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.J..Il.JJ=1 : ~j~ \ a.l.4\S.11Ai\.bJ1

(1

-1 1;r.~"""'..J.

..,.,.= ,

~.,..J I

;";\bJ1

~I~ . ~,..".-..JI ~\S.I\

A.i\bJ\ .

_ _~11w,.~1
~~I ilu' " ~ b>..uJ . (B ) ~~y~ (A)~~I V" fi">...w .......
(~I )

(C)

~ Ei >"b-I.I ;";\bJ1 l u;r-'l' ~ il u'>"'"

(C) .1 (A ) "" ..,.~

(u'>)~I. ~I) ;u.,.J1) ~y 1

B+

(C) .1 (B) (A) ~I~I il ;u.,.J1;";u.. JIS:.:.I ~~ ~ 1


.bj4-J1>.bo.J

J..

~2

;u.,.J1)~y

.....

. (C) .1 (A) ~J1' "" L41...,,.\bJI' 1 .a,.]1


( ~I )

. 2.1 l;wl >J1;..J1" ",6.~I -",1


1o.!lb..,..,.4lj"j~1 ~))u ~4.:U~j~l b~~ .~
~ >"b-I.I ;";\bJ1, 1>,. .......;. il )I~~I ~ ~ ....1""'.1 .)~y D""
.4..,l1:!

..hJ\
(....,..o) ~ \ + ....~ I)

~u

i\l.-ll

il..!lbJl JlS..o.l .J..!~

. 1

!l

Ei, EPPA~ OJ, EeA=OJ , A~,-JI J

~,

~'
o{b~I "-bo.J) , Ce',-JI J .

Epp,=OJ, Ei, Eee

-"'1.

~r-____________________--'-"CI...o= "',-'c:J<.=
' '-~
=<

~u.:

, '4Jl1.Il ~\5J\ 4,\bJ\ ..

..l,aI.J..j.:l ,

~.r-JI

4.i1.bl\ ..

( ~ ') d.4;.J~ 4_ ..,..

a.!lbJ\ JIS:..1.1..l,a~

.!.l

Ei, EeA=OJ , Ae',-JI J .


(""Jill) J>-" o<i ~,..:u,,;I Lil Epp 0' ~ ~j
Bi,Ee B

, BEj4l\ ~

<-""Y""";c;.,.b ~iI(B)F~ I ,;IEi ~",,(A)~~I ,;I Ei oI 6.~

.w,orJ.l1

Ei, Eee

, (b~1

"-bo.J) , C e',-JI J
~ ~lhh

..,.
._ J b

il)..,..
.

~)

ili

"" yr''\:Jl..9
p,-J-1J

(..r:--'
__ II) il)..,..
. J_

!\ po?J1 .!.l

<Il>1~ ~~)
. . ill'

; u..

6. ~

"

~.b. '~0' :>b; !:"\:JI )~~I J;~II.:u,.9 , ~I <o.l.;>u'! Wm l.;>:..U~~.?'

.(Ee) ~.r-l, ""\b .l;1j-lli ""Jill ,bOy bA...., ~I ~ ,,>.ill"" (~""Jili


, ~l.6

31

'4jA\bJ\ ;:"1.! , o,J \ ~ \.iI

E"

. 1.
W

Wm

Ec... =O

~.$;lr~.r-=:~ ~! ~4~jS-j~)~1 ~~~l bid-~ . ~


~ ~1 ~\b.lU ~ ~ j.~:il A JI.."r> ~ J.J~~ , o\\.uo...i ~\j ~;:il l,)A ~
~\;...i'iL) ~ ~.:.>'

<1.:...t?

.J~'-' ~1y.j"i

~i-,

EP miC

.Bemie

~,s:.....,~,

(Bi) ~ l...l ~\b ~I.! ~, lOlOm jAj ~I).lllj ~j.?J\ .J~I ..l,.J.> ~ ..llLi.,l'il , 1

.<cyl:. ~u.,.

..,.,Ij.>' J "'; ()S.4; ~ .)\:>J\,>j ~'~.J.'-

. ""~~.>"' ';'j""""'J~' ~,j" h=4m

twh:,.. b>....,J ~.!J-_

.<cyl:. ,......u Bi
.

'i~ \.l4.,

~~

I,)j-l

( ~1 Ul.b ll) E ,

.- .

Epp, Be ~ Lill....
. h tWJ~

BiJ)
40

>",!>'.JJ''''u..J' ,;.1
BiJ )

40 f - - - -

401-- -",

20
;;0t---'\2-'::;4~m+,hlm) "0; f - - - - +h1m)
. ~I (:0

0;;l"' -2;-.....,
4m::+h1m)

,.aJ ~L:J.I il..i1l.:aJ, ~ JSJ..l.J.> ~

,\!~Ib 6J j';'" "'" J. j , . . ,~ (..,.,)-~) ou..,.J' "'Ib ",1J. ~

..

...!.l:i..Jb
. 1) .

. h=2mtwA..~ ~ .,,~u..J"" 'o..J' Ji.. ~ 3

...wl
f ol "'~ (u'>;1 - 1"-'") >J..,.J

Epp '43= .... ~I Aj\bJ1 ",i,.w

~ , ~..w, Lo=(Epp=OJ) ...., ..... ~, uS---; Lo f oi h

t""J~1 "'~ I.! uS---; Lo

~'

.(h=Om) t",,_,~1
('43u.:J1

.... ~I

','a

u'>J~1

Ajlb\! ."..,...,ll c$J'-l1 .."..

1 E, =Epp l

1-"",)

,,,,.! .(E,) ~ t" ,j.'1J' (..llO.lll .-""

J.,ol,;o:;, .h=4m t",,;I~I \,I (Ee=OJ) .... -'-'-"-' ",p

1 'u' ~I ~ 0"

",1 ) ,,"",1

~ Ee ~ r-l, Aj\'oJl Loi,

(h) "-"-"";1 ""'" WS .)'-'-I~, -foi ..1....< ,--,.JI .,... WS ~ .

,0

",1' "'""" (h=Om) ,,,,1 t",,)~I~..w, Lo= Ee=40J uS---; Lo ~i ~,


1

Ec~~\~El ~1 1

~I Aj\bJ1 ~ ~ ~ ~ W, t""J~1 "'~ ~ ,

E, = '-"II> ",1 h>-~ ~

E1=Ec

E2=E

E=Ei+Ee+Epp

:0 j !

E'4KI141..!1bI1~E2 ~IOj! , E
. ..,.4 Lob ~1 "\bJI.bl... ~ ~ 2

(E, ",,,,pl)

Epp=40J

(El "'''' p

Ee=OJ

l)

E=Ei+401

. (h =4m) t",,;I ~I .) .

E=Ei+40+0

Ec=40J

Epp=OJ

= ~1..J.:..,!~ \ E 0~ ~l:!(E)

oi b>~

.4~1b >.J,joA
h=2m t.I.i;l ~ A,, ~lbJl ,,1 ..
Epp=20J

o...Jl

,,,,1 E, ~I .;,.o .>,..; t",,~1 W

Ec=20J , .>,..; w...1. E, ~I.;,.o,

h=2m , h=4m =t.o:;)~1 "'" ....11;".:ll;l.:..:..,


Epp, =20J
Ec,=20J

--_.

Epp, = 40J
Ec,= OJ

'\!
'l,

__----..:'..,4~
- _L.b ",,.IJ,,J"I, o..J1",1> )

pp,.401

"1""
,
Ec 2 =20J
..... 1. ... Ee =OJ

"Jf-. ~I

1 o~\

a3\bJ13 J.u.l1 .;.2 i>..I>~1

o.9\hl\9 ~~\

Be,W '4,Ib.....:.~1

-~
,0

. ~~,4 .!i;

' f

~~l.:I .l!BB'B )t.......J'l$j'~ AA'A ) t.......J\

, 2J~'

A..........

"

ii '" .......~
. . ,........~~.........._..

........,....."..,..,,s"

B'
" BB'B" ) ~'"",
'i') ~ AA'A" ) W04-I"

,
' , '~.
".o.=J-'""'I.:I
"
__ 1'" ~.
, -~~

I ~

. . ,., 'llJG. ,3 cS""


"CS.:.JI.....l..,)I
.. _ ll b ~
",~ 'e" '-i"
_) .9-'-4 ) t...o,..,
. ......
. . - 6...U'>.S
.
? .!l~
_
.
\--.Wl:i::.J ~)...l.:!9

c.'.A

".'0 .' 4, ~ ) l1),.,j ~l l.a~.J> d.....1).l ~

\jJ .V (u:~1

,.w..J ~t,. V

"".1"" ~1 ~1 1.i4l .;.I Jj1j ,~I w Jf'o >.s.J> u..)~.!lI';"


.~

2
2
~ b d..b..i 01 Jll ~ pj:J t$.lJI ~ ~ \..i..jl ~ I.l J~ ~~1 ~I o~

U' JjLI

. ~ I ';~\ .,..a

.~=lj.,.~J...al ' , ~.

:"'=' t.wl .;J'./ <J L. c:? ~ L; ',.,; ~ ) )


~AB ~" ;,,, . )t...o.;oj I,'"h",
J.O.l. \.0=...,1> F ...,I> .,. J-'
~~

>.b;

WAB(F ) = F.d cosa

, a.,.JUJl o) \.,uJl,I

AB , F ~",jljJl "" a , ABJ=~I y>d , ~

-ct

-F, '
,

............. .A
f-'---r'''--.i .........
S
J =~lt ~

i.......... .

)I.JI

:.;,.., L> cO>)J L.

.","'_F......_ _ct_ _ B
0.=00

=0,.;.\0

<4?-"""" ,;1.9 ABJ=~I..,.b- "sj!j, F>.,>JI""b-.;.1b l

W ~()= Fd<o'O, ...... J...al' . J~ : . ... , ,.; casO =1 , .)llJt,.j

u = 1t
Q

com = - 1 t" a =n '!>~w..~ l.4IjAB // F j.oblS I~!


1

w jii)=-Fd

w j i i) = Fd (-l )

' '''-'j

,Q

1t

'~!

W ,,(F) =Fdcos- =Fd (O)


2

.J =~ I j.ob ')'<'I;>~

'#' j.ob \S I~! ~j"'" ~~


4

, Ji- >1-"".,.J~l.!J1 J = ~I >Jb


O=a

'

WAB(P)=P.h

W ,,(P) = P. hcosa

cosa = 1: ~!
, ~ ~I ~..l.AJ1 ~I>

Ail ~"ftl' )t.... ~ >JWI .a \.1


cosa

w AB(P)=P.h

,-

: IV
O
..l...
A
p

37

:.31 h=AB. cosCt. q,),j!

, ~)'\ ~ ~ j-it.:J\ ~.lAl1 ~llil Jllli J,..c.

h,,

W,..(P) = P. h.cosa
h
;Oyl = AB ,01 ,..J.>..; ~

) jt,.!1

. te.:'~1 J w;,w.. ~ ,j.oWI ..,..o.; l.4I)i j

"1

P l l)l;

W,,(P)= -P h

'~!

"g~IJ JA:JI."" ~ J,..!l~ I "")o 0" ~1';')olY ~ ~ JA:JIJ..o

.""",,jA-l1"'" H t l,;) ~I

Z
ZB

n n __ n _ n

Ji

1 W(p) = p(Z , -Z , ) 1 Ji 1

W(p)=ph

h = IZ , - Z,1

-p

e-'

.l.;> jA JA:JIJ..o " jS.;,.....-J1~

I~!

.4J1.. JA:JIJ..o "jS.;,.....-J1-'=' I~! .

: W~ ~ Ec ~~I "IblI - 3

a.L+<
o

..

A.........llL V ~

-. __

_ .

v .... ........... .
r=+-Y
__ ______
.r

~b.......,j \ ~->J.~
..!.l -

Ec = -MV'
2

. .

~~

lM ~ ~ A...S~ ' i\.!lb.!1


, "-JWI.)laJu
.. ... .. ~
' --1
.
. . ~w~
l~
.( Kg) .;,.....-JI ~

,M

.(m l s).; i6.~1 rWl ~y,.....-JI "".,..

,V

. (J).;~~~I "'\blI , Ec

1 -i>r"l\
~J>"o J\ (Yl?-~1 ;..>1
1

~ ~ d..,.y~! ~. d.l <.?jJJ ~1 .!1


.4..1"'
~ c\bu &-4?")
..:J1 t...,..
.)~

.~ 6.bw~ ~1)\..u...G ....,.,

, )~l,I ~ ~ d~~J .!l~ ILi.,ll:J F~ ~ ~


W(F)=Fd.o. "
W(F)=Fdcosa ....,.,

W(F) = Fdsino. '-?-

~,.w~u V <U~fol'>.&.rjM~~~pJl"\bJI ~
EC ="'2

M2V2

1
,
Ec =-M V

....J

1 ,
Ec=-M
V. ->
2
.
~ 0" h =U)1 .".ill (A) ~jA-l1 C>-'

")"."''''''''''''1

-\

fol' Jill! ~ P J:iilll';": ~

)t.,..ly..,w,.. '-"')~I ~0" z, .,.~.H .".ill (B)~jA-l1 ci!


W(P)=P(Z, -Z,) ,

W( P) =P(Z ,-Z ,) , .."


W(P) =-P(Z,-Z,) '-?-

J;Jl

. ,

~ 4

2~~\

J>:.:Jy c,""y ~ ~ F.}Ab ~ a

-FoJAlI ~..,...,.I ~ 1

W--- YL
"

~ 20 "'jl; ~ d

J)l> 'JAl' .~ >.b..~1 ""1bO...~1 ..,...,.1 ~ 2


.llt = 5s (rj

d=4 rn

..h.l\

F jAlJ WI F j...J1~I..> ~ 1
, "",,'--""~y W(f)~ Fd _co,a , ~ W(f) ')~ ~
W(f ) ~ IOx4xco,20
W( F) ~ 40 x 0,94 , riW
------::
( F'--)~

-3J'1

p ~3B , JoU . -- " 1..


.
~::!"""""" .

P ~- .

p ~ W(F)
6'

1 P;;;7,6Watt 1

m"
P

,lL P . FcSJAlIJi.' 1>1.. ~ 1


')4-Jll ~W!R) j W(P) jW(F) ..,...,.1 ~

.d=2KmJI.".mdj ~ 1"; . ) I...o,;t~


m = 1400Kg , )4-J1>.Ub
.g = ION/Kg , R = 1,2 .1O' N , F = 3 .10'

--

chJl

.( >br-l"j>JI );)L,..JI ~>;~."... . F ;j>JI . l


.P = mg ;)L,..JI J:a:.;~.".... P ;j>J1
.

l>J~' ~ ~ybl' ~.lJ oj! ,i 'u-")J.jJ\ [)~ : Rl>j4l1

(il ) j P j F ~.."I..> . 2
J=~I Ji.:. t.b ,<u:Y.:JlcSj>J1 Ji.:.

(a) "'jljll ""'" J4..,> ~ d"",~I

.J=~lj;~..lb ~

-~

W(F )= F.dcosa ,d=2Km =2000m


(l

,0

- JAl>

W(F) =3.10' x2000x cosO


. .!l__ ~ F

~l ukJ""'(+) ;)W.~I

...... j

1 W(F)=6.10' J=+6.10' KJ

:'3 '
]

=0, j !, ~~~,d JAl> I$jlj:.1 F

"

"

W(P) = P.dxcos- >! (-) cSjW


2
2W(P) = Pd x O

1 W(P)=OJ 1

,il'

r~J=~ l uk ..,>~I ;j>JI ~ >!

, W(R) ",,1..>

.li

a = 30' ~ja = 150'. ~ , W(R) = R .dcosa


W(R) =1,2.10' x2000 cos 150'
=2,4.lO' (- 0,866)
W(R) =-2,o8.lO'
1 W(R)=-2,1. 10'

41,

JI

'Z.

A ...~ .....
......

B
I >JWI

AB =50cm , ABJUW!J,>I""F =5, ON~<?, F 'j>ll

10J . 2, 5J. 250J


2,5J . OJ . 2,5J , y>JWJ~\; . 2
-2,5J . 250J . 2,5J , .,.. >JWJ ~\; . 3

-!>JI

.3

[ 2,5J [.

5 c.D. .. 1
. "~, ,, (m = 100g
. ~)~.4J 1 ~\J l.....tJl ~ ~~ l ~~ ~

: ..L>-J\
)t..... .J5. J JA:JI J..<c ~'->

W ( P) ~ Ph Oy d ; -%.J10) t.,.J1,o h .)~WJIJ=~I ,L<>1(h.J"'Jl o~...,b>;


..,lc ~I .?' J=~l ~ ! ~~ . (+ ) O)\.:. ~1

~.
~.

~ ~I .?' J =~l~ c;! ~~,

(-) O)\.:.~1

.(h) .)~WJl t)~I ..,lc ~J.W .!l~I J,o)o>JI ..,lc ~ ~ J"'olI J,....!

',~

. (B ), (A ) ()':!

W ( P) ~ - Ph ~- m g h

(1))c....lJ ~I,o.

2em.,. J4.o 9'>' (B ), (A ) ()':! .)~WJl t)~1 .h


h=5 x2=10m ' v.3! lem
Sm ~)! I,.)"'~~j
W(P) ~ - 0,l x 9,8 x l0
. ........ "".9"

Nr-I
- ----,
. W(P)~ -9,8J

-~

.(2))c....lJ ~I,o.

rlW-(-'p)~OJ
-'I

~! h = Dm
(3))c....lJ ~I,o.

R' ~ 5m u.. 9'>, (B ), (A )()':! .)~WJ l t)~1 J.WJ,. .) t......Il (Y f"4,I ~

W(P) ~+ mgh
~

0,1 x 8,8 x 5

. m = 58,4 g ~ """" o;SJ 269Kml h 01.;-,,",


.Be

'~!

Jp-,...

~pJl ~lh~1

~ I . ~ ~",.JI

"Ibll ~b>

, "'" ~rol' ..Ibll. ) "" ..,b>:l

Ec =- mV 2
2

269
V = 36 =74,7m/s , ..........(mls) J! \fl~ , V =269Kmlh , u"..Il

Ec=~(58,4.10-')(74,7)' ' .......... u'>~

Ec ~163J

J"'" .,. ~b ""'" .....I .;.,;b " ?-JI (>AM = 1200Kg ~

' )4-.

..

.d = 200m ...l.....::ab> t. ..... ,(108Kmlh) '-"'.,..JI ~ F,=3.103N ~ F,

.f =300N ~ .....~ f .!J~! '~ ~.)c"..J101 u'>' ..


. ,,)lb:,~1 <Ib.J(Ec,) ~",.JI ~110.,....,.1 . 1
. 200m ...b. ~ <Ib.J(Ec,) ~",.JI ~110.,....,.I n
.(Mc) ~roll ~Ilo"...,>:llI ~1

~ P ~I <5 ~I F.

(c ) )c"..J1;,,)11= fo -'" ~

.3

Ji;.

. ,.~...4>~I ~I .,....,.i . 1

.5

.LW(F) <5~I .:u.&4?-j~I t".,...~; . ""


$~L.. ,L W(F) j LlEc ~~)\j
. ~ ~1 ~~1 t).,a ~ I.llA

e l .!!
.-.,..1

..hJ\
. .j)lb:,~1 <lb.JEc, ~",.J' ~Ilo."b>
' ) c"..J1 il , V, = Omis

uS'

1 Ec ,

M V~ l

EcJ =OJ

,"'" ~rol' ''Ibl'')""


:.l!

.1

:Be2 ~.r-J\ 4.!1bJ' -,.Il........> !l 2

(m/s) JJJ~V, =108Km/h ~ Ec,=!:.MV~


2

' J4..I1

V =108 Km = 108 =30mls


,
h
3,6

'.~

Mc

= 5,4.10'-0 , 1Mc =5,4.1O' J

'; Jc,...ll >J\bc foJ-' ..... (c) ~


<5j>.l1~ J4>,

.!l~~I ;~ ,

f ,<6.~I ;j>.lI,F,
Z,)4-Jl~ ,

.; Jc,...ll (J ';").1J.:. ""'" lA ,1,(J.o.4l1~J) ..,....~I ;j>.l >.,..bUll "-'=r-JI R,

, ;) j-! .JS.l ~~I _l.-ll ..,-l'l.......> 1 !I 5

W( F, !=+Fd =3 .lO' x200= 6.10' J

~'

W((! =- fd = - 300x200 = -6.10' J

: z,) ~ I ~;)P ~ I..s # \ ~~~ J ~ l ~-.".I1.......:> . ~

Iw (!= W ( F, ! + W ((!+ W (P!+ W ( R, !


=6.10' - 6.10' + 0 + 0
1I W cP! - 5,4.10' J

I W(F) j (Mc) .Jl,> "'; l4.!1 . 1 ~ 6


1

Mc = I W(F)=S,4.10 , J
Mc= I W(F)

~.e-JI

'l ~

4A1.b.l\ 6...!# ~ ~\ ,)~


~

''';;.,JI I

l Ji".)l;

. .,.

__ 1\ li\bJ1..I .\;....
.
. J - <.P'

r-

W(F).sj>J1&4?' Jt..ol ~ .,sjl. >J..,.J Mc ~r-J' '''1bJ1 "";:> !

.Mc= I (F) ~ .:-',w...J~t,.Oj '~

.100m u'~1 ~0" t"'-" J.? WC>-'..,;-.~,.J,> v-...."


.,'j4Il tA '"14> ~I
.150Kg.,sjl. ~1 ~l L.lcJ>ll" ,.0=~i ~ l

g=9,8NI Kg
~..r-J I

a51.b.l1....,..,.....:>1., lil.b.lllO~! A1.l1.a.o ~1 !J

.(,'j4Il"'j"'" J..4') . u' ~1 ~ J! Alj">j >JQ,.J ~

..ll4>~~~1 !J 3

~.r-l' '''1bJ1 "'".., ~t:i....1 ~ ...I J,.,j ~ ",,.1bJ1",mJI J... ~


.
,
..!il.b.ll JQ~l dJ.ll.a.4 UA li~1

c.W\

W(P) =+ P.h
W(P) =mg h=lS0 x 9,8 x 100 =147000
W(P)=1,47.1O' J

J>lll ',00= ...1..> ~ l


.U \>
Jo.r.. >.lb 'iJ..r:o . ~ . _ II I l.".
.

d..i\bJ\ b\..:....j! AJ..lI..:&.4 A,il.S ~ 2


(~ I

ci! Ot....,JI(>'

~ ~I...,I~\

3-',~

-:
,0

.,,=,)

.~WI ~L, ~ ~I ~ ....\bJ1blh.;! >.bt...

d..ilbll + d l!Q; ",h d..ilbl\

OI..A..I d..i\bll =

~ ~~ I

M\bJ\

. ~ )b.J I

4b~ I' Wl ~.?A.i\b . . ' "lS!

. . l ~ :J ~d..:~ I A.i\bJ I

Ee, + W(P) - a =Ee,


' ...i?) ~ \

r...b.... ~ b~\ i\h.J ~ ~I d..i\bJ\ -.,.Il....>

~~)i rWl~'L,I U==l.. ~~\ (.l:J Vl =Om/s ~ Ec J= ~mv ~ ,~..


Ecl =OJ :(.l.ll .J+?JI .)..c. Al~ !
.

" ~I "'jwJ~~ I':"'j L: W!F) = W( P) .,) \.6

Ee, = l,47.1O'J

. .....j

1 Ee,= W( P) 1

~!

4.6::. __ 1\ A.!\bJI Ou .~', ?:,I..:i...l:i.- .r-.;-- ....


Ec,+W(P) =Ec 2 ?.j\bJ\ b~\ AJ..lbA -"

. f ""'~ .:J~! ~ ....I .......... ':;.,.I4l"-l.:JP:;j M=O,5K~ "-.JI' t" "


1-""'--'Ajj ..... M i M I , Mo y~' ~\~..,...i~I ~' ~~' ~jJl

(, = 0,04s)

111 t 1t 11111
. (V, .

n!111 111111111

v,. v, U..JI <,SI)(M,)' (M,), (M,)

t""~' <J "-.,-JI a.c.>"' ..... ____ 1 "

1
. (M,) J (M) ~~I "'" il;jA\bJidI 1 ..JIl.=1 ,, 2
) .:J~~I jA J...c. -'? ,;";\bJIIOw.,.;! 1-4-' J~" . 1 ,, 3
o

Wa

.f..!.l~~I;;';~~I . '-.,.I

cW\
(M ,). (M , ). (M , ) <""I~I J "".,-Jl a.c.>-" ..... ~l..> ,, }

1~-.,..I).A~jJ4-A~'O;j .. ~~ d.b:..J~ VA .:h...lll Ac.;-Jl ' l ~

..,...jJl J l,.l11.4l Vm .......,o...J1a.c ~I

=
V =V

=.'!... I

r -__~~~,L_____
-__~~~t~
1

V ,= MO;:'

,~

'V, l h >llIa.c.,-lI .....

~ ul "'j .....,jlI J~1 ,-l-JI J~"j M ,M , .... 7cm..,., """"",,


1MgM,=O,28cml

. ..... MgM, =7x4=28cm , u . ! 4cm _ _ lcm

,v =
l

0.28

2xO,04

: .l! , t =0,04 5 , l..l..!...lI


-

, v ;" b...l!1lu: .;-'

.,11 ~

2~

: ~~'J~4jM1M3-75cm ~i.>"'~\,I

3-

V ]= M M

M,M, = 5 x 4 = 20cm = 0,2m ,-_ _ _ _-,


1

2t

. V = 0,2
. , 2(0,04)

V,=2,5m/s

,v3 4,- b.,. lh ~ .r,I, ~


_

~'

'.~

..,.. .......l M,M,

=3 x 4 =12cm =0,12m
V,

=1,5m

V =

/
5

0,12

2( 0,04)

:i

J! "\Jo r.lXo I..>..';..J\.. J,o ~~ ..\Jo ~ ~ .)w", '...J>ll <6. ~. ~ .J.,>JO ~

',~

'4J,

,Wm,= W(j ) ~~ J,o"":;.l".l ( f ) .!l15:O.>~1 '~...,......

.....JIO.JI b..~1

Ec,J!(Ec,) 0" ~",.JI ~\Jo ~y.,wJ1

.".. w;. ...~\bJ 1 >.k.WI ",t. I.lJ.l


Wm :W(P)

,W ( f ) .!l15:O.>~1 '~ J..<o [<=-1 . 1 .

(}..,.JI J ! u;...,l10" ",=1) ."\bJ1bu.,.;, >,6.. ~

AA...!..4.Jl d.Au.:Jl

;"I ., Ai ",

Il d,j\bJl + ~ ~ I...ll,1';i\ d,Alb.ll

~ ~~\

49

a!\bJl =

l
2:1
- W(f)=--M(V
-V ' \
2
,"

- W(j) = -1(0,5)(3,5' -2,5')


I - W(f) = -1,5J

.J~ '4'\ ~ ~ ~I.....> ...,...

d=M,M , , .:c;.tH'.. W(j) =-fd


f = 1,5
0.12

'ut,-h>

M 1M 2
~ 3em ' ~iJ"'~y
d=M,M , =3 x 4=12cm , ..,...,.w' J~~j

1 f= 12,5N 1

~ ,V, ..,,'....! ",_.!l~ ~' ''''J..4"","",; ."..t ~,,~ "'fo~"'


. J,.\4.l' ~' ,;l~~ jA ~ ~G.J.!lF"" ' V, =4m/
.(B), (Al ~ ~'jA-l~ r.ll

d.A~ ,

il!\bJ\ - ;"I.'i,,' q Il il!\bJ\ + ~yS1.l


~yS1.l ~lf.J\

~ \~~1

<.U\bJ\

ai\bJ\ =

(~~'~"\'>j>~)F =O~W(P)=OJ 'OSJ E,+W(F)-W(;)=E ,


(.!lln>"~"\'>j>~lf = 'o ~ Wcf)=OJ ,.!lJ~
J=~I ...,Lo ,,~_ R, 'o ~ W(R , )=OJ

E,=EA
1

'O.!

'oI J!'4-"~It"

J=~I...,Lo,,~_P~W(P)=OJ ,.!lJ~

VA= Vo = 4m1s

, ~.:.A
1;..-

.!mV 2=..!.mV 2
22

, ;)Ib-J, ~ )~ , ~I... l ~ 2

,.. ,---- -

(A) ~~I"" "'lbJl lOl4o.,;l >J~l..o w.;1 ~

, ,,1

'

"";-JI "",~..Ll ".iJI(B)j


Eea

=OJ , ....... j

E", +O - W( P) =ECB

ECB =

~4I-iJ \ il!1bJ\

W(F) =OJ o.! . ....."...~..\,>j>

, ECA

VA =Om/S
1

, .l!

= ~\~::.'\ <.U1bJ\

~ oSJ , W(P) = ,1.';" , h "'1bJ1


OJ= ;"':i , q 1t ailbJ\ .:.Aj

w(P) = mgh = .....l4.l1 ....\bJ1


("-!lt.. ",j!:l) -

mgh =.....l4.lI ....\bJI , ,,,l'~'''''' >';~I ", t..,.,

."s:..J1J,.\4.l1JS:.WI\,l (....,.. ,., w= (B) , (A) "'" .;,.\.lJ1tU)~I,., ,h .;,.p.


R = h, + h , ~JS:.W'

(.>A

1 h=R-h,

, ~1.bJ11O~1 ~..l1.M ~ ~~

- mgR(1 - coso.) =

, <UA,

\..cI.u..J\ djlbll, ~!

BeA +O-mgR( l-coso.) =ECB

1
, mgR ( 1-C050. )=1
-mV
A-mV s,
2
2
l

.!mV!- mgRCl -coSCl) = O


2
1

mgR(l - cosa) =-mV~


2

mV'
1- casa = _ _
0
2gR

',j!

v'

coso.=l-~

2gR

a ~_A.>

cosa= l -

(4) '
2(10)(1)

: ~LJoD~

0.=78,5

!J 3

j ., - - - - - - - - - - _ . : . . . : . . . = = ;
-::>
.-<

,.,...".~

, (AB) ..,," 1..,,_l'.~r' .\... "'""


.,.j >..ll..wl'"
.
.
.JM' u' j ..u. (A)

>.W.;, (>-'
. "'""""
" - y.A
"

. Vs = 15m/s ....,..., u = 30 .... "j\j .(BD)Jli.4".....,I..\; .....j (B)iIb4.J

~:
3-

.m=80Kg.s
J...:)",->~ " -., . II >.l;b .
. j
. oH "'""""r ~j

.!l~~I.si

:>-"

AB =100m J=~I ,l.i>I ~ j:M.JI i4J.i,.;c}J1 F.....I.JJI .JAlI ..... -.,....>1 ~ 1

'.'lI

.0

. (B) ~jA-lI (>-' 1; 1..w1 i4J.i,.;,," I ~.:,oJI ~ ~j:M.JI '-'.!j< ~

.BC =20m 1 Wc , (C)~jA-lI.;lVc ~ j:M.JI ....JM'~I

','ll

. 1

.g = 9.8NIKg;,.;.~
.BD )J....JIJjb~I>,(D)='-'.!""~j:M.Jld~! ~ 3
. ~j:M.JI iI4...J (C) j (B) ~jA-lI ();, .,.,.Ibll 'IJ, o ~ 1 bd ~

..wl
F~l..l11 ~,.;All ~ ~I.....>
R

!J

~ j'..JJ (C) OJIbsJI fo.Jo' (>-' .sJAlI J.l..:o OJj&-Il ......,.

C+--+ F
;0;. .......- 1 - -...

-p

(B) j (A) ~jA-lI ();, "Ibll b\h;! OJ>l>.o ~

E", +W(F)=E" , WcF)=E",- E",


ECA =OJ l..O;lj ,W(F)=F.AB ,~

1
2

F.AB= - mV,-O W(P).

F= 80x(15)'
2x100

F=90N

. ~u"~

, Vc ~I.....>

JS

li.9

~!

!J

Pw> 9 dl> j.W1 ~ ~P j..-ll "". ~I Jl.:> i

hl [

h2

--_""-::-I-"!!- - - - -' - - -'- - - - _.


A

P
.t... .
( C) .9 (B)'"'" 6..\bJl bth.nJ~l.A'
.
..,..,-

1 :2
.,
".,' 1
:2
1 :2
-V,-gh,
=-Vc
m J~. - mV,-mgh,=- Vc,
2
2 .........
'
~-2
2
1

E" + 0 - W(P-) -- Ecc

sina 6..~ ~ I-'J. (a) "'.9'jlJ J,.\4.JI.9"(h, ).:>"l


1

- V s-gxBC x sma = -V c2
2

1V

c=JV ~- 2g. BC.sina

V c=5,4m /s

h
h
, sma =----L. l= BCxsina
BC

1 . Vi- 2g.BC.Sina = Vg ,~(2)~'-:-I~


V c=~(15) 2 -2x9,8x20xsin30 ' ~~p.J

. BD ) 1......)1J jb.,.l-> 2
.(h,) t tAo)~I w.,1.9 ' BD ..1......)1 J~I t" ,J;WI JS.l.l1...,..., ~

..w ( D) .9(B)

""",jA-lI"", 6..\bJ1 bth,;! 1..... J~Y

Va =Omis , """, ~! ( D ) ~~I ="""~ JI> j4.lll J...>j


h2 = V ;
2g

V'

'<> BD =
0-

(15) '

2(9,8) sin 30

BD =

=23

vi

2gsino.

_BD
_=
_ 2_3_m....J

LI

~
,0

, o1 ~

2g

-.~ ,

.Q

~~j

h2 = BDsin a.

BD .sinn =-'

~,

-~

. !mV ;- mgh 2 = O :
2
.

,(Cl1JB) ..;>=~' ~_~.,;...J' >J..,.J ..,,.IbJi>I"o>ll ~ ~ 3


H

()

i.o>-.;;;u.;..u."c ""';" l b...~


",I b...~ , W(P) =-mg h" t.I J=~I ~ .,s~_ i , W(R)= OJ ' cP ,i,p

0A 1!'-4 ~t>:,....JI J,.~ 1 l' ~ j

JI> j4J1

, ~w= :lj!\bJ\ A ll , o ..J \ ~ b

1i
1,
..

\...0

~ ,(A) 4loJu 0A

\>)U.,;!

,(15ml s)""-,"", ~ " ~ L,J~t.:.';fo':' '"


.(J5:.:.lI) "'";"

v B= Om /s
(8 ) .-,,
,

\.J.J , ...,.Jt....

