦٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 
WE٢٧F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E٢٧F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٨F‫א‬
 K‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K J







 K‫א‬ J





 KE‫א‬F J

 K E٤٠F J

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J K‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬ J
 

 

 
 
 
 
 

 
‫ א‬  ‫א‬ W E٢٨F ‫א‬

 
 

 
- ١٦٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J٤
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬EF

 KE٢٩F‫א‬
 

‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٩F‫א‬

 
 
 

‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬E٣٠F‫א‬‫א‬

 
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

WE٣٠F‫א‬
 

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

- ١٦٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬E٣١F
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ WE٣١F ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫ א‬ J١
 KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬C٣{١٤Z

 KE١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J٣
 K‫א‬C١Z

 KE٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J٤
 K‫א‬C١{٢Z

 KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J٥
 K‫א‬C٢{٢Z

  K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٦
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 W

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J
 KE٣٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J

- ١٦٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

 KE٣٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٣٢F‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

KE٥FE٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E٨F‫א‬‫א‬،
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J١

  K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J٤

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٦

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J٧
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٦٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 KE٣٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٣٣F‫א‬

 

،E٤F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E 3 ، 1 ، 1 F
4

2

4

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬E٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 

- ١٦٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ = ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  3.14 *1 = 3.14 * ‫اﻟﻤﻮدﻳﻮل‬
5

 

‫ﺧﻄﻮةاﻟﻌﻤﻮد‬

  3.1416666 = 13 * 29 = 377 ٣{١٤‫א‬‫א‬
3 * 40

120

 
 

13 * 29
*1
26 * 29 2 * 13 29 13 * 29
13 * 29
3
*
40

=
=
=
=
= ‫א‬
*
5
30 * 40 2 *15 40 15 * 40 5 * 3 * 40

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

- ١٦٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 KE٣٤F‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 ‫א‬WE٣٤F‫א‬

 
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E ٢٦F‫א‬

 W‫א‬E ٤٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ 754 = 26 * 29 
600



30 40
377
،E٢F‫א‬ ‫ ﻣﻢ‬3‫ ز‬24166 = 5 * ‫א‬‫א‬
600

 KE٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E٠{٧٥F،E٠{٥F،E٠{٢٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬٣‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،E٣L٤F،E١L٢F،E١L٤F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E K30٢٦،K40،٢٩FWE٥F

 K‫א‬
 

- ١٦٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٥
 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J١

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٢

 K‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٤

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  J٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K  J٦

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٧

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٨
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٩
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J١٠

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J١١

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  J١٢
 

- ١٧٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 LKK١٥‫א‬٢٥ J١
 W‫א‬‫א‬٥٠

 KL٤٥٠ J١

 KL٧٥٠ J٢ 

 KL١٢٠٠ J٣ 

 KL١٥٠٠ J٤ 
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢
 K‫א‬  J١

 K‫א‬‫א‬  J٢
 K  J٣
 K  J٤

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬  J١

 K‫א‬‫א‬  J٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J٣
 K‫א‬  J٤

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٤
  ١  J ١
 ٢  J٢

  ٦   J ٣
  ٨   J ٤

- ١٧١ -

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬١٢٠‫א‬٣{٥ J٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K١

 J١

 K٣

 J٢

 K٨

 J٤

 K٣{٥

 J٣
 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٤

‫א‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  J٥

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬

E١٠٠F‫א‬‫א‬E٢FE٥٠F‫א‬ J٦
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE٢٠F‫א‬

،E٢٠٠F‫א‬‫א‬،E٤٠F‫א‬‫א‬  J٧

 KE٢٥F

 K‫א‬E٦F،EK٤F J٨

‫א‬،E٣٠٠F‫א‬‫א‬،E٨٣F
 ‫א‬ J٩
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٥F

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 

 K‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬K

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 
 
 

- ١٧٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 E١F‫א‬
 ٦ W‫א‬‫א‬

 
 

W‫א‬‫א‬

 
‫ﻣﻢ ﺣﺴﺐ اﻷﺑﻌﺎد ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮﺳﻢ‬٦٧٫٥ ‫وﻗﻄﺮﻩ اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻲ‬
  ‫ﻣﻢ‬٢٫٥ ‫ ﺳﻨًﺎ وﻣﻮدوﻟﻪ‬٢٥ ‫اﻗﻄﻊ ﺗﺮس ﻋﺪل ﻋﺪد أﺳﻨﺎﻧﻪ‬:‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب‬
.‫اﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬي‬

 
 
 

 


 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
- ١٧٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 E١F‫א‬
 ٦W‫א‬‫א‬

 

W‫א‬‫א‬

 
 

W ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬W 
  W‫א‬‫א‬

 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 J١

 K‫א‬ J٢

 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣

 
 K‫א‬ J٤

 
 WE،،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W 
 
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬،‫א‬
 
 K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١  

(١) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

٢{٥E٤F J٢ 
‫א‬E٥،٤F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣
‫א‬‫א‬ 
 KE١F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٤
E٢F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬
- ١٧٤ -




