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1.

Question :
The part of geography that embodies map making is known as

Student Answer:

theodesy
geodesy
cartography
calligraphy

Points Received:

1 of 1

Comments:
2. Question :
Which of the following terms characterizes the discipline of geography?

Student Answer:

interdisciplinary
holistic
synthesis
all of the above

Instructor
Explanation:
Points Received:

see figure 1.2

0 of 1

Comments:
3. Question :
Geography BEST is described as

Student Answer:

an Earth science
a human science

a physical science
a spatial science

Instructor
Explanation:
Points Received:

see description of geography on p. 3

1 of 1

Comments:
4. Question :
Earth is best described as a geoid, because it is not a perfectly
shaped sphere.
Student Answer:

True (see "Earth as a geoid" section on p. 15)
False

Points Received:

1 of 1

Comments:
5. Question :
If you were standing at 20&#-80; north latitude you would MOST
appropriately be described as being within which latitudinal
geographic zone?
Student Answer:

subarctic
midlatitude
equatorial
subtropical

Points Received:

1 of 1

Comments:
6. Question :
Earth's diameter is

Student Answer:

about 10,000 km (6,000 mi.).
about 20,000 km (12,000 mi.).
about 40,000 km (24,000 mi.).
about 50,000 km (30,000 mi.).

Points Received:

0 of 1

Comments:
7. Question :
Which of the following is a major theme in geography?
Student Answer:

places & regions
human-environment interaction
location
movement
all of the above

Instructor
Explanation:
Points Received:

see figure 1.1

1 of 1

Comments:
8. Question :
Earth represents a vast integrated system.

Student Answer:

True
False

Points Received:

1 of 1

Question : Which of the following is FALSE of scientific theories? Student Answer: They are based on several hypotheses They are broad in scope because they unify several known facts about the world They are usually based on blind guesses and mere faith by the scientist that they are true They are based on natural laws (such as those pertaining to gravity.) Points Received: 4 of 4 Comments: 11. etc. Question : Our planet and our lives are overwhelmingly powered by Student Answer: energy derived from inside Earth.Comments: 9. . relativity. a metric version of longitude and latitude. atomic theory. they are only available to the military. currently only accurate to within about 10 meters. an important device for collecting geographic data that can have a wide use of applications. Question : Global Positioning System (GPS) units Student Answer: not available to the public. Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 10.

north and south.5-80. 45-80. Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 12. Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 13. 66. north and south. utilities and oil companies. Question : Which of the following is true of the length (as measured in kilometers) of a degree of latitude? Student Answer: It is constant at all latitudes. and ultraviolet. It is shorter near the prime meridian than near the international dateline. X rays. Points Received: Comments: 1 of 1 .5-80. north and south. shorter wavelengths of gamma rays. 23. It is shorter near the equator than near the poles.radiant energy from the Sun. Question : The most extreme northern and southern parallels to experience perpendicular rays of the Sun at local noon are located at Student Answer: 90-80. It is longer near the equator than near the poles. north and south.

14. which region is considered to be one of energy surplus (i.9 and 1. Student Answer: True False Points Received: 1 of 1 . Question : A parallel of latitude Student Answer: is used to measure distances east and west of the equator..e. it is the area that receives the most insolation on average)? Student Answer: arctic midlatitude subtropical equatorial Instructor Explanation: Points Received: See figures 2. is also called a meridian.12 0 of 1 Comments: 16. Question : When looking at the Earth's energy budget by latitude. Question : If you wanted a map with a lot of detail of a small area you would want a "small scale" map. is used to measure distances north or south of the equator. Points Received: 0 of 1 Comments: 15. is a line which passes through both poles.

Question : Map projections. preserve all of . such as Mercator and Robinson. 5) False Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 18. Question : Earth represents an open system in terms of energy. Question : Which of the following is NOT one of the four major "spheres"? Student Answer: lithosphere cryosphere biosphere atmosphere Instructor Explanation: Points Received: see figure 1. Student Answer: True (see "open systems" section on p.Comments: 17.7 1 of 1 Comments: 20. Student Answer: True False Points Received: 0 of 1 Comments: 19. Question : New resources and matter are being added to Earth's systems all the time.