1:?- 0"(1, 6m

.",ul ol,t;I~I y...>1 ~ l


(..,IbJI J.;,(A,.;! 'bL...;~!l
. ~) :.: , ~)l..~.;~\ iu:.>-~~\ Il

VI

A
1,6m

11
t, l,
~

le

'1

g=9,BNI Kg , ..,b>,>

~I

~~l t)~I -."Jl....>

.!l I

.JS:.WI,;! w.,.; 1:....jA J'> ~.v. = Omis ~I ~.J"'" ?..1...,.foll .w.,;, t)1 '-"""'1\,1
(B)

(A) u;; "1bJ1 bw..;!

eu..J..4..l1dj\bJ\ 4' ,';'-'''' ~ \ iI..j\bJ\ + o,p:LI

~\~'il

al~t... ~

ailbl\

~ .....~I . .IbJI=

V .= Om ls .;,~ E,,= OJ ~

ECA +WcP)-O=E"

1
,
-2 mV A =-W(P) : .)!
_
W(P) = -mgh , -sl411... oP" W(P)J>:JI J..,; 0 \.9 ....... ,-...,.Jlol l4,j
_

h=V ;
2g

,~mv;=-(-mgh) ' '''''''u'>~


h= (15) ' "' 1148m
2(9.8)

1 h = 11,51

~) ::{I ~'}l.. ~

;)".s.J\

"".r"' ~ :~'

~~\ ~ i\j\bl11OlA:J..j! (IJ.JbA

.!I 2

..I.J.J.?- u-o ~

~ (C) j (B) """,~ IU;; , Jj~I ",,}<oJI .

V ,_ 2W(P)
cm

O+W(P)=~mV i, Ec. +W(P)-O=E"


2

10-"" al\> \,1 o P" J=~II.a \,I,-...,.JI o~ (+))L.:.~1 b...~

' IW(P) =

+mr ,~

h=BA-AC.la
Vc = J2gh
.O:'!
Vc= J2x9,8 x 13.1
,
h=11.5 + 1.5=13,lm

(C) j (A)""",~I u;; ..lbJl bw..;! al~t...~ . .....lill ....}<oJ'.

W (P)=+mgh

.~

ECA+W(P)-O=E c

....... t"'jl' \,1 ....1jlj ~(C) J !(A).:,.- h,.o ':'lb..J1>';If' \,I,-...,.JI o~ (+) ')L.:.~I

(C)j(B).:,.- h,.o,., ,(B) J ! (A).:,.-

h = AC

1
2
1
2
- mVA+mgh=-mV c
2
2

-~:I
-3""

V~=V!+2gh

Vc" 16ml s

Vc ~ .j'7
(1'"'S'"')""2-+-=2-x-=9-O,8C-x-01-=6 , ...,.,. u'o~

. 4..l l..J! ~!

.'

""""'.",.-'
. ' . '"

'.'a

,, ,fo

~ u'o.?..,l<: .!l1D>! " , ..... .;J j..Y 01 us..,. ,m ~

<).

,0

:9

25g ~ """" .
..)~w. y...... ;; t'" ..,.ll~ UA U"~ . ; t....., R ~ 40cm yW .
.(A) t">j4JIUA """", ~ ,-.....JI-!l.

W(P) ,-.....J".:...Jio'o~.;L..o~I . I " 1

. (BhJ! (A ) UA J:ill; lA .

a=60o l L.k ,( C) d.b:i.lJ! ~JlllI ~~1 .-...,..I

(C)~I ;;.!lJ';';', , (B)~ I ;;Ec8 , .<.II~.,..JI>.jlbJ l .;""bd "

','11

. g=9.8NIKg~~

.Ec

;'3'
."..

..hJ\

,il'

,(BI JI (AI,.,.. J=~I ,,,,"1J>:.l"; L..o...!.' " 1

0:
~

W(P) ~ +mgh

'"
h

,,,\>hu,-.....JI,,I t..,

h, +h = h,

,,,I ~I UAb>~

h = h, .h, , .....,
p

~ ""I,;JI ;,t;.. ~( h,) ,,1w.,,1b>~


cos ~ >.j)le ~ J
cos p= ;,4-

-'" JlI

=!!.1. ,~!
R

hl =R cosa
h=Rcosp -Rcosa
1 h = R(eo, ~ -co,a) 1

(C)

~I

J j..A.:J1~ -.,.lb> . --,.1

W(P) .;1." \.! u"~ 1.<= , eosO'= 10i,.w, ~ =0' O~ (Cp.hAllI\.!


1

W(P)=mgR(l-eo,a)

, "";J,>WI

W(P) =0,025 x9.8 xO,4 (1- co, 60)


W(P )=0,049= 4,9 .10-' J

.!B l t"",tI\.!Ee i4b.r-l, .... \bJI, ) t..c ~ 2


Ec.. +W(P)-O=E" , """"..,.illl ;u.;...).c .... \bJ1 b",,",! >Jou.. ~
(A UA ,j)\h;~ll

VA=Omis 'O ~

, EeA

Ecs= mgR(cosP -casa)

=OJ

,~

,Ecc o)4-c
Ecc =mgR (l-cos o.)

' ~!

cosO=I,~=O ,(C)t"'~I\.!

1 1I\>J,\
,

"-.9lbll,9 ~I .:. i ~-I.:> JI

Ee. W 6.."1),9..u1 dJf=.r-JI


'4;1.>\1 ~rJl ;;"'IJ~ - 1
""-!....- - 1

-',ca

,Q

5, =MJ1, 5, =MJ1,
(5 ) ...... ., . Ii >kWI ""~..,:J' '''J'}' ''''''''' Ii"" (9 )

.JIl.o >'

"'J'}' >kW,

e ,= ~" OM,) , e i" ~" OM, )

.JIl.oo'

:9
','il

(m) ~

~ .! Q h ~\.AJ !,

(rad) ~

"'J'}' >kW, . 9

( m) ."
1

5'. .;"., ; .R

5=R9

65 =5 2 -5 1

11'

D.t=t 2 - t 1

OOm =iI...>~l~,'jJl 6.8 =8 2--e 1


tp....o (.>'j
l1t

Vm ,rom ~ ~1 ~ d"j"}laJ\
OOm=S =R-68 , ~...u fit=t 2-tl ~jJ4-A~
1

l1t

l1t
1

Vm =ROlm

Ol ~I ~.,...JI " "

V =ROl

:,>~ )~

i\!')W1

1 . u,...Il (t ) ..,..j Ab..Ji,!

( MF/. ) ~I,o.~ <"r - 2


;...JI~

,hj..ilJ J;Li ,.....,J j>.Il .igJ .,sJoijJCJI J.UlI ,., ' ' ; ~ ~

: .; t; ( 112-~
MF/

c,....J l; 0"'; \.;..0. 0__ t.,...

aFl$I F:'~l~~ I..lyb~j.al'~~ .

J'"

(_lllli j..o

(l

j..o)1)

O';,..\JI JY-L>'=- 0#' JAl.> ~ tA l..lyb f' j.all.....,.....~ l...&.


MF/Do 0. d..... '1$1

~ ...... ~)K u,.~ ,,"w,! ~ (=)

<,Sjl..OJl jA)

If'\s:.o ~";j 'Ct _\.J1

jA)

MFn =K F.d ~J ' (~j..1l'~I..l>.,u

-:;:J

.--<

(.1)
(SI ) 4Jj..\lI':'I~~ 1 >J..;>.,;l

K =1.:.>~
r:M:-,-, .-=-:p:-.dc=-:,I

, ~ IjJ( );;)t.:.! ,..J.sll .1>14

~\ ~1 ~
1

iJ UI; j.l ~!.:l! lAI .

Mp, =F.d

M il

=ON.m

'r,. J. 14..J\r~\

sine =0. 9 =0 'U~O I)j.JJ\)~ i$jI~ ;;#'J,Ab o lf:. !-

b = Om , o\! (1)jJJ1)p.o u-o ~ ;;#,J..ob ol.f:, Cl!1

M' JG=ON.m 1

: ..l..oj

:.:;,.t )~ J~ u\)~.>ll..l,t; ~ ~ sk ;;:; s~ J.><- t'r

. "'P.>" c.>:" ~~~ (il) ">'J.9~ ;_ J? .j"'~">i'-''' ;j-",(5 ) ;fo J.,...;


~ b~ Ab-\~ ml . ml ml J:A.S.l1~ \~.!I F3' F] , FlI..s~ ;)~I .)L. p~ ..
.;"s:.J1-' ~ bl>..;
, ~ S jOll ,.:.., ~j,;.J """l..:J1~ I ", ~j .s~I .:.., ~ j';'" plo.:...;"s:.J1

~:',- ,~~ ~
_

.-.;-..-..
6. .....

. (S)

' d, F,

F,

F,
m,

L M(F, ! il) ~M(F, ! tJ.)+ M(F, ! il) + M(F, ! il)


,~W\! (J>:.WI) ""l..J I .,.; ~

4.> ~ ",';j..l "+.>~I ~I ; L,.o.ct,.j

: (F ,F')

S~ ;;"~ ~i" t'r


CJ.!.--'-'

, l..4l "'\; ",I~ (F, F')

4
1

.s jOli -' Do ...,.. .s jOli 6.;> j~'"


.w~jl":"" )U!.> -

."'~~ "'~ ..
.F=F' ~.!I l...A b ~

~.

- ,- - - - - - , . -

"'" ~1' .lF ,F ).sj! ",>,p j .,(~) ",,1> ) _

JP' Ul)j..ill J,t> y.L.o l'"'? ~ L;p l li!

......

~'
3-

.Jll.> '"
$

ll ,0.Jl.,....J\ .l~ :.} .l! rJ ()0:1~\ J~ ! ..l..i..i:.


, ~I '-'"'" iJ _J4l1U';.l-'" 0i-'.!l1bj!

a-

'.~

~~.lj..o

~ -

F'

. ~,..uj ~lrJ .ljA4Jl ~J:JF i h>'i

(6)

. ~~ I ~I ~~ .l~ I.HJ:J F' 01 ~I h:.. 'i

"-.. $

-a.
,')

,Q

""
-

f-R+----R-l F

~ +F ,R + F'r'".R'-::-_ _ _--,
1M(F

F'

,D)~F(2RJ

F ~ F'

.~

','lJ

:a'
-=>

',a'

"'..;"

'"

A
4~

o~ ~ j> ..,.,.51~ .~i ~\jA o.J..A.;..o (:I~ ~..c.3

Co B. A loU Co"j)\j ~ ~ ~

.>.Jo.>.; ~)l...o .......-JI...,yl

(Cyclode
)l...o

'~;.Ij-) u~ Ul)l...o I..4lj

i4J ~1-'.s? I ""'; ui ~ ~j ' ~!.;

iJ Jo.-'j ,b"'-'ll

'il!lliA ),:,Wb.ll1

" Lo)l...o . ( ~ I for lc ~I

)l:-c\~;"

qh; i

..

;"

qin; ' , o~.P" ..!.l~~lw-o ~t.> Ab..4,j ~ aJU::u.Ilp.J-"

,(..., ...........,;,~, ..s j>J' ~) l,,4ol4- al ,:,.... ~ aJ..". ,....,J' ':'1

, (O,XYZ ) ~,.a...J ~" ~


m10C +m 0 C +m 0C + ... =(m +m +m3 + .. .)oc
2
1 2
1
2 3
3

Lm,oc, ~OC Lm
, ,
mC.
, ___,

,,

Cl

OC .......
3

oc "

~=
O

"

,,

,
,,

- --

,"
,,
, -'

,"".,--

--

-- - --.=...oc
--_ _ _-+ y

oc

,- c

,(G) J'LJI fojA ~

3~3

J'LJI fo.r.J "",~I ~I


.(B) J (A) ~..,. o.i,.;J cSjAA 'M.:G-~

..;.g'
-

''-''0
" 1"
.'
. h.>>h..1Jo' (A)>.bA.;.)I0-" ~ "
L
- b;..,. h.;.JUI..A
"
' cS'"
: r -'1"
<J) :>,
<J~""J-'J"

~,

(1~1 )
(2 ~I ) bpJUI..A1,..."';9 bpJl >h..IJo' (B) >.bA.;.)1 cS . i 'jA ~ "

2~ 1

1~1

4/
......

./

A
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F 2 =FI z,..J...:J\ L>'...A.:! L.4l

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2

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AB = R.9 .;,S]

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...
-

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(il) "",1:. J" " J".. uIJ,.ill..Hl> l'''"?' ~ pj:> ..IoW1""'1:. o~ J=

<3-

e 1J,..1 ~,Ij x ;)#\ ,)~?, .J.':. =

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<")

~ W(F,F')=W(F)+W(F')
5!' W(F,F')=MF l d.9+MP / d.9

31
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+ F:R.9

~ W!F,F')=F2R.9

:a'

F = F' ' .;,S]


W( F,F') = M(F,F').9

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~ 1 ( tJ. ) OIJ~JJI J~ ~
2~~1

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lOOg

~ ~..lLo ab;u j)~ ~

\;j...ul ybi ~j ,(405) '.$jW ~j t...;..! ~ '.$.;JIJJI.b.pA ~ ...... '

.R=2m
I,-.....JI";"Jo> ......, c/'Lo ~

.(40s) J.); Lo ....... .>..\> ~

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ac..,...JI -

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2
s=1tR

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S
L :...

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R

jl

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~ 6,28'1

e ~,\jJ \ ~\.AJI ~_

~n

leS..... J,ol..JI JS:.:JI UA '

1 ..,p

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l

,( 4 _! \,.:"....1Jl)~ l k~ l ~

ru

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t.t
1

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ru

t.t

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6,28
40

v ~-~- ~--

ro ~,\j.l\ k.,.,...JI ~
0,157

m~ --

, -__________~--_ 2
m~0'0785 ~ 7,85,10-' rad/s 1

, ~~~

'00 = -

'() ~

, T~jJ\)j.J.ll ..,Jt.....>
,'.1>lj ' )j>.!l ~I ~

~ ~ j)UI UA.:,JI ~T "",.:,JI )j.lll,

405

T=80s

T ~ ln
0,0785

2 x3,14
0,0785

*'

of

u..o ') Cg

of

UA jtg,..:i..:!......1

!.l 3

1 "';10

3 ~,.:;ll
. (.>A Js:J T "",)1 )j..ul ~-'> ~ 1
.u'

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~.

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~.

..hJ1

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.T "",)1) j..ul ~

0-G ab:iu .J.?W _ ~):1 ' :,..h.... ~ ~

r<""""'''''-'-'-=='-'''----'i
T = 23h56min;:::;24h

.J!
,_~\,,!,.J.J \

, .s1.0..l..>1,9 act...,

T = Ih = 60min = 36005

--,.l;-hl ...

J')l.> 0Jj,j J..j\j...\JI--:J~ ~


1

A
:3'
w =ln- = -ln- :::1,7.10 , radis
..,.
T
3600
~

.:>

',a'

4~

0:

'"

" '........
. 1
~~
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;.>".(C)
2

(C)
. '.,.L...j. "-'S..IS....o>.l.o>
l ~~r-U-O
_ _ _
. .

"1
--

.R, = 20em cS p. ~lj R, = 10em u'j~I;hO ""'"'" ,(6) "")j..u


,

, a.; ljb.I JS"""~ . ~~

C,
C,

~Ul:6.(B)j(A)~~I~

(0

. J;\4.lI ~1

,;11:"".9-' ~ L.b (m,) j (m,)


.j\I aJb ~ ~1

(A
(B)
m
1

..

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. .~,--.,L..~I

>.l.o>
'_.!lJ':";"j
. cr-

~1jb..~lj ~I..,l<o Ojl,:;J1 Ib;-':' ~ ~

. R,j R, j(m,) j (m,) o;,."~-,?-j

.m, =600g, Ol~ (m,) ...... Y'"""I


,.!l~~IJt.o.\.o .o<J6.J .s....j .J4..~I,... ~ (A) ~I""""'; ~

.(c,).(c,HB) .(A) 0-' J'=""'. ~.l.J.> -1

,ro = 2rad / s ~ ()9.jl~)U d."IjljJl ~...-J1 01 ~ ~

- '"""

.(B)j(A) ~10-'J'=""..... Y'"""\O

cW\
' ~ly~ , '-:>J.SJ ,)jJ ,......'..s ~' ~ .!l 1

, t.o. O>'j4lJ ~ ,A

(B)~I J>l , P,

::::--"

'"

T'

(B) ~ (J.o.,OJI""J') Jj~1 J.o.,OJI"':",j , T,


, t.o.O>'j4lJ~

(A) ~ (J.o.,OJI ""J') ",..WI J.o.,OJI "':",j , T,

T,
T,

-P,

B~ , .

(A)~IJ.:.,P,

T' 1
-

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.,j\..j.,j\j6....)' \

,CI

fA

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T' l

.C, ""jb..~" ...,:.....11..)0 0-' J.o.,OJI"':",j , T' ,

P,

.~Ijb..~1 ~ ..,l<o (M Ol)j.lll)_

J...' .) , R

O~ ~1jb..~1 O~ .~Ijb..~I.)'" Jl.o:> r-l

..,.;jI~\ ~.rJ.

.!l

...,.. ~, .) L.b 6.> ~ ) _

T ,=m, g .... (1)

--'---''-''--'--'- , .:U.A j

;;>

~ b",-~~

P 2 =0

~'
~'

','3

. ...,... ~ , .) w= 6.> jl' ) j'"i' ~ b",- ~~


- -T +P =0

T,=m ,g .... (2)..

--'---'=---'--'- . .:U.A.9

T =P
l

M (F 1 I!.) ",\:J, b.,.:.J' ~ ~ ,jJ ,)I;j ..ill >J,.t> >.l.o;> ".., ~'jb..o ~' >.l.o;>
M(T' ,1 I!.)+M(T', 1 I!.)+M(RI I!.)=O

~ ._~ ,;,>! jf> (~, p

l) _jl' .e,.o~, ,;1-,,,..I;) _~, .e,.o~' ,;1-",..I; T' ,

r~ u"jJ

\ = rj.aJ\ 0 1w=
' """"'.9" w. t ,)jJ'j

t l).il\ x ;)#

M(T', 1 ) = +T' ,.R,

,;,>! (R, ) p

. y.J\,..J' .e,.o~, ,;I ~'jb..o~' -",..I; ,;,i Jj\oo; "' ~ ,y.llo. jf> (T' ,) ~ Loi .
M(T',II!.)= - T' ,.R,
.';")jjJ,)_,:,.o .JAo! .....

.,;,>!

~j' j ..... jf> (R) r ~ Loi

M(RI )=ON.m

,;,>!

T'2 R2- T '1 R1+O= O ' ~ jl~\ .b~J~~


T'2R2= T'!.R 1 .... (3) .. '( J.W.J'
_
~I..r-

.1JJ' I.T~
-") T l =T' l ~
-- . W u ",i
(bp.J' ''''''''' ~ .1JJ,,,,,,o) T ,=T' , ,;,1 w=
T , R, =T , R, ..... ('3)

"+l~'

U 'I

....w.;
.

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...,.. ('3) 'bb...J' ,;I (2 ) j (1 ) ~ob...Jl ,;I ""'j l.." l.., j iJ" '-""~~
m2 gR 2 =m1 gR 1
1

m 2 R2 = m1 RJ

m - 0,600xO,1 0
,020
,

m,=0,300Kg=300g

41.10, '

. dJb ~_ ~

. '\-'"'- ClJb "i'


.~
U)

d.4=oJ\
- - ,..:.JlS.l.>':i\ Jldil!, ,,
~

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. 4 qt,:". ",. :lJ"K~ ~~'jb....:i,~'p" loI

(B) J (A) ~~ , "'.,...J'''''''; - ~

v A=R 2.ro =O,20x2=O,4mls

V,=R,.Ol =O,10x2 =O,2m/ 5


P"I)J.l.U

>J.,.lJ. l= 40cm lfI~J . (m = 500g) ~ (AB)...,~ .......... (j


.(A) ~~0" ",.."."..1 (t;)

-~
,
F

. F"F, .;,9""~P '

.J,\4.l1 ~I i) 1>"'~ J4>


.<SJAI'e--~Ii),J.i... ~ 1

'

_lgl...Jl .,~ .)I.~' \b~.bd ~

g=9,8N/Kg .AC=~ .F,= 4N.d~F, .JAI'....,.;~I ~

...w\
.sJAl, ~ ~ 1

(j\.J1 J>:> . P

F,

c
F,

C9l...Jl ~ ( 1)j.J.h ;jo='aA J.19 .j) ,

.~\.,I oII.J.."...o ~j'j...y~ ~\..L.:J\~~.!bj",. ':ij

-p

.,,;jI~1 \b.,.J.

L}=o J

!.l

LM(P /t;). t...o

F,

t').ll, X jAll = ~ j.>J1 , l fo=

,Q

l)j..l )_.1 .jAl10-Ol> "" <,S>~I.a.,J1 Y> t').ll,

d , Y> P t')~j

d,' Y> F, t')~ 'l h>-~

(F, ~ <,S>jA<' d,oI h>-~)d" Y> F, t')~j


...,.JWI .,~~, ~ ~l...J, ~J:l 1J.,l:.oW F 1 bjAl~ M(F 1/ Il) = - F J. d l '.J!
y,>~I.~~I.;t C9WI ft'. 01 JjW F, .jAll> M(F,/ M =+F, .d,

M(P / M =+Pd =mgd ,.:.JJ~


O+F 2 d 2 + mgd - F,d j =O, ~~t.hjl~lb~~uD~

F1d1=-mgd+FJd J

d2= isin60" .1 d =L jd ,= 1..;ftJ

~J F, ~ sin60 c = -mg ~ +F ,.1 ,~ ""~


F = 4F c 2 mg
2
sin 60

, F, sin60 c = 4F,-2mg

F 2~ 4(4) - 2(0,500) x 9,8 ,..,., ",,""'-lI U""Y"-' ~


0,866
'
1

F,

=7,2N
6 .

(t. )

(t.)

..:.::;

...................

m,

m3 =
R3

1,2Kg , m 2 = IODg
15cm

ml =

lOg : u--.,

. R2 = 20cm , 1 =40cm

..hJl

' ~ ' --.:...l ' 4\Jl.b.c

JI!l = 1,6.10" Kg.m '

J /ll=ml I

:;;)~'L,I~

JI/l =10x10" xI0,40)'

, ...,.... u'>Y-'

,o) ~ 4

J//l=%10,100)(0,20)' ,

J//l=2.10" Kg.m '

(6)

3 / ,, = 4,05.10-' Kg.m'

7 U, .. \

F,F')<5jO>';>,~j4;(m = 50g)~"R =20cm.)o>! ....... , (D)U"..... ..,l.o

".

.(o)'fo.r'(jAr; (IJ.) J_J.?J'"".a;~

(IJ. )

_____r-~
o

<5,,"' "->,~ j.o ~-'" ~1 ~ 1


(t.)J.? M(F, F') / IJ.

F'

F = F'=lON

. ~ J'.l ~ ~.;1aJ' ;,.l:I L.o~ ' ~j.lj.oJl.,.J.4i

IJ.t = lOs
.v =10m/s

l ~

".J.?o.- !$.J.u J..-ll...........-l...1

.....j 'pSJ:Il> "->J~jl"4JP ......~, "'Ib>..~, ~I ~

~l ~.J-'M..:..i4 L.~~~ ~l),..ul ~.r-J I d,jU::Jl ~I !.l

N(F,F') I I1 S

' 1 "-> o '

M(F,F')111 =+F.(2R)
MlP,F' )111 =lOx 2(0,20) =4
1

M(F,F')111=4N.m

: ~,,j..;,...w l ~....-II.....,;.. .!I


.-_-,-_ _ _-,--'-"= (.:,
(l ) "'J'';',-...,.J' ) J .1; Lo= .". Fi-.JI J...:

,""

W(P,F') = M!F,F' )111 x(l

,-_=-=::-__--'w"'(,."P"',F,-'-',)=4 x 1t , a..:..A j a = 1t ~ ;))j,j ~ } .:I ...:.l ~I (Ji


w(F,F') =4n =12,56J

P4b..... ~I <u:.lh::-..)'I -.,.Jl.....> .!l


p = w(F,F') = 12,56
l1t

10

"" >.b..~I'.db;""~1 ") '''' ,.-_

P =I,256w

v = Rw . u"l
Ec=!:. (0 ,5 )(10)' ..,....""~
4
Ec=12,5J

:b'
-=>

,R =20cm ~yW"""""."M =2Kg~_ ,jl..o -PD> ' .

......

~'

.0. ~ ~" j Jj\... ~ :

.",,'.u,.! "" j " '

~'

...
-

3',~

"""

(A ) t""~1 -" uAlh;

. (B) t""~I ,;l ~ j " ' ~ .>.;0-

.J / C= 2 MR'
5

f = 4N.u..,., ~~~lu.!ll>:-'>~I
1f'JU= fo.>-' -" j.." J""" J,.. _~I >JU= f j&.

,0

..hJ\

r<)

R,

JS:.:JI...,1.o cSfoll J:o..:>


, ...,...S:.:a Ai1,bll b~! aJ.Ju...

-p

E", +w( P) -

O+Mgh-f.AB=-Mv +- J / cW
2
2

v
2
,
h
, w =- ,oI L..!Oo J/c= - MR
AB = - , 1.<..1
. J
R
5
sina

1(2

hl
, +- - MR ,)-v'
Mgh-f--=-Mv
sina 2
2 5
R2
h( Mg _f_ )= !:.Mv' ( l+3.)
smn
2
5

W( f) =E",

'~!

h(Mg-L)=~Mv'(!.-)
2
5
v =" _
170 h(g_---'M sinn
-f_ )
SInQ.

v=

107 X2(98'2sin30
4)

v=J16:6

v=4,07m ls

, ""-"
'''L., U"-""
' .
. ,-,-

1 Il\>-b\

;;..l.>~1

Ep <A~1 ~\bJI .:

l9\hl\Q ~~\

.~ I ~

<.~1 ..Ibll ",1~1 - 2


:( ~...,.JI';';U. I Epp .;y LW 1GlDl.;,;lj;.J1 1 2

8~
or.>r-JItS y......J1
Eppo~\:iilll AlA~\

~lbU

1 h

[ Epp= Mgh+EPPo [

.or.>r-JI tS ~ <l;Ju.:J1...... I>:ll ..1bJ1..... . Epp 0


<l;Ju.:JI ...... I>:lI .. lbJlJjiU l.lJ ( EPPo = 0 ~ t. .~~ ) ...... a"l oj lb.:! ~ .

. Epp 0 : ~ ~I:! )I..4.,1 ~.J-lL4

.or.>r-JI tSy......JI..,lcI,.....-J1.oIS ! (+)

)t.:.~1 .

.or.>r-JItSy......J1Ji..1,.....-J1.oIS ! (-) .)t.:.~I.


Mpp 4u..:J1"-'-o\S:.l1;"j\bJ1~ .) J\.,.L.
...... 1>:l1. .1bJ1~
. - ~
(h 2 ) tu.:.) ~I U '1. (h 1 )
~

!l

tu.:.) ~I 0-A~e-jA~
.
. " t.=
944JU1:J\

Epp, = Mgh , + EpPO' h, ~I ,) .

. "" ~ """,,, . flEpp ~,

.-

EPp, - - - 8

Epp , ................ . . . . . . . ... .

h,

EPPo ________'1. ._.:'1___


flEpp = Epp,-Epp ,
flEpp = Mgh,+Epp,-(Epp ,+Epp, !
flEpp = Mgh , - Mgh,
flEpp =Mg(h,-h,!

:Epe
.i.4~.!Uo
u~

""-,..>".-JI "'-.:..-LlJI <lj;J1

oeL!l.!x
1-\b..G~ 1 . li 1 . '_~ . _.\..o..L.:u::.
. ) \...li.....JK4:
.
J1"" ..:.ut,
. ~
"j ~ ~

. Epe ""j.JA
1

X .. ,

,Ep ~,~, ~\S.I1 djlbJ\ ;, )~

2
-=>

I ~ ~ ~j~1 a.lA\S.I\ 4.ilbJl ;))~ ~

._. . l_--=-l_'--.l
Epe=-Kx
2

<J.
~

87

Epe =-C9 '


2

~Wl ~Jr..:.yU
~l:Jl ~

:K

j i dJ\b.:.....\ ,x

l u,~\
,~~ d..:J.::::al;Jl0)4sJ'~-' I tb:;J\0A ~\ ~J.>.

tl4:.;1 ~

h ~Epp =mgh + EPP a ."",, Epp <"Ju.:JI ....... ~I ....\bJI

'J'"'

~1

.<"Ju.:JI ....... ~I .... \blJ ~;ll <S ~I 0" ,-...,.JI


. .,Il!! )\~ ~~

a,.J1LJ\ 0...0\s:J\ "-i\bJ\ !J ~

.EPPa~ r-l' <S~\;~ Epp


.EPPa~ ;ll<S~I.).c..w..." ~
~ ~I i.S~1 ~ I ~\ ~

.... \bJI ~ .,...

Mpp <"Ju.:JI ....... ~I ....\bJI.".;:. ~

\.l! Epp = + mgh iltll4~..h <...o\s:J\ a.9tbll !J j:,

.Eppo = OJ ~j 4LJ1 AlAIS:J\ d.jlblJ


~r-l'<S~' Ji..l ,-...,.J'lSl

Epp = - mgh <"Ju.:JI ....... ~I ....\bJI ~ j


.EPPa = OJ t" <"Ju.:JI ....... ~I ....\blJ
..hJ\

,4:0. y> oh a"l?- '1\ y..>J

. ,,",,(B) Ji(A)AJ=;,-...,.J Mpp'J,", ~ 1


. Mpp=+w",(P),Mpp=-w,,(p)
.~u
~ ~,
.....
. ~ ~

1.:11..1j-J
'" ,a.JlLJla.;,.,.\s:JI..uAUo
\lt. ... , .. _\I'_ A, Lo~...J2
..
UI""\--.- ~

.lI,l"
, 4..iC! .... :a.JlA:Jla.:....olS.h~lb UI""
'''WL9IL-.>
1':.~Lo~ .::.I 3
~.~"
. ~
.~

,I.4;OJ ~4 'il ....!~ 'i ~ '4Jlllll 0...01S:l1a.i\bJ\ !J 4


v""
l
",' , ~1 "
. " ~).d
, ~)"~I

..hJ1
. tillpp = ~W A,B (p), ~ ~"" ' o h b)",~.aJ\ ~
. ~ 4Uilll <u..~1 ....\b l" ~I ~ lA.....,

~!
3-

.~. b

~ '" a...JI.:
~ _ \1~
1,,-. : lA~
'" .h ~~I ..w.i\b a. 1;,.1....:4.91
i"" '"
\--.-

0-

1
~ 2
~ 3

3u,,~1

',j!!

3!n,

,0

(A )

-.-L--8----

2
?.l..t~.h d.jlbU~yU\ .s~lJ ~ Y .

4~

1 '-',:;....JI.9" 4Uilll

.!!~_______ .,. a:....olS.l\ djlb.U~yU\ !.S~I )~y.

','il

""'"'

2 '-',:;....JI .9" 4Uilll


~

3l5~ 1 ~ ~l:lll1 a:....olS:l\ a!lb.U ~yUl LS~ I )~y .-?

."A ~ I "hl.;-JI )l,.:i>l,> ~ 2


.g = ION/Kg,b..~ aA,lWI ..;> , -.,.J .1 ..::J'ibJll; Epp ~I

..hJ1

"
" ~~yEpp~l.....>
~)I~\
Epp

.!J

=mgh + Eppo' "" 4Uilll <u..~1 AjIbJI ' )4.0 l ,-L


Epp =mgh , l' Epp = OJ )~l,>,

.4Uilll <u..~ 1 Aj\b1J ~ .,lI '-'S=l' ~I ~ ~ I l >.lb ~ 1';'"


, ~tllJ l

a:....o\SJ\ 6..i\bU yr-?- yU! l5~\ J.4...1 ~ ~I ~ \,j! lAI .

,-----~

Epp

=-mgh

'l'

h = 4m 1:" Epp = + mgh Aj)l,jl J....:;....; ,1 >.lWI ~


Epp

89

=+8J

l'

Epp

=0,2 x 10 x

4, >1

2 '-'~I """'" .;! (A) ~I, .... AlbJl .;!

,-_ _--,--=1jEpp
1

Epp = -6J

, ~Epp 4)u.:. <u.o\S

=-mgh

l '

. "'~!

l ' h =am

Epp =OJ

"-':lW1~ .;> AlbJl .;!

Epp =- 0,2

xIa x

, " AJ..,.JI ) l;.l>"


"-'\Jo 0" ~I u4.> ~ "-'l' ,,~I

4 " ,"
>.;....>.1" (A) """(>"vo = 10m/s ~ V o " ' _ m = lKg~,...". ""'0""1 1
,,( S) ....,)~I (>" ,,(B) >.b>J.J1.;! h;""J' ,,<\JG.kJJ-,i'" """)U

Vo

(5)

, 4)l>.lJ1<u.o~1 "-'1.hIJ ~rJl '-'~I J"

" Ee. j Epp.

(>"

(S);y:..c."

J!io.....=-I

.( B &:4.ll!:;) V B ~1 ~~~~ I, AAthll JQ~! I.J..,LAJ~4 !1

-l.>J\

.Epp . ....1..> 1
'" jS.., Epp 0 .,>14)l>.lJ1"-'1.hIJ .,r>rJl '-' ~I J" (S) )y:..c."

h =2m tA Epp.
1 Epp, =20J 1

=mgh

EPPA =-1 x 10 x 2

'.l!

vA =v0 =10ml s

Ee,

,E'A ~I......>

ECA="2MvA , ~..I.l

,"u<'

50J

~'
~'

-~
'"

.;; BeA+ EPPA = BeA + EPP B

.c"J\>:J' "-"'~, "\J..lJ ~ .,..J' cS~' ~ (S) ~ Epp B =OJ , ~


1

Ee , = 70J

l mvB,
EC B=2

;~

v,=~2X/O

, Ee

=50 + 20

1 ~I

=:9

','il
>3

'

lI B

=V----;;;-

v.= l1 ,Bml s

:WSJ
1

,:...... ~i (A ) >J.W.J',)A c"J'..I:i,>1""J"" j-Y M = 500g ~.~ "-!~ )....."