 
 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 
 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٥

.(٣) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

E٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 W
 
 
 
  1 15 = 40 = ‫א‬‫א‬
25 25
 
 
 
  1 3 = ‫א‬
5

 
  1 12 = ‫א‬٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
20

.(٤) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

‫א‬L١٥٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٦

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٧
 
 KE٤F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٨
 KE٥{٤٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٩

.(٥) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

 K‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 KE٥F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٠
 
 K‫א‬

.(٦) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

‫א‬ J١١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 KE٦F
- ١٧٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 
 E٢F‫א‬
 ٦ W ‫א‬‫א‬

 

W‫א‬‫א‬

 
 

 K‫ ﻣﻢ ﺣﺴﺐ اﻷﺑﻌﺎد ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮﺳﻢ اﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬي‬١٨٣ ‫ ﻣﻢ وﻗﻄﺮﻩ اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻲ‬٣ ‫ ﺳﻨًﺎ وﻣﻮدوﻟﻪ‬٥٩ ‫اﻗﻄﻊ ﺗﺮس ﻋﺪل ﻋﺪد أﺳﻨﺎﻧﻪ‬

 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
- ١٧٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 
 E٢F‫א‬
 ٦W ‫א‬‫א‬

 

W‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 J١

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣

 

 K‫א‬ J٤

 WE،،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W 
 
، ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
 
  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١  
 KE١F‫א‬

E٣F‫א‬ J٢
 K‫א‬

(١) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

 J٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

 
 
 
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٤ 
 KE٢F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٥

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٧٧ -




‫‪ ‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬

‫א‪‬א‪‬א‪ ‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬

‫א‪ ‬‬

‫‪‬א‪‬א‪ ‬‬

‫‪W‬א‪‬א‪،‬א‪‬א‪،‬א‪ W‬‬
‫‪ - ٦ ‬اﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﻜﻴﻦ اﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﻓﻮق ﻣﺤﻮر ﻗﻄﻌﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ آﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪.(٣‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬

‫‪ -٧‬ﺿﻊ اﻟﺴﻜﻴﻦ ﻓﻮق ﻗﻄﻌﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ واﻟﺴﻜﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎل اﻟﺪوران آﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫‪  ‬اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪.(٤‬‬
‫‪ -٨‬اﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻴﻜﺮوﻣﺘﺮ اﻟﺮآﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺼﻔﺮ‪.‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬

‫‪ -٩ ‬ارﺟﻊ ﻃﺎوﻟﺔ ﺁﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﺰ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺨﻠﻒ آﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪(٣‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ -١٠‬اﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﺪوران ‪ ١٥٠‬د‪/‬د وﻃﻮل اﻟﺸﻮط‬
‫آﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪.(٦‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬

‫‪ -١١‬اﺿﺒﻂ ﻋﻤﻖ اﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﺑﺮﻓﻊ اﻟﺮآﺒﺔ ﻣﻘﺪار اﻟﻌﻤﻖ )‪(٦٫٥‬ﻣﻢ‪.‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬

‫‪ -١٢‬اﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻘﺪار ﺣﺮآﺔ ﻳﺪ اﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ وﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ اﻟﺘﺮوس اﻟﻔﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬
‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ اﻵﺗﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬

‫=‬

‫)أ ‪ -‬ي(‬

‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪(٤‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬

‫א‪‬א‪ ‬‬
‫اﻟﺘﺮوس اﻟﻤﻨﻘﺎدة‬

‫‪٤٠‬‬
‫أ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪(٥‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪- ١٧٨ -‬‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W
 
 ٦٠Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٣
 
 ٢L٣Z٤٠L٦٠Z‫א‬
 K١٥‫א‬١٠ 
 40 Z‫א‬‫א‬ 
60

 

(٧) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

16 × 2
ZE٥٩
16 × 2

J٦٠F  
  

 Z 32 Z٢L٣Z 
48

(٨) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

‫א‬E٤٨F‫א‬E٣٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬
 
 KE٧F‫א‬
 KE٨F‫א‬‫א‬ J١٤ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٥
(٩) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

(١٠) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬  
 KE٩F  
  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٦
 
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 
 KE١٠F
 
 
- ١٧٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 E٣F‫א‬
 ٦W ‫א‬‫א‬

 
 

W‫א‬‫א‬

 
 W‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K٢٠٠C٢٠C٢٠‫א‬‫א‬
 




 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
- ١٨٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 E٣F‫א‬
 ٦W‫א‬‫א‬

 

W‫א‬‫א‬

 
 

W ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬W 
  W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 J١
 

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J٢

 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣

   K‫א‬‫א‬ J٤

   WE،،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W 

،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 
 K٢٠٠ C٢٠ C٢٠ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W
‫א‬ J١  
 KE١F‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 
 
 
 
