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Trng H B Ra - Vng Tu

Mn: Ha KTC

Bi : iu Ch Axitphotphoric
Thnh vin nhm: H Din ng

Ni dung:
I. CTCT v tnh cht vt l
II. Tnh cht ho hc
III. iu ch
IV. ng dng
V. Mui Phtphat

I. Cng thc cu to v tnh cht vt l.


1. Cng thc cu to:
Axit photphoric (orthophotphoric): H 3PO4

Cao nht

H O
H O
H O

+5

P=O

hoc

H O
H O

H O

H
P
O

2. Tnh cht vt l
-Tinh th khng mu (trong sut), nhit nng
chy:42,5oC, rt ho nc, axit m c trong
nc l dd snh nh nc ng v H3PO4 tan
v hn trong nc.

S to thnh lin kt hiro gia


phn t axit vi phn t nc

OH

II. Tnh cht ho hc

1.Tnh oxi ho- kh:


- Kh b kh nhit thng (<350-400oC)
- nhit cao l cht oxi ho yu( c th tc
dng vi kim loi v c bit tc dng c vi
thch anh v thu tinh)
2.Tc dng bi nhit:
- Khi un nng n 260oC: H3PO4 H4P2O7

Axit iphotphoric

- Khi un n 300oC:H4P2O7 HPO


3
Axit metaphotphoric
- Hai axt ny tc dng chm vi nc
chuyn thnh axt ortho

II. Tnh cht ho hc

3. Tnh axt
C mnh trung bnh, lm qu tm ho , tc
dng vi oxit baz, baz, mui, kim loi.
a. H3PO4 (orthophotphoric): Axt 3 nc, mnh
trung bnh.

- Trong dung dch nc :


Nc 1 : H3PO4

H+ + H2PO4-

K1=7,6.10-3

Nc 2 : H2PO4-

H+ + HPO42-

K2=6,2.10-8

Nc 3 : HPO42-

H+ + PO43-

K3=4,4.10-13

- Tc dng vi dung dch kim: Tu theo t l s mol gia


axit v dung dch kim ta thu c cc mui khc nhau.
n
T= n

NaOH
H3PO4

T 1:

Tao ra NaH2PO4

T = 2:

Tao ra Na2HPO4

T 3:

Tao ra Na3PO4

Tao ra NaH2PO4 va Na2HPO4


1<T <
2:
2 < T < 3:Tao ra Na2HPO4 va Na3PO4

b. Axit iphotphoric (H4P2O7):


- Mnh hn axit orthophotphoric.
- Ta ch bit c 2 loi mui ca axit iphotphoric:
ihirophotphat (H2P2O72-) v mui iphotphat
trung ha (P2O74-)
- Mui photphat trung ha ca kim loi kim l d
tan.

c. Axit metaphotphoric: (HPO3)


- Mnh hn hai axit trn (H3PO4,H4P2O7)
- Dng ph bin: Axit trimetaphotphoric (HPO 3)3 v
axit tetraphotphoric (HPO3)4
- Mui metaphotphat ca kim loi kim v Magi l
tan c trong nc.

Phng php phn bit axit orthophotphoric


vi cc axit i v meta photphoric

Phn ng gia mui ca chng vi dung dch


AgNO3
Trng: i v metaphotphric
Lm ng lng trng trng: metaphotphoric
cn li l axit iphotphoric

III. iu ch
1. Trong phng th nghim:
t0
P + 5HNO3 c
H3PO4 + 5NO2 + H2O
2. Trong cng nghip: 2 phng php
a. Phng php trch ly:
Cho axit sufuric tc dng
vi qung photphoric hoc
apatit

Ca5(PO4)3F + 5H2SO4 + 10H2O

3H3PO4 + 5(CaSO4.2H2O) + HF

Trong qung cn t qung Cacbonat cng phn ng vi


H2SO4:
CaCO3 + H2SO4 + H2O
CaCO3.MgCO3 + H2SO4

CaCO3.2H2O + CO2
CaCO3.2H2O + MgSO4+ CO2

HF to thnh s tc dng vi SiO2:


6HF + SiO2

H2SiF6 + 2H2O

Tch H3PO4 ra khi kt ta, sau c c dung dch n 150 0C


ri lm lnh axt kt tinh, sn xut axit photphoric bng
phng php ny khng tinh khit.
Thit b ch yu dng c c axit photphoric l: sc bt v
ht chn khng.
+ Sc bt: - u im: nhanh chng.
- Nhc im: to nhiu mn axit.
+ Ht chn khng: C nhc im l tn nhiu ch v kim loi
chu axit, iu kin lm vic phc tp, thit b d b ng kt ta.

My ht chn
khng

b. Phng php nhit luyn: Bng cch oxi ho


photpho trong khng kh.
P

+O2

P2O5

+H2O

HPO3

+H2O

H3PO4

Cng ngh sn xut photpho trng

Phng php: Dng than kh Ca 3(PO4)2 nhit


cao: 1400-16000C, Photpho to thnh thng
hoa cng vi CO.
t
Ca3(PO4)2 + 5C + 2SiO2
2P + 5CO + 3Ca2SiO3
0

S sn xut:
L in

Thit b
ng
ng t

B cha

Thng gia
nhit

S lu trnh cng ngh sn xut axit photphoric


nhit luyn:
1: Thng nu chy photpho; 2: Thng cung ng; 3: Thng hon xung; 4: Vi phun;
5: Bung t; 6,9: ng dn kh; 7: Thp hydrat ho; 8: ng phun nc;
10: thp lc in; 11: in cc ngng t; 12: in cc phng in

P
H
H33PO
PO44
P2O5
HPO3