~ . ! ~U ...l.?-~Lr-'I

C 9 B JoJl,I~ , Il = 20 "'-40 ,lj\j ..!J~?l! .:W~ , -.uLo

.K =200Nlm =j.r'.;:.,1>

D>J.W.J,..u..oxo ~
_e..,~, . ,,,', .<. , . WLiu "- - " -
~ :r-:j ~
. ..J-" 1(,jS:.:J' p

~B
1

l)

Il

Il

~U-~)I- ~-",=, ~' )~~

.(D}j (A) ~~I "", <U..,.u .,.~Ib!I

:!J

"J'O~JI .,G.. . 1

x a d.....,d ..1?- a51bJ, l:::t\..A:Jo.j! dJ.lb... ~~ ""'"'

g= 9,8NI Kg . AB = 100cm
"

.(D )j (A ) ~~I "", <U..,.u

~u - ~~

li

.~

~') ~4

:!J

.,.~1b!1 'IJ ' o~J' .l,i~ UA Ji.. . 1

S~t..j ' ~....I.?-u-oxa ~I ."",",

.r"

,'''. .r,, ,, CT",- '-""


. WI"..,, ., '

"1
<,r

""
".", .......
~ I_ j~:r_.

~
.

cWl
~ (D ) j(A ) J:.....~.lI J>,> .,.~Ib!"I! 0> " ~ .

Eco =OJ

Eppo =OJ
1

Epe D =- Kx
2

X o ~ I ~\
, ....l::o.,j ~lb,,11
,

-.Il....>.

-.1

bl..h.:!\' aJ~w d..J1.:iS..J


"
,

~ , ECA + EPPA+ EpeA= EC D + EPP D + Epe D


,. ~ ,
l
'0 O + MgABsjn(X + D = O+O+ - Kx ~
a2
l
Mg ( AB)sina

=-Kx:

',~

2
x o=

x o=

2M g( AB)sina
K

2x O,5x 9,8x 1 xsin20


200

1"0= 12,9cm

"0=0, 129m

','il

~l+J\j d..,.I\o.4l\.} d..Aj..J.sA

(E) :i b..4.! ...l>\j..l~

~ ~jilb.l \ 4!.!" a...J! ~b \~j

w'" (P) ~Wm L,4;\40~.?' ~ i\4;oJl ~j

-. m

W m=W ..,(P)

-----0\. . . . . .

Epe,

EpPA=O

BeA

+ EpeA + Wm =

EC

+ Epe D

1
2

O+O+Mgh = O +- Kx ~

M gh( AB)sina ~ ~K x :
2

x ~ !2Mg( AB)sina

' 'i

.(x, ~ 12,9cm) ~I '"'"'" .jW",.)4>J1 '"'"'" "",


, (~')'I .

~b.J~,~\ ..:.ul!::.~~\ ~J ! I.j~~Ailb.l'b~! dJ..:al.aAl ~

Il

.(.j~j.,> ","",) ~ .>'1.b, ...,).4J1 ;,>\Ii,I1 ~w.. 0A ~ ~ ~I

Il

, (X)~:rI~I..J",.;..J:.~, .......... .)#,d......,! .:;,..

'1 ._"'......_

F ~ Kx.) Lulu>..u
_
.
. . j..,..-::r'

F=Kxo
F ~ 25,BN

, F ~ 200 x 0,129

t....-.
U"-""""'"

: .l! x=x o l.:..4.-,


, ~u'>-'"

1 o~\

5 O...l.> jll
Q E. 'il ,1':"'1..u1 ;,j\bll :
,

09\hl\9 ~~\

~,
~ Ec~ ~\ o~ Ajtb i h>)l.J ,( ~)

.!?

:;
'.'B

"Ll

~ iu:~~ "Ul ~ ~ ~JJ

E = Be + Epp + Ernie : ~ ~ ~ I d.Alhll9 .l! Erne jEpp 9


. ~} ~a,........J4 " W1~ J~4~3.h.4~~EClAt .
~ 0A,::,;1:0 t )

uk

>4;-}1 >J\b.o

fo.J-" ui

) w..ol

uk

<u.1:o t.,~ Epp loi.


'~J ~\

..\.:i..,Ib ~l ~~ Emic \.!~b ~ n)\~1 :~..:.ulb 1.l13 '"


$ ~ \ ~~ ~ ~ ~.ll l ~;) )I.r-Jl ~ ) ..l ~~ tll

uSJ . .

J ~ c..#9 ~ j> \..9tb .)l:Jl,I9 k~~~~j.?J\ :r 1~,Emic ~ -4Si ...

.~

Ernie ~ \.JJ\ AjIbJ \1

d4J ~1.>l1"1bl1
. ~ '4)\~I41 b.l l, O..ll.t.1J ~~ I ~4 ~ ~ '4l>IJJI \..9lhll

: "-!..r~1 ~I

- 1- 1

<$j\i:. - JjL... - ~ : O.lWJ~J:il ~";i6J4~.;J\ ,a..ut.!.J+AlI~1 ~ l

..

\ )~
. O.lWl ~I) .l..:J:,lbL,)'i'~~ ,~~\~1 .!.l 2
. (~w,.J-l.l " ~U~,.r.J,) ~4j-\ ~

kl.,) ':il,l Jh: '~HJ\ ~1 .!l 1

: -,I~ ,

"-.,I~\ ~~ \, ~~ I,~ 4.J..,!..iU\ Ul-ll'Y~ I ~.rJI' ~ l~ I ~.ro-J '


. ((~I ~G.) .,.j~ 1 >JWJ

.'4)\~\ ~ rJl d..,J~ L~

:~\...\;;"'!lb.U 4)1~\ ~.;11

.!lI

Q" ~ J.or--"' .... ~.;- ~L.'~, .


' ~~ I..S;I?~~~

Q CL (S , - S ' )OI,,1 S, cI!S,,yS ' ;t.,..J' '-?J>':'''';:;'


"...,.,...,l...J! ';) w,! ~n

(l

Q a mol l$l m O..lW\ ~"::"~'"

Q o.col l$1 c';..lW \ ~~ '"


(o.JW! t.I) O.:lWJ

~ \ "-:I;I~1 ~1

:C

1 Q = me(Sr - Si) 1
(0 ) iy~1 "-?- )..I.ll,llo.J'"'U .9 O..lL..1J (initial) ~I...,1~1 ;; ;1.r:-Jl ,,-?-) .:J , El i

(final ) >.;.J'<I'J" J'rol' '-?J>' S,


( Kg) ~ I,)"'U-, 1$1plO.h J::1~ o.J..iU!, dl : o"',,, '\ O.lUI ~ 'm

J I ( Kg.cO) ~ I,)'"'w j ~ j O..lWJ ~1 ~Jl~1 "--.JI ,c

Q > '~! 9 f>8 ; , 1$1.:atJp

l.tPJI? A:>J..l \. ;; )1.r-- O..lWI ~ lA~ '"


Q<

a . eJ<9

0 \.5 b)1?- uWI..J..A..j Lo~ '"

Jj> J......!
R .... ,t;,.

1 Q = me[S

JO'" ".;J,

Je,:. J'-,""
"J'rol' w.~' jO>
8 J J ! 8 / ()-" O..lWI ;;JI? ~)..l ~ J ! l$..l~j t ~ j 0..1..0 J':Y.>

..,.,1J-Ll \)

(I) ""....:, "'~~

' .>

,-e.J= RI ' t=We

:~~~\ - ~4j.,.t.Al'AJGJJ4,.~'~y11

.!l 2

...!.l...~\ 4.i\..6 ~

, O..lWl "::"~.i-:> ~ ~ ~I

.~~ I ~ I;J\ ~Ilo ~ ~ 1 O..lWI ..::.JI).l ~ ~ t..Jlj

Q = m~

, a,JWiO) t.,.Jt. ~

,[JIKgI.",.. <O"""'jj >JG.J'~~,

,Q

d....J'""" ,L ~

, 4IJ6. ~ j)) ~\ ~

-;3'

,)~)U~,
.~)\? A.ilb....:J...lJI.3 o..lWld ~

~'

d....J' Ji.; L,, ~Q, = mL( ) ~~"

J.J:j ~ Z,; Wr'i1Q s = -Q,= -mLt~' .

.. ~ .,,,;w:;s], d....J' .T'


,~L , ,~Q
=mL
_
~

\1

,,

'~"""
~

.Q1 =-Q.. =-mL \1c..


, .~
.. ,'Ii ,

Le = -LSUb
LR = -Lv

,Q

L, =-L,

1>

......
,~,
, I~' ... ,d.!\b . ~
J' .. ~- t...o.sy>u..,.........j
. 1 ..<" . a..J~
6.,
.... < '. '. .~ Jd,;:;''''......- lA=
tl.:i~-~
___
,j;.r---r..,r--

;a.
ct

~.~.H.~.~ \ b,a\~\ A.i1..6 tbl \ (j~~..o . ~ ~~j~ \ a.r...o\SJ1d.Alb.I\ j~


~

.,,-'J' .";1,,,.)' J;j>l' a..,.; ."

jl..:l j

.yr.-) l;.J\ .b....y\ (>A ~Jl? ~lb ~ \ . . ,, :,;4....\!.:lJ;;)\~ ~La 'i~\~ *

'..r-)GJ\ .b...,j1l\.&..t..l,jj a-n!J>?jlb ~\ ..I.!!.l1 o;1.r-!l ';~ .::./i~\~ '"


\.,1)1. 6.Jjj.aA ~ t>~ ~J!..T" )I.:;,J\ b....jl\ tA a.i1.bJ1 J..l~ 'i ~U:.j ~

~1 ~
(~j3\b)

".....J' u;,o .)'.r-J' D?- j l J,..,j ~ y.?')\;.)' , t.oJl' ~t.oj "" '-"lu" """'" ~
(jlA.,.~, Al ~~~, ~ "" ~ lA

."l .,., ,t.oJl' lAl y.?')\;.)' b..JI'j


..".>+l.i )'f"''''j y.?'l,>.i (1W..)

~ .u! w= z,.ll.1 I.j>':iC ~)\.r-l\ 6..s...J\ U"4.A:a ~ ~\ .


a..blf:. >J..,> "'! "" JI:4'

( 97

.:r.;'!v.,

~ u;,o

"')'.r-J'

d.:i..l3

J.i>ll ;u"..j

. S.Adiabatique ~I,.~"! >J..,> j!

/
~Jlr-J l

c =

4u...Jl

IJ/ Kgl

~
~Cu
- tl
~
_J l.;--

eu....Jl

IJ/ Kg.cl

.~ .,.-.Il ""~' ..... ~I ~


. ~I .u.,w..! "

.:.JI" Jlpll J,o~1 "'"'" ~.jJ1 , W I ~ ~

~ .l ;-> ~J~t:!-~~ d..tj!lbo:J~~

.~1 ~cU.:>I..l.,1..!l~ 1$.1.11 LA

~~ 1$..lJ' ~4~' }..J..4l\..9-"l.A

cu.,.)

fo~l .

.ce)~ J';> ~J~ ~'j ! ....,.,


.ce) ~ J'.,r> ~ J~ ~ 1.:11 ~
cWl

.;II'~.) JI ]>~ ; Jt!j..J:~~ 1 ~~I.bJ I ...... ~po:Jl .!l

,Wm ..,s:...;I5:,;..J' J,.~ ' '


We .;t.~' J,.~"

,Q <?)'.r-J' J,.~' '


, (Wr ) ji Er ""~~, J,.~"
, ~~.? ~jiJ'{ ..!..l.I~.~

Ei

~ '.J.J ' ~lb ~ , 8~ itJ'.P" ~J ~~\j 1~! .!l ......

.!ll.:.sj Ernie "",p:..j ;S;.l' ~r-l ' ~Ilo.,,>:u ';l:JL.j ,,,.,, '4!>'..Il' <lijS:Aj
, ~ , ~ U"

.::.t:.,..:,;.J' .i< L,:.JE pm ie "'" p:.. j;S;.l' "-" IS:J, ~Ilo

..}; ~ lb;.J, ~j ,lb;. j l ~..,..,.. I

,8 itJl.roJl 4l~ .!l l


. a.....3J..J..4.J1~ ~jS:.....j~\ <.Uth.ll ~
(~ 1) 4 1bq

11 ~ ) .J.Jl,Ij

)1..J1lA ~.

(\.J""~ ) d..t~ 1 ~J.J.Jl,I L,)"'~ .-...,..1

.Q <?)'.r-J' J,.~' ~ 2
, ~ W ~ .E <ci\bJ' .h>.?' U" __ ;1""" ~ . 1
(J) J~L. v-u" .."
.A.:I ~ 1 ~

~ ;1....1.44 itJl..roJl

,"
' 1<I4..J
'--', i<4>
v.,r>
. '.',
.....),.,r>~
.

.!l

3
4

~.-.,.I
~.-.,.I

'L~ !l 4

~. 1 ~ 1
~. 1 !l 2

.~ ~3

3 ~fil\
. ~/.l\.l..i? (~jS.-,~\) ~L1l\ ~Uo v\.! <....,..J oJI.r-J1 <l:>J.l~!.:l!

.a.!Uo ~ /-'." "i4! ~\! aL.:> OJ'P Cl:>J .l ~.l'j!.:l!


,a.!Uo l':'

/~!

.-.,.1

d",j\! d.:yl:! O;\p ~ J.l ~ , ~ \ albJ, JI J.jl..u J~ Lo...L -?-

.a.!Uo ~ /~, d",j\! d.:yl:! 0J'P <l:> J .l ~ ,~jl.1l\ albJ\ JI J.jl.... J~ Lo...L

.l

aL.:> 0;\..,.,.. <l:>J.l ~ \..ll i


,', .;...,' ~\! aL.:> 0JI..,.,.. <l:> J.l .llj l..l! .-.,.1

~ ~ l..lll ~Uo v\!

.a.!Ua ".'

.a.!Uo ..w d",j\! d.:yl:J SJI..,.,.. <l:> J.l ~ .~\ albJI J! J.jl..u J~ Lo...L .-?.a.!Ua ~ ! d",j\,! ~l:I;)JI..,.,.. <l:> J.l ~ 4 ~jl.1l' 41b.1l

J! J.jl..u J~ Lo...L

',;';4-- (Fe)..!;. 6.sb>J ,,\bel ~ j')!JI Q <'s;Iy..JI J;~I ....,.."..Lo

\(S

.l

~l

r 9Sc)c!1 (Si =2Sc).)Iy..JI ......>'.;,.ol4'}.r-6.;>.>'~",~, m =O,SK.

(m = O,SKg)~ , UI0-'~c!IQ<,S)I.,..JIJ;~I....,."""'~ ~
~"W, SJlp

<l:> J.lt-'.,,;ar-n ,(15c) ~~~\ ~J''''''''

A:> J.l

' '''~

.hJ\

-a.

Fe...\,!..blI ~j

~)\~1 ~1.' C =

Fe

O,460KJ.Kg 1 .cO-1

Q=m F, cF.l9 f -fJi)


Q = 0,5x 0,460(95 - 25)
1

=16,lKJ

:~!

, L.ll

,0

-.JI......>

!J

Q = mc(9 f -fJi) ....t..JI;)\,uJ1 ~ ~ ,t.Jj \?;1;,.)''-''-",,"'


Q=m ,Lo c ,1...0 (9 f -fJi) ,u.>

:9
',\;l

:~!

9 fi' 22,7'c

: t...jl:i...iJI ~

!I 3'

o;lp "-?- ).l\':! ,Ul~ ...\,!.J.:oJlu-.o ~\~,-:?)I.r-Jl~~I~ J?1UA A.ji h>'>W".

.95c Li! 25c 0A ~j.iA .J.,I...bJ1


~ ~ l..J.4Ij22, 7c

u!ISoc A ~ll.l1 \~ 41.P"" ~).l~ rJ.:9 ,WI Loi ".

d...:!)w o~ j:I.ll:.4,lJo~ \J~ ~)Ij> ~ ).l~~ (~U: ~.lW1J) ...\,!...bJ\ t

.,U4

5~~\

, :'..u,.~' \4'>;1.,> "-~ ~I (.>A(m = O, IKg) =

~jYJI<,S)..".JIJ,>y.JJI-,.....>

" ,:?~!~\..:..,.~:aj,.I!I-, .(25"c) 4/:i)I.;-> ~)..l ~...,:i> ,

....= 335KJ,Kg'.c"

(8i= - 15c

=4,I8KJ.K"'.c"
b
c....=2,IKJ.Kg'.c'
."

-- ---~-

..w\
Q .$f r-J1..H ~ I -.I\.....>
"-lb.ll d ~ 1..lfi '
(Ij'}Wl JLW.-L

(8 ,= 25c) Li! (Si = -15,)

" , "i!.:LI

....,.."

(>A ~ UI ~ li?

.CillW\ 4.I6J1 U''I. A.U...::J\


i\.I6..Il"
.
(.>A

~) ..l

vl l..e. ,I

'- ...1.J.blI d...1..J "- ,,:'11

""

'.

"

.jWI<,S ';\611bb'.J' Jl..o..l ~ J,> ,Q = me(S j -fJi)

....

Q,
1 Ob-"..JI
J,' F'l 1,""
WJ ~l,J.H4l\ dJ6J\
~ ---+ ~
~

1,,"'-)
9

O"<

Q,

,1.0

2 Ob-"..JI

1,,"'-)
&2~0"'

aJ6.J1 J_~
"
d ...JJ

~\.,I.H.AJ\

~ -----+-

J:.I....

Q,
3 Obi\JbJl :, ~ f'J.&:.
W,l A.4j.~.~lI

Jll.._Jll..

, lOb-"..JI"

. Q,= me (S ,-fJi) "')(.JI Jl..o..l ~ 1,:,) ~ a.,.J~,;..,.;.J1 aJ6.J1 ilF'l -';>,., ~


~

, 2 Ob- "..JI "


".i l.:u (,Lo) WUI 4.16..11 U- Il. (->..1
~I Alb.J\ (>A
" d ...I
..""

4.,UW
.:.1\ 4.16..1\ li'
:~ ~
, . ..l.>
.. _.r-'
,,~

Q , =,mL ~ ..,WI"')(.JI ~J,> >A,.l..JI<,S)'..".J1 J,>y.JJI"'~ Jl..o..l ~

, 3 Ab. ;-0-11.;t
, A.i~ \J~l ~ !.lJ ~ Wl a..u4~ 1 aJ6Jl ~~..!.:>~ ':i

.Q,= mc," (8 [ 4),)


' '''h ..JI..:4~1 .:.. JS ~..J! 49 w Q ~' <,I"..JIJ,,~I jS.; ~9

Q =Q,

+ Q2 +Q, , ~

, ~~~

-a.
~

Q =0,1 x 2,1.10' (0 -(- 15)) +0,1 x 335.10' +0,1 x 4,18.10' (25 - 0)


Q =3,15. 10' +33,5.10'+10,45. 10'

Q ;: 4,7.lO' J ;: 47KJ

Q = 47,1.10' J

,0

l!)

6 ci>~1

09';" <,;p'o . l.:: 9 A...431o" ,,-,1L.k ".......J "'J'"..JI >.....lu

fo>

~1

. (~) (S)L.oj ')''>="j ".fi;!? Jj\.a,l

Al .a.o A <';pI..I31 j l.::9 ~ ~ ~ 2

t=

- - - -- - -

<".?'I,> j """..,1A...43~ J'.>'""9I30g ~

--

.(Hg) d,jO, 4cm'~ <,>~ , I5g~

\y-- -- ::::.
- -- -- /j

.(12g ) ~<".?'6. j ('gl...A...431o" bWI9

----- -----

cal

~ ~',,'JI.r-Jl (u..Jl ~l

CAl = 904J. KgIO.C1 . CHg = 140J.Kg lO .c1


C
H20

=4I85J.Kg' .c" . C . =840J.KlfJO.C'

'"",

. p =13,6g .cm -3 , ~ p ~ j.lJ ~.! 1Io?":o.ll a1:iS.l11

,-

( 'G1)

=,

+(

'"1"
Al

m = p.V , .l!

"\

(/,:I,>j) (cWj}

.(V
:(m)
. . .)~
:-~1
==-I =(p )".

".. "~. ~
'''' ''""",
~ u1 '.~

,~4I..,ill ~ 1 ~ , ..,..,->
1

~ ~\...J'

4al' ~...l'~ ~4 ~~

'",= (0,130 x904) +(O,012 x 840) +(0,00544 x 140) + (O,015 x 940)


1

( ",, = 142,46J.(0-1

!
7~~1

.21,3' , 0./" .....jI' oh > 4>.r' , Lo 200g


~\ l'.? ~)~~,

.,
~ ,loI:> I"h

>

~j.c J ".J->-o ........ ~

40,O"c ~)'.P ~~ ~La20g~'.., cls;j ~~


C = 4,lBKJ.KIr" 22,B' ,

\.,......u "'h .,.)1 a...J1..... Lo ~ 1


. ~ .,......u ";UI t..>\S:l1~1 ~ 2

-1.>J1

:b'
-:>

4s...J\

......

-,1.....> .!l

, ..la.:..!
a.AJ1....J1
>).
~1:.
. j1J.
.
.
1::' l.,)Q

Q
."' . ..

1- 1

=mC (a ,-e)
.t.o

= 0,200 x 4180(22,8 - 21,3)

Q." ," =125,4J

If)

Q
..... 1-.1.0

=mc(a ,-eo

= 0,02 x 4180(22,8 - 40)

~ q.." ,
1

~.

= - (1254-1437,9)

R:i~

ci

143, 9J

22,8 - 21.3

r------,

Ic. . . =122.6J ('-'1

= 122,6 '" 0 0293 K

4185'

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.

1 ;;...1>~1
y"'JbLlI J:4=..l1i' ~ .)

: ~W\

:6'~ t:; -

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1- 1

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~W..

..J,o-'oJl eW~tJh; "'J P.> ~"

(magntite)

...1:!~\ ~1 ~ wu~.P.-> ~

..:..+JLi.4.lI) .&4l!

.(Fe ,0 4 .",.....,.,llUJl

~~'{...... ~I .n-WI") "'l>~I "" b-~ ~ ~


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A ~1 ~\,I~~~\ l;'b , o, hlu'! ~ ) ~\,IJ4S.l \ ;;.J'blbly '"' ~4 ';"' ''~z,~,


.( ~\

yjl:> ~ -\.,IJ .,~. ~) 1.4.h~'

...... ..,Ub ...;i' 1600 r"' ..... "w GILBERT 1544-1603" -=...r.J.,,>. \?j.,l,..;~l lAl ~
~'\ 'SJI(' 7 ~ d..~.jl,,~I, ~li.4J' ';JA\lo.h ~ c,j.! ~," DeMagnete
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ryp

C.A.Coulomb 1736-1806

..,...,.;Ali t""

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.

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, (-=..,;.s:J~1 ""=?'~ ) .!IL.".,.l~.ifS
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.......... luA l ~1

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"J.C MAXWELL 1831 -1879" ~~I.A I$...l..:!~, ~WI t ~\ !I


.......... luA,~1 (ly~I .'p'"' (p1873) fI.<

\iF ~ (JI

ulA.r.JI.,J.=I .... . "18571894 ".;.:;.,.. ""W~I ,-)WllAl ~

.(j,'. ,y, (Iy

l,

.>.".;.:; Ali (ly~l) .........luA'~1 (ly~I .'p'"jl f 1888 f I.< ""-,,,,",


:LW !..; ..,r.J ';';. - 1
~

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:3

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.......... LU..JI .lyJt,. ..,....bLU..JI

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N

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[A l.,. JL.ll'.'>':' , 1
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B = Ii, I

21t r

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B =f1 o-

2R

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0-45

(Cu)....b..;,)1, (Ag) ~I, (Au) ..,....iJ1 ,;u:..l.

:iM.Paramagntiques)
, 4)L> ~~ ~j~

If! x < 1

dbi;' .. Il

4..!.))o .l1~1

.l.>-Ijll (>A.r'w>1~ '4?-~ ~4JI ~lj


.a..J ~ '8j\,o~. ~

.(Mn) .H'~I ,(Pt) ';":;~I ,(Al) ~~~I 'J:... j

:(M.Ferromagntiques)
h!~j , h ; ;.;", ~I' ,~ )6-.,,-.,h~J.;!..:a..>j
,;" b

i.Jl ~ll~

6bj ... JI ~.J..I..I.> .l1~1

! x"l

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60.10-'

B =1,05.10" T

JS )o.>~ ,a for-l'..,..o..; \o4J (A, ), (A, ) ~w.. ","'h", ' ~,.".;...;


~, JS.~ ~ "".lAt.>. (n ,) , (1t ,) ""~.;; .:.r:;....l" R=8cm ~
.( ~ I)

B, =1,50.10T .u...,.; t.,o..,hlli.o Wo> (0) Lofo.J-",;I w...,.

JS:l N ~UJ\.l..l.c ~l!I=3J2A.u.J..1. ~.9Jf::.J~I$.ll\ )4ll\ i ~ \~! .!I l


.~ ,= 41t . l0-7 S.T ,..,6>,> .~,

.J,.\4..l1~I ';; ~~ J"~ ,(2),1(1)~, JS';; )l,,-'ll '4?- J.,.; ~ 2

,
",,2])

',"", ~ O.,.. "4>- 'J~ ...,.:., ~


Al~.,J'
J~ (1) .t,.:;~1

A, ""':'~I
J~ (1) .t,.:;~1

(1) .t,.:;~1

(1 )dJWI
(2) ;,.)WI

(2) .t,.:;~1
(1) .t,.:;~1
(2) .t,.:;~1

(1) .t,.:;~1

(1) .t,.:;~1
p

(3) ;,.)WI
(4) ;,.)WI

,
,

"

J",J\
~.

..iJ -JUW I

..l""";" __ .........>

.d

iJ~ JI,. .,..". ,0 ""foJo',;I w.";,, .,s,j.JI..,...,.,l.a4.JI,jA,.J1 ol! hb", . ""':'~I 0 1t..,.
,; J4all,. ~

,r "'...:. ~I,.~

N ~ _B,,--o,--::2R
_
~ "I

N = 60

N = l ,50.10-3 x 2x8. 10-

'.J.?U.! uD~

41t .l0-1 x3,2

J.=...-.' ......,..,l=...>' ~' ..P'l...> ~


~ yo~

.ut> o~, B, =B 0 ~ ,A,

...,.:.~I U' ~WI""""'l.\4lI,jA,.JI':'1 ~


,w~
w,.s\.A

_
l ......:,.11"
.:J"
~

, ",,"-l.a4.JI'v-1>-11 0'I ~ ~
', . ,II..L.JI;""""~"
' -j r..,;r-r:.
-.

,~I.>"JI;""u., ~ "4>-, ,.....1o~ .ut>, B, =B.,., A, ""':'~I U' ~WI

18 = B, +8;1 ,B, ,B, Jhll""I..:JI~I~B ~r.l',jA,.JI,

N ,J21

. ~:t, )~I ~ 45 .~,\j F

,d.1..b

. ~I.;!"""~ . "'4?-

.~

~
~

~
j

i (2)~1

1 :0

X ........ ~.~.~ ...........,. X

If' :l',i
-- :
B = 2,12 .1O ' T

y'

1;
(4)
y

,, '-B,
B:sJ'

x'

............. ........,. x

(3) ~I """ (4)

-rz
;" ',B
B,

=0

x '.. .... ..0 =

y'

y'

BI !

! BI

B = 2,12 .10' T

.. ......,.

. ......

6,.1

(3) ~bJl.)
-

~I ~

~)

~I

4 i ) l.4.Il ~~I >.b.'""'''''Ii,>,~


L.lli.o..Il ~
"-,, ......
~I
~
" ' " -y -

.BT=2 .10"T 4;>J\,>


.n =1000 ..... Jljb ~I .1>j ~ .....,~\ .;:,~

./!, = 41< .10" S.I


JAo-lI bjb> ~I ~ ~~I .t,.:;~1 ~ . a".;j.Jb.l' )~ i)L,:. J..,.; Lo""'" ..,
)~I ~. 1

:~~""".,r--H

~\ ~.-..,J

J.i.... ~\ ~. ~

lop".. ~ ."....,..~I JAo-lI .a".;,.Jb.l1 )~

. 2,5.1o-'T.

~1 ~

25 fi T ' .."
- 1 : ...:s~

I=20 mA J..,.; ..,


2,5mT _ 1

d b , ; h.H)U~l4..Wl ~l !l

)I.......:!J \ ~.-..,J

.J.,JI

J..,.; ,~I ..\;JI ....,1> ~ . .....,~I J>'~ ..,...,Jolli.o..ll bjb> l\p. ...~ .., 1
0' 1O'L\J1 B. ,-,,"",",lli.o..Il JAo-lIl\p..Ji"":'" ~\4,>~I , . I ) 4'J1 ""'" ),-'" ~1..\;J11':'t...1
'"L~,

......~_~ o li "'\;> ~I .)W\,>,

41.,;=- j ~_p , ~j11

) l.."J1""'" u~ JAo-lI b jb> 6,,1,

Bb =J.1 o nI d,j)l,J4~ 8 6 ~ !l 2
B.=25.10-<T B.= 41< .10"x1000x20.10"
.

~.

_ L V
1
4.,I,,?"~ I ~j .

''''''1.'' :'

B.- 25 J!T

'1

'W.l.

BT ~ "'bj:jqq 110.H~I ~ ~ ,I=OA 41b ~

--

...;s:.:JI,;l ~ ~ ~ Lob (a) "".9 ';'' .H~I ":'.r-" ' l ~


'

al

0 >.lb ,;l

;;
1 =0

4.,I4--";i1yIb j 'J~' ~ 0~ ";i1 "":'1~! ~ .lJ


tanQ J~\,I ~ "":'I~";il ~jlj .ll

B 25.10"
tanCl = -" =
=125
~
BT 2.10'
'

(~f"-'""';".. r".. ) 16 "';"""1


.. ,....

rrrmrrrmrT11 /

'------{ A

I(A)
B(rnT)

J-------'

5,0

4,5

4,0

3,4

3,0

2,7

3,0
2,0

2,0
1,4

1,0
0,7

0,5
0,4

\..,..,)~I ~w...JI~1 )""",~Iu;.a; ':'>~I ",,~I .a,;l.,s).9~I ()A J.> "

1
!~,;,.... B= f (I) ,,\,<.,JI,.....;I " 2
' 0,;l ~w...J1 J>..ll ",,~I') 4aJ1bool . 1" 3
. ~jj6.1JN~tiuJl ~~I .y

"Jj~l> ,~j1J ~L\4J1 J'>o-ll ~\.4i ..,..,) :;1 ~L\4J1 J'>o-ll JW>! ~ ~

100.)1_

Jj:;l0A fol ~ ",.:.JI (3,4mTI>j-.l> " ..>~Ij (20I'T=2.lO" n >j-'>

B= f (I) l,,; ,, 2

, [lll.l..~ 1

y=ax ,JS,.:J\(>A ~.lw ,!~I-4 ~ '~jA ~ , !",~;,j" , o b> ~ 4-,J\l

.a~.':A~,,1o)l,...c :b),~ll\ .,.a~'f"lt;"Q !i J.:..o~a.!.y.> B=aI


1

o -""", ~ AI . & .r J ~L..:L..J! ..J.'iI.:-.U

B = al ..... ~4,lbJ4c-

11..,1 y.b.J1,, )~,

'~l

J!J

,~~)Q.lJ I, ~~ I ~)l.,ull~ a:,I~4

B=I1, - / ..... "'.~.A:!o" z,)~


L

[Sj
=aL
-

Il,

,Q ~J;''' '''

Il J.;.o , '"

>0)

., '.

: ......u...I(.A ..

N , ' . ". , "


.
.
.
L

a= ~
11 o ~ , ..l:ILJd.4.I~u

1', =4" .10" 5./ . L=40cm=0,4m ,ll,>..Il

-~.

a= B =3.4 - 2.0 03mT/ A


l!J 5.0 - 3.0

a=O, 7.10" T/ A=7.1O-<T/ A

3 '1N-=-22'31

".,.::)

:'

17~Fl\

~ d1.:J1~1 ~i
A

Ah ', ; . .

z,..Hl~~ . ~~~ O)~AB

1410;",4

~h,J~

r=4cm..l.z.,l

J_ ~<>~K>..Io\4ll ~Lo= ~

1:"',..'"

,0

"0. K

.~I~
~..,...I ~j ~ '.J'~I
,
S..J'~I
.
. "-lli,o v-_
"-.sI
. <\J ~......(AB) ..:JJ,.;.)I ~ ..,>\,0J4S JI.,> <s~ ,>..Io\4l1 ~ ~

.I =1OA .:....:.
S4h , ; ... ~I0.H)U~uu _ 1
. ~l \.o-,S~~I~.l4.~Lo .",,:-,

.J'~I ,,?-I,,:> >.b;u ~.!.U.JI ~ 1!'lWI ~ll4l1 Jhll ....; ~I . 1 ~

, Ab c. , .. 1) oy'';i\~\~! )I..14A.l~ "":-'

.B,=2.10"T ......J~I~ll4lIJAo.ll ..... ~1 >..;SrJl~


J.,J\

-~)1 4,l~- 4,I~1 t~ ~ '-'

)t,:.) ';\'>-*,I Jh)1 ",l u;,.

......) "" ~ ~ .~):;

,lS20 fl.<.

."...,11fl

c,....,lo~ ~..Ilj,' ",1~ '(';\'>Y#=

,...!.lL...Jl ~ :"::'W1B ~\.:&..Wl ..J..A=oJl .)~ ~ ~I .

J.l

J"jb f2;;" ' .!IL. 0" ~WI """""lilll Jh)1 "":' ",I ,-h>
,
, B ~ ~ , T .)t,..J\,>~r
21< r

i..u.; """ ..u..,:; ;u,;,; J

lB~ 5.lO 1j
S

:----

.:, .... '.


a '.

B=

, ~,.,..u

li

411: .10. 7 xl0


211:.4 x 10-2

._ '.:'"

1 a.

Bh

~ 75,S'

'li..!..IJ

'",,",)~I..,....,.,lilll Jhll B, .... ~I ""'"rJl ~.J! .,.~I ,.;., J%- .:,.- ~


.!lb J;>.I .:,.- . ~

;>A"'"

(rhostat) B, >JJ...oJ ..,....,.,\li.oJ1Jh)1.!lJ':"=,


,4u..lUJl
d...J .y."""
_ -;ll
,
L4""<'.

LS~

vL=- '.$:J~

o,r->:i l ,)~)?A

(Solnode) S ~~jl.> J>I.l d.L.o"" F


."""""lilll JI,.:,JI

, '.r- .;-r

d...U '.1_1\

'.~

JL:....l.....! , ral~

"

1....

Al..!1:!d.:!..J...:.I ) t.....:.Ab..u1
d...U
,
j,',

cr- " . " , .

'.r-

. I_ll~.li:I

.Bs=l, 7.1O~ T .,....:...,....,.,~ Jb.


'.c.... .'tu\h Q.J..J. ~!,..9-:I
' . l..Jl )~1
U\) ~\..~
1 d...U
. I_tl~dJ~I
1 1 .,~
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.
..
.,~
.
Wu
.