 

(١) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

 

- ١٨١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢ 
 K١٠٠C٢٠C٢٠
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣ 
Indexing head for gear rack
 E٢F‫א‬ 

.(٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

‫א‬E٢F‫א‬ J٤ 
 KE٨F 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٥ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬C٣{١٤Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

 K٣{٢٨Z٢C٣{١٤Z
 

.(٣) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

E٢٦،٣٠،٢٩،٦٠F‫א‬‫א‬ J٦ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 KE٣F‫א‬ 
 KL١٥٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٧
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٨ 
 K٢‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٩ 
 K‫א‬ 
 
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J١٠
 
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J١١

.(٤) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٢

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٣
 KE٤F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J١٤
 

- ١٨٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 
٨  ‫א‬

 ١٠٠ ‫א‬

 E١F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

 

 
٢‫א‬٢٠  ١
 
 K٤٤‫א‬
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 
 
 

- ١٨٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٥

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 ،‫א‬
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
 

 KE٣٥F

 

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
- ١٨٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

‫א‬،

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫أﺷﻜﺎل أﺳﻨﺎن اﻟﺘﺮوس‬: (١)‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

، ٩٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 J١F‫א‬
 ‫א‬

E J١F‫א‬،E
‫א‬‫א‬

 ،Emiter gearsF‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬

 KEcaronaF‫א‬EpinionF
 

‫ﺗﺮوس ﻣﺨﺮوﻃﻴﺔ اﻟﺰاوﻳﺔ‬: (٢) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
90ْ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺤﻮرﻳﻬﺎ‬

 

90‫א‬‫א‬
  E٢F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
 K

 

90‫א‬‫א‬
 E٣F‫א‬

‫ﺗﺮوس ﻣﺨﺮوﻃﻴﺔ اﻟﺰاوﻳﺔ‬: (٣)‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
90ْ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬

‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K

 

EF‫א‬‫א‬
 E٤F‫א‬
 E90
 F
 
 

‫ ﺗﺮوس ﻣﺨﺮوﻃﻴﺔ اﻟﺰاوﻳﺔ‬:(٤) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
90ْ > ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬
- ١٨٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬E٥F‫א‬
 E90
 F

 
 
 
 

‫ ﺗﺮوس ﻣﺨﺮوﻃﻴﺔ اﻟﺰاوﻳﺔ‬:(٥) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
90ْ< ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E٦F‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 

 
‫א‬WE٦F‫א‬

- ١٨٦ -

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ pinion
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧F‫א‬

 ٠pinion‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،carona
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٧F‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬W

 ‫א‬‫א‬W

 ‫א‬‫א‬W

 ‫א‬W
 ‫א‬W

 ‫א‬‫א‬W

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
- ١٨٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١F
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 Z

 ‫א‬‫א‬Z

 EF‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 CZ

 ‫א‬C‫א‬Z

 EF‫א‬‫א‬

 Z

 ‫א‬‫א‬Z

 EF‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 ECF٢HZ

‫א‬C‫א‬F٢H‫א‬‫א‬Z

 EF‫א‬‫א‬

 E‫א‬
 E٢HFZ

‫א‬٢H‫א‬F‫א‬Z
 E‫א‬

 EF‫א‬‫א‬

 ١Z١Z

 ‫א‬Z

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 HZ

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬Z

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢Z

 ‫א‬‫א‬٢Z

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 EF

 C٢{٣٣٤Z

 ‫א‬‫א‬C٢{٣٣٤Z

 

 ‫א‬

 EF‫א‬

 

 C٢

 ‫א‬‫א‬Z

 ‫א‬‫א‬C٢

 EF‫א‬

 Z

 ‫א‬Z

 EF‫א‬

 CZ

 ‫א‬C‫א‬Z

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 C٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬C٦

 Z

 ‫א‬‫א‬Z

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 CC٢{١٦٧Z

 ‫א‬C‫א‬C٢{١٦٧Z

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 –Z

 ‫א‬‫א‬Z

 E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٢

 ٣

 ‫א‬

 ٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 EF‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬١L٢

 ‫א‬‫א‬
- ١٨٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E J٨F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E J٨F
 

 

EF

‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬EE٩FF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K 
 
 
 
 
 

‫ א‬‫ א‬WE٨F ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٩F‫א‬

- ١٨٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫ﻋﺪد اﻵﺳﻨﺎن اﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺟﺘﺎ زواﻳﺔ ﻣﺨﺮوﻃﻲ اﻟﺨﻄﻮة‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ZEF‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬٣ ‫א‬٤٠60‫א‬‫א‬WE١F

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ٠{٥Z60‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬

‫ﻋﺪد اﻵﺳﻨﺎن اﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ‬
40
‫ﺟﺘﺎ زواﻳﺔ ﻣﺨﺮوﻃﻲ اﻟﺨﻄﻮة‬


