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1

, ..()


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.


(Dai, 2008)






(Lin &
Neumann, 2013)
(Mild Cognitive Impairment; MCI)
MCI

(dementia) (normal memory) (Dai, 2008; Petersen et al, 2010; Etgen,
Sander, Bickel, & Forstl, 2011) 10-15
1-2 (Bischkopf,
Busse, & Angermeyer, 2002)
2 2
( , 2556)



65 3-56

(Bischkopf, Busse & Angermeyer, 2002) 3,069


(Cardiovascular Health Study Cognition Study; CHS) 2,470
(Pittsburgh center) 599
465 18.8 75, 75-79, 80-84 85
18.8, 14.7, 22.6 28.9 19 18.7
14.1 45.5 23.5
13.8
130 21.7 75, 75-79, 80-84
85 20.7, 17.9, 24.0 38.9 25.6
19 17.9 35.1 28.5
16.4 (Lopez et al. 2003)
16-22
(Petersen et al, 2010)
2-30 6-85 (Visser, 2006)
10-20
(Etgen, Sander, Bickel, & Forstl, 2011)
(Etgen, Sander, Bickel & Forstl, 2011)
1. (Cardiovascular risk factors)
1.1 (hypertension)

1.2 (diabetes mellitus)

1.3 (hyperlipidemia)

2. (metabolic risk factors)


2.1 (chronic renal failure)

2.2 12 (vitamin B12 deficiency) 12


75 12 20
12
2.3 (vitamin D deficiency)
(neurotransmitters)
2.4 (hyperhomocysteinemia)

3. (endocrine risk factors)


3.1 (testosterone deficiency)
3.2 (subclinical thyroid dysfunction)
(hypothyroid) (hyperthyroid)

3.3 (estrogens)

4. (lifestyle factors)
4.1 (diet)


4.2 (physical activity)

(induction of cortical angiogenesis)

4.3 (alcohol consumption)



4.4 (smoking)
(cholinergic) (cholinergic)
(Grayson & Thomas, 2012)


(Center for Gerontology, 2006)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
(Busse et al, 2006; Mitchell et al, 2009, Pa et al, 2009; Lopez et
al, 2011)
1. Amnestic MCI - single domain

2. Amnestic MCI - multiple domains

60
2 5
3. Nonamnestic MCI - single domain


70

4. Nonamnestic MCI - multiple domains


(Salloway, 2006)

- - (Alzheimer)
(mild cognitive
impairment amnestic)
- (mild cognitive - (Alzheimer)
impairment)
- (vascular
-
dementia)
(multiple domains
slightly impaired)
- (mild cognitive - (Vascular
impairment)
dementia)
- -
(single
(Frontotemporal dementia)
non-memory domain)
- (Lewy body
dementia)
-
(Primary progressive aphasia)
- (Parkinson)
- (Alzheimer)

1. (basic activity daily living: ADL)






(Binegar et al, 2009)
2. (instrumental activity daily
living: IADL)

3.


blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
(CT scan) (MRI)
(stroke) (brain tumor)
(hydrocephalus)

(Lin & Neumann, 2013)
(Peterson et al; 1999)
1.
2.
3. (ADL)
4. (primary psychiatric
disorder) (brain injury) (systemic illness)
(pharmacological intervention)
5.

(Lake, 2006)


106
(Blieszner and Loberto, 2010)

(Mini-mental status
examination; MMSE)
(cognitive impairment) (orientation to time and
place) (registration and memory) (attention and
calculation)
(visuoconstruction)
11 23 30
14 17
22
(, 2556) MMSE

(Montreal
Cognitive
Assessment; MoCA)
MoCA
(2007) 8

(cognition) (executive function)

(visuoconstructional skills)
(naming) (memory) (attention)
(language) (sentence repetition) (verbal
fluency) (abstraction) (orientation)
10 30 25
1
MoCA (sentivity)
90 MMSE 18
MMSE 78 MoCA
100 (Nasreddine et al, 2005) MoCA



(, 2551; , 2556; Lopez et al,
2003)
1.




2.


(cognitive impairment no dementia) (Middleton, Kirkland, & Rockwood, 2008)
3.

4.

5.
6.

7.


100 5 6 90-120
3-5
(Reijinders, Heugten, & Boxtel, 2013)
8.

9.
10.

11.

12.