B w: i.......b~ ~ <LuJ.,...-..
" _"
. .. w= ' ~I ..., _ II ..
r

a -:Sl~ ';il ) u.:;... ~~ ...,..

B 5.10'5
tanCJ. = - =
= 25
Bit 2.10. 5
'

'.
'.

' ''''"':'"-''-"'~~

.,.-.

..".,

U' ,

. .y.""" ~

~.
.~ u-'.;!j B, J

u 1=83,4 ~,lj.,l ~j-,J\....:s.~ .1 .J~\~' O)I.J.JI J.i.!U u..J...iL.

, ~WI~~I

for (.>A d ,j,t..ll ~I u-' ~l .>"';j.JW1 ) _ ~ ~>~ >Ji...JI)_


~..lj4C 4b.l\~.l4. ~ Br ~.I J~\ ~ ~yJ4SJ\ O)I.J.J\ J.i..:.U, (0) ~,jbJ\
.0. 2=82,9 44,lj.,I aLa~\...:s~, B H J ~jl~ d...:.s:J, Bs ~
>J~-" B, .)""' (1) ,,-!~I(.>A >.l,.. _

(( l ,BH,B s
>J~..u B, .)t,..o

(2) "-!~I (.>A >.l,.. _ 2


.a :d BH ' Bs

,O)1.,<.:4~BH i..:....,.!ll.!

.!J

B _ B,(l+tano:,)
Rtana /1 + tanCt. 1)

Ll.,
l

J.>JI

,u .. "B H , B s AJ".:I'J..,iB , 3)W: ~ 2


,.;, l.> JS:.:JI ,....J ..",..,

-L'

tana .. =

B"

B,

L.;..I.JJ

Br +BH

B,

(2) ... 1 B

'

B, - B
Br + BH H

;)lb:.....Jl 5 ) u'1 h

~~I

! !I

,,""S:,>( 2), (1) .:J!l1j..JI '" ""yb ~I ",,",::>WIV"

BH(l+tan<X , )=B'(l + _
l _)
tana ..

B,(l+~)
BH

(l+tan<X , )

B, (1 +tan<X,)
Bu tan<X , (1 +tan<X , )
BH

1,7.10-< (1+tan82,9)
tan82,9(1 +tan83,4)

,...m
. ~I.)~
.
.r::>
BH ~""""'I..-.>
, ~;;\bsli ~4;; ~l..J' z,)~\ 1; ~~

....,.a

j. 1 B.,"1,98.1O-' T
-:::>
N

-~

B __

B,=1,98.1O-" a"83,4 - 1,7. 1O-' 'u'>~ B, =BH'arn ,-Bs ,Wo,..>J (1 ) JIj..lIU1

B,=I,I3.lO-< T

"j ~"

(<i,p.\"~l ~j)

.L=50cm \fljb, ,R=O,5cm lo."w....o....; ,a..,.:.,

19 ~y:;l\

,~.HOl' >u..1~1 .

;~' .).o\?""" Ju,.~J"""";~I~USlIJI,jJl<5~~t.jI,lo.J_ ~~


,dJ...I.zA &...Ij,I,)~ ~ ".:",t.1"":'4~ ) 411..1l.,...

~ ~ ...., ,J,.l4J1JS:.'JI ~ 4 1; 1.4J1~,9lI.:..l>U. ,a..,.:.,9l1 fo".. ~ >.L.oj;~,


. (I=OA) ~"'~.>F= ;4> J'''''~..LC >.l6.
a..,.:.,9l1 1 .).o J"'.)ll ..:.t,,6..J1~\.o 1J

, (5 ....,jI >J,.jb

a..,.:.,~ >u..~l lo.~ I .)l1

~) ~' ~I.l.i1'JljyJ, <.S~~14 -'":-1


.~~ illA -

I=OrnA

s,~ ~~, l.lt..J ~1.J-:1 , ~~I d.f.? ..l~

..,..Li .!Il';';", .(U) >.L.oj;ll '-'1-,,",1~I,j

..,..t.;.;"

(1) ;L,:;ll .>.:....,....", >u..~1 u,. ~

. a..,.:.,9l1 fo.J-' ~ c,.:.WI B s ~USlI J>..ll


,!-;lUlI L,..,l1,....; ,
Cl

1t

rad)

(T)

-,J-.,..,....~---'-::--+'(. mA)
0102040

(a

(1) L,..,l1

2.10" 1--7""--- (b)

..... _ ....... .:---~

-.!"_--:-!:-_.....
' (mA)

20

, ~Wl~!i'~~, I.!LA~,

.<u...:.
.. IIBs ~
.... I...w....I1u--"-'1U'"' W.u
" <5.iJI
''''' 'Ir.. -\.o. 1
_ :r
"
, {'J
_
J..,....
..>'",oJIt-' Bs=g(I) , Bh=f(I)u-JS w (l)L,..,lIU-~':"".""

-B"=-I

.~. J ~1 ~
.. L..w....I1 v"_II
~I .......
- - ' ......
_
"
J..- ''1I.?'"""

"

u=h(l) <,Si (2) WlI..,Jj,>- ~....,. ~


'-4,>j JAl>.."-",, ~ . ~ ",-,,;..JI ~tli.J1 ~I >.L.o~I ~ Jio

. ~~

~,jhll~)~'),.J-A 4p~' - .

.I=O,02A

~\ ....L.:u:. )~\ [,.J...:, ~ ~ , d.L.::.j+1l..!J~ 14 - 1 Il

=4n: .10- 5.1,~ . ~j1JN o.:Jl:4bJI..l...lJ::. ~I - ~


7

DL , <,SI.L=50cm

~jlo " ~

.,...,1

cS~I,~tli.JIJ'jjJlcS~","" . ~
~tli.J 1 J4o.lI J.o.:." <,S.:.JI .).,01.:.11

. Bn,...":')"
. ~tli.JIJ ljjJICS"....

.~)~\ ~\..l.M.Jl ~

,TI

Bh ~iil ~r-Jl ~ ~~I ~

..... ..,..1cS".... 'J .!I~ '<1'1~ J':'" L...o


.;..-:l(..:J1 jo> ~j1J ~=I J4o.lI <..>"I.,.i ... ;.:. <,S.:.JI j lP.Jl 1 ~

,01 h>\U 4.,Jl!jA

. -."J

~~,,*, ,2.1OsT ~1 ="",,b.u..,.;Hj.l>A "-40~,' ; " ,b> jo> (b)~1

L..tli.J1 v"-"jf
~Ia..b
'1 ........
, ....
>,,,
., .. , ,,, .[ WJI.~
- - ' It ......
_
.
J-_ ~
:;e- ........

...-:;e- )_

B =a JS..:J'!jA .\1b\.a.A ,1..10;&."..l1!jA ~ ' ~y


...... jb.1J ...,-.lotli.J1J4o.lI
.j

..

~ l"'_'Qi . .. b.> jf.!

(al ~\ t,.1

. 0' .. .;JI, B = Il, N [ ..,~I ;";..JI lb.. ... [


p" .

Bs= g(I)

(a)~ljo>

. 7"""

) L,1J"~ ~

B,=g(l)I,>!

j.

. >J....~, ~

B, ,B. ~~, ,,,,,,,,,, ~ . i ~ 3


-:::>
..,4l. b> > a = h( I) (2) \;.,J'w-o
N
.
~j."..' ~j~ ..... >J....~'l .LW '':'''j ' a =0 ,LL,..u .I< 20mA ;Jb ~ '
Bh < Bs :i ...,L=. J. l..ll..J.Jbj Eh

~ ,

>.
~ ......
_~

~,

-Bs

,~
.. " 'b ~j-l
. " v_'"""-=
." "-L. u___
." ...... w.. v
'.,,-,
, .. >J....::r... ,1:0
_- ~

..)w, JS:.:J' ~ '.s!;s,.. J

li
~
"-+
B

,180

. ~,

B=B,,- Bs e;.oBs ,BJ,

~~B :i h>':i

~ -.:....!~l ~jo,J\ 1 ol:..:....o \.JJb, ' a = 7t :~.JJ

,1 > 20mA iOl> ~ -

. iU6JI,,~ ~ Bs ) Bh :1...,L=. J..l.:1 \~, Bs 6.p. ~ ~t-,

."_11 ...

1. L.S
>J.... ~
.. ,1:0 , ~ ,
<.?"'
U . - (':="-'

,0

.-<

B,

--'-:.:-='"~-
li

~
j

1.

~j 'Jl......rl\ J l, ~i ,Bs JAl>,

d.p ut h>).li

~W\ ~bJl l.:i..l.=:. J

J;~' JS:.:JI~ ~JA ,.. L.S ,(I) "P j<J ~I -'<l' ;-"'~

0Ah>).b ,1=20mA t$iI=O,02A ~\..J...:u:.IJ~\~..J..:.,~~


I B,= B ,=2.lO'5T I 'I$ w,,\A.4(b)j(Q)

B,

..--= - ...

,,'o>;~' (l)

\;.,J1

e l .!l 4

BsL
1', 1

N =--

'u.l! B="r, -L 1

I=O,02A

Bs=B, .~

2~\

ruJu
~fI \ ,tJ \<j,\il '
_ .~
Laplace (1749-1827) : ",,'i.;~w~\9 - 1

: ~\ili,9,.l1l1\ ~ <tJ.,p.il\ ,l.4i>y\


Jh J.>.I.

.;r.,o..l""',;":;",,IAl~

)~ .....

""'"

' ? 'f,.....,1, 1..,.6...; -'

"t..

: ~\ili,q,.lIl1\ ~\ >ll>.
........,w..'~1 .jAJl"-4,>' ..... 1>

1~'

.J.t.!1o..l,d j .!l

.:w ,(Index) .".;....JI JhlI"-4,> .:w ,(Majeur) ub-jll . 1 )""" "-4,>

, 1

.B (Magntique)

~L..J1

.F (Pousse) 0#1~.l~ ,(Pouce) ~lf,!:r' @ii


, ~ i J.?) .!I 2

,t..)0:3)l,1':i ~1,j

fi'

.".l~~ )I,.j...."~!. -",, .J."-'(l) '?~ .pj..JI,: ........,w..'~I.jAJl

')I,.&I~ )""" ~ A>~I (i) J.""'t"e "',Ij~ , ii~w..)~ ~"I

. F=Il xB

~\.s.:J'

: oo~~ o~ tclJa>
. B.......,J.ol.>.4ll J;".JI J>I.. ~l l J3WI ' ? '

;'0;; ' . ~I >Jo;,o -

..,,-..Inl.>.4l1J;".J1,J3WIe>- ...AJ~I<s,o.....J1 ~

"oj4C ,.j.A\..J1

.~T W ! .91~, ~I o..u:\A,I ~~ , ~, -

IF=I1B sinij

(, ) ""'..,"}' .....

")4>l~~, '.!;11 ~

8,,,1e = ( ,)

'C:"

J t..o..!.J! " ).JII ~ 4>~1 e>- ~ ~ ~ , 64)1~ ~I,, li, F..,:.:lCJ1 ~ ifo.>
. B .,,-..Inl.>.4l1Jh1l , 0 (.>Jj.ojJl
~~

"oj4C'

~JWI ").JI' e>- :;1> .,,-..Inllill J;".J1':'1 .,;u; ,B 0 'j.ojJl

~ ~ "oj4C"~ JWI " ) .JII ~ J>IO.,,-..Inl.>.4l1J;".J1':'1 .,,;u; ,B 'j.o jJl

B ~la.
J J_ .Jj.4.1A.J
. lb ~I ..!JY...I
~
_

(JI)j.>J1 Al..,.:....o , o.,....,bla.j~ CS~ ;lb~l ~ (I) ""~~;4O ""j~ lA=


.I)J~JP"

~
3
,~

.?-

:!l

'-:3.
~

;a
'-'UM
~1...li.4 ~ o)l.,a.cj41j :(

Stator) .:...,aWI~..).?JI

. 'u

. c.... ... '-la. 1

' " . ~v-<-

.;I" JJl

,,1 ~j ~ ,))I.,a.c ~j

:(

Rotor) ..!.I~\ ~ j.?J1

al.,Il! '4.J..!.J.>. ';I~ J.? 6..!~ ~j(>A ~i


.~b)yc.o J.? 1)j.ill

cS,> t.:..u ;lj.>J1 ~j" (I) ",,~~I ; 4Ol1 j4,! lA=


' .Hj..~ J...,;; o.,....,bj~

l '

. ~4J4f=';~ joAl\ ".lA~..u ~

. ~)4~

F = 1 10 B si ne

~)W\..,I';

bj-i 0#' o.i.4l~..u

!.l

JAl!o.l4! .;J ~ ~ !.l

..,b.-y I; li ..,b.-y I; Jhll -? j< Lo= .~I .1;31~14;\; Ii . ~I iIp ~.:"., ~

. i\,IL.WJ4?~ )"""~ I

.F =I1 B"'jb:.j .,."",, .:>jS:l'~I,,1' ..l'WI~ \,~ B Jhl'.:>~ I~!

F=ON ....j .... ..l'WI \fJ ~ .;J" ~'.:>I' ..l'LW ~jl'y

li Jhll.:>~ I~! ~

..!.>JI

. (,-",)l;~ .~ j l) a.,...."blli4j.fo.~ '~I .a~.. , ~ c-, ,.,,,,,lIj ' J. ~

. -~ !.l

0 '

~j

F= IlB sin9

6..i ~4 b#I ".lA

';J ~ ~ , ~ ~ Ij , ~

,10..,.,.Jj .Jhll \,l ~ ) j44J1~ (1) f

, O ",

!.l

..JI,.J,> ,:>~ 10
. ~ !.l "l
~

1t.
.
~W 4-,9 = - \.! I J. W I ~ 1.!~j4' B~ \..o ~ d,..j ~ : : _~ !.l ...

.F
.)l:iJl,Ij 9

IlB . .l! sine = 1

= O~ ?~\i JjWJ 4j1jA B~ \..o~ c.1.:l ~ '~:I !.l ()


.F = ON,t6..:J.A j F = lIB xO'u.:a!, sine = 0
. -~ :J

-~. ~~----------------------~

2 Wefill

~ .i"...1u.o,....9" j ,u"jl~ ...,.,6.lJIv- u.o ~ EE' j AA' U")\;~ ci...


.(J>:.:JI) ~ jW .!l~l j.!.,> l.4>,,>.!l~ l..,..6.lJIV- CD ('g\.J

\.Jo"Ib..J\ 0A 4u; ~ (9Wlj ~, ~ W ~

!l

. CD = 1=15cm,~ U")\;~ .j!,-"",L..>~.b ~ 2


('g\.JIJ.4.'.'; lA= w(F) ~llibj~l'jAll .j;>.. ".ill J., JI..,....> I ~

. d=L=60cm ..\...0

..wl

'--I--+-"'----E'
-

r.;<--.. F
1

~~I,

"-

A'

A
........yl ",?-I

~ I ..c,ll ~~\;

l.l~

~Ij

M('g\.J1 , ;'o; .. ..."t.;.)I>lo; . '>l


~

J>:.:J1,)~.9" ~

"jI.9" ,J,06JI

w=A ' JlAv- ,~I.

F = liB sine U")\;~ ~l>,>"""" ,~I

J,06J1

.1,,-

I=CD=15cm=O,15m , B=20mT=O,02T , I=4A,l:."..Il


1t

=2

Bj

(CD cSl) j i ~ "'jl}1 '-'"


-

'ul> ' CD (il.Jlj ~I cSJ'-A ~ c,'0j4<' c,'J'-A .;I~lj Bul L..,j

F = 4xO,15xO,02 x sin~
2
1

F =O,Ol2N = 1,2.10" N

W(F) = Fdcosa '")WI;J,...JI'J''' ~

J=~I ~ .;l'j4J1 uI L..,j F'j4Jlj

~!

W(F ) =FdcosO
1

W(F) = Fd

dJ=~I ~ "'jl}1 "" ,0 ta


,n = 0

'u\.!

IW(F) =7,2.10'3 JI
3 ~fill
~~~ISj@i-'~.;I-_

" 'j~"j4Jl.;.ol>j ~ 0-'"

.o#!o ~u !(jt...J

80

80

(1)
1
(4)

(2)

(3)

(5)

cWl
. ~ I...l.,!J' J.C.I.!

F""'" ~",~Ij l

JL.u.:i...uI..,L=.

I~ ~j....l..l:l

oi ~

""'" ..,t;..Jlj ,B""'" ..,J<>..~I";'#

",.~~, .IfALoI Li! ....)yl '-'1> .;,.0 ~l>

~, . \4AI>.;,.o~,

..,....,.,lli.J1Jhll l ~ ;,.yll B 0 .~

.. .

",.ill cS~1 ~

)yl rLo1.;,.o J>I ..,....,.,lli.JI Jhl' l ~ ;"yll B -

,.".. w= (4), (3), (2), (1) -:.~bJl .."b <#,,,,.~


1

80

80

--'"-1--:1 8
f: . --+

8l

-t;J1 ~ ....)yl ~ ~ .".~ .~I

Ji, i ,)!..JI "'" .",I.;JI l ~ .Ji >.p ,.,..., lfl u.;WI >.p (1) >.p l' (5) <lJbJl J loi
1 F =0 1 F =II B sin D= 0 ,..,.,., U")y~ ";l> ~ l' .)l>J\,>, 8=0-.",..
. ~>4'i ~jA

;ll
3
."

J ! Cg~\ ~ ";;i dJ6J\ o ~ ~

4 ci>fill

r=_-----------------------------------------;
B ~"""""u... Ji> \) "'~,. ir l .2.3 t-'AiCi lliWI .:J:Il..~I .;,.o "'''''''

-">-

:!l

, '4ll>JIJ ~ ~I \)~,.jO>w=

::3.
~

o8d

.......... ........ ...... .....

;a

08

0B

C,
( 1)

O,8d

3JO
,
C,

J1
,

(2)

0 8
4S

C,
(3)

(4)

. Ji Jhll ..... ~ ",.ill cS~I JS,.:. ~ \) .:.... ~ l


lfl ~<?' ~u...'~I .~I.!lL. j,;. ~,Ji. ~ 2
B=50mT .1=5A . d = lOcm

,o\ w.., '~1 .a""'~1 ~ 3

..w\
B j:i:tJI ~~ ..$,jJl..s~' ..l.,a..l.;or.,j Ll l
,,~.-, , ~L41 j'Li "')~I '-'b. 0-' ,,-?-,. "I,~t> BJhlI' (4)j (2)j (1) J~~I,;!

.""'~ '-""

8=45 ...,Ij,o .!lJ.J1u<' J.,...,j "')~I,,~,;! tl', BJhlI ,(3) JS..:.JI,;!

F ~c..... j~';j>JI ~ ~ 2
1
A

0B

C,
(2)

CI

,(3) JS..:.JI ,;!

A
4 i\jJ.,Jll5~ ~ i.$~~

(3) Fe>

J P.!lJ.J1 JA> .". ~ If.'l J,S1 ' J>uJl j'Li ,,-?-,. j

45

C,

l$,:w...o ~ ~\~ F ;)#1

.F ;...,)t,. i4J ;...~

, (4) JS..:.JI ,;!

41.!ll..J1...,u: ,-:?,j~ Aj)~I-S~ ~

(4

(":ill )~t.,o,. .... Lob)

0B

W lj

F 0#1

>.;J".w..:.......Jj

.)#' ~~t.....:.. .!1 3

F = I1B sinS '~j ~6JI0-' >lb J>= il J..I"')I.,.~ ~Li ~

1 =d = lOcm ,
F=2,5.10-2N

l,

1t

=-

F =5XO,10X50.10-3sin~

,(l ) >l6J1
'.l!

, 9=~
2
1=

30"i d

"'
"'l.
,
-

dB.

d
cos30

cos30o=-, ~.J.l

.1 ".. .,.J

IdB

sm~=-=

P=I

cos 30
2 cos 30
..::" P=S x 0,10 x SO.1O-'
0,866

:a'

F = 2 .B9.1O'N

""do

~
,
N P=Sx O,10xSO.1O- xO,707

P=ldBsin4S0 ~! l=d

,9=45 ,(3".JI..J1

,0

~ IF=l.77 .lO'NI
3

P=I(O,Bd)Bsin ~

-,"

.~!

I=O ,Bd ,

. ?-

:!l

:: F=5xO,8xO,lOxSO.l0-3 xl

::3.
~

F = 2.10"' N

1,

5~~1

1:

...b.,I

a ~ t)..!.U..Jl \,jA ~ t$.lJl Bl ~~1 J4:-.\1O.J..:. ~I e l .!! 1


..!ll..J1V' d=4cm

. BI J4:-Jl J1..o ""':-1

l,
h

MN' '2;; "

, >..J,.j . 0, 0 ;'"

n.!.ll..JJ 4..J.J.,"" w~
. ~<-. ~
- . 0
(~,) ~
.. -

~ Il

~I.T'

~9 ~

~1 :.11]

A> ' 1,=SA

F1 ~t..
,"CI! 0""" 1 A......i
- . ~:r- ~I
.

.MN=SOcm J=..,.MN ~1 1fl

149

'i'

_\

,a.!').W4.!.ll...J\0Ar~

'o,j! B = )l oI

21tr

,8

~ . --,J

<,.:l cS~1 ~ <,o~':;""",;1 ~ tl..:JII.ioj ,(0) >J.illJ1,;I tL..:.,.J4,


~ ""?--Y o~ BI ol-! l ~)jl\ I.S~ ~ t9\j..!.U...J\ 01;.-l!::1 1,j1-! ...!.U...J\ ~

.B 10 j..4.)4:t\..ill...o \.l.I ,I;;;J..C. I,$.:J~ j

\j )jll J..>\.:J

:MN ~\ dJ~.jJ\ ~4J4S.l\ ;)jAJ\ ~--,J1.....>

. I !I

cil t';";"~ l.: , B, ~U4JI,)hl1 ,;1 ,,-"-,Ijj ,l,)"" "'jw,.; .MN a.b>J1
F,=I , (MN)B , sine

U":I\;~o~\:iu~~~j.J4S''''

BI

F,

~~.:J~MN~l ~9 = ~

1...:...41

=1,25 .1O'N 1
.F ~~--4....\,.:1o.j . ~
,~ I

.a >J.illJ1 <,l MN a.b>J1

F,

.~ <,o~j

-4-\1Z,~li.:J~
"0;;' ,~I ~

"-O)yl cS':;""",;I e:>'j ,';"WI


.J,.jbJl.!lW1~

,~I

. F, = 1,25 .10''N , ;....:JI.


. ~jb.ll ..!.U...J10A ~~ MN 6..ah4Jl ~ F 1 o~1 ~~

. 1 . JS:.:JI
~ .;J\ ~u..uJ~l O#\ O.J..1.~t ~

.MM' =1=5cm uI L.k .Cgl.J1 '4l

3
";)

."
1l

:3.
~

;a

.MM' Cgl.JI ~ '-"~Ic5~I J... .

lu'> )~I ~ rW-- .;; Cgl.J1h'-'~. ' ro

;u.,s.}1.....,.. jSO,..s

g=10N.Kg'
.

t...:J\d~ __

J "

.':'>.9-

. . . .('"a ~ ,md.l:iSJl .b..ciJl"' ', , .!.l


j
.
L.r-

-r.- r...r---' -'

Jhll-""b "'"'" ?!j (2) JS:.:JI (0 ) ~Iu-o i,-I,< ~l u-o Cgl.JI'

"

.d=4cm ..t.......I li ..,....,.,t:.4I


. !~\ ~..l4. ~~ ~ L9l..Jl ~~

l'

fo J 4c.~ ~

'1

cW\
:~l..J1 '-4J ~..;,JI ~w...u j~l 0 ~\ o~...,.J1.....>

.!.l

F = liB sine . U"' )l,.~ ~t> ~


.,"",," ~I ~ .)~w. >! ~.5 ~~ ci!...,...,lolli.ll N J L..:J1u-o';>'H B

."'..Il

F, = 2,5 .1O''N

M'

F T

....,...... +-/riO;1,~----'n

~ ' "," ' ,..1.014. ~6. , ~

(0' ,0

'("\.J' .} b,PoJ'';''
M

j>jOllO~

~\ .l\~I ~ ~

~ .!l 3

rr

>J1b.),u...
' L. WIO
(0' , i') ~J
. 1~~
_L. .I .I "-'-'Jl.
' '\'
. ~
.
.
. u;
j-' >J6. "'I?'.

~,

1 .....
u
.

F+T= ...,w:.; ....., I F=


T=F ......, F+T=O .".. (O'}) ilS.".,.J, ,.w.).c.bu...~y

...,w:.; ....., ",j'' >J6. .} w.,,1Jhl' ~' "'~ T =P=mg ",1 >J~ .:.L.:.! ,:,s:..."

m=2,5g

m=2,5.10"Kg . m= 2,5.10'2 ...,...""".,


10

dl.....

fv0

=0

r.

................................~

..........,w..,~,
. ~ ~~

:1...:1-- ~ .

..,..'I.ooo.> .!l _

'jAl'"+.> ~ ')I.,:iJ' "+.>;) =,

Y" .".)J,

: ~ \ ~~ ~

.J>:.:J'.}

1:"',.. Y" ~
l.l.I ,A.i\bJ1~L=Io...j! lJ.,....o ~
MM"" ~l..J 1 yIb , ~\

E ~}\ + E
1
2
O+W ( F)-O= - m v
2

=E

~~~

......
....

.--,

-II.

Iv = O,2m/s l

, v=

7 -:u.~\
r---------------------------------------------------,

,,.:.:.u

J.? I)j.>JI =." ,> .,;;", ' <1j,>1 "'~ "" >-o
",1O -" AMNe .J9
JS:.'JI '" 1:"',. ~ L.S(l) )lAO .J9WII.:.o \fo:; (C).j (A) "" ~ (Ll)."..I ) _

A,
,
~,

~jl~aJb.~)b)'\ot ~ !I 1

...... . . ,.,

. )\b~1 ~(Ll) l)j.>JI)_ J..O ~)j Am.,,>i:l

.)lbti' ~ o'~ 1:?.JJ11.S~l.l.b.

~,

ML---~ N

,~)\b~1 ~.".~>I -"" .)-,"w. , B~ ~l. J. '" )\b~1 ~ ~ 2


.( a) >.,.jlj,> oU jl' ~j 0" c'j.\,>j

.)\b~1 <1j,>1"" <j,> JS

\4i ~..,:J' ~l.j~I.-,,"I~.i.


~ JIb)'l..!.1~ 1.l14 . ~i 13 ~6oJl J:ia:-ll J..a.;-.i .!I 3

J..lI
P Am W. J.W.fo.-,," l...,l> )\b~1 JS., B~t:.4JIJhll w", '" ~ l
R~l ~ 6...J~1...t P;;#l \.}!lj1~ ~b~ Q..ji ~j .RI)j...lll)j='W~.l)_'
.AlU:u.ll 1...1..,1.o....,.w..> 1~-, ,PJ ~w-' "-:!J jo!w,

.)-,"1..:.,..... '" ~Ij )\b~1 JS.,~,


1<l,

ML--+-=----'N
p

J>l;.,.JI0A %. \>..,L:~1 ~ .j~w.

li..,....,.,w.. SA> " )\b~1 ~ Lo= ~ 2

Jb ~<?' e .."Ijll>:'! . "'~\a.o, ru """jl~ ~ ""'"~t.:J1 CN, AM

"1

. .... , .l>.A'_
-.'.
,"- ,.,
.. ""'
_- ~
... ~

e=" "'" li tA J>l;.,.J1 ,:,;':'" 0A


~w..

_ _

. .'''1. .

<Ii
<-. ""'Wu.,
'.JO-"';rCl",,""

FAM = l.AM.B sinn = 0

,1,j!

FNe =I.NC.B sin" =0

FMN= I.MN.B*-O

_J_0
___ ____________
_
LI _____________
A
C

.'

FMN=I.MN.Bsin~ :~\.iJ

)\b~1~)0' >J,;.....J' "'"

.jAl"':"',

-B
M " - - - - t r-

---' N

"""i..,....,.,w...J1J>..llJ. =

MN """~I,);>JI

_JM __ A ___________________C _____ _


1

F~

"-+------'N

~.c,k, ~..,..... ", MNJ I;jl~ li (..,....,


FMN = 1. MN.B sinD = 0
'.l!

8=0

AM .,J~t.:J 1 , ;.,.JI
.

)[

FAN =I.AM.Bsm2

: ~~

)[

9 =2

:.l!

.B ~4.l~ ~

~. ~~Ir:;j ' rLa:i! J ! ~Yj~\ ~~I ..I..,!JI ';~l:,Il....flAb,~~~j


-?

\fi jA.;O l.:.J ,\4.4LoI J! "'J~I ...<b. -' .".,., "'J~I ~ ~~Y" .s~"

"'" F'"

0 ~ ", ~

Ne .;j.Ol.:Jl ,.:,..JI loi

~
-

~J

FNe : [, NC.B

.-..,k, e-

= "- . \ll

FNC ~)yl J.>I.l u~ .~\ ~1 ';...u:l,I.l~ FNe J..obj


(LI) "") ".. i 1..,<, ,.;,.t.;. )".. J \S ~,)\b~I .H'''' ~'W

~ NC' ~ AM ",,"'

.)lb"il ~j..J:i d ,.!b; , ,,-,':i~~....,:a\

:'
8u,~\

3'
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.... ,

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n

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';jA11 ~ 4 >b", \\

1\ ~jll

r:;

u...,.

~ ~ .:.JI,

;-o",u,w, j \p

,(1) c...u:. ~y~ ) ~ .r \! , ~\.ll.A,~ 1

.(1) ~ i.l)o...,.uul..:.: (a) Cy,I~ ~~I

<UA

)j~ ,) lb';il l)j.l ~I..AJJ4S.l1

......\:JI ~:',..:.JI

() )4=0 <$.,.... Lo...... ~\40 ....1b J I ""1,o~1 ""\bJ1 J,.~~ .... j.:,j"> fo.9"
. ,, ~
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.. ~I ~
II
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.
~ ~I
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,
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(.$jJ,
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-\ " ....
lAI a., J ,.-;&I
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_
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~ I J l.J
~
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, w~~ ,~~~

,""\:JI ~:',..:.J I
. ........,~j~l .jAll u,... ~ 1..>,,1~ .,s,jJ1......I,o~I.!l,,-JI ~
.!l~1 "'.P.o,>j ,~lli.J1 0" ...AJ~I
Lo= .\4,;1,p}ll <$jAll ~ jj..o

Stator .;fo>WI "'.P.o,> .!l,,-JI ~ j


~ U~ j.J.U >J.,.l <u,;.:~1 ~ .,s"", .,s,jJ1(rotor )
.r.,T.L. Jf/I"""""
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-

J. u,.,
._

9 -';'yI\
1 ...:. ,-",\,>:Al (Balance

de cotton) uj!.>.?o .01.;..0 J-'-' -"-',-u-iS=


- ,-p.o
- :l1-"'-; 1-1;'S;.o! J.;j 1

,<$>1<0 .0'';'''' .9".1 ",',;...J'

..a ~p ~

J,.\4.l1 ~I ~ ~LlI Jh!1

<$?- ~I ~I 0"j ,\4,;1>';) 1,;c JOb~j ~t';-i,> ~ .;.,;. ~ "P 0" .,s"",
.,s,jJI..,-.blli.JIJh!1()"""'j ' 1 )4=o.p,> <JjL; h,"':' ~ OQPNM <li l<o ....

'.,0

B~ V"' W..l..1
_ -j-J'

~,;; " , .9i' NP ,.;..JI LoI .O

fo r-l' '-""" l.fl 9-",> 0" ut..,. NMj PQ UIO).>J1


...,...1.1

)4=0 .,s1..,,1,;c ()

.!pb..

~ .,s>~ :8..,-.b~ JO> ()

"',',011 0" ' ?

"...;

,,j!WI h,...,:.J1() lc~ ~l,I.#= )~ J'JA ~, ,jl~ 0'j+..J1ojS..J ~4~


.(m)...._.H t...o
,,"-- t">j..,.
. . Il .:;>I<o ~. ~
. '-- . ~ '. UJ
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_ v-<$jAll "Pj J.ol> >~ . 1 .J
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2-

r,"'("O
::-)'-f-o r-l
- -'-,:,.o
- y..;
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--,-.~
-e
-, -e
J,o
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,wjlj:;)' J)l;.>! \)

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J)l;.>! (.>" <lJj~ F.~ " ' ."j:l ",.jJ, "'P- jl' ~ ,NP """0 11 ' j.> wl';"'"

.jl~l

'.J~\ ~~~...!.I~ l4 m 2

, F=mg~l.o=J-." wjl.,:J' wlj , d=d' w1 J,U ~ 3

1 L-----'g'-=---'-'9,c::8-'-N-'-/~Kg"'_'__,I_=_lO_~--,-,

m
_ =_O'-,S-"gc.:''''
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b _'"_;'_'.,,
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n ll

F,

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.:'
::

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,-a

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0 1~j ,~1 -4J' ~~l:,I ~~ ~lliA-,~ LSj! !..il ~ ~I,! ,1)41.\1
~ y..;.)l'j

.u..b. J.> ( 0),:,.0

""")l> FJ,ob. l.o1.(

0 ) fo r-l',:,.o w''''''' F,j

F, ,:,.o ~';'b.

, .)~t.:.

\~~ :i jl,.:;J1J~! ~ )l>..ll,I }/ F2J F1l,! '('-,-1) J.lW\ Jl.;..J' ~ . .....

.wjl.,:J' J)l;.>! \) J>..L .)l' ''''' F.~' lo. ,(0) ,:,.0


~.3~! ~ .J.i:.~ }/ JoA i \.l~ -, ,~!il ~ jS..l... F;)# , d+.> \,:9 ,) l".ll 4.-- ~ .,J ...J
l~lj\~

B~

.
I =NP=2cm ./ ~.s~~ F,w ~

...J

F=mg '~ jl~l ...uc.


n
e =- tA F=IlBsin , ~

. 1 ~;I ~""",j IlBsjn~ =mg'w~!


B=

ri-B-=-2 -, 4-S-.1- 0-'-T-'I, B = 0.5. 10" x9 .8


10x2.10 '

' ~u'>"'"

30~\
~~\ jll\9h)\
1
1-1

b.b....

..:s..l~

lA~

.t4~;'j" ,4

bp

.!Il:'" ~, ~ ~ lf.'10 Jl'~

tJ

..!.l~

'pl'

~.,.....,

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sin i

--= ~U

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sinT

-.IJ!
-

'"

C
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V~~

,.

= 225000Km/s

.0

......

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!l

."

C
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VC)

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2.10'

3.10'

2,25.10

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, =1,33

=--=-=1

",.

.
.~
sini

sinr

~b

[ 1'1 1 sini=n 2

sinr

'.l!