Which of the following would be true for the net radiation balance in a midlatitude location? (Points : 1) Net R is constant throughout the year. The fact that nature produces more pollution than humans do means that anthropogenic pollution is insignificant.Earth's properties of area. and we need not worry about it (Points : 1) True False 2. 4.e.. correctly. they all distort at least one of these properties) Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: CHAPTER 3. . Student Answer: True False (No map projection can preserve all of Earth's properties correctly--i. 5 1. proximity. shape. and distance. direction.

the average annual insolation decreases and the average annual temperature increases (Points : 1) True False 5. as distance from the subsolar point increases. There is a deficit of Net R during the summer and a surplus during the winter. The greater the albedo of a surface. Based on the criteria of composition. the atmosphere is divided into two broad regions: the ionosphere and the ozonosphere (Points : 1) True False 4. the less it is heated by insolation. In general. (Points : 1) True . The season at which surpluses and deficits occur varies from one year to the next. 3.There is a surplus of Net R during the summer and a deficit during the winter.

The reflective quality of a surface is called its albedo and is expressed as a percentage. Approximately fifty percent of the atmosphere is compressed by gravity below an elevation of 5500 m (18.000 years (Points : 1) True False 8. A vertical air current that is generated by temperature-induced density differences is an example of heat transfer by: (Points : 1) advection convection conduction diffusion 9.000 ft) (Points : 1) True False .False 6. (Points : 1) True False 10. The amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is higher than it has ever been for the last 800. The ozone layer protects Earth's surface from most of the incoming ultraviolet radiation (Points : 1) True False 7. with 100% referring to a surface that reflects the maximum amount of insolation.

and sphericity latitude. As the kinetic energy of the air increases. revolution. Atmospheric circulation ultimately connects all places on Earth to one another (Points : 1) True False 14. The analogy of comparing Earth's atmosphere to a greenhouse is exactly how the Earth-atmosphere system operates. and surface conditions land-water heating differences only specific heat only 12.11. (Points : 1) True . rotation. its temperature is unaffected. (Points : 1) True False 13. altitude. helium. land-water land-water heating differences. cloud cover. The principal gases of the homosphere (by volume) are nitrogen. (Points : 1) True False 15. and argon. ocean currents. The principal controls and influences of temperature patterns include (Points : 1) Earth's tilt.

The normal lapse rate for temperature decreases is an average of 3&#-80.False 16. (Points : 1) True False 18. The single most important control on temperature (Points : 1) latitude altitude land-water differences evaporation 20. Insolation is the only source of energy that is ultimately responsible for heating the atmosphere and driving weather phenomena. Clouds moderate temperatures producing lower daily maximums and higher nightly minimums.C per 1000 m (Points : 1) True False 19. (Points : 1) True . it would melt a spacecraft that stayed within it. (Points : 4) True False 17. Given that the temperature of the thermosphere is more than 1200º C (2000º F).

7 1. 6.False Chapters 5. Question : Which of the following is a middle-level cloud type? Student Answer: cirrostratus stratocumulus cumulonimbus altostratus Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 2. Question : The effect of the Coriolis force is enhanced in the upper atmosphere because there is less friction. .

Student Answer: True False Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 4. Question : Sublimation (depostion) produces snowflakes. Student Answer: True False Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 5.Student Answer: True False Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 3. say within the next 24 hours? Student Answer: fog cumulus stratocumulus . Question : Population growth and wasteful water usage threaten to produce water shortages in many nations of the world. Question : Which cloud type is specifically a good indicator of an arriving storm.

Question : Of the following regions. Question : The general term that refers to the tendency of a parcel of air to either remain in place or change its initial position is Student Answer: adiabatic stability conditional instability stasis Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 7. which is MOST vulnerable to water scarcity? .cirrus Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 6.

cold air sinks into low areas such as river valleys. both B and C . Question : Fog often lingers in river valleys because Student Answer: the water in the river cools off faster at night than the land does. some evaporation may occur from the river. thereby supplying moisture to the cooler atmosphere.Student Answer: South America United States India China Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 8.