 ‫ ﺳﻨﺎ‬80 = = 
0.5

Z‫א‬‫א‬
 

 KE١٣٤FE٥٥F‫א‬‫א‬،E٣FE٧F‫א‬‫א‬

،٢{٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢F

 K٤٠‫א‬‫א‬٢٠‫א‬‫א‬

  0.5 = 20 = 
40

 W‫א‬

‫ﻋﺪد أﺳﻨﺎن اﻟﺘﺮس اﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺮس اﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬
 ‫أﺳﻨﺎن‬‫ﻋﺪد‬Z‫א‬‫א‬

J١
 

 26
 ٠{٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
٠٫٠٤٣٨ =

ْ ٢٦‫×ﺟﺎ‬٢
٢٠

=

‫×ﺟﺎ زاوﻳﺔ ﻣﺨﺮﻃﻮي اﻟﺨﻄﻮة‬٢
‫ﻋﺪد اﻷﺳﻨﺎن‬

 

 Z‫א‬‫א‬١L٢ J٢

 ٢{٣٠Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 28
 30Z2 30H26
 Z‫א‬‫א‬١L٢‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬ J٣
2َ 55َ =

ْ ٢٦‫×ﺟﺎ‬٢
٢٠

=

‫×ﺟﺎ زاوﻳﺔ ﻣﺨﺮوﻃﻲ اﻟﺨﻄﻮة‬٢٫٣٣٤
‫ﻋﺪد اﻷﺳﻨﺎن‬

 Z‫א‬‫א‬١L٢‫א‬ J٤

 23
 5Z2 55–26Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١L٢–‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬ J٥
- ١٩٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬C‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬ J٦
 ٥٠Z٢٠C٢{٥Z

٢=

٤٤٫٥ =

٤٠
٠٫٨٩٨٨

=

٤٠
٢٠

=

٤٠
‫ﻋﺪد اﻷﺟﺰاء اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬
 Z‫א‬

٤٠
‫ﺟﺘﺎ زاوﻳﺔ ﻣﺨﺮوﻃﻲ اﻟﺨﻄﻮة‬

 

J ٧
 

Z‫א‬‫א‬ J٨
 

‫א‬‫א‬
 ٤٤‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٠E٢{٥F‫א‬E٦F‫א‬
 

 ‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬١L٢‫א‬C٢{١٦٧Z‫א‬ J٩
 ٢{٥C255C٢{١٦٧Z

 ٥{٤Z٢{٥C٠{٩٩٨C٢{١٦٧Z

 

 E‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬F٢H‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬ J١٠
 ٥٤{٤٩ZE٠{٨٩٨٨C٢{٥F٢H٥٠Z

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

، ‫א‬‫א‬
- ١٩١ ‫ﺁﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﺰ اﻷﻓﻘﻴﺔ‬: (١٠) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬،‫א‬EF‫א‬،
 
 

 

 

 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E١٠F‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 
 

 ‫א‬
E١١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫ א‬ W E١١F ‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬
،E١٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬WE١٢F‫א‬
‫א‬

- ١٩٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K٠{٠٢‫א‬

 
 
 
 

 
 

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE١٣F‫א‬

 
 

‫ ﺟﺴﻢ اﻟﺘﺮس‬:(١٣) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺨﺮوﻃﻲ‬

 
 

 


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J
 KE١٤F‫א‬‫א‬
 
 
 

 

‫א‬WE١٤F‫א‬
‫א‬

 

‫א‬
 ‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٥F‫א‬،

- ١٩٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J
 ٠E١٦F‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 
 

‫א‬WE١٦F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 
 

‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ -

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٧F
 

‫א‬‫א‬WE١٧F‫א‬

 

 

‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ١٩٤ -

 ‫ א‬  ‫א‬ WE١٨F ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 KE١٨F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

 K‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 

 

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ J
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬

 ،،‫א‬‫א‬E١٩F‫א‬
 

 
 

‫א‬‫א‬WE١٩F ‫א‬

 
 
 
‫أب‬
‫مب‬

 

 Z‫א‬‫א‬W
 

 

 ٢٢٢

 ٢Z–٣Z–Z
- ١٩٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 Z‫א‬‫א‬
 C٤

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٠
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 WE٢٠F‫א‬EF
‫ف‬
‫ط‬

 

 Z‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬CZ

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬F
 ‫א‬‫א‬CZ
 ZCZ

 ٤٤

 ٤٠CZ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
 ٣{١٤C

 ‫א‬‫א‬Z

‫א‬‫א‬WE٢١F‫א‬
‫א‬

‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬E٢١F‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬
EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

- ١٩٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 

 
 

E٢٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J

‫א‬E،F‫א‬‫א‬
 

‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 
 

‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٢F‫א‬
‫א‬

 

 

- ١٩٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
 K‫א‬‫א‬ K٢

 K‫ א‬K٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٥
 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ K٦

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٧

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٨

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٩
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١٠