;=30 O'JJ .",Ij,>Jllo.l? ~ul<c Jo>...> ."jl~ '4l~ ....j> ,Jll.o ..


.V"\S..a.j"i1 ~,Ij ...,.........:ol

tl.s,,;.1/' '.l4J ~yl,331$,l... ~w\ ;\...SjJ ~.;-! 01 ~ r ) t...S:.:!"i1 ~,Ij ~I 2

D ~1r--i~1 ~jlj ~1

. ~~1 ~!i\ ~ aA~ ~I

..,

1 1

3
4

~I

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1

i'=30 o l i=i'

VO'\S..,.j)U

~w, 0~\ ~

(~ I,;,; ~I ..,.,~~I ~\.j )

,r.-..,.It...>

n l sini = n2 sinr

~ 1 (>,I~ )I......S..:! ~l~l.i~

sinr = nI sini = lxsin30 = 0,5 =0,376


",
1,33
1,33

D = i - r = 30 - 22

:L..,.>R.l1- 2
:.;.j,.;;

1 2

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.c, fo.,... ",jJI ""P' .}"'\SJI


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oe

R2

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cW\
,"'4?-~I.,.':"" a..-,", jol> "",,~I~I .?>~ ~,.;"..JI ,.....".JI ' 1 ~

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Cl ' CJ

<,S ~I Jy.lI.?>11 U" .,.,~ ~. ,a..-I>lJ <,S ~I fo ) 1"""

<bAlJ1 ~

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~)'jll t~:.h ~ :[IMJ t~1 .)

.>...~..... li tl..:J1 jol>

,l,M, tl..:J1

)J\,JI t l..:J1jol>

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r )1....S..:!'l' ~'I) .l\.::o.,ll .


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C,M, <,S)I", C,M,

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(C,) 0 fo.Y' <,S.:.JI <,S,~I )""\>JI ~ 'JI...>::.}U .",.WI "I>]I-,!~ 0"~'

"3 = n

".

51n/ 2 =

1,65sin(17,6)

:~
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"

l , ;,;.-11 a..,Ij u4I il


Sini , =nSinr 2 ,.;;.::.!
1

i =30 1 :'::'! ' sin i2 =O,5


2

i ,

:6..:...4,

i,.J..~ ~) 1.A4- ~

.lJ'jll ta.:.JJ 4;1.,.. ~ Mi2 ))4.11 tl.a.:JI 01 ~ ,~" i 2 , i1=30 1 b>').l.j


, [ I MJ

~2

fi=>.r A ""'.9 .....>..JI J>...,. >JI.9 .;~ t ~ JS


. .1)1~ 1 t l.a.:JJ 4 j1y d.........wl iJA ~
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jJ4)1t!..:J1 l' ,0 \.0>"""

--.

:;;

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w= ~.9w...

r,

r, ~hll ~ ) ""''''''"' . C~OM, .9 C,OM, ~' l


( .....
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CO CM
CM
=R 2 J CM
=Rt..."I"';""';
..<1' -=-'-'
<- . ..~I
T ' 2
1
1
I r-...CO
CM "'\OS
.
U""""""" ..... .

"

CIO
- = -RJ
C2 0 R2

.-<

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7~~1
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w....,

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.( 1 ~1)5cm ~jt..., , I..Il1\.o.;la.' R=3cm ... .J..JJ ~.9;SJ1 <1.,> jll .;la.'
............

1
1~1

n1 =1 ,6 ~[~jJ1JI....S.j! ~,r! ; ~

1\

.. . . ... ... ..V

nA=! j'2I ~1 ,94l 1 ) 1...u.S.,j! ~..,..!j


O'

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(Cl t:.bitill Ji.:; lA 1~

- 1 ,-J...Jl; 1 ~i l'-'"J "",1 '.."


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. .s~1 <l.,>jll ..,1.o ,-JOWI Jl.

>

.;t........i}U ~t:..II0~l uU=. I.l~J .!I

( ~I t!..:Jl) ....>..JI""" ':"WI ....~I t!..:JI...,.....,Ji. . 1


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P ~ w~) Ll! .!l 4


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23 ,1

n-1

2J=

t b..:Jl ~ ~1, aiyl..Jl ~U:J.I i.l~1 .!l 5

1~l~ ,2 J=' ~ J4o..lI(O) ",~I


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\..t.:> L.fI (0) .,s ~I


j

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'
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~

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.R

. -?

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.,s~I "->~I '-'"' ,..,WI J.4>


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~1~\ ~ ~ ..l;l~\~~\ tb.W\ u:J n 1 = n A =l

-:::>

-~

(40-jJ\~~~\tb.W\:J n 2=n~ =1,6

c 0

i = 0

0'

.
l x sinO
smr =
1,6

, ................ l/

~I

r=01

sinr

,d...:..Aj

n,

~!

sinr=O

:~ i j..l~~I~~ ,..l)\yl~~lt~ll ~\~j ,4..0j~)~~I~jlj.!


(~I p

l) y.h..J1 "->jll WA

>.b:A:J1.;! h' "Jo ,~

'.,>j;SJ1 C.b.J1~ ,..,WI J.;.:W ~


,0

J" ,J ':'>WI tt..:J1 b~

~ ,(Cl ,,>j.;SJ1 "->jll fo.J-'';'"'' ,,>.:.JI ~I !


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l) y.b.A-l1 cS j.;SJ1 "-> jll ~ ,..,WI


: 1" jj.r.J1

!l
~

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r' yI..> """"' ,jeUI ~ll J~~ ,CJ


n~ , sini~=n' 2

,..,l\lJ

sinr'

(40- )I.b...uj J>1..l ~ IJ .l:9W1tb.W1 :J n~l = "v= 1,6

,~

CBJ .!Ji...J1 WA ~ i' >j)jll ";jl) l b,.)G ~I S dJ~


1 i' = 301 '~j sini'= 1,5 = 0 5 ,
sini' = CB = ~ ,UJ.JJ
3'

...............

".

-<.

--

"

-~>--I+i'.:J<
.........\... ................

! ......

i'

...

CJ

~JF")).
Wltt..:Jl
HI::1~----=

'.

~ n' 2 =n A =1

, nv sinz

smr =

. , 1,6xO,5 .,
'..l,
1

slnr =

.... .....

r' = 53,13 1

. .."... .....j

sin r' = 0,8

D~I~':I' ~j\ ....y~ . ~


bl;uJ~ l)j.J-' ,-""" J,.s~ 'Ijll ",,~I tt..:J1 -""" .... -'>ll

u'o;"::'

~ jl

""j').;,1! 6..,l.<. jF' ~t."'" ')L,l' t6.:J,.:..,..., ..... ..I.J, Oj?-~ C>'J B . 1 . J . H

l ,"'" J=' "'""'" D .:.,.,...~,

1 D = r " i'

D =53,13 - 30

l,

D =23,13

,.;,>1
,d.......laJ\ t.J"I_ ...,..

~~j )~ j 0-4 4.J.44....:!~ j)4J\ tb.:J\ ~~ :i ~;U iI........u.: o.l4l

.....,..JjJ'

1 1"> ,-!-J'':'! JI ........1


OF'- -31,6-1

l OF'=5em l,""" ~~t. ~ -!

. . OF' = -R- "~r--w


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, " J'~y
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n-1

,~

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0-",

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l u-" "" cr ,"',", ,:,, .~, ,,," j ,.) 1.>"'"
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j .2113
,

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F'

Q.

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f= 7,5cml f= op= 1,5 x 5 = 7,5cm ''''; ;'i''"'}I-,-",~JWJ...~


J' =OP' = 1,5 x5 =7,5cm ; J =7,5cm
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F'

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P' =2f =P ' j4> ....l.J1 ' ,.a, ",1\ob

f P < 2f:..$i 2f f
:1

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A

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P >f
P >2 f

b~I ~;"".aJ 1

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P =2 f~ I~I ~IJjb.,sj""" i4Jjbj 'J',h ')~ljS.,

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U' ""';~I .a,JI""""0A f ol .a, ~ ~I " p:" u1 ~ P

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f= 20eml
f =21eml

'u~!

lOem ..,b>,o lem

OF ~ 2em ..l;-i ..,...I.,,>ll,o , 1 ~I ;\JI>"

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21cm
y =--= 2,625em
Bem
6em
y= - - =O,4em
15cm

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. 2~~L..
: ~ JJ , ~W I ~~1

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~ ,....-J lu~

.u'j~1

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-(-34)

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ji..,o>j
Y = 12,8
.
."-,...-lI
.
- ""'" Lu
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.

- 2.65em

~Jt"o.Jlu~( + ) .)t.:.11 P' =+12,Bem , 2~~L..


~j ,....-Jlu~(-) .)t.:.1'

P=-12,Bem

.u'j~"''''#l,o ....,...,..1.1 ~I ""'" y,ji..,o> n


-

= - (12,8) "- 2.65em

- 29,9

.-,J

(30em).la,>uLo , ..,....,:..,lI';;~I ) j'"ll ~"~'" .(2em) ",,\>:0)1 (AB) l'-?' ~

.f = 10em "'.r-\I ",.la,> "":,... ..."'" IY'


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.~l..u,;.Jy

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2
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l~

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F"

A'

B'

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Ol.wl,y.

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(A'B') ;)~I

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,')~I J'"

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I A'B'=lem l

. A'B'=2xO,S

, (p') ....>.>ll,y. ; )~I"';


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'.11
w.. J~, P' -> l,Sem .....
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1.

P'=1,Sxl0

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P P' J ,......
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A'B'=10em, A'B' =Sx 2 ....A;
w..Jt..o...t..,
.
1'-)1 V".
.

-'\
-1

:a'

. P' ~ 4cm I ~ ...,..,l;iIJ4

[ IPI= 40em

A'B' = IDem

i\.......I.1lI UL P'

:~!

j; )~ I

[ """'''''), ""c,... Jt..o...t.


,-".lt-.:.Jl.J

-.1

1 1 1
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'
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f = + IDem: 011$1.\.p- jA ~ .i>iJ (f) ~rJ.\..u..,J1 ~ y.J.1l.o d.......u.J\ 1L...,i *

.~
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' .
.
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1 -2
1
1 1 8-10
P.=-10 -'8=-8-0- , P' = 80

(P =

+ Bem)

4 ~I.:>J,
\

1 ...l>jll
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.:.

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. 1 - A_~J1'
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b..u::.1..,.A

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:"-'~j j"- b;...6 ,.,.0.

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23

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b~I~I ~ ,",""w.JI '~ I """",jt.."hi..>l 1

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p=-

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(N) lJ-I.!f':!""'"'

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(m' ) ~ rJl;...J1,. ,-",UU , S


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~.9...u' ~I ...I.>~ 1 ~~ , ~I;;.J.>J

(Pa) J"'-\,>JI,. hi..>l1,-",1>,.


: ~J ~\ iJ""t;tl.S~I ..:JI .J.>.J~ lA z,.lu:.

Ibar = 10' Pa

,( bar) ; \,>JI-

latm = 1,0123 .1O' Pa, atm [",,,-JI hi..>l1J, ,,-JIlatm = 76cm Hg


'"l<.J1 hi..>l1 iJ""L...
..
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.,._ .

~ ) '1t":'":"' iJ""
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H = 76 cm

j-AJJ \.,J\ ~

, ~)uj4-0

.." )\ill bi..o -

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_

j lP.,J iJ""4 ~1j4l 1 .b...i.w3 -

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(Charles 1778) y)w., ,(1676
T

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V j P .b..a.,:,..11 a..!~
'L

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. ~\:, (T) j ill! O)1j ~)..l~ ul' ~j .~IW'~ (n ) ~ ~ ~

1438 +

"hI\

t
P (Pa)
V (rn' )
P.V

f- P

<.J"J J .Lo j

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J,..I;<J

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0,5.10'
100.10-'
5

'*

1
1

1,0.10'
50.10-'
5

1,438.10'
33.10"
5 =4, 7

2,0.10'
25.10-'
5

~)I..r> ~)..lj .jl.ill ~ (n ) ~l,a~ (cte).;Il.lll Jl..I..Aj ! PV =

S
r
ct~ l ~ , (

I.llo ' ->"

.T
PlV l

= P2 V 2 = .. ..... = cte

I ,~ i...a..lj

,,,,"""' ~~ 2 ~l ~ 4
jl.il l ~ ~ I...1.?-~b. ~ .'U,lU TO;lj ~)..l~j .j ~ ~

~ ~J.?I ~

" PV = ete , I$i ~u iJ\..l..A.. V ~ 1) P

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al

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0'"

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U-.9"0~101 ~)l;

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l ~ \.J..t.j l

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o
v

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lj\.i.ll ..

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.j"'.r....,...~<n
,~~ , (IL) ..... "",.l>j0~"'
.o.J.,}.r.J j l .t. ., .d.....,j ~

J.>lo

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W
V"'.

, ~I.wt.a

.. < -. -

(J"""""'o"

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t (oc) OI};-:o- ~ J .l ...,...\.:.! ~ L6

(JS.WI)

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,t).J \ J,.J.;oJ\() ~...jll.:J' ~..J:!

.."

p(Pa)

91200 94600 97400 99800 100600 1102001

, 0,

:1-

-10

--

15

20

-- -

P (Pa)

45

,P= ((,) ,,41

'

"00

-- -,,
-- ,

91200

WC)
0

-10

-273

: ~u.:.J' '*

.( O"C ) 1..,'+4_11..:.,,0 ~ ':i ~J.A ~("'J;,; ,,' 4.b.> ",,~4..J \ ~' ~

~...l?-; i\..l

.;..si ,"':.A... ~.9 ,t=-2 73, ~l!

6..b.4.:a 0-" ~ '("'J Oj,, ' Q h .)1......G!

!l

., = -273,15,
,= -273,15,

Lo=

P= 0 Pa

Lo ....... ~ j\iJlhi.Q ul l )l.;,

!Lo ....... j \iJ1hi.Q ~ ,,11,,4<. ~ J.l>


.~1 ,,~

','-'"

J.,t.L! i ~"i "i: It

! , = -273,15, ""-)~IJ! J,...J1' "il ~ J.l> 'P

.""-)~I ,.l.o J!J,...~ ",,)~I 0-" 'Y..".:;,sL ~ ~ , ~

'1;::.u.,..,! ..

<,>L

~!

J,...J11

~ ~.! ~ I ~I ~

T = -273,15, ;;\;.,.)1

.".)~

. 4.,I~

OK == - 273,15, . T = OK

"'~! ';".H ~ I ~I

. KELVIN ~)~I J! "-'.:...AlS~ , K


,J)"":'

y = ax + b

..:~\.! .!l

2 !l 2 .!J 4

,JS,.:J' (>A ("' 1;" '" aJ..l\.a..o ~'-~W\ ~l A1..:aI.a.o.


4

P=a,+b ,<,>1
(DOc) '0)1.;> ~)..l

rJ

P J~ ~

("'JO""

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P=at+P o 'u.l! b = Po '.$ .Po ';"'YYAlj.A~\.lJ

p ~J:....'+Po

,...,., P 'JL..o.j- (a) U" ""~ t..=

273"

~P, (1+a,)

_l_ ~a, F ' p~p

l ,...,...

273

,.,.~I

",IS:. ~

F'

(t) 'h,.]I

'

(_1_'+1) ,oUA,
273

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J..=.' ,(

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l4l

t..= *

<U>I~I 4,.>J1

,.)\:JI
P(Pa)

l(pa)

Ipo
l
l

J273K

o '

+283K

T(k)

'"""""" """"""""""""",," """. trOc)

DO

(DOc

1,--.= a~_l_
,

273

'""~, P=~T
",,~I,
273

"'-~-

Tilj.lbq !!oJI;-l!~J...l.:IJ}".~~l,jyt.j

,JJt.:. ",~Li """

..

'h~1 ""JI. <l,>J>';' i>y!.o ~~ cp' ....... ~ P ~I


- ' --T
_2 -'T
,

'"""T '' ' ' 'Pl=

- t
...."S:.:d,.<:t...I1
...... ",-ce'.
..3

-P =:cte
T

.T

J_

,(" ~I ,-!-JI) ",,~,-Looj (J1bl1,-!-JI) ~,-Loo

, ....., T( OK) J_t<> (t OC)

",,~,-Loo

1
273,15c

~,-Loo

-""d-

""

1 ...

,0

180'

.~

'

M'

.~

}d

".

-;~;l

-".

.,.

,., l
J

100'

'"
W

1
Oc

1
OK

1
273K

"'J~

Wc~

1
0

100 e

T(KL
373K

'"
T(K)

."

- 27.\'

=Wc) + 273

( Oc)"'~~JJJ4~~\ bJlr-J\ ~),:, : t

P' "~
- ' - ' 6~
"I T ' ..w~I.? ~~-'-! VI ~l.J1 ("c"V ",J,u,

' Gay - Lussac 1802 1.J'L.,.J ~


lot.:..; ~
(>A

c:.....;t;

1 ~3~4

~ ~(t) ,,-:!~1 aJ)\.;> I.:> ).l~ (V) j LC ~ ~ aA~ .l~l 4\.i...G ~I

VlmL)

VI

VlmL)

VI

-- _-1=.....=.....=:,;. .~"'k)~..........
-'O~_::"'-_-_--_-_ _t-__..:t(,-+
OC) ~::...
- _-_--_
273

Oc

.j

Wc)

V=V , (l+at)

,(,)1 ~

\J-:IW\ 4-,J\ ()A ..

~~1 Jl..r-JI ~)~ ,

V=KT

:V ~I<.o"""':; ( n ) cC-,L~ ( P ) ,", L<.Ja.L.;,~ - 4

,b l.W
~~

J.?-i()A ~..llo ~.3 jW\ b..i...::.

4,j~1 ..l~! oII...i..o

..:sJ411. .

J~ ~ <.?~ (IL) ~ ~ jlL,

'J

0....1.1.0 ()A o~ Cu.b..! ..:.Jpj ,~~I ~

Jd;':; "'j-'> b".:ll; 'J~I 'J b4..:. ~)I


0-' (n) ~ ~ , ~Ij .a..Jl :J":!
~II
~= , I.J::>
'
',"1 '-:T."....
r a...b ~.
.,)~
J .,
H

'0-')' oj r t" Jd'w..,'l'