Student Answer: True . Points Received: 0 of 1 Comments: 10. Question : Clouds are only composed of raindrops. lowest temperature of the day.Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 9. dew-point temperature. Question : A mass of air always becomes saturated when it reaches the Student Answer: highest temperature of the day. specific humidity point.

Actual evapotranspiration exceeds potential evapotranspiration. Question : Which of the following is normally true of a hot desert? Student Answer: Potential evapotranspiration exceeds actual evapotranspiration. freezing water can break pipes and even crack engine blocks. Why does this happen? Student Answer: Water expands in volume as it freezes in response to hydrogen bonding. Points Received: 0 of 1 Comments: 12. Question : In winter. Potential evapotranspiration equals actual evapotranspiration. It is impossible to say what the normal relationship between potential and actual evapotranspiration would be in a desert.False Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 11. .

Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 13. Student Answer: True False Points Received: 0 of 1 Comments: 14. Water contracts as it cools and freezes. Question : An area of high pressure circulates counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and is called an anticyclone.Ice is denser than water. . Question : Which is true of groundwater pollution? Student Answer: It is not difficult to remove groundwater pollution. It occurs because of the latent heat of fusion.

Question : The lower limit of water in the zone of aeriation is the water table. Underground gasoline storage tanks are no longer sources of pollution. Student Answer: True False Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 16. Question : Which of the following is true of the distribution of land and water on Earth? Student Answer: The Southern Hemisphere is dominated by water. .65% of groundwater pollution is from non-point sources. Urban run off is considered point source pollution. The Northern Hemisphere is dominated by water. Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 15.

There is more land than water over the surface of the Earth 17. Student Answer: True False Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 18.They are evenly distributed in both hemispheres. Question : The ten largest rivers in the world combined. Question : A geologic unit composed of clay would make a better aquifer than one composed of sand and gravel. in terms of discharge. Student Answer: True False Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 19. exceed the total groundwater resource. Question : The moist adiabatic rate (MAR) is less than the dry adiabatic rate (DAR) as a result of the release of the latent heat of condensation within the rising parcel of air Student Answer: True False Points Received: 1 of 1 .

10 1. 9. C and D Chapters 8. Most of the water that falls on the continents is derived from the oceans. mantle. Question : Which of the following is true of the hydrologic cycle? Student Answer: The bulk of the precipitation occurs over land. Most evaporation on Earth occurs over the continents. Moho.Comments: 20. Question : The boundary between the crust and the rest of the lithospheric upper mantle is a discontinuity known as the Student Answer: Gutenberg. The bulk of the precipitation occurs over the oceans. lithospheric layer. Points Received: 1 of 1 .

adjusts to a new equilibrium condition. Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 3.metamorphic basalt . Question : After a threshold is crossed.igneous Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 4. Any of the above are equally likely to occur.Comments: 2. the landscape Student Answer: remains unstable thereafter.metamorphic sandstone . Question : Which of the following is matched correctly? Student Answer: granite . Question : The convex upper portion of a typical slope is called a Student Answer: pediment.sedimentary marble . looks identical to the landscape that existed prior to the crossing of the threshold. . debris slope. waxing slope.

Question : The steepness of a slope made of loose material is called the Student Answer: height of the slope. Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 5. hill or low tableland. Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 6.). granitic compound. natural compound is called a Student Answer: tectonic rock. Question : An element or combination of elements that forms an inorganic. mountain.free face. high tableland. is considered a Student Answer: plain. but less than 600 m (2000 ft. . Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 7. Question : A topographic region that is characterized by local relief of more than 100 m (325 ft. mineral. carbonite.).

core crust. aesthenosphere. mass movement gradient. the speed of the particles. lower mantle. lower mantle. Question : The major rocks of Earth's crust are classified into principal types . aesthenosphere aesthenosphere. aesthenosphere. lower mantle. crust. Question : Which of the following gives the correct sequence of layers in Earth. Question : The history of life on Earth is chronicled in which type of rock? Student Answer: igneous metamorphic sedimentary mineral Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 9. lower mantle.angle of repose. core. core Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 10. core crust. Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 8. from the surface to the center? Student Answer: crust.