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١١

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١٢

- ١٩٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١
 K‫א‬K

 K‫א‬‫א‬K

 K‫א‬‫א‬K

 K‫א‬K
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢
 K‫א‬K

 K‫א‬K

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

 K‫א‬‫א‬K
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬K

 K‫א‬K

 K‫א‬‫א‬K

 K‫א‬‫א‬K
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٤
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬K

 K‫א‬K

 K‫א‬‫א‬K

 K‫א‬‫א‬K
 
 
- ١٩٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬W

‫א‬،٢٥٤٠‫א‬38‫א‬‫א‬ J١
 K‫א‬EF‫א‬
 

ZFE٤F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E ٦٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J١

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣

 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٤

 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٥

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٦

 K‫א‬ J٧

 K‫א‬ J٨
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣
 ‫א‬ J١
 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٤
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J٥

 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬ J٦
 K‫א‬ J٧

 

- ٢٠٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 E١F‫א‬
 

 ٦W‫א‬











W‫א‬‫א‬

:‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب‬
:‫إﺟﺮاء ﻗﻄﻊ ﻟﺘﺮس ﻣﺨﺮوﻃﻲ ﺣﺴﺐ اﻷﺑﻌﺎد ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮﺳﻢ اﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬي ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﺰ اﻷﻓﻘﻴﺔ أو اﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ إذا ﻋﻠﻤﺖ أن‬
٠ ‫ﻣﻢ‬٥٠ ‫ × ﻃﻮل‬١٠٠ ‫ وﻗﻴﺎس ﻗﻄﻌﺔ اﻟﻔﻮﻻذ اﻟﺨﺎم ﻗﻄﺮ‬، (١٥) ‫ وﻋﺪد اﻷﺳﻨﺎن‬، (٦) ‫اﻟﻤﻮدول‬

- ٢٠١ -

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 E١F‫א‬

 ١٢W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W

 W‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 KE،،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W 

‫א‬، ،‫א‬ ،
،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬،EF،٥٠C١٠٠

 K

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W 
‫א‬‫א‬ J١K
 KE١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 

E١F‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ J٢
 KE٢F‫א‬،

 
 

 

E٢F‫א‬

 

- ٢٠٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ J٣

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣F‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 
 
 

E٣F‫א‬

 

 

10F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   J٤

 KE٤F‫א‬E32

 
 
 

E٤F‫א‬

 

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J٥
 KE٤F

،٤‫א‬ J٦
،‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٥F‫א‬
 
 
 
 

E١F‫א‬

- ٢٠٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٧

،‫א‬
 KE٦F‫א‬

 
 
 

E٦F‫א‬

 

 

‫א‬ J٨
E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬E٩F‫א‬

 KE٧F
 

E٧F‫א‬

 

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٩
٢٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨F‫א‬
 
 
 
 
 

E٨F‫א‬

 

- ٢٠٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٠
154‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E ١FEF‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٩F‫א‬،

 

E٩F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J١١

‫א‬‫א‬154‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E١FEF‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE١٠F‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J١٢
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 E١٠F‫א‬

 KE١١F‫א‬
 
 
 

 

 
 
 
 

E٩F‫א‬
- ٢٠٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ٣
 ٪١٠٠

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ١

W‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E١٥F‫א‬،E٦F‫א‬
 K٥٠C١٠٠
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

- ٢٠٦ -

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٦

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 

 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o
 K‫א‬‫א‬ o

 K‫א‬‫א‬ o
K‫א‬‫א‬ o

 
 

 KE٧٠F

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
 

 

٢٠٧

 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫ ﺗﻌﺸﻴﻖ اﻟﺘﺮوس اﻟﺤﻠﺰوﻧﻴﺔ‬: (١) ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

º٩٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٢F‫א‬EF

 
 

‫א‬WE٢F‫א‬
 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 
 

‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
E٣F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٣F‫א‬
٢٠٨

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤F‫א‬




‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٤F‫א‬

 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬…‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٥F‫א‬
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٥F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WEF‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 EF‫א‬

٢٠٩

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 


 EFKE٦F‫א‬

EF‫א‬E٣٠{١٤CF‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬EF،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬
 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٦F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E J٧F‫א‬‫א‬

EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE J٧F‫א‬
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٧F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E٦F‫א‬

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٣{١٤F‫א‬
 ZEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬C٤{١٤١١٦
 ‫א‬‫א‬ C٣{١٤
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ZEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٢١٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬،E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬E٨F‫א‬،‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٨F‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢H

  ¯‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Z‫א‬ J




 
 

 ‫א‬C‫ א‬ WEF‫א‬‫א‬ J
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Z‫א‬‫א‬

 

 WE١F‫א‬‫א‬ J

 E‫א‬C٢FH‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬

 

 WE٢F‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KE‫א‬C٢{٣٣٤F–‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬

٢١١

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 WEF‫א‬‫א‬ J
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 ٣{١٤C‫א‬‫א‬

 ZEF‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٣{١٤C‫א‬‫א‬

 E‫א‬‫א‬F

 

 

 ZEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C٣{١٤C‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬

 W

 K‫א‬‫א‬٣{١٤C‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬

 WEF‫א‬ J

 E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬C١٠Z‫א‬

 WEF‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 Z‫א‬

 

 

 WEF‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬C٢{١٦٧Z‫א‬

 K‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬

 WE١F‫א‬‫א‬ J
 

 WE٢F‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬C١{١٦٧Z‫א‬‫א‬

٢١٢

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 EF‫א‬E٩F‫א‬EF‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬
٢

 

 Z‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 ‫א‬WE٩F‫א‬

 
 

 WEF‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠F‫א‬
 ‫א‬C 1 Z
6

 




 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE١٠F‫א‬

 

 WE١F‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫ زاوﻳﺔ ﻣﻴﻞ اﻟﺨﻄﻮة اﻟﺤﻠﺰوﻧﻴﺔ‬٣ ‫ﺟﺘﺎ‬

٢١٣

 

 Z‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 
 

 WE١١F‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 

‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E١٢F‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬WE١٢F‫א‬
 

٢١٤

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE١٣F
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 WE١٣F‫א‬

 
 

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬E١٤F‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬
 

‫א‬WE١٤F‫א‬
 

 


 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
E٤٥F‫א‬
E٤٥F‫א‬

E١٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬، ‫א‬
‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬WE١٥F‫א‬
 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٩٠F
 

٢١٥

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬
 ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٦F‫א‬

،‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬
 K‫א‬

 ،‫א‬E١٧F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬EF ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬WE١٦F‫א‬
 ‫א‬E١٦F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬EF

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF ‫א‬،

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫؛‬‫א‬ ‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬WE١٧F‫א‬

٢١٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٤٠C‫א‬
‫ﻃﻮل اﻟﺨﻄﻮة اﻟﺤﻠﺰوﻧﻴﺔ‬

 Z

 ‫א‬‫א‬


‫اﻟﺘﺮوس اﻟﻤﻨﻘﺎدة‬



 

‫א‬٣٠٠‫א‬٤٢E‫א‬FW١
 K٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬
40
5



    W‫א‬
×
= 
 


 



‫א‬‫א‬
1
30



48
40
2
200
=
×
=
= 
 
72
1
3
300

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬ 48 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
72

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠٠،٨٦،٧٢،٦٤،٥٦،٤٨،٤٤،٤٠،٣٦،٣٢،٢٤،٢٨،٢٠،٢٤F
 K‫א‬‫א‬٧٢‫א‬٤٨‫א‬W

،E ٧٢٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٢
 KE٥F‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬
20
40
5
=
×
=
W‫א‬
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬
72
1 720 
 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 
 

40
84

×

24
72

=

8 × 5
×
8 × 6

24
24

5

8

5 ×1
= 
6×3

× 1
× 3

=

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٢٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
٢١٧

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬،E٤٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٤٨
 K‫א‬E١٨F‫א‬‫א‬٧٢‫א‬

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE١٨F‫א‬

 

،E ٢٠٠FE١٥٠٠F‫א‬W٣
 KE٦F‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬










 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫ ﻋﺪد‬
 240 = 40 * 6 = 
‫أﺳﻨﺎن اﻟﺘﺮوس اﻟﻤﻨﻘﺎدة‬
1500 1 1500

 

6 4 24
* =
= 
25 6 150

 

‫א‬
 









 

 

24 32 4 * 6 8 * 4
*
=
*

100 48 4 * 25 8 * 6

 











 

 ‫א‬
π *‫ق‬
 
= 
‫ ﻃﻮل اﻟﺨﻄﻮة اﻟﺤﻠﺰوﻧﻴﺔ‬Z‫א‬‫א‬
‫خ‬

  0.418 =

628
1500

  22 o 40′ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٢١٨

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E٢F‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

E٣F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٢١٩

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٣F‫א‬

٢٢٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٣F

 
 
٢٢١

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫ زاوﻳﺔ اﻟﺨﻄﻮة اﻟﺤﻠﺰوﻧﻴﺔ‬٣ ‫ﺟﺘﺎ‬

 W‫א‬

 Z‫א‬‫א‬

 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٥

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٩F‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE١٩F‫א‬،

 
 

 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KE٢٠F
 
 

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬WE٢٠F‫א‬

E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٢١F‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬
 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٢١F‫א‬

 
٢٢٢

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KE٢٢F‫א‬
 

 πC‫א‬‫א‬
‫ﻃﻮل اﻟﺨﻄﻮة اﻟﺤﻠﺰوﻧﻴﺔ‬

 

 Z‫א‬‫א‬

 
 
 
 

 ‫א‬WE٢٢F‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

،‫א‬
 

 KE٢٣F‫א‬
 

‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٣F‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KE٢٤F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬ J
 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٤F‫א‬
٢٢٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KE٢٥F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J