b..i..,.;:J1 ~ I...>"'~

~1

~~~..!IJ~;""'~ JS:..!Jl) ~l:l ;; I F'"- ~).J


////////////////

Pm(Pa)

,IL

1",)-"44A

..l.l.C

jll.,J\

L~
J.>\.J

.(J.,!~ I

l ..... \.A:Jl .
.
. 1\ 'u:. b.i..Q .
'H
.......
0" ~HWI >
jo..".. 0
0" ~HW b..i....QJ\ ~

n(mol)

'\"lI'JI \".,JI i""'-"j '"~I ofo


PH, = f ( n ) 4,' C~!

2
-=>
"<t'

-=cte

,<S;

--------------------------------PV~cte~K,. ..
P~KT

.... (1)

................ (2)

V ~ K'T .............. (3)


P ~ K n

................ (4)

PV = K K' Kif l'l.T , A,aWi::. ~ d..i\W1j)~ WA


~-' ~ll4J \ u ljl.ill..:J.,ll:l , R ~ , KK'K" = R: ~

R ~ 8,31451070 Pa .mo/'. K'


PV~nRT

~w...u\ u ljli.!1~Li ~ (J.l!

1R~8,314 Pa .mol"'.K-' 1.l.>L;j


(Pa)

~ j W I ......,

,p

( m 3 )~ jbJ l ~ , V

( mol) ~ j W I O.lLo ~ ,n

(J. KI. mol'l) ~ ~\.1..o.Jl ulj Wl~b ,R


(K) ~

4;"6

;I.r-J' ,,-?-) .l ,T

~1

,,,1\:.11j W I

1.$.l~I.a.jP=OPa~.jWl~r~ , T=OK~I~I ~~I ~L..,1.41) *


.

_ .

li.h~..l> 1~
- ~..:u'
~ U".il ...:s1
_

. .:.. _ .. ,,:,,1.:...!_.J""'
__ 1\ ......Qj
_j........,
1~

~u'1.

ul.:..!j.;oJ\ r l..\b...g! ....Aj~~ , ~~.i-?- ~.J.iM..ll,.l..lj! ~ ~ T j \.iJl o )1;> 11.41) ~ ...

.T=OK

)l.r-ll ~J..l~.jW4j.u~~I ~.;-r...l..a..i.,j


. ~WJ.\

j W l ~ , ~I.PJ 1 ;)~ ~ -.>.J.l\ j l.iJl

\>....,.,.bJ1 " .)l.l..o j~ -'?- ~ J.o JSl


~~

,=",I.i..o j~...:s~ lf:il ~

~J ,;"i;'!;'.",I! ..:Jlj li.J l

';il ~J 'i

~\ ;''''

"," j 10 j".:.J1 ~

:Ji;>

~)..l

u1 1$1)

~ ~ ..I.?- ~41-o ~

0 1 ~ j 6lJ d..AJ;....Jl u~~1

..

. (>..,J ~

.1..1.?- ~ v~ .jWI bi...Q ..

1 . ..
... ,:,,, ~40-'i'p;;. !

.~' ~ ~4

,,-=>,;..

_~ ~\.::.. ~ .:"..IljWl ~~j.?- . 1

.:.JI ~ .lj.J.>. ~

jW\ .:"..ILy.i-?- ~..,.... "":-1

. \ ~\ ltl;AJ ' j l.i..11 ~1.:y..J.?- ~ ~~ . -?'


.~

C:S.P.-J' .l6.,.11,jA
I...u...

~ ', ! .. ~I

j l.::. t,)A~..J.?- ~ 5\......o.Jl

~ ~ (jW'r::..j:J) ~Jl ;'>l s:l J ! l'Ju.- j l.::. ~j-::I ilJb

.l

c:, ~

J,J\

2~rI\

ct

8
._. b j

""JI~ ~ ,,~

ct
8
" jJl J;\4.I1 ~I "

~~I ~jJl ~

,,>~~ 6.l (c) <,F-\,>j ,",~I >b...Ij,' "6 ' ;"! ' ~j'~ l> (8 ) l (A )

'yi>40- jJl '-:-Ij+-i~1 ~ bj W1 \j W I ~ ';~1 l./j; t,)A ~I

p..,.,.,. J~ ( 1 ) .Jl~l ,",y:..; ,uWJl.:,.o (2 ) j (1) ~t.>.o ~".......


,HCl"""j;-'I4l ;p j UO ~ ,(A ) Jl4J1" Ifl>-"l for-l' """j~'

'
j UO ~ , (8 ) Jl4JI" Ifl>-"l for-ll ;>w.iJ1 J~ lf.o.F' (2) ",p. ~lj
. NH3 ) .lw...:.J\

(8)

(A)

(c)

-(1)

(2)

. NH,cl r*,~~1 JP .Ib<o~ 1jWI J<ol"-'; .J l


'Uo='jW\ ~ ...!.!.l6..l1~~, ~\Li..h (IJ..ll1A ~t

6,.'t!w

..". . JO

':i,''-.
'W,~J\ - " -.ll~~I - ""1.A .!J 2
"
J-A' '?'"' - 'T

"'J

jl4J1-- '4-.1..,.9 , (c)~j,!i,1,)A ~ 13"~ ';~I..IA1..:..i ,~\b:..J...l..a,I.J

.(A)
. Sl,).IjW\ ~L:..:!j.;-J Vmoy i\.b....w~I Cu:: ~\ ~ Jj1 1.;,t.. 1
LHj Wl u~j? 1,)-4~1 r..;r'.,:JI ~.J-~)l!

.~j4..l\ I.S:;I;4=-

~ ~I ;li ...,..

. M "A!jeJl >..,J~I ~j jWI (sjeJ V.'Y ~ ..~...,. '.,..

M(cl)=35,5g.mol"' , M(N)=14g.mo/"' ,

M(H)=lg.mo/"'
chJ\

Hcl(g) + NH,(g}
...l..a,I

=NH,cl(g)

,~jWl ~ll,I~';~ r..r.-l?-)\ ...,..~!il ~ ~jl....h "J! ~ ~~\ '4J~1 ~ ~

J.

(NH,)j (Hcl)",jWI .:.l:.;j.> -' 0>"~I


u~..J.?- L>-!~

J.c.

~'i..l'''~ ';~i

"".:.0 ~! I>! Il .~ .:.t.I..Ib..o~I-",,)(.

~ ~~ h,:Jl.o\~! ~..!J~ ~~

.NH4 cl ~z,...\,!~

~4J1 -' 41-" (c) ,",,*,~I -' ~.,) .w..,.J1 .A>~I ~ J,-.JI ! ' ~ 1
I~j , d;.bi q '1 .!.l ~

..:...A:iJ! Hel

U~?j

(NH3 )

u~..J.?- .:,,1 ~ 4.1 ~..l

.(A)

-' f ol (d,)~", .:.1.>1... = b j , NH,':'l:.;jeJl l J ! Jj>lI J ! .,3;


.....jJl.p4Jl...,..;u.,) l.:.oj ' Hcl':'l:.;jeJl ~<?' (d,) 6.b..~ -"I.>I.....JI

d d , > d,_ ~ . Llt


-",,~. , V lmoy > V 2moy U 1~
_.- . V 2 moy=-,
'
V moy=d.' .,)l''-'io:I'
.6.t

.le

".>"' 0" fol NH,"'I:..,j;.J1

.HeI "'1:..,j;.J1

:' "LiU
1, . ... ~ . ,~. 11 ... ~I~ C'I \ ,
Cl:! a..W\ ....J
..:..HJ
~ r.- '-'"~::r- '-'................ J::I
)
.
M

' _ _

M(NH,! = (14)+(1 x3) = 17g.mo/"'


M(HeI) = 1+35,5 = 36.5g.moP
, - - - -1

------;

M(NH,! < M(HeI)

4~~\

F=P.S

1atm =76 cm H~ 1Pa =10'bar 1 bar =lO' Pa.,


1atm =10,13.10' Pa 1Pa =1,013 .105atm
.y.....~W \

.Pj)4J! : ~ jl.i.ll

hi..:, U""~

4Jf

.3

.;...-~W\.J'Aj)4JI : ~ ':$j;-.JI ~I U'"'~ iIJi ~

, J! ..l~ r...1.! o~ ~\..ll\ ~1~1 ~ ~1

.o..,.s.u ~ \..I.l\ ~ I~\ .).c. ,,'jfl' ~~? r'..l~ ..J~ I .b.i...::J\


.ljfl\ ..:J~.? ~..l~ -.$,.-.1\ ~\ , Li! ..l~ ~.J.4l\

fo t;l>..,u: ~I .!.$
cl.>J\
ib ' .Prl l! ~l,I b :& \

F=P.S

p= F
S

. 1

.~

Pa

1atm = 10,13.10' Pa , 1atm = 76 cm Hg. 1 bar = lO' Pa


.Jo.A~W '

. ~y51J ~,.:u,

..l

.;...o.9)41!

....:!1.?l' ...,u: ,'.w' ~~.J.?'

~..:a1...Al -'

.t.? ~' b.i.AJ1

t.?

5~~\
,, ':J .,,1,~ ...,.".,.~.'
.~ I ~I ~
,0

-273.15 C';;I~\ 4?-)..l. \

.(~I ~I "')~ .,s1rO"K "' -.J j..o;; ~I ~I ' ""


.( ~ I ~lll) OK", -.Jj..o;;~I ~I '~

.T=OK = (Pa=OPa )

<Ibi..o~..w., ..,.Jl4.l1jWI ' ~

= (P=OPa
) <Ibi..o~..w., ~ I j WI ....
.
.
--", '1 - ... \.lI Wl:a.A " li:. -:"':._ "
l...J:.' ,-. <_ .

t =O"c
, u-_
....~
'WI u_
. ~,..... .;-'

' ..

' W l ).

~ )

. ) W,

. :.._ .l'A .:.._ ....c:l..1>o..1.c.l..lA


~""""".....--.

. v--:

~I.:...J

-?

..

. I..1.?-~ j W l ~

bj;)1A

J"j; ~\3 b,...o)L ~ 1.iJ1~ ..,.Jl4.l1j W I l

_2c j l.C. 0)1;> "-?-) .l ~~ l ~ ..!.1

1000K Ji j "

-273.15, J!

. )Ij> ...)~

J..o:l l .fo;

j ~ o)lp- ~).l ~ 0 1 ~ Jo:,

...w\

~j:Jj~ d,A,.,...ojLjJ'~!.Y\j ~l4.W\~ s:L-l ~ .!.I


J)w" bj,')Lo ,

~t..jl.,.<- ,

J"t' . ~, '-'.:.JI ~l ~l<o J>:;

PV=cte , V = K' , V =V , (1+Ut), P = K , P=P, (1+


T
T

,,!lWI ~Ul.!-,J' ~ .!.I

P(Pa)

P(Pa)

V(m' )
(1

(2)

(3)

...............
,J

1 (m") "'.2'=773,""15
- :-1.,.---,(OC)

O*---.... Il
' nn ,

V
.'"=""""'u....JI <~I,j 04,1 J.S...a ~;1.

a~~J .'-:-I

..hJl
, ~, .$. lJt ..J ~ll\ ,~'" ..j.S..J .)~)' .!1

PV =ete , bj,') Lo, J"H j>l>


. (t )>';,:....J")I.,.,.JI>.,';" , P=Pi l+Ut)}
. (T)A lb' '' ;;J';:-J \ ~)~

r=K

, J)w, j>l>.
, ..!.I~.,JY',.;l,j

..

(t ) >';~I ;;I.,.,.JI >.,.;,. , v= Vil +Ut ) } .!lt..jl "" j>1>


(1) iI..il.b.J.\ ;;)I.r:-Jl ~ )~ .

V K'
T
=
, -,-,~ , ,,,~

0A ..bt....O ,1..41' 0A .,.."..,.".~ ..... f!'; . , b> ~ V

....

Ll .

=((T) , ( 1 ) ~1
.y =ax , JS.lJI

. ~t..jl.,.<- j>I>~,

V = K'T ,.,si

.::J

1.

,( 2 ) ~1

, JS:.WI C>' "-'l~~ ,u.,....J1C>' .,." ~ -.,.;> ~ .J.,.. f!;; " . b> J'> P = g(')

y =ax + b
''''''W=~'f!;;'''~' J;..oJ'> a,b=Po, /:,P=a'+b ,,).,,1

Po

P~-t+P

273

.-.' 1 ~ _ '1'

'a _Po
"1 a=
- ' Vol,

, ~Q.j.l~ l3~j-LI '


0
-

'P~Po (1 HU )JS:.WI C>'

*'

273

P0 -0
0-(-273)

P ~PO( l+ -lt)
273

J)t.:. " .,.1> J'> 1':"', ' - - - - - - - - '


-0.

"-'l~~ .I-.JI C>' .,." .,.,.. ~ .J.,.. f!;; "," b> J'> P ~ h ( ~ ). ( 3) ~I

Y = ax , JS:.WIC>'

,0

loj,')Lo,

J,,~ .,.1> J'> 1':"'"

1~ ~ a~ cte 1,':'1.,,1, P ~ a(~ ). >!


"':"""UJ I J..~ . --:.J

P=Po ( 1+-1- ,) , u.,- ( 2) ~I C>"


273

",",,\,;JI "")-' ,;I

P=P o (l+Ctt) ,,;,I W=

7~~1

m=7Kg OJ.;>-~j~, ol.i>, "'lA> M=70Kg d.Ol:.b ~.",.

175cm x 7cm

.~t.,1 J!h;",.

J'> >';>-~j JS U'"')t z;b !

28cm x 8em ..lj..J.>. J O.l~1 J!h-;",4 t;.b... ~ ...J.>.I~1 ~1.bJ ! lAI

LL

, ~~ l.$.lJtP ~I ~.....-,>I

chJl
P .b..1..::a.l\ ~ -"JI......>
1p = : l , .

)4ol~ (5) ~ ~ F ~ .:,....., ".:.JI(P) J.u.AJI...,b;

, "'bd~I '~I",jS:. ~I ~ ~~.:,J~ dl>.J4.l1bi..o, IA= . 1


F=P

,p.~

+ P

~)'~

F= {M+m}g . F =Mg+mg
. ~~.:,JI .,rob- ~

",1....,0 5 b ~I (.b..JI lAI

5 ,= 5 , =1 , 75 x O, 07m '

, j'l>6.;>~j JS~

51 = 52 = O,122Sm 2 : .l!
,-(7-,0-:+-:7-',),,-x9",,-,-8 , ~ .....

p= (M+m)g

0,245

25,

P = 3,08.10' Pa
Jo ~1 ~ , ~ . ~..l:J ' ~ 0; ~4A

J'Ij,;"Jl

U.H ~.J.M..lI

~ L....L ""'"

.,Ihll <.T' , j .,rob- ~

5', = 5', = 0,28 x 0,08

" hll W"Dj JS~,

S = 25 'l

, ..,.os..; .....,
1

~~.:,JI

J>l

",W

~ ~.:,JI "-"'",,, ~ dl> .J4.l1'" ~

P = 1,53.10' Pa

",t....,

0,044 m 2

~!

P = Mg , ':'1 w=

p= mg = 70x9,8
25', 0,0448

6.bi.w.JI '~1 "',. .~I ~ ", L>,> ~.:,JI 10;..0:. IA= ~

P = mg , (J.l!
5=25, , ,,I ~ ~jJI ~,,,1....,Ob~I ~1 1A1
p_ mg _ 7x9 ,8
-25 - 0245 , .....,

P =2,8.10' Pa

'

,"'~!

8~~1

.~~ tJ.,.,QjA:J ..s jJ\ , ~ ~ 2 ~1~ d.>t.....o ,~\~ "",)1,j


.40Pa <,5 j t...,. 4:ow,! bi.., ... "'~ ,t'~' ''p- j ..,..1~ ~) ~ ~ 1
.t'~ ' ~

1;;)1~..,..I .,?' ~w.J I ' ~ I ....,. "",",,"1

Jlt,~I ~U"'uu! y?"jl.jJ 80Pa A4,;0Ft'~I ~1;;)I ""~ ~I';" ~ 2


. 600N ,-,." >'". j t.....~w.J""
'... ~."..
. " 14.1
"... I .....
....,...
fl ,.:JJ .l;-';oll ,u..;J1""" "",",,"1

chJl
: ~y\ ~.J.>I ..;J\ ~ l~.h Cl~I ~-.,..Jl....> ~
1

F =P .

si,

pJ

, l ,.a.;

' ~u'>Y-'

IF = 400N I ' F = 40 xl0

t\~ ~..J.;oJ1 t.b...J\ ~ -.,..1'-> ~


1

s = 7,5m'

s=-Fp , t.u..
-

'

9~~1

. F=lON~....,;, ~w,;~ ... "'"""" ,;,.;-"-' )t.......:;~


't$,jJ\ ~1 ~~!
5.1

Y0 -:::0,

Sl

~ ,:?.iJ\ )~1

!Y'i; J.c.

dj)o.4J\ .u~

(~I) S,= ~m' ~


~\ ~ )~S2 ~~\ ~'+llI .u~-..,..

S2= 1 mm 2 0,.1l4k
'

~ 1~ 1 ~~~ \ ~I ~~ O) 1,j . ~
,~

S''''''';;.J.A.JI .....I; ~

i.,S.jJ\

i.lLo - (..,.)

)~1 ~.l ~

(1)
.:a

chJl
1)~1 iJ""i) ~ \5~ 1 ~ ~

Sl=10m 2 =1 .104 m 2 ,

F1 =F=10N

-,JI......> . 1

. P1 =-j- :l,;",!JJ

' P, = 1 . 10
10-~ , ....... ""~

,-,-=--,I",O,-'...:p:.:a,-----,1.
L ---,P
1

P, =lO' Pa
F

P,
ylJ')~ ~..MJl ~lf.1J' ~ 1"iJ'~jl...:L..o F2
~t... <,S.;]I ) L...l1...,.1) ~ ;,;p

l " " " '" Jo'

)'""--

=100P, ,,)

b>'llo

FI ~~\ ~~'l ru:j

100.; f ol ~I ~

~t...

.(5,)
>Ij L.l<=

d,,~1 r:;b-JI ..,.."., L.l<= ";; ~ L\, ' ~ > Pt ~ 5~ < 51 l L..,~
. ~~'

.4.!..l ~ ~WJy, , ~1 ~ A.lI.>..ll ~

w ..b..i.....::t.ll ~

10 w,.~\
j~ <Ill> ..:w",;J1""~.HAI' ;.'>l4ll; fo> ~ 1
iUWl ~1 'j li1l ~~lpW, dJW\ ~ flI..l\4.l1.,.lA .:.U~ 1.l,! ~ ~

.!l

I<\J ...,jS..~.AW'
~\

, .".. j~ <Ill> >.:w",;J1""~.HAI' ;.'>l4l1

"1

. (n)j WI . ~~ (P) j WI ""'" (V) j WI i"?'> , (T) j WI . ;I;->.".

. <Il_

js:.lf-y.; ~ ,)L;.)I;~ ,jW.l...,jS..~foWI <IlbJl ~ ;.'>l4l1, .;." " 2

::6.

ll ~~\

; Ir----

' 4UJI "",,", (c' ,,"~1,.) "'~I 6.>).lll

J ! J;'" . 1

273K . 273 ,15K . lOk


:a.JWI 0j 1r-l1

...:JI.?-.Jol I ( K ~4)

li ;,Ib q

Il 0;I..r-JI ~l?-).l

.JI J-.P-

.,sj,.J1 hi..>l1 """" -182,96' c.,s,w ~~I"";W j~ ~'J'.P" 6.~ ~ 1


. ~lb.:J 1

. ~u.:..:JI ~~I ~\ ~100,OOc~ ~Wl 4lC 0;1;-> ~).l Al


_r..;r4UQ.ij1 ~I ~

~1~
L -______ .~1.b..i..I\
____
__
~

0,00, ~ "Wl )~! (0)1;-> ?-) .l .!J 3

961.93, ~ ~I J~! 0 JIJo> I.?-;.l ~ 4

J.....l.--l ...,..s..J1, 1" ;1;,.)1"'4>) .ll ~ I ,-kJ1J! .,s~I


1 T(K)

,-kJ10-'

c.W1
J.i~

=t'tc) + 273

1 ' ":lW1
Wc) = T(k) - 273 ,,,,i !

t("c)=10-273 , t=-263' c ,~.ll , T=10klU\>.;t.


' .....' ......llI ..:lW1J.....l.--l .T=273,15k lU\>.;t

Wc)

, ...... "

=T(k) - 273,15

'-'----=--r-----,--:c~

t =100' c

t = 273,15 - 273,15

,,,,i !

t = 373 - 273 , T=373k lU\>.;t.

T(K) t("Cl 273, y:;s..; ..... \,;JI .....).>JI ~


, t= -182,96' c lU\>J ~ 1
T =-182,96 + 273,15

'1-=T==9"0'=,1-=
9-=
K==-=
90
-=-=K::-"---l1

T=+100,00+273,15=373,15K
T = 0,00 + 273,15 = 273,15K

T= 961,93+273,15 =1235,08K

r-:--::-::,:-::t-:::
=l,--O
_O,OO' c lU\>.;t ~
,1 T . 373K 1

, t =o,oo'c lU\> J ~
'1-=
T -=-=27=3-=
K,----:,1
-

, t =961 ,93' c lU\>.;t ~

T =1235,08K

LJwG~.J.j ,Tf I.J> ~).l~ Pl=2.10SPa ~j l V1 =1,5m 3 ~ j~L>--~


.d.:i)I..J>

~).l ~ oIj.l , P2=4.105 PaJ! 4jl.....o~jWI ~

I~ "" \-'lI"";I".H'' )1-'4.11jO>U ~

V, ..y..L;IJ1 ~I ~I.....> ~:J'0; "'" ~ "!G!:b', ~ I$.lll O~I.lI ~L.

.!l

1
~

. V2 ~~! ~j Li.U

. TO)I.r-J1 ~)~ jA J; ;i! ~ 1.S,jj1 ~\.,l.HAl1 )~I ~

V,yt......~,b ;" ..,uO-> ,bj,l) u -

1
J,>j,I ".,.;\3 ~~ ~ 2

- -

, V2 ( ,-...............1
..

V,=O,75 m'

,V =
:1

2.10 5 x 1,5 ._ " lt. ' .


...,....- U'" j>-'
4.105

>uJ\4.J1
~I') WI u~
' ' \3'
.. 1...-. <.. 'lOlt..j ,I.?''\:0.. )' WI ~
- '. >h>)l.,
_
~~'?'

PV =n RT
T ,= T t" ,P,V,= nRT . (l)\J6.Jl i,I
T,= T t" ,P,V,= nRT . (2pl.l,.Jl i,I
PV
_'_J
=1: ,j!

P,V 2
.J,>j,I " .,.;li jO> j

' ~j

~
. c>

,----------,
2.00 m

"t:u'
w"~

l.i..>
. ~ IA_
....
,
~J

.(20) Ub>-'"

J>';-oJ' \)';:'~ J.> ,(n) >W, ~

'w\

~_'
..::J~
.,:;-'H'.

'.

~ jl.ilJ V} , VI

5~ \j\..o

sa" ~ d.:!~!

r~\ ~

U)l! 1

."'.,.,.:al

!.l

"':>W' J>'r-J'

.P3-,P2,Pl b~\ ~)l,g--.,.I


. L,lWl .r-I.lI.4J1

~ \j').l..c:. ~\ i

.!l

'S'n;,/;,..,.J ~ ~.J.I1 ytAll j4lLo ""'"

.p ~g( ~ )9

P ~ r(V) ",-,\!+l,,...;i i

.~~!)~ 'S'A.!-*", JS.,I ~.lb.4 ~ ~ ~~1 ~l

. 4
'-.,.J

..hJ\
(n)5jl4Jl ~

!.l I

,~, J.,<... uk ~ Jl4l' J.,<... uk ,20 Ub>-'" .;:,~ jW'';:'~j-> .;:..-.4.


.jWJ ~~\...7..l'ibJl ~ . i~ ~

,n=20 .).J.sJl.jl b.>)U 0.l!,.

~\ 'ij (P) lb;";"" 'ij ,(V) jWI ~ ~ ,~ 'J jW (n) 5~Wl ~ 0 1 ~

. (T ) 4';I;> ,,-?-).l~
,4.:WI 6.:I'ib

J j W \ ~ V . V2 , V I r~' J...J A.: )~ L

v_~IV
4
~

IV l
V =J

!.l

" " '-~:t'


- ' " 0-4
''' .IQ.>.Yo-I

'1 ~cSiV,~~V,
2

") ~

d..:!').lJIC,),b.J j Wl ~P2 P2 P_ b.~I J....J4.JJ ..A.- ' - -..,.I

Pl=l,OOat m
P,
P,

'01 h>)U~~ \ 0-G

2P, =2,00 atm


=2P, =4,00 atm
~

=4P,

Vi , Pi .H..l~l ~ d,j)l1h
V 2 =! V J
2

1 P,V, =P,v, l

1!l

P2 =2P 1 ,I L..,a

"

l
P 2V 2 =2P J x-V 1

,<,SI

2
,P, =4P, , u,...Il.!lJ.:.s,

V] =-V J
4

3
1 PV

PV
l '..l.'" P]V = 4P x-V
1
, ~
, " Lu"lI"~"l.4. .~~
"
"
"
1 l
~)"
3
1
J

PlV! = P2 V2 = P l V ]

1 :

~)I~,h~~j.b.-.Jl ~)~l u-o

" lo~).A " JJj,l ~l,j~o lj :>;j'j ,,1 1$j.J l~UJ I ' ....I

, P = f(v) -,,-'L...J'~ , .

~ !

V
P(alm)

P,

P(alm)
P,

P,
I/
P, f......

P,
P,

1\

1'--.
1

bl..o~a.J~, ~~,';" .. b>~ p = g( ~ ) L...J'! ' ~

. .

.bl..o ~ J4.:J' .r' ~' u-;l.)\:iJ~, ,......,.... ~ P

u-o tJ.lI ("JO;,,' ,


"

= f(v) ~, t....;.",.

11 dJ..lu... ~ , ~~ 1 o~ o~ l.Sj.Jl LJo<3GJI ~UJ I ~

~=Q,, ~ ' .l!,y=ax JS:.:Jl


.bj,l) l. J,.",. j->l> ~ ,o, ~ 1 PV =a =cte l , ..... ,

.~41J..!.J..l> 14 ~ .!l

1
$~~bJ\';~l.bJ! ~ ~\~\ 0A ~1 .!l 2
(2) 6;,~~~\ J ~\ ~Ul\ ~l.!+l! a....\J.JJ1.,a ,~L..,.I\ o~l.bJ\ c:.i4- .!l 3

""",,,'m. L

"'

100
90
80

.0

......

E:J

'f4'...... ~Lo"tooJ\..roJ\
w~\ Ll ~

.~

)<l

j.. a....IJ.JJ\"~ J..4l -?-

. ~l>1
. . '

..."
250

150

~I~ V

20
10
50 0

~J~ ~ Lo ~

.. ~WA
J~
. ..

= f(t)

iJ'"'jJ...1.4.J\ J. W!

,,\;,JI >lot... hel ~

;)lpll ....) oT ~ V=h(t)


50 100 150200250300

Oc ';)I.r-JI

chJ\
~j

,..:J.,Il:!.b.i...:,

".ill, J.;t.:J1

~j (25c) 4\:9~\ [)}? ~ J~.} C\}~ '.,lL.JJ..!.J..l> i.5.J.J! ~

w;>~p:J1 ~ y>:.;.

u=,

1
,V, ~ ~ "Jl411 " If:. "j;.J1 ~I
"

~.JJI ~ ~Lo\J~ JS..:y ~ '.,lL,J\ J.:>\~ ~\~I ~

.Il

"

O\.! (~ 196 c) cl..:.J'.J-> ~ J~

~ ~..:J.,Il:! b.i..r.Q ~ 'jW 0IpoJ\ ~J~ ~~\ :J ".!.U.J.J..,.a~ 'JI wi~

.;; ~l.bll,)oUb ~ 1$.J.l1 j4. .J;t..:. . O~l! .!l 2

;#,Ji "-ll> ~ J.,li,

.""t. jWI bi..o ",1

b>)l; (2) "_~yl UA

. 1. 3

. ~I,;l i;;-' ~ - J4...l1 ~I J.".., - """w.J1


. l )li,h~ ~?'~..;Jl;;;'~Ia:,j~ . To ""'"

To = -273c

.J...i.J:

r~

,~.
. Lu.l.l
..

a.uli...o
,;~\ .r-:-~
...... IA-, _.i LAI
_

1 Ta = -273, 15c l, \ ~ ~..JJI4\.w\),jJ\,


jliJ\ ~ 1~ ~ 'i!, .4J.o jill! ui ~ a....1)jJ'''~
. ! ~ (Ta)

"-:>).J.II

. V = f(t) " !,,,JI ;,J~la.o


,JS..:J1LJ-O cU.l~~. \~lA ~ 'i .~".. ~r"1;'-'

J_

V=at+b

V, ~I ....,. J:...:.

'-"'.)W", .(V)

t' ~!;;

b=Vo '

V
273

:.l!

h> j41~1

y=ax+b

~1:iU '"""'J:...:. .b

... "

t o= Oc

,!I

';;I~I ,,-:.:l~

a='
(*) V=V o l l+

'\

--=-

273

t) . V=~
t +Vo, ~~WI "-J.l'--l\I) ~~
273
1

V=V , (1 +U ')

. ~ . U=2~3'~~
.V = h(T)

...,., (.) ;;\ .]1,;l ""J"' t

( Ull..1

=T - 2 73 ,,1 roh'

1
V=V, ( 1+-(T
-273) ) =V, ( 1 +T- - 1) =V-,T
273
273
273
.
V
'v":'! K=_o 'F
1
273

v=KIl

J)L.:.J~I.! ~;:: j "-

V = V 0 (1 Hl t)

, !i.J~lA.H .!.l 5

"~~1 ';J'r-JI "-:..l.,I ~.:,


. V = KT

d ,.110, Il

"-:>) .J.ll,i ,

( '"'"r:; w" ~) 14 w" ~ \


~' ,--------------------------------,

- ';!

01 ~~ ,~'j4lt.,. ~')..l~ .,s...l>'i (chambre air) ~'j4l' d..!yi:. t...A..i..,a...l.4>I ?,~


. ~' ~...I.z.,ij ,(fiG,',:,Q

.......... .!l,..r-O~~,, ' 1=40cm \4ljb

" 'jb.1,. (;,;,.a, ") i;.i;.HJir.:..i

,",~I,. "'jb.~' ~ .\.>.".,., ~ t.f:o

. .l...o

J ! ~I

t'""',.,

11) \.l,It.~ ~1.9fl' ;))I.J> ~)..1

a ..6.., (J5:.'JI) "'jb. ~' ';>1>

5' = IDem 2
, <lh.J1

r ...... "

,",~ ~I J l\,o -,<>1rj,!.

1~ 2

,a =20cm
1

.jtill ~~1

..Q~ t$jJl P l ~\ ~ ~

. a 2 =30cml..!~~1..!l~ #-i~1 ~~ ~-",-I

. ~'.wl ~..,i:. ~ P

> ,> ~ ~I " ~ ~


. 10, 6:J;1j> ~)..l..:..,j~ ~1j41 1 Ui~ U!J.:>LlI1 ~J~lo1 w.c. , t ] = 40,

J! ",,,l...o

i;ilIl

"'14l " b~1

~l ~ ~I

,'.9fl1 ' h

.~1 ~~~~1~1~~1

..hJ\
~I 1w;, ',",~ ~I 4p " .... "..... i;ilIl

4.1" <$ j"ll b.i..>J1..... ~

.'4-.... b "~-4 ~1.w \ ~~ ~0jl~


1

Pa = IBar

l OS Pa '

, .,)~!

IF=10' NI , F=10' x(10 x 10" ) , ....... ..;..~


P~l ~
~.9-:I ~1j ~

"" .Ml' ~ ~ ~ ~lsl\ j l.. ~ ~\ ~~ 1$.111 ~ l!


~ I ..."

Ip =P,V,
1 ',l!
V
1

.!I l

J;.9 ,'j4Il ~ lo"J\.4 -

PIV1=POVo bj.l)\..o-J..!.". ~\,j~

10' xO,40 ........ "


,- 040-020'.
U"~
,
,

p-

-...:::.J'

.J,

....,1

~.t...l1
".
P2 = Po l , ~~~I
.
" r-~
, - - - - - - - - - - , l - a, 5
p , = 4.10' Pa =4 Bar ' p,= 10 xO,40 ' .........
0,40-0,30

u'>.1"'"",

. ~ 'i .,I~ J'ljfll 0;I? ~)~ 0I..,....1..",,1.).c

p 2 ~ ~ ~I...JI dJW\ ~

'91 t o=10o, ~1()04 ~ o;l~1 ,,-?-),j l ~ 1 ilJb.ll .,~~ ~I ~


t , = 40, .JI.,.,.J"''>J>.J!T, = 283K , T, = 10 + 273
T, = 313K , T, = 40+273 ,<$1
PV = n RT ;Jll..J1 ljWI u";L1 J..:;...;
ft'.ll&..Jl ~ ~ '::il , ~U )1.l4A jA, b~~1 J>l.l t:1J4l1 jU:

4 6 ,n

, T, P,IV
PoVo= nR

T,

,..!J..,p.

p'V
_'_2=n
R
T

P' V 2 -- n RT2

'2

' ""
Uo:I..u :

T2 ,))
- 'J-'""'...l..i.a.!
-" .'

V,=S'(l-a,)j V,= S'Z

. ...,.;.u., .
P'

P' = P, $'/T ,
' $'( / -a,)T,

1O'x O,40 313


0,40 - 0,30' 283

: .l!

~""-'"

P',= 4,42.1O' Pa=4,42Bar

>.b...'" IS""!.'~ .V,=3L j V,=IL ~~ t;~j""'" t;)j)\,jl

J..4; ......,.u1

~ljfl4 ~~j4.0 (1) 0) .9)\411" ..i:.)l! (2) j)l.A.I\ . ~~1 ~ cil..u ~ ')~ ~ ~
.)~1~

~ ~1j4l1 ;!.J->

4?-)..1

t=10c ~)I.J> ,,-?;.l"Po =5 bar~

(1)

(2)

V , =IL

V =3L

uI ~ 1..:J9;,,;l:4Il ~ ~ ,,'.)41J ~lflll b..i...AJ\ .....,..u...>I

!I

.!I

.d.1.,iCi
. J"Jl.i

J.!= \) .1?-'~1 t:lj4J1 O.lLo ~...,.wo.>1


R = 8,314.Pa.m'. moZ-' .K'. ~

c.W\
~~ .b1.A:' ..,..,-,> .!l

~) eu::)UUl (2) o).,)l4J\ u'! cI.,I ;;~j1.-J\ (1) o)j)UJ\ u-o ~ljfll '":-I~ )~\ ~.....c
. <Ibi..>~ . ( ,,~ I0'

Jl4......4 ~..J.?o.l ' ~1 .l:i.....c

lojJJ\..o - J.!~ ~l!

=P

.........

Ir ~
.,.. ( 1) ; J'Ju.JI.;! I.'p'-~

""'

>';I.>.,.JI.;!

. ,,,,.....:J

.,.lIt'

~t"" l, >!
,

,'~lll V ~ =V,=lL , L".ll

'J~I ~ -'-'" ","J'Ju.J1 c.,L.., ,'~lll V", .. =V,+V,=l+3= 4L

Ip,,I\tl =1,25Ba1 ' P . =5xl


",..
4

~ .J.:..,! (n1+n2)J:I34l' O..l14 ~ '-$jW )~1 ~

J+!

:~!'0.J!

(n o) ~1j4l1 O..lLo ~

no =

"1 +n 2

1$1 )~\

~ ~~;Jl ~ (2).9 (1) ~).9Jt4l\~~j~WJI ".9fl 10.l U ~~" 1' "2


'J~I

PoVo= noRTo

:~ 4J\ ~ljliJl~\.j

no

PV
=#
, :(J.J!

Po = 5Bar = 5.10'Pa
V o=11=1.10'm'
To=t,+ 273 =10 + 273 = 283K
R=8,314.Pa.m' .mol"'.K'
5.10 5 x l.10 -J

8,314 x 283

a,2125mol , ...,.:..0 u'>~

1 no =

2,12 .10-1 mo~ : d...i.Aj

TI=T, 1':'

-...

, -_ _ _ _ _-';
P J= p ~"...

!"
1 5,3 .10' mol .l
.
2

, ~l 'fi .;"j ~,'i ;;;!~\ ~ )..l:i


5

,cI..i...o j

nI = 1.25. 10 xl.IO -3
8,314 x 283

' .

~~

, n2 ~

1"2= 1,59 .10"mol l :.cU...G j

n = Pl V] = l ,25.10 x3 .10
2

RT,

8,314.283
,

.!lI~

~l:i~yb

"2 = 0,212 - 0,053 '..l! . "2 = no - nI , ~..\J

"2= 0,159 mol

. ~I...J' ~\ ~~,

.J __ ""~ j~ ~ <.?~ ,>.>hA >.>6.j

, d...i..A j

.....1.1>j ,, ~Ip.. ~

~t....4! ~ !.S"p'"1,,~ ~,~ d...i..A ~ ~l! .j \.iJ \ b ~ ()-C ~ oI ..ll;

,a,.JW\ ~~\

~~

.jI.il! iUl> ~ , ~,s:....jfot..

V=153cm' 6..\hJ1';>1> J~ I j WI,-;><> , P=1,013 .1OSPa.

=25

m=86,30g >..0) 1> 6..\hJ1~


m'=86,59g jW" ' ,j4A 6..\hJ1 ~
, '4lUJ\ ljW\ ~ ~ J~\ j W\ tI.l.J.:.. .~I.:i.:JI ;)~....,..w..>
)' w \

M(g/ mol)

, sa,

28

64

0,
32

NO ,

46

H,
2

cl.>J1
M d.......J
__ lj A..JAq
.
-~
"" ~'. ..I..I~
- _J-!"'"
_ .'J'" ~ ~
. _ )'ti.lI t.....r~\j WJ ~W\ ~W\ J ~l,t,

n ;;.lW\ ~ ~ ..:IH J.?~r "

PV =nRT . n =RT

~ 1,013.10'x 1,53.10 ~

626 O" 1
, .1 ma

8,314.(273+25)
m

Lt

m'-m , ,-,.J1 m = m ' - m


..... .
jLt
n

~-'-~--

.
= '.".., M ,. " 46,3 glmol ... . .,
M

,i1.oO

.;!

~i 1.4

-.,.....>

(NO,)jWl"':"',;.o.JI4.,Jj11

86,59 - 86,30. . .. . .
~""~
6,26.10-3
.

.J,..Iool1

,4.,JW

Kg.m"

Cl,)~I ",W j ~

p, =1,96 Kg. m"

CO 2~J""""
q~1
I..:T W ) ~

p, =O, 71 Kg. m"

CH,~lj ~

P ,~ 3, 17

j U;

J==

()-G

lem 3 ~ O....l?'~, " 1' ni

n3 O.lW, ~ ~ ~ i
Sb.>\b t:l\..o

.~

.w:! .A?-l.:U..l...l ~ 1$.ll1~U ' j4lLo

!l

M(H)=lg.moI-'.
M(C)=12g.moz-' ,
M(Cl)=35,5g.mol" . M(O) =16g.mol"

..hJ\

, Cl 2 J' .U -.......JI...
.
.
V=l cm' =lO" m'
n

'

, M(Cl,!=35,5 x2=71g/ mol

3.17 x 1.10 6 ,........


..... .
, n

71.10-'

Pl 'V 'u,",\
....

'

M(Cl, )

n, = 4, 46.1O-Sm::iiJ . u';!
.(CO,)j.U ~~.

V= l cm' =10" ,.,'

. M (CO,!=44.lO" kg/ mol


P2' V

,li...l.J.l

M(CO, )

'
n,

1,96x l .10-6

44,10-'

AlA

,(CH ) ,.U -.......JI...


" J

V= l cm' =l O-' m'

, M (CH,!=16.10" kg/ mol


n = 0,71 X 1.10..-ti : ~ . . n = P3' V ,L:u..JJ
,
16,10-'
' u<'.9-" , M(CH , ) .

nl =

"2 = "3

'1$i.1$,\.....o lN.;JCI ~~ ~\ .l..l.t:. (Jl .b>)lj

J!-:'-'fi- ').3\.9,,1~\j j414\.>~' ":,,..s:..... ";J.: I...;~l:Q}

!J

,.,r, ... .).< ..;....:.., .,,:..1,


~...::...;,I.&:.

! ...7..l~j.;roJ\ .l...!..i:. ~ uL: l$~ , A ;,Ij-".Jl ~ljlaJ \ I,)A


. O)I~1

A:>) .l j

,lj~ 1 ?'~ \

b.i...::a.l1.y

.:.r...b..,.1J\ ~

411~\

d.,;.I.AWI U"Y-9 :2 O..l> JlI


A .a .G J.,iJbl.1~ O.lUI

1.lai~9><Q

4.<;-' U"L,;:i 6 0J.;b

:~kll
..lJb..JI
..
..
~ hl"f.JI

oll.bl 0

- 1

.~t j t "",~lA 0-' ( ..jA ~ :.la.,..tll - 1- 1


, ~ I lc~
"il

QI '>~I o)~l..9A .:;:,. ;).l ~I.J:1.IY ~I ~ I~! , ~~I ;.:i:. ~I

jj~ .4 ;,1-,-%4-ol\ ').lljA U'::';).l ~I ~y ~I ~ ~

1.l! :~~1 ~I

.J~I""""

: ~UI

d......wl - 2- 1

A ~~ h"J.> ~
.(Solut -..,.I1.4J1 j i) 4.I)6..h~ 4\b...:J1 ~..lUI, foi d,.!Qf-. ~j (solvant

~.4J1 j ) ~I ~ "WI t ~ , ~1 j! ~..l14 I,)A

.Jll.o

J-.lI

""lAJ~
.<"\
V" bUJl..:.Jl:i..!_..r.-"-'

:~UI

c.J.}WI tl"";l 3 1

~~I.9 (x n- ) '4lWI ~y~\ .li~1 -"..:J::.'=.~ I,)A oF ,~.l)l.:J\ ..,4JWI Il


",,~~I ;4Ollllil> (M" )

""j

"cu 2+ +S02~ U"bUJ\ ~~fo J~ 'Jl:a...t ri


. ';y~1 Jt.;al ?Jj~~,~y~ AJ.l~ ~t:.:?OA oF : ~.P.oJ' ..kJb..l ' Il
4y>:..J~

.Jll.o.

:a,.l>Wl j o.jlWl 2
:R Cu"Lai 1 2
. .
CA.,!.r'

..;,,~ I -".9'lI

....... .,sjL..;.:;,!.iL; "" ),...,... .,s~;I.':' J~ -' (~) ,:,;.. "'jW


. J~I

,:,;.. il ) W I.I ul,,~ 1 )4'JI.~ J !( U) ~

[Dl ~j~~ ..,..I>:.j ;"jWJI ,R

1 Rra):

~l

,.,sI

[V] b)jOlI,. ..,..t;,.j .:;,!.iWI ,;l.,b "" ..;"~I -".9'l1,U

..;"~I )4'JI .~ .[

j3.

3
:3

.
(Ol..".ul) o:ll3WI

CA.,! .,...,

~,
1 G:

,.,sI (V]

~ (1) 0.....;,)..>1> J~ '4l-!WI

.[5] ~ c?' .!.>j,' ..,..I>:.j '4l-!WI ,G

IG J"w '4l-!WI..,..I>:. .........


. ' ......)'tt"':'":"'
. , , - . iuljWI
_
\.J'"'1>:.

'1) iuljWI
_
V"' W
__
<W>

1< (~

'.:,.0 ~W, o)u...4.l~

~.a..,Jlj( 5)~~~~"""'iJ!-~!;'O

A)--~GBm-~ ""I,>~I.;1.ll1 -s.:wj .,s~)WJI J~' ,;l o l...4.;:; ,(L )


1----{v'}-----1
L

~ t.S~

,GBF 4",0.;,, ", .

JI ~l~jJ.ll..uy d.b...ljo,l

(lt ),?;i.I'<..J..!.W""U.~...,.,,~~l,a~J~

..,..lA> ~ , b) jOli ..,..4'u loi . (A ) ",..,i..,..4'u .....Ij,'


5

.( U, ) 1:...wI O~I,j'"
.J.iWJI 2 Js:.:.JI il !:....j-' ~ ~

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'"'

,J,J\

n = C, V . ..... ~j,I>jdl J j1o.A .>1.. ~


~ ~,;JI >.,.b.J1' "'.1

.J! .....w,! "-'-" ..I,>.l;-ll ~ j,I> j dl J.#= J j1o.A ~;:. ""l..> ~jJl >.l)Uo J L.>J..,.L,,..,.,)o>.o , 1..400m ~

C-C
1

O..lUl ~.
C=-==
-=

400+V

~jlll"'"

V=lmL J.>' '-~ C

400+V

1"""":"

l
= 2,49.10-' molr'
400+1

C>-

o~

_.::n_ = _C=C''---

. (mL) __ L;.oV ~1 .:G.j,>

~ C=0,10
I Q

~ 400+V'

C = 24,9 ,10-3 mol.L"' = 0,249m.mol.L"'

C;:O,25m"mol.L-1

?-

~....;I..oo.> '

G = -off' 01\-_1.'.

, G = 0,034mA '~!
IV

C = 0,034ms

U'"
, ~ ,~

1,0
0,034
0,25

V(mL)

G(ms)
C(m.mol.L-')

2,0
0,068
0,50

3,0
0,102
0,74

~l.o

~ -

4,0
5,0
0,136 0,170
1,00 1,23

/(C)..:;l.J

....J

G(ms)
O,034ms

0,25 m mo1.l,,1

-1

0,034

..,j<<-+=,--L=.L......._"-_c. (m.moI.L

0,25

0,5

C~;JI; G .,-:- _-_ o:..=',~

y = ax ~ \ 0A A:i..I.lL- ,1--4110-0 ~~JA ~ l("'lai "' .

.!",J;,"".ul J..!...o~a3 ~

c
..:.ub ,I.J:U

...!:........::
- ,K

a3 =

~(j
cr
~.

h> ~ .#1...Jl y.,Jl

~,... ~

,~~t..J\ ~)I...ull ~ a4,a1b.oJl,. "C46Jl .,Ib ~

G=a1C I .l)

__ _ _
~.

,Jo..

' ..l

K ~ G = K cr 'u1~
- . K cr = a 3 C

= a3 . C ,,J.;..,j .\..:....00 ,

' ->

..,.j1h.JI ....

~I ""'j

la=c

I ~u~!

: ~ I.,IL...;))::.~\ ;; )L.uJ' ~ ~j-U.3 = NA' + CI. Lu...D.3 I.~!

1 !l

=( N.. + CI)' C

~J" ",",WI ....~Ij cr

=I).;lX) ....~~

ub; ...h,Jp u~lj ~

....,>j"Jp u~lj

8 '-ll.fil\
.),.JI.~>" ,(Ca" 1.,,+2HO- I.., ) r~~1 ~j)"", J~

.C=O,0268 mol/L
[HO- Jj[Ca"J~o)l.WI~>,,-...1 ~

""""~ 25C il,>)..ul.,) O)I".:JJ >."l,.J1 "'-'J'oll >..,1iWI...,6> ~ 2


3
2
l
"' Cl?' =11,9.10- s.m .mol HO- =19,9.10-3 s.m 2 .mol-l
. a~~I~W\ ~l

.G~W\~..,........:>I.5K=2.103m~\~l!!l ~!

!l 3

...wl
C=O,0268 mol/L y. (Ca" 10,,+2HO 10") Jj1>...l1~>"
~.3 lCa 2+ (aV l.l..,.J.I A.:I:s' (1) ~ Ca 2 + ("V
Ca

rJ "",=",j~\ ~j.Aj.!S'.! "" " H .J~I 0 1.I2a.>'!f

~~= (Ca2~ (1I111+2HO-("q)J~I j.#=~ ~! 2Ca2. ("V


1

[Ca" j=C=O,0268 mol I L 1 ~i

2HO-,0,' u"..u <~ (2) y. HO- 1o".,) ~j~1 ~J-

,,<,; .."

o.1.>l1

uI w;"

1[HO '0,J=2C=O,0536 mol/L 1u~!

: ~)\,...ua~,",",I ~Wl ...Jt....> ~ 2

cr=co'. [Ca")+Ho,IHO- j 'w~!. " = L), {X),.....,:.,)p w~l>

cr = co"C+ H04 C 'w~!' [Ca" ] =C,[HO-]=2C,~

)'1

~ l'c-r =
-C
- (7-",,-. +- 2-:--. - '
o

...
,......., ,(mol/m' ) ci! (C) .Hf=.jJl J;,..:;.,.,.,.
.~ C ~ O.o268mo/ = O.o268mo/ ~ 26 8mol/m'
~
L l O-3 m3
'
~
" =26,8(11,9.lO"+2x19,9.l0" ) , ~"",~

la=1,38556s.m- ;;;I.39s.m II
I

G 441Jli..Jl ...Jl......> ~

G= 1,39 x 2.10" , ~"",~ , G=K" 'wl ",w


,Q

G =1,39 x 2,lO" s =2,8ms

;3

~,

'w~!

9w.,~\
..

~,

"-,,1> J~4 ' C=lO" mol I L .Hf=.>' j,!"jd' l P

Jj6-oJ A"l.lWI "",

tW;'j 1=2,90cm ~ ';.J.>.'j ~ ~j&- '4.J.zA l4l1.l>_';"d '4l!WI U"'~

1i?-

,.. "'"lt.W1Jj6.lI.,) "'"' l~1 ,.:,..JI


..u;~Nw.l;UW w" h =5,Ocm
' l';''!.r L=5,OOcm

.G=3,50ms
L

~ ~

~ I ~ I A"l.lWI "",4!

J~ cr "",,~I A"l.lWI ..... '"""'"'1 " 1


. ~4b--J l ,)~

rj,!"~I lP J)b.;! ...b\....o 1=1 l ,, 2


.,t.,ll .,) NaCI (s) ..,.J..AJI

ICl'l, [Na' ]

[~, . ~

,cr "",,~I A"l.lLill .....~1 ~I.I> ''''':',)p w~\;Y ",ls.;...~4 " 3


NO '

,cr J ..... ~I' "'fo!J' ~..~lI"",Wll> ,, 4


=5,OO,10" ,s,m',mol., , d' ~7,60.lO" .s.m',mol., ,-,,4l=-o

chJl

a =~ 'w~!
K

K=2,90cm

0"

hx 1

..====----:...::._=:
~
1

'K=5 2,OO '0>!


5

= 1,21.10 - s.m-

,K=-, ~

0" =

350.10-'
'
2,90.10-'

,OI\.i.A
j

NaCI(s) - - - _ . Na',.,) + C/",.,)

,CI l j INa 1..,.. Jb ::~ ,


[Na' ] = [C/"]= C=10' mol / L = 10 moll m'

,.

,Lu,

: a.J~~,~, ~~ 1 ~

'0>!' cr =

cr

=(?\N~ + cr) [Na'] l '0>!

2),[X;l01
~
,

[Na']=[ Cn 'u'"

cr =(5.10' + 7,6.10') 10

la ~&

, ~ u"~

s,m't 1

=l,26.10 1

:,,),jJ

1j,.S;J1 '-'"'" \<il


~ll':,.11 ..:.~

S,, S,, S,

.25C

"-:> ) ..\

4lL..J1 J.,lt.....J1
...L:.: ~j

'4LiJI

l.J.iW,
..

~ C

W
1o.J'"'..

ru~

= 4.1CT' mol.L"
,.};~

G,=1,16ms

(Na',.,/CI' ,.,) rj,~I )pJ~

G,=1,37ms

(K"." +CI',.,,l r_t;~I)pJ~

G, =1,33ms

(K',.",+NO,',.,,) r_t;~1 lJ.' J~

~j:J 01, ~I ~ ~ U"'~, 01 ~ ,G(Na+(Qq)+ NOl - (aql ~1 :!I 1


.2SC 4.;>;-'l1-'-'" C=4.1O" mol I L ~ rj,~1 lJ.' J~
l':''.l' (C') .j,.SJ'> r_t;~1 ljW"" J~ G', =O,S98ms ~ ~
. 25C;)) '--'1
'. ~ j .a..JjW\
~
..;- .>..:a
.) ~
.
..

'.
~

d,.j~'.:lu.

.C' ..... ~I

c.W\
G(Na'
a, = N: [Na' ! + c,- [Cl'! e

G, = K a , i> ~I "",\:) K u,.....1~1

a,=C( N : + c'-) ,~l,


1

""l,.l "".l ,(Cl j,.S;J1 '-'"'" l.J )I~ l.illl

[Na' !=[CI'! ,(.SJ

G,=KC( N: + cr)

.:n,;!'., h Q!lj6..olJ
,;w;.J1
..
..
~

G, =KC( ;

) ~~ ~ !

'TO

l , ......

~y

.l

J:.....ly

G3 ' G2 ,...............
.. , ."1:;

+ NO'- )' G, =KC ( ; + cr ) '~l


G123-~
. G + G ,.... -'1.-.,....)\..' ..j ~
. , "";i k>-:>L;

; .lc'- .l N: AJ'=Jlfol ~
. G( N: + No,-) ..I;-"""C,b; .... l..f;j NO,- .l ,,; :" ~~.l
'J..4lY.l

(G,-G, +G, =KC( N: + c'-)- KC( ; + cr) +KC( ; + NO"

Y;

= KC( N: +)(,-+Xc'-+X; + NO")


G, -G, +G, = KC ( N: + NO" ) = G
,....:.s:.; ft>''II''
'il'
1G = G1- G2+ GJ l '

G = 1,12ms

l '0>1

. G = 1,16-1,37+1,33

G,= KC( ; + . o, )
G',= KC'( ; + .03) ,

G C
-'
C' --C'

C '= 0 ,598x 4.10-'

.,

'U.l.

s, Jjb...U .......\JI,>
s', Jjb...U ,,-..\JI,>

G,= KC
= ~'!:..:~~
G'
KC'

C'= G', .C

1,33

! C'; 1,8. 10-

mol.L

,..... ,

1 1

Il ~~1

J..S;, .>.!,>,?" ~3' .KMnO,(s) r_~~1 -:.tw..."., 1;W1.,.. 7,9g .i>;"

.250ml )~I ~ '....Jo.Al.' ~U4 ~


~~~\ ~~ Lo.F~IJ~II""""~l.o . I .!! 1
.C ~I ..,J~I "j.#=~ ~I

.0.,-1

.J~I" ...,..~I .h:.lJ .)~I.;..sjJl ~I 2

3...l?\~' luW\ ~ ~1 ,J~II.l4. ()-O lOOml ~.9~ ~.:G..~ .!l 3

M(K)=39,lg. mol" . M(Mn)=54,9g.moF M(O)=16g.mol"

..hJI
,,,~~ ~I-,,w..... -,,,J""" ~ "..o..lIJ ~'

_ , 1

-'
3
;

C=

7,9

0-

.,..
J

M.V

(MnO
+K'
.
41"'1)
KMn O.(s)

1 C = 0,20mo1lL 1

158xO,250

~
.c>

.~

c=m.M=~

V=250mL=0,250L . m=7,9g _u".ll ,


M(KMnO) =39,1 +54,9+16 x4 =158g.mo/"'

''1)

) ~)Ir" -"' o..?':r' .. l,' . "-jJlr.~l


~
~

K ("'1) + MnO -4 (a'l)

Ul .J ,.