the manner in which they formed. Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 12. i. three specific rock-forming processes.. Points Received: 0 of 1 Comments: 11. Joints enable more water to move through the ground. Question : Which of the following is incorrectly matched? Student Answer: denudation .endogenic tectonic uplift . Both B and C. relative and absolute locations. Joints enhance the rate of weathering. Question : Which of the following is true of joints? Student Answer: Joints are small. localized fault planes along which movement occurs.e.endogenic heavy rainfall .exogenic . mineral composition.based on Student Answer: element composition.exogenic weathering and erosion .

extended. . both A and C Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 15.Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 13. Question : The process of isostatic adjustment is most closely associated with which of the following? Student Answer: lithospheric plate collisions volcanic activity sea-floor spreading buoyancy Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 14. Question : The dynamic equilibrium model refers to Student Answer: a balancing act between tectonic uplift and rates of denudation by weathering and erosion in a given landscape. folded. Question : Because of the processes responsible for the formation of the Himalayan Mountains. the crust in this region of the world has been Student Answer: shortened.

igneous. The steepest slope is controlled by the angle of repose for sand and most materials. Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 16. which is about __________. Question : A rock transformed from any other rock through extreme heat and or pressure is referred to as Student Answer: sedimentary.a theory involving the cyclic or evolutionary development of a landscape. a sequential development of landforms. Student Answer: 15° 34° 47° 66° Points Received: Comments: 1 of 1 . Question : One side of a sand dune is typically steeper than the other side. basalt. Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 17. metamorphic. an important concept first stated by William Morris Davis.

They always remain fixed in relationship to the migrating plates. Question : Foreshocks may be caused by Student Answer: the breaking of some asperities before the main movement occurs. which sits atop a sea-floor spreading ridge in the North Atlantic Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 20.18. Hot spot activity formed Iceland. Question : Which of the following is incorrect relative to hot spots across Earth's surface? Student Answer: Hot spots can occur beneath both oceanic and continental crust. They are responsible for the formation of the HawaiianEmperor Islands chain. Question : What type of rock is derived from the bits and pieces of former rocks? Student Answer: sedimentary metamorphic igneous granite Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 19. small movements that occur when some rocks break in limited .

podzolation illuviation. 15 1. whereas the B horizon is dominated by __________. 12. a limited number of lapilli breaking prior to the main movement. Chapters 11. The E horizon is dominated by __________. illuviation 2. 13 Chapters 14. If humus were lost from the soil due to excessive farming or soil erosion. eluviation laterization. which of the following could occur? (Points : 1) loss of soil structure loss of fertility loss of water-holding capacity all of the above 3. Which of the following is true of valley glaciers? (Points : 1) The snowfield sources for these glaciers are usually found right at the snowline. (Points : 1) eluviation.areas of a fault plane prior to the main movement. . all of the above. illuviation eluviation.

Which of the following is not an adaptation to living in periglacial regions? (Points : 1) buildings placed directly on frozen. A continuous mass of ice covering a large landmass is known as a (Points : 1) tidal glacier. They may range in length from 100 m (325 ft. They remain stationary and do not move. 6. A mixture of decomposed organic matter in soil that is usually dark in color is called (Points : 1) regolith. 5.) to 100 km (62 mi. Oxisol. polypedon. humus. mountain glacier. mineral matter. Aridisol. 7. A soil order characteristic of the Amazon Basin is a(n) (Points : 1) Alfisol.They occur in an unconfined environment like an open plain. Spodosol. valley glacier. hard surfaces water and sewage lines in elevated trays above the ground . 4.). continental glacier.

At present.raised oil pipelines above the frozen ground careful maintenance of rail tracks and roadbeds in the summer 8. which of the soil orders of Soil Taxonomy occupy the most land area in the United States? (Points : 1) Oxisols Aridisols Mollisols Spodosols 9. (Points : 1) 10 percent 30 percent 50 percent 90 percent . nutrition) level. In nature. approximately __________ of the calories in plant matter survive from the primary to the secondary trophic (feeding. Which of the following would not be found in an alpine glacial valley? (Points : 1) paternoster lakes hanging valleys waterfalls esker 10.