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Forces

Newtons Laws

Newton discovered the relationship between an objects

mass, acceleration, and the forces acting upon it.

Before the age of 30,

he formulated the laws of mechanics

discovered the law of universal gravitation

invented calculus.

Newton lived from 1642-1727; the same time that the first

colonists were trying to settle the American Colonies.

He was a professor at Cambridge University, and

was a bit of a recluse. He locked himself in his office

for nearly a year while writing his book describing the

laws of mechanics, letting himself out only to get the

meals being placed outside his office door.

Before digging into Newtons Laws of Motion, let's talk about

some of the concepts that you will need to better understand

Newtons discoveries.

Force

has the ability to change motion.

A force has the ability to cause motion but doesnt

always cause motion--if

you dont push hard enough on a

car sitting still, it wont move

Metric unit of force is the Newton.

One Newton,

Metric unit of mass is the kilogram.

We tend to use mass and weight interchangeably in

our measurement system, but mass and weight are

NOT the same thing.

Mass vs Weight

Your mass is the amount of matter in an

object.

An objects mass is the same no matter where the

object is in the universe.

Mass resists the action of forces by making

objects harder to accelerate.

The weight of an object is the result of the

gravitational force pulling on an objects mass.

In different gravitational fields, such as the moon

or the Earth, an objects weight will be different.

Gravity

Gravity is a force that pulls

objects towards each other

There is a gravitational

attraction between every two

objects in the universe

You are most familiar with

Earths gravity

The acceleration due to

gravity (on Earth) is 9.8

m/s2

Mars and the moon both

have gravitational fields

smaller than Earth

Jupiter has more gravity

than Earth

g=9.8 m/s2

Calculating Weight

Weight is a force

measurement

Weight is the force exerted

by gravity on an objects

mass

Formula for calculating

weight (on Earth) is:

mass

weight

W mg

Acceleration

due to gravity

W m(9.8 m/s )

2

Gravity is

different on earth

and on mars so

the same mass has

a different weight

on each planet

Inertia

INERTIA is defined as the property of an

object to resist changing its state of motion.

Mass is a measure of the inertia of an object,

because the greater the mass of an object, the

greater the inertia of the object.

An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on

by an unbalanced force. An object in motion will

continue with constant speed and direction, unless

acted on by an unbalanced force.

describes the property of inertia.

Your personal experience of this: you are in a car

and you hit the brakes--your body tries to keep

moving forward.

The greater the mass of an object, the greater its

inertia.

The acceleration of an object is directly proportional

to the force acting on it and inversely proportional to

its mass.

When F, a (if mass remains constant); when F remains

constant, if a, then m

Mathematically, we write this law as F = ma

Force causes an object to accelerate, while the objects

mass resists acceleration.

Acceleration is equal to the ratio of force over mass.

Changes in speed or direction all involve acceleration.

Force causes acceleration, this is how we create changes in

motion

air resistance accelerate toward

the Earth at the same rate?

How can Newtons 2nd Law be used

to explain how air resistance

affects the acceleration of an

object in free fall?

How does Newtons 2nd Law relate to

what a weight scale would read as you

move up and down on an elevator?

The force & reaction force are a force pair, and they act on a

single object

apply to these situations?

a ball is tossed upward

a car windshield hits a bug

a person sits on a table

a person jumps up from the floor

a baseball bat hits a baseball

a truck and car hit head-on

Others?

The motion of an object depends upon the total of

all forces acting on the object.

The total of all forces is the NET FORCE.

Forces that push or pull in opposite

directions have opposite signs.

Imagine that the object that has forces

acting upon it is at the 0 place in

the center of a four quadrant grid.

Forces that push or pull the

object to the right are positive

Forces that push or pull the

object to the left are negative.

Forces that push or pull the object

below the x axis are negative

Forces that push or pull the

object above the x axis are

positive.

vector sum of all the forces acting on it.

Examples:

9 lb

8 lb

8 lb

6 lb

3 lb

4 lb

7 lb

12 lb

?

5 lb

is incorrect to assume that there

are no forces acting on the object.

We can only conclude that the

net force on the object is zero.

8 lb

4 lb

4 lb

7 lb

Equilibrium

When the net forces on an

object cancel each other out

(they are balanced), the

object is in equilibrium.

When two teams playing tug

of war are not moving the

rope one direction or the

other, they are pulling

equally, nobody moves at

all--equilibrium

When an object is in

equilibrium, the net force on

the object is equal to zero.

5N

5N

5N

5N

Friction

Friction is a force that occurs

between two objects moving

across each other

The surface of any object is not

perfectly smooth; the microscopic

hills and valleys cause objects to

resist sliding across each other

Friction is always opposite the

direction of motion (opposite the

applied force)

Friction in engines and other

machines causes wear, damage

due to friction interfering with part

movement

Friction opposes motion,

so when friction is

present in a system, we

get speed and other

motion measurements

that are less than we

predict

Friction is subtracted

from the force causing

motion

Types of Friction

Static friction

between two objects that prevents them from sliding across each other

Kinetic friction

two objects sliding across each other

Air resistance

opposing force caused by air moving around an object

Viscosity

the resistance of liquids to flow

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