, (1) <,$.11..." <,$J-'~ ~-" '~)I.:, JS:l 01 k)l;


1

[K',,,J

=1C =0,2 mollL

->!

[ MnO. ,.,, ] =1 C = 0,2 mollL

, ~i 9

,J ~I ~.... lOOml J ~..I.>\~I ;).lW, ~ -JI.....>


....;u ~ >,;-W I ~I ~;:' \>

,~;:, J jhA A V

cc,... l.;->

!J

~';';'II>!

.J.jl~ ( n ') '~WI ~ l ~ ....... ';';'1 <,$-'l I J~I ~;:'

C=0,2 moll L .1 V'=100 ml =0, 1L 'C:"

ln' = 2 .10- mo~


2

,~;:, .(FeCl,) (III) ...,.l>.ll

)#=

n' = CV'

, n' = O,2 xO, 1

JjhA A

_~ l-'l

'~!

50mL":""" ,;,1 <,$""" ~I;I

~ o) j ) \.!...l.?-j ~~~\ .l1j4lJ u."".iuJ\ ...,:gjJ\ ~ ~ LA....\.lc , C=lmol.L-1

FeCl,. 6H,o .)lOJl ~1


~L~' ,)~~ I.A .!l

. 100mL . 25mL .:.l.o)Wl .:. :l,>~l A "".,..,..~~I <,$~ . 2


. 500mL j
IJ.I-.II
. ~- " ". .r.---'
.~ . '1"-) w..._ 4b
r-- ~
. 3> .sI
_

J~I ~ ~ 14'':'" l'<,$p...ll ~ """'" ,;J,( m )

= ...... .,.......1.

. ~~ \

J~Y '-,?-I~I ~;Ijo:.ll >-.J 7"-'I.J.,6.I.i-~ .,.....,.1

M(Fe) =56g.mo/"'. M(Cl)


M(O) = 16g.mo/"'

=35,5g.mo/"' . M(H) =19.mo/"'

J.,J\

~)W\ ~~\

J.#= ~ ~~ ;;;-,;I.4l\ oi ~ Fee1 31 6H 2 0 ~'! ~

<JI>;' ~'jl (6H,ol d A -.:.!:..,p.

6 If; b"..:; (FeCZ,) 6.:..;p. J'=j ')~' (IIIl


,,( a,.L..

J.;"'" If;t,b;", ",

~ .)wt,.j 6.> )..IA~j ~'j)"" uLo ~\"s~ ~ >.bp jb ~ 2


"

-1..4iU 'i-' ';;.lYj

~ 0 1 \.ll.i J~' ~

i.J!

u,...y ~l,I )~\ J ! ~ I$jJ\ ~ \ 'il

~ J~ \4!)J... 1.l! ,

25mL

..... h,u.oJt,. J.;"'" t,b;"" ~ , ~I j l ,).il ~ If;.'

100mL

~j>J '

) 1.pJ\ ~ ~~~

u...oj ,~!

loI. 25mLJ~ '

, 50mL ......

Jt.....;...,,,s~.:,s:.,, ~

~ U"~

500mL .1
~;, ~ , ,.;., /:.AIj " Wt,. t.>j!.." ,

~A1j ,cS"";"I .>" t.>j!..",->(

25mL >.bj>J' J t.....;..., =.. ,J,.l4..oJt,.j

50mL J.,...l J.,w, ca C>"'~ ~'",l' ,...,.u F


50mL ......,...

J.,... uLo

~ , ~ , '-'""';'
4J,;.S..l ~ ~I.....> .!J

m=CMV

,(JolI ,

C=~=~ loI ~
V

MV

M(FeCZ,,6H,o)=(56)+(3 x35,5)+6(18)=270,5gl moZ


m=lx270,5 x5,10'"

'0~!'

V=50mL = 5,,10'"

, C=lmoZ"L -l

"\4.\.:,...w1"s,,,,;...J'uLo..,..,.,. <?' ~' """j 1 m=13,525g l ,.......1


-...

,....,...

~~ .J

,..,1=; ,\..J,;, FeCZ,, 6H,o J~!

I(Fee '" 6H,O),,,- -_' IFe" \a<l) .30(aql .6H,O


IF"" ,.,) =C=lmoZ.L'" '0~!' (1),., Fe" ,.,) J "sjoA~' ~..uJ' 01 b>~
ICZ"'''I)I =3C=3moZ.L'" '0~\ ,( 3),., CZ",." J "sjoA~U..uJ'01 b>~

.C=O,lOlmol.L"' .j.fo.';' NH,

(0')

l.:.;.)1 Jj6.0 ",,(2L ) ~..,."

",,28% <,$,1..:. ~ ",~;,.,....;, d=0,95.:..1:6. <,$)~ Jj6.0 "" l;)!b:.)


..!Il".>,.. ~ I
. ~' ~.,:J.' ~ ~~, ~l:?jj'.P-~' t:!b ' o.l\ j4IL.. ~

1
J~I ul<- ~ ..P <,$)6.0)1 Jjbll "" .b.1 ,"",,"I~ I ,.,.,.JI -,.....>1 ~ 2
. ~.Jll-J \

.J~I ~~I "",~IJpi',..,JI """' ~

M(N)=14gl mol . M(H)=lgl mol .

...wl
.P% j'L:Jl ~).J~~\ I.,I~I ~?Y\ t: l b ' oQ" I\ .!l l

V' .$_1 ~
.~)~1 )

.l\.WJl J jb..o

j ~l <10.:lI0.>,....

.!l

.:; JJ)\.! 0,,)-0 ".J.>.l ~ljJ1V' o.$)~1 J~\ ~ ...,.,~

V'= 100.MY.C
P%.d
.M -':"'fi-lI 4J,..J1~I, . ",,-...;J
M(NH) =(14)+(1 x3)=17gl mol"
P% = 28%, C= O,lmol.L -l , d = 0,95 . V = 2L

.u".ll,

V'= 100x17x2x0,1 ul<- J=..>.> . .


28xO,95
U"Y-'
V'=12,78 ;,12.8mL 'u~)
-:r.~ ' ''';,s .

~,u;oi' ui

2L )4<o <U,>",. '" ",,,..,,<,$) 6.O)IJ~II ,,,,12,8mL


. ~jll

U, ,>.b.,?l' .l.U . ) ".)1b>

.!l

~I b. ~

~).ll

,u"

.P,;" V=2L ~ . NH, l.:.;.)I"" J y,.. ul<- .l.ll...>.". .!l!':"' u~,


.C=O, l O moU'

M=149,9 g.mol ' '4l~1

=, ,

P=90,O% ;),t:..J\ ~).3

(Na '+I-) (.)


I~jjj

.,;'JIAJ\

u-o ~ ~I:!

;LJ.,.... ". Il

jUa.:J\

......,_11........,
_ .r:-'

~)..l u--o ~\ >:>~I.l\)t .!J

"':>(.JI ~ JoWI ,w\> ~ J..-Slj '~j>

"

lf'i>1. m'=8,2

g -'?-,>

~C~IJ)~I.j#=;:' 'r"~,..-JI ~,, j)A ~ J~ ~ J=..' .500mL

r,,~,..-JI

~"

J~

j)A

50mL <,5J"", t.,.> <,5p...l1 .;>1 ~ :i<

.~W\I,)"'4! '41> ~J.>.lI,,~~ ~" ~1(Na+ (IJq) +r (dq)


.R=200 >....,:4J1-'?-,>J,wI ... Jwc.>"ljj,~ ..,.\>~I')I..I~1
. GJjb..JJ~L;""'~ I . 1

.aJ:r-.. l_~11

.... l ' '-'


. r ' ?..",,1.!W\4.,..j
.
. ~.

~~\I

S=4cm 2 ~16-0 ">.';'oJ== ~l.....o,

L=lcm

ub'J

~i;'_!;' , o HiJ:,I ....I..s.,J \

>J~..I; ~I Jjb..lJ Cj#=jJl .)y.: -'?- ....,;jyljf=. ~lj J~\> . 1~


-0 ,')."

,.N~'

. C j.#::::.;JI ~ t
'-?J4J1

,'i

:>
-..,.1

~~.l~1 .l~ %P ,lA.:Jl ~).l ~ ~\ . t .!! 4

rl .;.~ '..$J~I rj.l.l~I.lj.l

! ~~I...L:>' \,jj ~ ~

,.=7, 70ms.m'lmol . No , =5,Olms.m'lmol ,-:,L,6...


..hJ\

rj.I.l ~\ .l~ .JO lA.iG...o 'i j1:- ~ wl oll)i..$~101 ~ .~I \.lA 0-A ..:s41' .!l 1
G=5.1O's

:G ~L... ~ -.lt-> . .!J':"


1 ...
5 10"
. G = 20 ='
S'~!.G=R'l ~
1

cr =1,25sm- l

,&\.i.A j

5.1 0-2 x 10-2


cr = 4x 10-4

:~~j1t

C~jUl ~ )~

cr =Na+[No' !+ t-Ir! '~! cr = L, ,[X,! ~

Na l ft)

,W' J

_ _--"-~.~

.!.l

,"",YP .9'l>

Na ' (lIq) + l -(Dq)

:3

~,

, C~....JI.....>

C=

1,25

,.b.,j

5,01,10 '+7,70,10-'

4.JW, 0 LaJl

),

. ......

~U"Y-'

C=98 mO,l = 9,8,1O-'moll L "J .""j C=98mollm'


10' L
,-" ~ P% ~,1.A.J1 b )~ ~ _ - >
,100.M'v,C
100.M.V. C .l l m=
.1 ~
,
.,
1'%
.....
P% -_

.!.I 1

r----,
1 P% =89,6% l

P% =

100x149,9xO,500x9,8.1O-' 896
82
'

, ~~~

'

0Jl ) lA.lI ~ oll.:W1~ I ~ ~y. ~

89.6%

,I~1 ~!u..:J1 ~;J':'! . -.J

.1...l'"'4iJ 1 ~ lb> I ..lj ...l.> J

~j . A,1J~I

.CS_J.b,;J" ~
, ",. " ... ',(.. IJA
. ~u .... cS
.~ -" u
-1 ........, .....cc
_ ~
_ j

4 !l\),),\
,

~ ,:3 i>..l>jll
i>.J-:!W I ;' ),.,,,,Ij,l i>.JUI

4':6....,
:~L.,~I
1
..
j ~1..Llb.JIu.u..kIlI,
..
".
~L.JJI-, ~I

c.l,)WI 1 1
, 110"'-' ..
........,
. I.?''l:ll' J j .w,
'."...,,. " 1a.Jl:ll'
I. 'b.ll'
.. W>I' ~l
a.... ) 1~
. .

. ".....
......
....,.
....', ~j).
.. .
;yJl:llI1:'\llJI..,L: ~ jlll"";:' J,;",,)j .o;J-"441' ~ ,9l.o...4.:.1S J~ J"
J.,lb.ll

J..,lll..,a.> J~
.;;.J1..,a.> J~
>"...JI J~
, (~,

u.u... jl uI-'-' ...... l.,, ~lj


j1...!I...4.:.1SJ1e-'

9''''''

~I j l H '

"':"':';-'.r.' ~ L. c..- L.JJ 1-, __~I

l'''''''';'' 2 1
~~ !ll.!l2!J 1
'j.H "" ~I J,o.O; (.,sl.:,jl-~j,>-) ~~ 1Y Jb ~ ..,;...JI

Jcu..JI ..,...o.; , WI ~I j l 'j".,Jl l':'" ~ .,s.iJ1~ ..,.l.,,~lj ~~ Jcli , W I


. ~~ ,

6 J '':u...J\...,4Jb.1\!l2!12

.".. ~ , Wle-' 'WOli ~jAHjAyt,. ~

AH + HP - - _ . (A' + H,o' )
~!

.\lI

J jb..o

Hcl + H,o - - _. (H,o' +cl)


~j~I).F j\'c'
(uA- Jj~ ...,-J )

.UI
..,...., .\lI)

( ..,..,u;j.J

~ J~

.lU JY=>

.>"

!lI

jA.H

HNO, + HP - -_. (H, O' + NO,)


( ':'jj':I ~ ) ~;..:J1.p.V"u
..!.Lj.iJI ~ Jj6..0
H ,SO, + 2HP
~I ":""'~I ~

(2HP' + 50.')
~~\ ~JJ6..-

...,..,1....\

CH, COOH + HP
~\ ~I ~

(HP' + CH,COO)

..,..1....1

(Na' + HO)

NaOH
(...,..1....1 Jj~..,..al)~.l~1

.l,-lIJjb.A

,"' ~ . (K' + HO)

KOH

'r' ~-,).J..:4l' ;;..l;\..!. ~ ,HlO' ~.l)l.:Jl


(~~~~I) .!1 ~.!J-44l".J~"",", ' (OH ) ;.JWJI

( --+ ) lA"' ~~L , >.",oJI..,.. ..... ~1

H ,SO,. HNO, . HCl>."j-..,....... I 0">.!:..oI,


)~""owoL~~,

(=

. !'! ... .;,~J~' ..,.. ..... ~'J&>.! . CH, COOH JO.l, ~ ,

.J .a ll ~l

>.!:..ol,

( - - + ) lA'" ~L~.;JI ,-,"",~I .",.. , >.",oJI...... ~I .

KOH. NaOH , Jl.o ) ~ "" owoL ~ ~.:.JI U"l..~I .9'"

(=

'J' a il -",l..~1

NH,. CH,NH,. NH" Jl.o '


~,(H3 0 ' ) ~~,)--4fl\ EI.l)l.:.,I A_";,,.,.,JI J..J~I ~ , Cl.b.> ~../

. (OH' )~.!J-44l".Jt.:.,. .....l..~1 J,.J6...J1

:(AH/ A )""LI, c.~ ~L:..:JI >~


AH
1 .

-~

t
25

+ HP

H , O'

;1~ ~r""

1...:'::'

+ A'

Hp' / HP

AH/A'

<>- LI ,' c.~

.,;,.,.;....u 1';..r.' W 1

1 4

1~ 1~4
, Jt:...
.(Na +OW) ~~I Jjb.o t" (H , O +cn ,UI J#= Jo4>- Jjb.o Jcl,;:;
, "s jA ..,.t..1t" "sjA Jo4>- Jd.i

, ~~1

=20ml ~ , L...lI J#=Jo4>-Jjb.o ~~F


.,....,~ljllyJjbll~BBT J~I"JI "Jjl ,jA '-"lyW
Ca =lO" mol/l
Ch =5.1O' mol/l o,Hb":;~~IJjb.o i>.>b...JI ~F,""
.,.Jjll o,Hb":;, Va

<l"""""

Ch = 5.10- mOlli}
Vb=?
Na>+OW Jjb.o ....- -

Ca = 10- moll l}
Vb= 20mol

CV

C.V.

Omal

Omal

CV-X

C.V, -X

=0
.h 6.JbJ\ CV-X
mU

CV - Xm. .

X mu

~\~"il:\JbJ\

........ jll >JI..JI


~l4-

~b.j':l\ .~'::i\":;'J<;\9:; - 2
, ] ",~I

-...

-* ~ ~~
,Li))1 ..,.WJI "'t:.,,;.60 J,c..

Cu iJ"b..'J\

(Cu :~ +so:~)

J!

1,)"'b..'J1 ..).J''':',,:,jl
1

) jA-il\ ~ j.;>J\..)L

..l~ (CU]I ... )+S0 2~(.. J)

I.L.o
yt"':!

6.>'1".
....... euh r_,I \...U\
.

Cu 1,.)"b..:J\ 0-" ~ ....,...... ~ ..

(Zn) 0-" I..W w....ly, (Zn) ..~,.,Q0-"

.-.:ou..,:.;;->.u,. J,wIClY ~ J,wl

~ ~
... -.:ou..,:.

"""1 J"-'I
' "
l',., ,li)1
l ' ~
",- Cu 2
!...T'1I""'"
or-- :1"~"""'IF:'j
)
U"' WJI ~ ),...

..,.
~

,~W\~j~f,~;_! ;"o; H~~\ .:.r..~..lW~~

Cu 2+

2e

Cu

Zn

Zn 20 + 2e

: '4JW\ ilI.lt-J\ ~ ~ ~ \ ':;:~.lI.a.:oJ \ ~~ ~

Cu 2 + Zn 2+ + 2e"
Cu 2 + Zn

Cu + Zn 2 +

, ~.:.:'j;.SJ)', ..l...l.i:.

J''';;''>4,

,.,,) (Ag ' + NO,) <w.4J1"";-;J,c..~ CUr>~I..,.WJI 0-" '"""" ~ ,2 ",~I


, A.,)WI :-'''-"1' l=.) pu..,:. J,c..

~1 ..:.lj JjL

(Ag"+NO )

Cu V"~~.......

":'L~ J~

J4' ';)jl JjL-

CU1"+SO'l; V"~1

~ ~I .....-~

..r rL . ,s:.JJI <,;..;.JI


V"~I i\b .......'

..,..boJl <Ib"';1~ (Ag) --....JI __ 0"


~\~

d..AAII

Jj6..0

;;) ".w

J.>\..l

. (-':'u..:.JI)
J~I

" ,tl

b> ~ >..,SIS .lA -'"-! j

..l;1~ ..l,?" ...,L=. al':i..l (9) j:il

u.,u'y

.(Cu 2 . ) ~LJ\ \J""6..:J \


, ~~ I ~~\Jc.UW..l l ~ ~1 ...,.,....F : ~\

Ag + (l1q)

Ag(s)

le"

v,~1 2~ ;)) .l ~ ~~' \J""6..:JI ~1).l0'

t..: (Agt ) cil." " ' '::'! I$.JJI U,,~,!I,

Ag' +le'

= Ag,,)

,.)\:JI J<oI.o.]l -,....>

",u" j.> .,. fLA <,S.lJ1 ",lAoJlj ~~ ."...u W\, " ,p>:JI' ,,,,; ,;,,, (Air) .;,1 t.,
t l?-)!

, .~I ",u" j.> .... fLA <,S.lJ1",lAoJl, ~.,.; ,~ 1.lJ ",p>:J12 .lA! "-'\'( Cu ) l.1
tb )~1 <u~t... ~ .~ ~I <u~t... ~ f~ ~I?-) ~I .~ ~I ",u" ~ J~

2 L; J, ~I dJ..lWl ~~ ".iJI~ ~ wJ, ...:J\.j ,;.sJ':i\ ..l~ -4> ~ ...1.1,1 I~"


2 x [AIr ,O,) + le' -

Ag,,) ]

CUl') _

2Agt (Q.,) + 2e' +Cu(s) _

Cu

(Qq)

t l?-)I ",u"

+ 2 e" ;)~1 Jc.

Ag(,)+Cu 2 +(Q.,) +2 e" , ~ ~]~,j"bWI ~


, ~...:J\.j,~,!\ ..l~ J\~4,

2Ag>(Q'l)+ CU(J) ~ ,;.....; <U~l.ll ,;!"b

Ag(.)+CU 2 +(Q4)

JI(NO" ) -"IJUlI ~h':'''''''j " , = rol..;J1~)Ij<!J1 ..w,\' j


: iI..!J~I 41~ ,!1

2(Ag'

+ NO',

+Cu , -

2Ag , +(Cu"

+2 NO',

aJ..lWl

ci;~L.:;

1 2

. ~~j.5J:Vl J~l, J.di j4> ~4-- J"i' ~~1 Jd.i ,.


~.,. ~~ 1.;)1J>oUJIJ ~I JI t.;Jfil! ~,?~

JS ~

>.,0

~~I .

tt;>;! J>oU

:~,.,-'

Cu

~ :...... ..
j"-

t>.J-' ~-

2+

Cu

(Dq)

..w'y .;yUI

2e-

,1 "-.,I~\ ~~1)

CUl')

CU" (aq) + 2e- _2

(s)

2 2

i.,.r.--'!'" \.;,,1) L.s

CU" (aq) + 2e- _"'~ ~"'I ~

Cu (,)

Cu" / Cu -.,., &::..J-' / ~;.. ""WJll J 3'J

- Ired ~ OX + ne-I
A = A" + ne-I
1

""WJIOX/red
W IH

~.9l'

t>r-I'

ClJ;, 'o', 11 Al..l\..a.QJ \

H,

2H ++2e' == H 2

Mn 2

Fe'-

Fel'

l,

/'

Mn0

1/ 1S 0 2, /S 0
4

2-

, ,2.

S 0

2.

12 +2e"

,,

S0

2-

Mn 2+ + 4HP

MnO/' +8H++Se' =

,,

==

S0 2' +2e- -

2l

25 0

:~

- --

"

2-

cJL:..

3 - 2'

Na 5 0 ~~.l~!'.::'I~fo~J~~\ j,l..l~ ~-='_~~..Hw


"

- -, " II
~,a. ~ j,'>~ I "","--,fo ~ J~ ; ->-IL... ab..lj,' ~ ~ I

,?"" J.;b- j#= ;O.., ~


. j#=;J1

~\ .E ~

1..lL..:i.c! ~~ , d..b..A.:! ~ ~~1

...

, ~\-,.'\

,j.Fo}JI J~I, >j"ll ';u:. J~


, ~)..I.A 4>6...... ~

Na ;}S20 3 Jjb.o

."...,..tliA b1;.. ,JAl>


. (,""wA'=> ~_ -S~ '..\CLO)

>.;.".:;JI
.J'4,>,;! J~0ACo j.Fo.>'I,>j"lI .;u:.J~0AV = lOmL ~F

.C = lO" molll.j.Fo.>' Na ,5p, rj<>~I .:.u"foj<t. J~ "'-6..JI,;! F


.':J""'~
-"1 .. ~~-' "L~
,- ","1
' ~ejA I~~,.. ~L:.l'..:"I L.k';~ W

0 :;"0; 1\

i.J..U
.

~..lW' ~~.

50
"/50
"
:1 3
4 li

, ~ ero lo~;... ~u:J l~l t...lt:. ,)..J......S:::.)u 6 :;"0; 1\ 4.l.llal\ 4.,1~.


I I I'

2S,O';(aq)+I,(aq)

S,O';(aq)+2r(aq)

:~~;}'I ;.,.5JJI c:4lA:l ~.."llI'.r.'WI 4 - 2


, >.;.".:;J10A ~ I

r_

1:. j"ll .:.w..u..H J~ db..lj<H

,Cp. "4lW=~1 ~ J~ '.Ht...

. (2W + 5 0.'l,b.,ll -'4fiJI ~~1 (K' + M nO;)

-~.

~jL. . . .

, i\..ol4l

'" 9~ w.,,1"""':;j) ",\li:u.,JI'W, J! j1J1 >~j \?~ ' ,;,,(K' + MnO;) Jjh> Ji !
. (..:JUi..i....U1
(;?'.r' 1 ..-..b~ u".; Lo:JI uI<W

,tl,>)~Ij ..-..b'>U O;! ;'0 'dl """,jP5:l~1 ;ol>t.....lI ~I


, i\.JlOJl
"-'t..>lJ1
tl.l
.
~, . ~

H 30 +(aq> Ji H+( aq) ~\.....Q~ ~ ,H A.:!jI.JA _

HP "'1..0\,0 ~, 0

"'j'y "

(e") ~-,~~1 ~I...Q\.,I ~ , ~I 4U.JI,.. -

4.!p~1 .:al~:iy ""':-1~y , ...s'p-:il .:.a1).J.Jl d..:Ij1,.. , .bt... JS:.:. ~ (;?'.,11..-..b~ ....Lo:JI ~ , (

1) , ~I

co,
....

..'"

H 2 C2 0 4

JI

H 2 C2 0 4
1

==
==

H 2 C2 0 4

2C0 2 +2H +
'

2C0 2 +2H++2e(aq)

==

2C0 2 (g)+2H+(aq)+2e - 1

, ~o~:r \ J.-'=- .l!


' ~~pl ~-,

,tG.
,-u
. J.~I v-

~.:al.all ~ ~ e- Jl..l...l../:...l.>~ 0 1~ ~4>J1i' ~:r\ dJ.lb..G ~ ~~-'


.~UQ

e- J1J.:U 'i. uI~ , ~

L.o.J...i.J.:.~ I~-,~-! _! ;"oj \\

2 MnO~+16H + +I0e-

==

..

, ~(2)
:.tl> J ~,

'Ii"
, "b~u
. ~
2

2Mn ++8H 2 0

{H~)J\fo! ~l~!O.9.J.,!~l:~' ;;~~\A1.l~~~.lW\ ~

.~~, >J~~ ""' UJ..".j ~~j;.l.l~l.l' ~i1

H ' J.;,. H,o";,,,; ,,,',,Jj


: d..tJ1.:i.J1 ~l?-Jf'1

SR :l e 20 .(II/f)+2MnO;("'f' + 6H 30 ;.. / = 10C02 r.) + 2Mn ~;, + 14H 20 (1)


, ;;fo~*

'---_aA
_ +_b_B_

, ~L;J,..,.; ~, JooVl' ~
__
cC_+
_uD
_ _ J-l . iI."J~' >J~t.....l' 1
: "4;""O~, .J\.J..C.:I \

dJc , h, a : ~j wjl,:;JJ d.AjW\ .l1..l.C.:i,.

nA=~= nC =nD

abc

d
(.:.~" ~..I<;) .~w, ~

i~)

n= Mm~I-.: ......-J' ~
I~
.

- ......
.. _ " j1....
_.r..) .lJ,>..J""~'
_~

,n

'4k>J' >JG.), jl""':'}'''~ !.i!

n= ~Lm7v,~
~.lU\ ~

O.ll4.U A: Q?"....J \ d.llS.J\ O.lU\ ~

:~WI c.l,J~

("'-!,JJ..-lI J-'!..-lI.r.-lPll

1 ,>~1
. ~ Jl>j ..,.t...~lj ~I':':":',;JI ':'~.fo.JI .'4

.hll
""'j ..,.t...~lj ~1 ""'.J>ll .:.~~ "'~..!.;>-S'

f I887?U:. Arhnus U"~.;i 4.,.i,.,.b...l.

f1923 ~I<o l,S) jl-...:..:.:.j.H ....~


. ..,...jl ....~

~ "-:-Ij~ ~.lLt

J==

~.lJ L.!.~~Ul

,H ~ t$~ ~.lLA J!=


b.lJL.!. ~

, J: u, ~

"-:-Ij.l::i LA..J...AJ::.j

OH- ~jJ-"4l1

H+ ~J)~l

jl H+~j.H " ' ;S'~I ~.lLA

H +~j.H..1,4jU O.lLA J!=

'-lA:; , \;.>I .r---'


-' "-1
r.;rJ.t.....S
~ ~
V-

'-lA:; , \;.>1'"-1
.....t.....S
_ _ v; - - j1

~jpS:J1 U '> ..1,4jU b.lLt J==

~jjoS.ll

U .>

..,.Jbi j l

l , ' '''

jS~.

O.lLt J==

.,.Jbl j l

.:.l<I.,4l1J.o'=I
,j ! .,.Jbl jl '.) W.~~I.
~ ~I j l O.lJw, ~

...,..t-:il .-

.;I~~~ IJ~ I

..lJl~~I?""'t- :ilJ~l .~ ~IA:; . ',"ol! ~Ij

~ ~IA:; ,,,o ll ..,.t...~ lj

~~IA:; I,S~I ~1

~ "ld"'I,S~I ..,.t... ~1

J.,J\

..:Ju=.';4J' ~J..o
'V"c. ~I J! ~I

, 1;.''''' ;:......, ~I

.~ I 0A~I,l ;.,,,,, ~V"C.ill


. (W ~) ,I (H,o ) ~~'J~U;l":"'.i+44~IJjWl

. (OH ,~ ,) ~'J~I .;I":"'.i+44 ",..C.ili JjWl


~I:.""" u~

..,........,... H ,
L.. . '

-.Lot>:;.

",,;'II~I, lAl:. u~ -.Lot>:;.,sjOll~ 1

.~I:.""" u~ J-ct>:; . ',,,;'11 V"c.ill, lAI:. u~ -.Lot>:; ""jOli V"c.ili


~? {':A J,dA~ ~u,

J, .4'1!bh ~

'.Jo> ..I.?-'~ 'i .

H u"::,,..r.J' . .
.(H, O )

3 ci>~\
\4:Y~ ~ .&'yl' ..... C.I...,;..> ~ &} ...,,~'.'.r'iI' ,-,,=,.u...I ,)o.:l ~ 1

. Acide / Base .,sl...,;..> /V"C.I

.."Wl,,.., 4l~ "'"' ~I ~."Jl,

'-'" ""~ il,

. (C0 2 ,H 20), HSO~(IIII)i CH]COOH(..,,) . NH:(II/f)' H 20 (/) . H3 0(~J

HCO ;(rzq) . SO~ (~q) . NH 3(~q)

OH - ("'i)' H 2

.~/V"'~I ~l.i:I

(1).

CH 3 COO

("'1> '

~ U"""'""!il

JSJ ClJA'O ',h ~,.PJ';i' iIJ.lWl ~i

!l

2
J.,J\

.(CO, .H. 0 )/ HCO;,.. ,

~w ~ ~ ~!,jSl:il d..!.ll.s..Jl
~L..:J!

.!I

jt lQ ' n jHa.l.l~\

== H +r",,)+H 20
H 0 == H+(",,)+ H 0

H ] 0 ;",,) I H 20 (1)

H]0 '

H 20 m 1 HO - far)

NH; (~q/ NH 3("'l)

NH:("'l)

CHl COOHr../ CH, COO- r..)

H+ ("'l)+NH 3 ("'l)

CH]COOHr.,r-H ' (",,)+CHlCOO r",,)

HSO 4(.,/ S02~r..)

HSO;r""J

(C0 2 .H 2 0)1 HCO~(.,)

==

H +(",,)+S02~(.,J

HCO~fIll/J = H ~ (",,)+C0

2
;(I11/)

4~rll

== Fe50 (L) +H
CuO(S) +H ] 50
== CUS0 (LJ+ H
2H 0
CH
+202(1) == 2C0
HCOOH +H 0 (/) == HCOOCM/) +H 0 ;"'I )
NH ("'l)+H 0 (l) == NH:r"'l)+OH2
25 0 ;(",/) +[2(",/) == 540 2~(,.,,) +2r
Fe(S)+H 250 4(1)

2(5)

4m

2 (l)

2(,J +

4 W+

(L)

(M/)

("'1)

...,.