 K‫א‬

٣٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٤

،E٥٢٠F‫א‬،E١٤٣{٩F١‫א‬E 
 E٥F‫א‬

 ٠{٣٦٣٩٧Z٥٢٠،٠{٩٣٩٦٩Z٥٢٠

 W‫א‬

 ١

 ٢H

‫ي‬
‫ﺟﺘﺎ س‬

 

 Z‫א‬ J١



 

١٤٣{٩
٣٢ Z

٠٫٩٣٩٦٩

 ٢H

 ‫א‬WE٢٥F‫א‬

 

 

 ٣{٩٩١Z
 K٤Z

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢
 
 ٣٢
 
  ٣٩Z
Z
Z١
٣
(٠٫٩٣٩٦٩ )
‫س‬٣ ‫ﺟﺘﺎ‬
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦F‫א‬E٤F‫א‬

 K ٥٤٣٥‫א‬٦‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣
 1 4

1
8 40
=1 =1 =
=
16
4
32 32

 K١٦‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 EF‫א‬ J٤

٢٢٤

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 Z‫א‬C٢{١٦٧Z

 

 K٨{٦٦Z٤C٢{١٦٧Z

 EF‫א‬‫א‬ J٥
 ٣{١٤C
 KE١F……
 Z
‫ﻇﺎ س‬

 

 KEF‫א‬‫א‬

 

 
 C
٣٢C٣{٩٩١
 K١٣٥{٩Z
Z
Z
٠٫٩٣٩٦٩
‫ﺟﺘﺎ س‬
 

 WE١F‫א‬
 ٣{١٤C١٣٥{٩
 K١١٧٢{٥Z
Z
٠٫٣٦٣٩٧


 

 

 K١١٧٢‫א‬
 ٤٠C‫א‬
‫ﻃﻮل اﻟﺨﻄﻮة اﻟﺤﻠﺰوﻧﻴﺔ‬

 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J٦
 
‫א‬‫א‬
 C
Z

‫ﻋﺪد أﺳﻨﺎن اﻟﺘﺮوس اﻟﻤﻨﻘﺎدة‬
 ٤C٢٥C٢

٤٩ × ١٢ ×٢

 ٤٠C٥
 Z
Z
١١٧٢

 



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١١٧٢‫א‬٤٠C٥‫א‬

  JW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E٦٤،٧٢،٨٦،١٠٠،٣٢،٣٦،٤٠،٤٤،٤٨،٥٦،٢٨،٢٤،٢٤،٢٠F
 

 ٢٥  C  ٤Z
٤٩

١٢

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
٢٢٥

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،١{٧٦‫א‬‫א‬٦
 

1.76 × 25 6 × 4
×

1.76 × 49 6 × 12

 K‫א‬



 

44
24
×
= 
 
76
72
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 KE٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 WE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J٧
 
٣٫١٤ × ١٣٥٫٩
 πC
١١٧٢٫٥ZZ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٠{٣٦٣Z
‫ﻃﻮل اﻟﺨﻄﻮة اﻟﺤﻠﺰوﻧﻴﺔ‬
 
  20 o ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٢٢٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W٥٣٠‫א‬‫א‬ J١
 ١٥ J

 ٤٥ J

 ٣٠ J
 ٦٠ J


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٢
 W

 ١٥ J

 ٤٥ J

 ٤٥ J
 K J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٩٠ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬H٩٠ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٩٠ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬H٩٠ J
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٢٢٧

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 E١F‫א‬

 

FW‫א‬‫) א‬

 ٦W‫א‬‫א‬•

 

‫ ﻣﻢ وزاوﻳﺔ ﻣﻴﻞ أﺳﻨﺎﻧﻪ )ﻣﻴﻞ اﻟﺨﻄﻮة‬١٤٣٫٩ ‫ ﺳﻨ ًﺎ وﻗﻄﺮﻩ اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻲ‬٣٢ ‫اﻗﻄﻊ ﺗﺮﺳًﺎ ﺣﻠﺰوﻧﻴًﺎ ﻋﺪد أﺳﻨﺎﻧﻪ‬:‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب‬
 K‫ﻣﻢ‬٤٠ ‫ﻣﻢ وﻋﺮض اﻟﺘﺮس‬١١٧٢٫٥ ‫ وﻃﻮل اﻟﺨﻄﻮة اﻟﺤﻠﺰوﻧﻴﺔ‬، ‫ﻣﻢ‬٤ ‫ ( وﻣﻮدول‬20 o ‫اﻟﺤﻠﺰوﻧﻴﺔ‬

 

 
 

 

  
  
 
 
 

 
 

  
  

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

٢٢٨

 

‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬

‫א‪‬א‪ ‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬

‫א‪ ‬‬

‫‪‬א‪‬א‪ ‬‬

‫‪‬א‪ E١F‬‬
‫) א‪‬א‪FW‬‬

‫‪‬א‪‬א‪ ٦W‬‬

‫‪W ‬א‪‬א‪‬א‪ W‬‬
‫‪ ‬ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺘﺪرب أن ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻗﺎدرًا ﻋﻠﻰ أن ‪:‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﻳﺠﻬﺰ ﺁﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﺰ ﻟﻘﻄﻊ اﻷﺳﻨﺎن‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﺟﻬﺎز رأس اﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﻳﺮآﺐ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ اﻟﺘﺮوس اﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺮة‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﻳﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺘﺮس اﻟﺤﻠﺰوﻧﻲ‪ K‬‬
‫‪W ‬א‪‬א‪F‬א‪ WE،،‬‬
‫‪‬ﺁﻟﺔ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﺰ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﻌﺪاﺗﻬﺎ‪ ،‬اﻟﺮﺳﻢ اﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬي‪ ،‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺳﻜﺎآﻴﻦ ﻗﻄﻊ اﻟﺘﺮوس‪ ،‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ أدوات ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﺟﻬﺎز‬
‫‪‬‬
‫رأس ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ اﻟﺘﺮوس اﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺮة اﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ اﻟﺠﻬﺎز ‪،‬وﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺻﻮاﻧﻲ اﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ‪ ،‬أدوات اﻟﻘﻴﺎس اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎرة واﻗﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﻳﻮل ﻋﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺠﻬﺰة ﻣﺴﺒﻘًﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺨﺮﻃﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ اﻟﺮﺳﻢ‪.‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪W‬א‪‬א‪،‬א‪‬א‪،‬א‪ W‬‬
‫‪ J١  ‬رآﺐ رأس اﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ واﻟﻐﺮاب اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮك ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﺰ آﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ (١‬واﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺮآﺰﻳﻬﻤﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٢ ‬رآﺐ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ رأس اﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ واﻟﻐﺮاب اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮك‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٣ ‬رآﺐ ﺳﻜﻴﻦ اﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﻮدول )‪٤‬ﻣﻢ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻮد ﺁﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﺰ واﻓﺤﺺ‬
‫اﺗﺠﺎﻩ دوراﻧﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪(١‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪٢٢٩‬‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 
 ‫א‬‫א‬ J٤
 
 

44
24
 
86 K 72

 

 W‫א‬
 

 ٤٠C‫א‬
‫ﻃﻮل اﻟﺨﻄﻮة اﻟﺤﻠﺰوﻧﻴﺔ‬

 
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 Z ‫א‬‫א‬



 

  25 * 4

(٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

49 12

=

 

4 * 25 * 2 40 * 5

=
49 *12 * 2 1172  

  44 * 24 = 1.76 * 25 *
76 72

 
6 * 4 

1.76 * 25 6 *12

 
 
 
 ‫א‬E٢F‫א‬‫א‬
 
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 
 E٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٥
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 K ١٦
 
‫א‬‫א‬ J٦
 
 
 
4
 K 1 ‫א‬
16
 
 
 
  1 4

16

=1

8 40

=
32 32

E٣F‫א‬٢٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٧
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٨
 E٤F‫א‬

٢٣٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W
 

‫א‬   J٩
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 
 

(٥) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

٨{٦٦‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١٠
 K
 
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١١
،٤٠‫א‬L٢٠٠

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

(٦) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

 

،‫א‬‫א‬ J١٢
 KE٦F‫א‬

 
 
 

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J١٣
 
 

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J١٤
- ٢٣١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

- ٢٣٢ -

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬
 E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
١KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬ o

 ٢KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

 ١٠KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬ o

 ١٨KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

 ٢١KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬ o

 ٢٦KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬ o
 ٣٣KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫ א‬o

 ٣٦KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫ א‬o

 ٤٨KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫ א‬o

 E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
٤٩KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬ o

 ٥٠KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬ o
 ٥٢KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬ o

 ٥٧KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬ o

 ٦٤KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬ o
 ٦٦KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬ o

 ٦٨KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o
 ٧١KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬ o

 ٧٢KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫ א‬o
 ٧٣KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫ א‬o
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 ٩١KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬ o

 ١٠١KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKV o

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ١٠٤KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKT o
 ١٠٦KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬ o
 ١١٣KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬ o

 ١١٤KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫ א‬o

 ١١٦KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫ א‬o
١٣٥KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫ א‬o

 E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
١٣٧KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬ o

 ١٣٨KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

 ١٤٥KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬ o
 ١٤٨KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬ o
 ١٦٠KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬ o

 ١٦٣KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫ א‬o
 ١٦٦KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬ o

 ١٦٧KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫ א‬o

 ١٦٩KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫ א‬o
١٧٩KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫ א‬o

 E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
١٨٠KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬ o

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 ١٨٦KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬o
 ١٨٨KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

 ١٩٤KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬ o
 ١٩٥KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫ א‬o
 ١٩٧KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫ א‬o
٢٠٢KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫ א‬o

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
٢٠٣KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬ o

 ٢٠٤KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬ o

 ٢٠٧KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

 ٢١٠KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o
 ٢١٨KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬ o

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 ٢٢٤KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫ א‬o
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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
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