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Case studies on paralleling of Transformers

8.1

Paralleling of Transformers of unequal ratings and same percentage
impedances
Data

(KVA) 1

-

Rating of Transformer No.1

(KVA) 2

-

Rating of Transformer No.2

Z1

-

% impedance of Transformer No.1

Z2

-

% impedance of Transformer No.2

It

-

I1

-

Load current shared by Transformer No.1

I2

-

Load current shared by Transformer No.2

Basically the problem is one of two impedance connected in parallel as
shown.
Here:

V

=

I1 Z1 =

And:

It

=

I1 + I2

I2 Z2

1

2 VIt (Z1) (Z1 + Z2) Problem: To find the load shared by 2Nos. of 132/33KV Transformers of rating 15 MVA and 25 MVA with % impedances of 10% and 6% respectively. . (1) I1 = I2 Z2 Z1 It = I2 Z2 + I2 Z1 = I2 (Z2 + Z1) Z1 Or I2 = Similarly I1 = It (Z1)____ (Z1 + Z2) 2 It (Z2)___ (Z1 + Z2) 3 Multiply eqn. (2) on both sides by V the secondary load voltage We now have VI2 = Or VI2 1000 = VIt (Z1)___ 1000 (Z1 + Z2) (KVA) 2 = (KVA) t (Z1)___ (Z1 + Z2) = (KVA) t (Z2)___ (Z1 + Z2) Similarly (KVA) 1 8.From eqn.

24)____ 0.2 .6A Load current shared by Transformer No.u = 0.2 . 132/33KV.67 + 0.67 p.25MVA.Total load current = 700 A Transformer No.24 p.u Load current shared by Transformer No.15MVA.5 A Assume MVA base = 100.1 x 100 15 = 0. 10% impedance Ifl = 15 x 103 3 x 33 = 262.91 = 184. 6% Impedance Ifl = 25 x 103 3 x 33 = 437.1 I1 = It (Z2)___ (Z1 + Z2) = 700 (0. The per unit impedances of the transformers is given by: Zpu (1) Zpu (2) = 0.5 A Transformer No.1 . 132/33KV.24 0.24 = 700 x 0.06 x 100 25 = 0.

of 132/33KV 15 MVA Transformer of equal rating but with unequal % impedances of 10% and 10. Total load current = 500 A Load current shared by Transformer No.2 20.1 (Impedance 10%) = 500 x (10.5 A Load current shared by Transformer No.2 is already overloaded while transformer No. the load will not be shared in proportion to their ratings.67) 0.I2 = It (Z1)__ (Z1 + Z2) = 700 (0.2%) = 500 x 10.2 (Impedance 10.4A It can be observed that transformer No. 8.1 is lightly loaded.3 Paralleling of Transformers with unequal % Impedances Problem: To find the load shared by 2 Nos.2%.91 = 515. This shows that with unequal % impedances.2) = 500 x 10.2 = 247.2)_____ (10 + 10.0 20.5 A .2 = 252.

the loading should be such as not to exceed the full load current. (1) E2 = secondary phase voltage of Transformer No. The magnitude of this current is given by the equation: Ic = E1 . Since Z1. 8.This shows that the transformer with higher impedance shares less load than the transformer with lower impedance. (2) The unequal secondary voltages will cause a circulating current Ic to flow.4 Paralleling of Transformers with unequal secondary voltages Let E1 = secondary phase voltage of Transformer No.E2) must also be small as otherwise a large circulating current will flow overloading the transformers. Z2 are small in magnitude. (1) Z2 = impedance of Transformer No. (2) Z1 = impedance of Transformer No. In such a case.Ic). . the difference (E1 .E2_ Z1 + Z2 (E1 > E2) The current in transformer (1) will be (I1 + Ic) and that in transformer (2) will be (I2 .

0KV.E2 Z1 + Z2 = (11.45 = 39. of 5MVA.0) x 103 3__ 1.Problem .11. 33/11KV transformers of equal % impedance of 6% but with unequal secondary voltages of 11.8 A = I1 + Ic = It (Z2) + Ic (Z1 + Z2) = 500 (6) + 39.2 .5 x 100 Z1 = Z2 = 1.2KV and 11.8 = .5 A Impedance Z of each transformer will be: = Vph x % Z Ifl x 100 = 11000 x 6 3________ 262.45 + 1. Total load current = 500 A Secondary full load current of each transformer will be: Ifl = 5 x 106 __ 3 x 11 x 103 = 262.To find the load shared by 2 Nos.8 12 250 + 39.45 ohms Ic Current in transformer 1 = E1 .

But the transformers may be operated in parallel provided that the current in each transformer does not exceed the full load current.5 A.= 289. Hence it is not safe to operate the two transformers in parallel with unequal secondary voltages. .8 A This is greater than the full load current of 262.