13. -3 (omega-3 fatty acids)


(cognitive
impairment no dementia) (Mazereeuw, Lanctot, Chau,
Swardfage & Herrmann, 2012)
14.
(reality orientation therapy; ROT) (cognitive stimulation
therapy; CST) (ROT)


(CST)

2
(cognitive ability)


( , 2553)

. (2553). : Rehabilitation of elders with


Dementia. . , 14(27), 137-150.
. (2556). Approach to dementia in primary care. Retived 10 January 2013,
From http://203.157.184.5/researchcenter/download/06012010/17.pdf
. (2551). .
: .
. . 20 2556.
http://v2.agingthai.org/files/users/3451/page/20100204_94330.pdf
Binegar, D. L., Hynan, L. S., Lacritz, L. H., Weiner, M. F., & Cullum, C. M. (2009). Can a direct
IADL measure detect deficits in person with MCI?. Current Alzheimer Research, 48-51.
Bischkopf, J., Busse, A., & Angermeyer, MC. (2002). Mild cognitive impairment-a review of
prevalence, incidence and outcome according to current approaches. Acta Psychiatr
Scand, 106(6), 403-414.
Blieszner, R., & Roberto, K. A. (2010). Care partner responses to the Onset of Mild Cognitive
impairment. The Gerontologist, 50(1), 11-22.
Busse, A., Hensel, A., Guhne, U., Angermeyer, M. C., & Riedel-Heller, S. G. (2006). Mild
cognitive impairment: Long-term course of four clinical subtypes. Neurology, 67,
2176-2185.
Center for Gerontology. (2006). Mild cognitive impairment (MCI): What do we now?. Retrieved
20 March 2013, From http://www.gerontology.vt.edu/docs/Gerontology_MCI_final.pdf
Dai, D. LK. (2008). Mild cognitive impairment: A clinical approach. The Hong Kong Medical
diary, 13(9), 11-16.
Etgen, T., Sander, D., Bickel, H., & Forstl, H. (2011). Mild cognitive impairment and dementia:
The importance of modifiable risk factor. Deutsches Arzteblatt International, 108(44),
743-750.
Grayson, L. & Thomas, A. J. (2012). Smoking, nicotin and dementia. Maturitas, 72(2012), 4-5.
Hemrungrojn, S. (2007). MoCA Thai Version March 15. Retrieved 10 January 2013, From
www.mocatest.org.
Lake, J. (2006). Nonconventional treatment of Dementia/Mild cognitive impairment.
Phychiatric times, 41-42.
Lin, P. J. & Neumann, P. J. (2013) The economics of mild cognitive impairment. Alzheimers &
Dementia, 58-62.
Lopez, O. L., Jagust, W. J., DeKosky, S. T., Becker, J. T., Fitzpatrick, A., Dulberg, C., et al. (2003).
Prevalence and classification of mild cognitive impairment in the cardiovascular
health study cognition study. Arch Neurol, 60, 1385-1389.
Mazereeuw, G., Lanctot, K. L., Chau, S. A. Swardfager, W. & Herrmann, N. (2012). Effect of
omega-3 fatty acid on cognitive performance: a meta-analysis. Neurobiology of Aging,
33(2012), 1482.e17-1482.e29.
Middleton, L., Kirkland, S. & Rockwood, K. (2008). Prevention of CINV by physical activity:

Different impact on VCI-ND compared with MCI. Journal of the Neurological Sciences,
269(2008), 80-84.
Mitchell, J., Arnold, R., Dawson, K., Nestor, PJ., & Hodges, JR. (2009). Outcome in subgroups of
mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is highly predictable using a simple algorithm. J
Neurol, 256(9), 1500-1509.
Nasreddine, Z. S., Phillips, N. A., Bedirian, V., Charbonnean, S., Whitehead, V., Collin, I.,
Cummings, J. L., et al. (2005). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: A brief
screening tool for Mild
Cognitive Impairment. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53, 695-699.
Pa, J., Boxer, A., Chao, L. L., Gazzaley, A., Freeman, K., Kramer, J., et al. (2009).Clinicalneuroimaging characteristics of dysexecutive mild cognitive impairment. Ann Neurol,
65(4), 414-423.
Petersen, R. C., Robert, R. O., Knopman, D. S., Geda, Y. E., Cha, R. H., PanKratz, V. S., et al.
(2010). Prevalence of mild cognitive impairment is higher in men: The Mayo clinic
study of aging. Neurology, 75(7), 889-897.
Peterson, R. C., Smith, G. E., Waring, S. C., Ivnik, R. J., Tangalos, E. G., & Kokmen, E. (1999).
Mild cognitive impairment: Clinical characterization and outcome. Arch Neurol, 56,
303-308.
Reijinders, J., Heugten, C. V., & Boxtel, M. V. (2013). Cognitive interventions in healthy older
adults and people with mild cognitive impairment: A systematic review. Ageing
research reviews, 12(2013), 263-275.
Visser, P. J. (2006). Mild cognitive impairment. In Pathy, M. S. J., Sinclair, A. J., & Morley, J. E.
(eds.). Principle and practice of Geriatric Medicine. (4th). Amsterdam: John Wiley &
Son.
Salloway, S. (2006). Buying time: The management of MCI and Early dementia. Retrieved 10
January 2013. From
http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=468545

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1. Amnestic MCI - single domain
2. Amnestic MCI - multiple domains
3. Nonamnestic MCI - single domain
4. Nonamnestic MCI - multiple domains
6.
1. IADL
2. TMSE
3. MoCA
4. MMSE
7. 70

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8.

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9. 69

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10.
1. (Alzheimer)
2. (Parkinson)
3. (Vascular dementia)
4. (Frontotemporal dementia)
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