.~

...

cWl
~ ~~ V"'L...:i'j~\~Jc.1..i4I! j~~' ~~\ .:, /:i.l~\

,"-'ll:J'
, .~ '1...
_
~::r-'

. ;iSI ,I (W)......,~'

1
2

-fol ,I(W)~ V"l-~'

~14+~

V"'L...I +~

1 A,a~laJ.l~\~ I :

4U ..l...-.J \

~.
-:::>
. (yj1b4JI( ,;)W, ~

H,o , W I, H ' ..... HCOOH yb.,..J1>

3, 2

' ( ..> J

~\;.)I ~

iI..!.lLa...Jl.

, 1" 1 . . >c...o,

.H ',' " j4.!

~
.c>

..,......

W .",;'HNH, -..6>.,..J1>

:;;k~ ~ Jd. AJ.l~ ,j!


3, 2

~\;.)I ~

.(..,) .bt.....)l

..,.t..1., ~ J d;':' 6.J"~ l ""'" W ..... H,o yb.,..JI,


.~;.w' ~l~\ 0A ~b I$t ~ ":i , (3) 4l.l ~ 1 .

1...1"t..1., ~ c!'t;,:, 6.J~~

d ""'"
5...u.~)

C. = lO-' mollL .:,.fo>i'.CH,COOH,.qJ ........, i?.lJ1J;.ll w'><> J~ ~ (S,)


C.

=8.1IJ' mollL .:,.fo>i"

NH" ..)J~I.WJI J~ ~ (S ,)

, (S ' ) ()AV, L.e->e-- (S ,) ()AV.

=400mL

~u.:.

.J~~ (w'><>/..,.t..1)",=01;", n d ' ~~t.....)1 .,...;.s1 . 1 ~

. ( S,), ( S,) """ ",->6.)1 ",~I c!'(;,:,J1 6.J~~ ~I Y

~
,Q

r.illJ1

J.9"""

",L.;...~I;

! j>1S.;J1>Jo>..; ""' J=.; ~ V, ,...,-JI ~Lo ~ 2

(S, ) ()A V'.= 250mL

~ ,;, .. ; .,J L1

w,,,,

. ~1 ~LiLI.....J, - 1

L... ~'(u' ,,. ~~ _,, ~

...-

. .....

~~J""

..

.~ I ybrll ",..feJ1:,.fo>j\J1

~3
.

, 03..1.>

...,j

.;>

~J

CH ]COOH("'I)

==

CH ]COO;"'I)+ H ;.... )

, NH 4( .... I NH ]( .... ) ~t..:.:J,*

, ;>~I

<I1ili...u: J~ ~ j :W1~I ~I...> ~ 2

,'..1>Yl .lA> ~"'\4'" t.>LYbd..,:JI ( 'fo.:uJil J! ty..)L,

c.v.
- : c.v
- -b
1
1

V,: O,5L: 500mL

~ \> '

~..:;,oJi J,-,> ~ ~ 3

NH" ,,~t.:..\JIJjhA-"V,: 500mL ~ W~I >J\>" ...i J! ~

~JL..1i...uj ~uSJ~~~U..o ~ NH] (.... ) ~CH3COOH(....) ~rJl

.)WL,j ,lAc.:, ~ NH" , J.:l4O.l1\> ' (S,) Jy,.....JI -"v,, : 250mL~,


. u,;,....

J'i

>,-,U..o ~

. ~.=JIJj-,?- (>"

-...

CH, COOH e"'f)+NH,(.. ,

~
~

.~
."..

'~:

L I_

== CH , COO -(at)+NH ;(aq )

A.J6J\

n =CV

"b=C"V /B

Omal

Omal

a.,b.. ~I >J6J1

CV -X

C"V ls- X

~l4-iJl ~GJI

CV -X

C, V; - X,=O

X,

X,

~\....,I ::i'

0-

t;:>lb:o! ~~ II.l.> (\:W-! ,"",I ~

" "

"

" "

""

x-',_=_2_.1_0_'_m_o_I_---'

~l
~ n =C V - X ,= 10-' xO,400 - 2.10 -3
.0

"

".

lI:'

- n,-=- 2- .-10
- -'m
- o- l- '

ri

n" = 0 mol

'"

,Q

n' =X ,=2.10-J mol

6w,.~1
"-;l! ~ ,C. =O,10moI/L

.j,!Sf' Hel J

~i.4 J~

(>AlOOml ~ ~ ~

.".>-J' ~~' (>AO,4g~~ .~", .".JJ', NaOH ~~' J~(>A.~.~

.,i.4200mL ~

. C, .... l..~'J~'j,!Sf'~I ~ 1
1(~/..,.l..I) >"JLW' .l.J-W ~ ~ . 1~

.,u, ~aOH J Hel (>A JS J'h.;! ;')~lu ..,...:;.G=I ."


. .l~ 'j ~u')P ~

J).,c- ~ ~bJ, ~1.A:i.l \ ~.lb..o ~t ~

J~' (>AV,=50mL ~

"'""!= 1!'w'J~' ~~, . 1~ 3


..... l.. ~,

Oy ~I..o y
.(BB1) J--'.t'iJ>l'

(9)j \ ....A.:.~ 0A ..:J\~1 ~ ~ I..o...u.: ~l.iJ\ J~'

.M(H}=lgl mol , M(O}=16gl mol, M(Na}=23g1mol


chJl

C, .... l..~' JjW' ...,sf'.,.,...... ~ 1


_ n _

;;.lUl ~

J~' ~

Cb -

", =

--

. 1... 1.

\-

0,4 =O,Olmol 'o! , M(NaOH} =23+16=40gl mol ''J


40
C,

=5.lO' moI/L

, C, = 0,01 =0,05 ......J

0,200

>"Ju:.lJ ~ "'?-~ ~ NaOH,." .",94)' ..,.l..~' JI (Hel ),." J:... .",94), ~, ~


. ~tl

",

,u, ~ ' .SSS;", ~.,,~ ..,.l..1",,;W'J"'~

~ JJ~ l>~ /..,.l..1

-~.

Hcl(g''':) + H 20

~ Na(~)

NaOH(I)

+ OH-("'I)

1i'"'t..~1 J~I.9

.f

(H,o'+cl) ~IJ~1 "",J<.l;,;iJl .bLo..o ~


(Na ' +OH)
(H,O" "+cl,.,)+(Na'",,+OH,,,) --~. 2H,o+(Na'"" + cl'",)

."..

. ~>bOA ~Wl J~1 jS" .)W\,o.9

n, = n.

.
':i~ (na - " ,,) d...l..o ~j ~ ~1.ll'J.Jb.1\\.S " " > nbulb. \~~

.
"i,.. ( " II - nal olLi...o ~j 4-1....1~I.lll J~1 lb n" < n \&:. \.!
b

=10-2mol 1'<lU.AJ n =O, lO xO,lOO


.

n,,=2,5 .10 mol

1'4.AJ

"

'~!, n

"

=C V ,.J..lJ
a"

"b=O,050xS.lO '.l!, " "=C,, V it

"

,..:.J.I~

7 --4rl\
: a."JJl ~~I..rAll)u!

..".>t.;...fo> Jd;':; ~ ~I j l jp:]! ......... ~ j\1


..".>t.;...fo> J d.i ~ ~I j l jp:]! 1';>.)1
...:.Ujp:]!....... .". "'" Jd.i -'" .~~I Jd.i
...:.U jp:]!......... .". "'" Jd.i -'" t 6.) ~I Jd.i
...:.Uj;.>:J!......... .". "'" Jd.i -'" "",1,>)~I.~~I J.oo\.i

chJ\

.'-?'' l...o..6o
'-\.i ~.r. "-1j l UJ.r-.
-<'I ..wu- 1';>J"'1.
_ _ u.~ jy.s:J! .J.A:! ~ ~ ~ \.A:j ~ ';~ :Vl J.c.U ~
. ~L:.jy.5J! ..,.,~! ~~J.c. ~tl?-)'::i\ J.c

11-

.jjoS.l! J.:l~ ~~J.c.~ ~~J~I ';~ ::V1 J.c *

.,)-; L..,> lb.J1~j ,lb.J1-" ~I >~

Cu

+ (gq) =

Cu(s)+ 2-

== Al(s)
2S 2 02~(Qq) == 5 0 -;(<>4)
1 ("'l)+2e- == 2r
3

Al + ("'I)+3e-

("'1)

==

OX +ne-

==

An+ + ne ~
red

red +' le -.:::: OX

~
. -?

..l

.A

t.$

chJ\

. ~ I . """,

2S2 02~(<>q)

= S 4 0-~("q}+2e- , ~~\-, .ib>. . -?. ~ ..l

.~

..A

~ . ,

. red

OX + ne : ~ ~\-,. lb.>

..s

9~~\

Cr + (<>q;+AI(,)~ Cr (,)+AI + (<>q)


2

>';";,p>:J~1 <~t....Jl y:6.l, ~WJI ~ u l:a>I.J.II ~>,.l.6,),o ~u:Ju-,> ~ 2


. ~W~ 4 1 ;"Q ',1I

chJ\
. 0

~.

;! ~, (+2) ......:JI ul .,sl Cr"


]

-'>j.!

~~I 41..llMJ\ d...:!.)1,y

-,"",~I ""pl """ >';";i,>J4'U1......:JI "-'jl,." I..1,'

~ w....J (3)~ (+2)......:J1l!.,>.,.... "" (+3)......:JI ul .,sIAl"

.~

-',>j.!

UA;~I

""p'

.......:Jl ujl~.)\;;.li,>, (+6)~w....J ( 2)~ (+3)......:JI l!.,>J">jl, (+6)


3Cr 2~ + A l _

~p l

2AI]" +Cr: ."..S:.Hl.l

iJ' 3C,-2+ ~~ ~ ~\ ~p l ~ jl~ ~ ~1).lJ\ ..I~ ~ i\JWI o.a ~ 6...:r.SJ


.(3) ~ UA;~I"",,61l

Cr""........ J ,1Cr UA;~I

""p' ~ <!lJ.:.b
(2) ~ A I ""J"> _ , l.il , lAI -'> j.! _~I ""p' ~,
2AI"

3e,2+ (<<q)+2AI f i) -

-',>j.!

UA;~I

2Ai -+- ("'I)+3C'(I) : i.lW,\ ,,:,:.b I~-,


3

. ~I .

:~

UA

A,jj\jA

4b6..0 ~-'

~~JC:?'.rG ~l.O.:J\ ..I..,I~


2
Al + ("'l/ Al($) 1 Cr + ("'l/ Cr(.)

.!l

, ~ ~ a~ al" i l! 41.l1..a.G.J1
2

Cr + ("'l)+2e- -----. Cr(s)

, (red

Al(.) -----. Al + ("'l) +3e-

,COX)

h 1,>)1 >J>loA

.~I >J>loA

, :d..!JJl ~~I~";;l.lWljlj
10; /1,

(~b..j~)

5,0'; /50'; (~b..j~)

MnO;/ Mn" (~b..j~)


MnO ;/ MnO, (.....t..l b..j~)
H ,C,O';CO,(~b..j~)

Zn" ! Zn

-W\
10; -

,a ~a , o,\\ ~~\ ~";;l.l~ljl'y

12
",",,~I .:op

l ~ (2) >.loJI~.,.... (I) <CO;';.. 1...,

2IO; --Joo I ] +H 2 0
,~ lA J'I (0) ""')~ >-'" ..... .,,;,.)1 .:0p l

"'1 HP ..w,~ (0 ) .:Jjl"

210; --Joo I 2 +H 2 0
( 1) -,>~ ~ 1;,.) (1) ,:,.,> ~I .:opl ~ -'"

(6) ",",,~I.:opl ~ (0) >-'" 01 b>~

(H ') ~
"W,I ~ 1;,.)

,(H)

~j,! ~ ",",,~I.:opl ~j

2I0;+12H+_

,(12H)

I 2 +6H 2 0

~l ~

~j,! ,:,.,>~I.:op l~

(12H+)

p}"" ~\J ..iI 1 J:= .l....u: b.>).I.,j l~ j

-..

......:. Jo\..;; "", (-12) ......:. u1' ~ (210; ) ......:. .Jl(lOe-) ... l..>l -'-'" .:.,

~
,

'~

. , ~.,~I i)

1"2-:W
C-=-;+- 12-:cH=,+-1-'2-e--_-

a...l-"" ;w.,..:.)1 J...e.; l..A (12H ,)

- I:-,-+-:6-::H-:C,-:0"

>

~),l.

...

(W) J~l ,"*""0Aw'J ,( W) J..y (H,o') J~I ~


. ( W ) oJ;>jl l.l.o,.,...,.,. b..jll l h>~
.s2 0 2;/ S0 2~

S, O'; _
S, O'; _

SO';
2S0';

S, 0 '; + 2e - _

S j\~

2S0';

1r

l;)~j

2'~1
.)r->~'\,

3 ~\

, MnO;/ Mn 2.. ft

MnO~ -----+- Mn'"


MnO ~ -----+- Mn 2+ +4H, O

1 il jb:oJ\
: 2,')j6oJl

MnO ;+ 8H ++Se- -----+ Mn' ++4H , O

(..... L..l b..,i) , MnO;/ MnO, '

Mn02+2H 20

1 .) ~\
2 .) ~\
3 ,) ~\

MnO ~+ 4H + +3e - _ MnO,+2H 2 0

-t.)~\

MnO ~ -----+ MMD ,


MnO ~ -----+ Mn0 2 +2H , O
1y1nO ~ +4 H +_

"""," .co).>J1 J"..,.l.-" .co).>J1Jo\..;;,> ~ 4H\ Jl 4 HO- ~

5 ' jh.J1

.....L..I b..,.Jl 4HO- "'l..>>-

, Cr '}O'};/ Cr 3 + ..
, ~~I~ I ~

, H , C, O'; CO, .

11~~1

(W ,.,i+cr ,.,i) ,UI )j1b~ J~.;l2,8g~ Fe .I.,i.J.ooJI0"~.,,;w

C =lO' moI/L 'P'' ,

Fe~~) /

Fe ( I J

Id

&"".]A

...w..==.j..e

~u:J1

(JI

v =200mL ~

l,j!

ti

).

tl,~ll.~\U ",,;,;,o;h ~~~I.;,r.:;.JOWI ~\> W ,.,/H,(g) ,


. \."J~),\

i.ll14.Jj ~I,

. ~W\ .l\~j ~~ ~\, ,~\ JLl.A:i.ll ~ .~..J.jWj1 J-,~ "-='~

ti

.JLULJ\ 4.,t\4j c:; 410.';' Il .l\~\,

.\."J~)'1 ~.lLalI ~I 1 :!J


~lb.lJ\ ~ y:JI ~ J1h;, 1\ j W\ ~

",,:-,->1

.~W\<;4J'~~l . -?

. M(Fe) =56glmol, M(Cl! = 35,5glmol

-WI
J. ; !;"O ,h J::4-i"}SJ)"~.lLa...J\ ~

Fe (s'

= Fe +(aq)+2e - , ;;~l Jt:.LiU

2W ,,,,+2e-

H , ( g) ,t6.)! J<cliU

, ~b 'i\ ;;~:il aJ..l1.u

Fee.) + 2H +( lUI )

Fe

~..lL-J l ~

l g)

2
+ (IU/ ) + H

r~lJ,.J.>. ~~

Fe(g)
m
n =-

' M
56

~jl l 4IJ6J1

!l 2

Fe 2+ (0') H , (g)

2H'(..J
n 2 = C2 V2 = l a" xO 2
n, =2.10-2mo!

Omo!

Omo!

n 2 -2X

n 2 -X,

X,

X,

= 2,8 =O,OSmof

!I l

n l -X

~lf."Jl ~bJ\

X f=In. ....... j " I


- Xf
=
~ J Fe "",l,J1
., ~I U'- liUll1
. ..
rU ~jA-J

2W ,.. , ,,..L,...,>JI ~.,41l '4l~1 >.16.JI';' ..,.,~X, = O,OSmo! =S .10'mo!


" , - X, = 2.10-2 -S .10' mo!

, ...,....

" , - X, = -3.1O'mo!
....,.J~ .l-U: ~ 1 ~ 'i ,j! , ~~ ~~.JA ~ ,...,.JI.... ..l-U: I~J

.r'..,.., FeJA...;..J1J<cliUll.;,L ~~'o?' ''''''-","I> .;,.!

.>.:ob\> ......

~;! ...l.:>~ ~ ,~ o..Jl ,)~ ~ \..:...o.Q~" 2H+(,.,,) .l~' ~ ~l Jt:.\..A.j,lll~\ ~~


n 2 - X,= O ' F~,..!.J l:i

X(

=" , = 2.10" mol

Fe 2+ (aq)

Pe(g)
n, - X,
2.10.1 - 5.10~
-=3.1()"l mol

Omol

,J<o= ,.J.;JI >;1jolJI ~ L.; ' >h .:.JI~ ~ ~~ >.,;Jl.> ~1 >J>l...JI


.~l:>) li' ,;...w.==~, ba..- ~)o J!( cI-) .;~)~, ~ 0 1O,j! ~
.., 2H '

\.y.. ....1il >.,;Jl;~1 6..io..:.JI ~ ~ ~ ''''')<>JI,)! (2cl ')

.... W,l ~ kW

, .,..A.; -..,Loj , ~';I "'")<>JI

j.Lb..i....J1 )1..:i.J1~
" H2

=X( =2.10- 2mol

j "H, = 2;4
V = 2.10.2 x22,4

-,-II........>

. --,

, ~ J,!I......I' r...I.:JIJj...l.?- -"

, .,..A.; Oi !jl.C:,.. (H,) 0 1L.;j

, ~~pj

V=

" H2

x22,4,

'..l! , n= M

~ 4..Aj

, ~l ~.JJj

M(Fe>' + 2CI) =56 + 2 x 35,5 =127g1mol


1

~
."

.i

:?--

,Q

,m =2.10" x 127 , ~"""'j

Il u,r!1
""~~I "'l;."fo",,UJ~ ' C, '~~ ' (l ,) ~j,!lI .... u;JJhA.",,~ JI .

(Na2S103, 5H 20) ~, 6.:11;*0-4 ~ ~ 1$.:u, (2Na;"'I' +5 2 0;(",,)


~ t,.:rl> I~UI ~ ~! ~\jJ'rj.l.l~I~~fo ~1)jl,I ~...,.......,.I ~

. C,

m =2,54g

' 0'J

.~

'J

=5.1O'moI/L'~~j 100mL "4?'> ,~",,~~I ",w-fo""uJ


(l, ) JJhA " V, = 20mL

1"""'" C:">"" .""ts.J1 u.,..;

. ~""~~ I "'l;."fo",,U

JJhAF ~6...J1 'J

t.;.> ~ 1.= 'p~1 ~ J.=.,; W I li:Il; , ~I


. ~6...JI"V,
b~),' aJ.lb..o ~"

~ ~

..

= 15,6mL

,tl?-';)" j ~)U ~j,:Q , a ',I\ ~.lW.1 ~1

. ~~) ~
.(1, ) ~j,!lI ....u;JJhA C, ~;JI .,....,.I .

,M(H)= lg /mol , M(s):32g / mol , M(Na) =23g/mol


M(O) =14g/ mol
. 12 (..,l r (a'lJ, S202; (...,)/ Sof02~ (...,) 'e:>r/~j..o u~L.J

,.

.l ~I...:'. ~.r-=-",I.:I.....I'

n= M

jL ~ ...,,,11.......>

Wo;lj n=C.V

o.h.Jl
!!I 1

.~W I ~ ul ,-LU

m
M=C. V , m=M.C. V , ~ (n)j (n)o;;.,jt......llC:">j;
V=100mL=O,lL, C=C,= 5.lO" moIlL, u..JJ

M = (23 x2) + (32 x2) + (16 x3) + 5(1 x 2 + 16)

M=284g/ mol
m = 284 x 5.10-2 xO,1

: ~ A.i.A,

.:.r..;lja , o i1\ ~.JW' \,tW= .

I ,(g)+2e-

2r ,,,,

2S202~ (.. )

S402~(..)+2e-, ~~l ~

,t\;-)! Jd"

, ~~)';Ilo~!iI~~~.J~I ~~

12(~q)+2S2 0 2~( ..,,)

2r ("q)+S40 2~(aq)

n,

Omol

Omol

2X,

2X,

n, - 2X,

{1,1O~I ""';'" Jp...l C, ,)~I ;#o;JI ..,>l-> ' ..,>


n, - X,= n, - 2X!, l'.;,;Jjbll,;,;;;'~ J.=-"'It.;

...;.. J.cW ...I.)J:. J-" I..A , ~! o~I ""';'" Jj6.A w.,.lj


"l-Xf =O ,~i
n, - 2X, = 0 l .)J:. J-" I..A~! ~j,'o~1 lO.,foj,'I>Jj6.A l t.s

n, =2n,

'l

X(="!

...

,.J!

2 j 1 " 1L-_n
-",-=_2X
-,-,---,1

H'

c = CV
2

C,

=1,95.1O'mol/L

l,

C _ 5.10-' xO,0156
,2xO,02

2V

.!I 2

40\>.1\
,

.....I~I ,::.l,6.;l1 ~ .;.>P:; <) (~I) u~ ySll ~ ...1;


J,;-;Jlj ~Ij u-",..>Jlj ""w.,,:;j.,J1 <) ...1; j&! ""'\,Ullj
~ ~)~l ;'~1 ~j:J I)J>~ ~ ~~1~4>:i19
~~l:9 !.

0,3%

~~1 ~\j41' ~ ~ ~ 01 ~ ~

~...:! ~ I,)-4j ~b4-J\3 ,:lI.,jl~l O!...!~ ~

.~.,...:wl ~~1

;J.I>jO

J>..J:j ~~1

{)

:'4~1 ,~I ~'4>

,Q

~J.

!l

.:

-,.

j:

..1!J?"y~..,sJl~ r.$~.jJl ~.,...:wl..l1~ll ~l,!;:,

;J.I> jO.J>4ol.ll "";y...p:J1 ul ~ "","I~lj ",\,Ul1 ..,~ <) b4!


",""",.Jj ,,,,.... <) \;)~I ~ J~I tlb:i..l
A ,,-=,~1

,3'

1882-1800

..lWI "-':,\..:u.:, t~1 cl ~ :f,...:-Jl ..lUI

.iI.,.~ .l~

~j-!

OOR

4cu....:,j ..,.l~1 ~~I ..:J\j~! ..:.Jl~ ~)\J.l! 1~ o,)Aj

(Berthlot) (1907-1827 jl:l",,)

..1; ~ ~I ",,>I~

.(KEKULE) 4~j

25

:'4~I ~I~~I ~1

1..,~1 "
...... .J.-,. h..)l,

u.;.c. -,4 (>A "'-,",j ,) ~ I ..,.~I <) (j,sjWl) p:...J1(>A )(,li ~


.p:...J1<)

C u~ySll ~ >j>j ~ >J~> , >~~I uj1Jl)j4lO

. ~I

. .

" ......
., w...l
l' ~ 'I ., .... -"Il:.)'.r~
. 1
- w.....J--1I1
I-j~ ...... .r -",

.. ...... N. O, H : y.Dli.~.h .lp'30-0...b~ 01 ~~~t "'"="')~''*

..".J'J ' (H) "","j)~IJ (C) j,'.,,>:JI .,s~ ~ <Ub. ......",.,s~ .,~I >I~I

Jl.o .sP.I Y""\.;.c ~. (H) J (Cl J! ....w. ~t,. .,s~ .,~ ..:.~ r
......... (I) .(Br) . Cl. N. (0)

:C w~p.l\ d) ~ ~ -

, c, ~ "";JfiJ~1 ~.!j.Jl!' J='


6

C : K 2 L4

C. J" C ~ ,-",",y J.4:>

, ~I'

CH. 1l,.11,S),>

H H
1
1
H- C=C- H

H
1

H- C- H
1

( Clif> J'=
~.ll.> l ~~ uti:b,l1.J JS.:u

,ib ) if>
.(- ) ,,>1>1~IS:; h,lj)

4~

.(=) <Wt:.l
"-.>1S:;;,h,1
. " ....W.VI"
~
_
.')u.
f' .
H -C~C - H

..._>1>1"-.>1S:;;,h,1
_
. )j

( ~)....,~
_

( H J.:""":"- .

.5

-..>

"-.>1S:;
;,h,1
>< '-.
_
. ) l>"""""""

:~~I ~rJl ,.cl~\ - 5


~ .., . ....,.)1
,,1
b4>(H)"","j)~lj(C) ~1 .,s~~.,s~C.H, "'WI~.

(~\..4li\~4S=~\) I.>~\J...~\~\~ ~j)...I.t&I\?,~\ .!I l


, t,~1

"''''' ~ ~ ~ ,>.:i>W

"'j

, .>~

l4l "",~pl ab!..J1.


d.!!~ , ,,,\~1

CnH2n + 2 ' ~

(cr) l..o.,.. \,,>Ij) ~ ..,~bl " "'j) JS


~yS:.J\ ~\J~.l...IJ::. ~ ~ 4:4,It.... -! 1~

19...a....l

,'1.;..:.

~,Cl
~!, C2

~j.H :

C3

~3:1 '

C4

~ ~I

Les A1canes

~ : Cs
~ , C,

(ane) ci a:4>>4 ~
,>.ll..ol

j:

--

,C,If" . ~j.H ,C,H B


~ :C6 H14
d ,:j3:l,C4HlO

~ , CH4

cu,.

~I, C2H6

1,a'

CH
.:w...
n 2n
-

t..J~1

Les Alcnes
1.:.3 (n) tyJl

(.lA ........ ",?~Ij ,(cr) tyJl (.lA..,,,.


' .
' ....&, .
'
' &'"A~,
f'~
.

IS:J~ I dJut....
'.
.
~

lI..u
. -

(ne) 0! ~ a:4>>4~ .

CH,

- CH ~ CH -

CH,

0) - 2- ~j,I

28

, ~1

...

:>-l~1

:CH,
, , . ,, ~

, (cr)~I~;~19 [~J

.~ -'" ~>-' ~ 1.).) , (7t)

~I ~ "'''9

u lS.l:i' I..:.,Il....~ I~ - : ~I

iincl~ .",.. ll>::;" ~ .


CH=CH ,ill,,1

CH, -C =C-CH,

,~;;..l.>Ij H ~j)-.l~4I 5J~...:!~ ~wlS.l~' LJ.A

91

r--,- 19~.",.. ~ili 19.hJ1:

I-C, H,._, .

,.",.. ... WI ~jS:>o.!iJJ.,>9

,.).0 w;", J"~' lSJ~I ,...J ~ ~ ,......J


. J"jll lSJ~ 1 ("",t..) ~ 1-4./ -

.(yle) J; ll>:>UI,> ....., ~ -

-C,H,

-CH

J-AoJ
,~lJ....~\~I..l ~l.)~\1~' .!l 2
>Al.i.A <.>-

DDR

If! .....-,,;<JI ;u..w,

' j-A,.
H.c....~-H

25 "

H,!f ~/H
C_C
/

H;\

",/

/C---- H

/, -Cf- H

HH H

CJi" .".>bl' ~1

~~;SJ,~' ) .b.>"J

(>Al.i.A -.J

CH
0 ..... W,,,.
y.
~
.(0) ~~I j (H ) ~j)..\,!fll j (C) ",~~I >""~ ~ <.?~ " "
. 4J~ ..Al\lOj''''' ~ <.?~ .lf'I,,1

Cn H 2n+1 - OH (!,.aW\ ~ ,~'i,ps:Jl -

R-OH
H

R _C/

~C

jl

.... W I ~

R'

~O
O-H

R_C/

~O

.':'I.l,;4,>.ll~1

.... WI ~ .:.~l - 3

R_C/
,0

.... WI ~

" !I! ","'~?' '''''l.>~'- 4

j :

1
,8'

CIfH.,N :4A\...h~
, .:,~ ~ I

C"H2"+3N :40W\ ~..


: ~u...:,I .

R-NH, ,.).i~I"",,~1
R- NH - R' ,<.?"WI "",,~I

R"
l

,, IWI '- _.~I

R-N-R' <r

~--

, lf':.I~1

Jo> ~ '"'"' ",~fiJl JS:.4l1 J"W II" I".)lb.,! .... Jl~jbll .,.~I
~ ~4;.:I 0 1 ~ ,Jjbll ~j~ lcl.,;'j ", . ~ L,!-A ~ ,~ ~1~

o),j

~~j !,

le ~fo

O),j ~,.. ~I~ ~)b " ~ t:~! -,1 ,~

...,sj,.J1,;l ~~ ,;l u;..:. If'l' N j l

a:ajS:......J l u').l.Il.l~~) ~j.?Jl ~I ~

'4J ~~u~~u4G=:>Lu..Jl

. ....w..',
.. t"'"
, ,,)
- 'I'"''.
" <'(.:.t:u-~
- II
."........'Wu. j .(....w.. ) j"UA
... ....w..a..:u
. _J"""
........ U-

"

___ I j
. <W~

__ .",
<WU'

I -~'I

~U'",-

:o;JWI tl"";l
~~1 ~ tl~l ;;~ ...l.:> ~

(Isomrie de position) :~~1 ~I.-:Jl ~

.....w.. ) j.:.,.)1"""""
" <-' ) j.:.,.)1
">.......,l'I>l...l..J1
"' '.:.~~I
.
_
j u
. <.>""'j
_ _ .r
<.>""'...
.

L..> ~~ 4f'=L...o <l Clf" yb..;...ll .J~"


CHJ
CH]
1
1

CHl -CH 2 -CH l - CH - CH j


1. '" u. \,;.U. ~

CHl - CH l - CH - CH l - CHj

''
' I ;,.,w.;.)I:.
<I , 4l.o.l1
~1
... >.......,l
. ..r
." ~ U
.
_

""'
<.>"'"
... ':'~~I
.

, ~ 4bk ~t...A d.J C4HlO ~;ll ,Jw ~

CH,
1

~--~

~ - ~-~-~

y,~ ~ 2

b~1
'~J-l' -.,.bL.lJ1~ 3

Ji
CH -CH -C
, ' 'b

.0

CH,

CH - C

.,

.,,.,
oJ
" "."--......
'-

'u-'#' ~L.lJ' ~ 4

USJ
1:1,a' ____________________________
~..U4J I ~\ ~ ~

, <tl,"?"-~I ~\

l4l

~~jA ~ ~~1 ~4==L-.Jl

' J~I u.c. s:.~ 1 ~~ I.S.P-~\j~\ ~ s:.~1...:!~ l4.4Il..l>! ,~.J-41l

dl ' .: ... .!,, S:il

...

~,~~~
' ~~I~~~
~.~J>~~J~,,=;~~~~~~~=
. =~~
~=

!-=-, ; ....--'.l.~ l tyoAJl j i C"Hy ~jJ-.44l ' ~~ d..AWl ~I ..l4-=!

. CHO
, ,
. 1".! b.!1A1bJI ~. ~
ll
.
J""'

t""_ J

,M=29d,

,,'
""".J.>.ll '4l j\1~I

1 2x=..L= 1 6z= ~

l&:.GI_

'

CH, -CH, -CH,

CFf,

'

CH, -CH - CH, - CH,

(2)

( 1)
CH 3

CH 3

CH,-tH- tH - CH,

CH, =CH - CH, - CH,

(3)

(4)

CH,
1

CH,-CH - CH = CH - CH,-CH,

CH = C - CH,

(5)

(6)

(7)

J.,J\
\SJ1-*, ~.J\.:..1 ~''!I) Jf=. '"
.u ~ ~ :

C..:JI;.-l 4 do.! '"

, 4jl~jbJ\

CH,

,.

leH -2 tH _ 3CH -4CH

d..,I1ZJ1.

..r,..:

\S.Ji ~ ~..:ab\ c.b,Ilj) J.S *

(C)

')).J

..J..>.t ~

4l-o-i~j

''"'"

A.U.9-:'fo dl.....L.u

"

4CH -3 CH- 2 CH -! CH

i l

louy'~-21

~; ~ a,~bl '""-'j) js.

TH, TH,

4'i.!q

~ i""'~' ~ ~j .~";il' .......; tjll\,

Jv ,'4,>Yy'#,a,lOSll.

a
....

Jjbi )~

,(3) .,6>rJ'

.~lAJ~I~i )-,~I.b.b~ ~~ , ~1 *

Uy.

.~ '-""" 3. 21
,(4)

-,6orJl

.Wi ~~_pj.A~IJ~-?~*

(=) ""'-j~,;..J'''''')I..,1<o \?~","'

C .).il c,""'w .....y.-"', >J...bJ'''';jl ,~"

j:

! - 1 - "-'JI 1

,(5)

_(.lUi ~

,a'

(=) ""'-j~,;..J1 <Ib..')

-,6orJ'

A:>-,.lj-o ~IJ ~ t$~"'

' ..,1<o \?~","' C ;).il..,b.;j ' ..... y.-"',<.W..J,"';", ,~"

CH,

;CH3 -~tH-:CH=~CH-%CH2-~CH3
,"",- j~.>l' ....';1'..,1<0 \? ~","' C ",).il 3,..;) 4b." .}"-Jlj,,># ,~pli lb> ~
,..,.pli t.; ').:.,.!'-! <Ih.,;l' C.).il 2 ,..;) """'" \?#',..,.pl' ~ .""-'''''''' ~; j-4< ,.il
~Y>' ~j\?#',..,.pl'~j'~")~'""",~ ~~'~ '.il.l4J 5 "';)~.}"-J'

.}"-J' ,..,.;J' yb.:.,.


!-3 - ...&> ,~-2 ,~"

.~I -", ,,,,)l''bh~\~' (6)...sr-"


JCH;;: 2C- 3 CHJ : ~\ . -.

#'''- ,<4,>~~jbll.,.~I.

l '" -

1 - "'I

,(-)...sr--!'
l..J\ ~

/'v9', ,<4,>~~jbll .,.~I.

il?- j.:Jj.4 ~\) ulc !..?~ ..

I ,;,! - -2,""-,, l ,~I.


2 ci>~1

~4

lf1i. 1"

, ~t.J1

.:.L,Syil .;:,~.:,..J )~I ......., ~I ~


.<4,>~~jbl

.,;,.;.yjJP ",,)1; - 5. 3 , 1
.,;, 1:.~

J.l.o - 2

""W -

.,;, 1:.~

J.l.o
2.2
! . 2-~
.,;,1:.~ J.l.o ",,)1; - 3 ,2 ,
.l>.l\

,Jj ':II' -...f::..r1l,)) ~ I -..:U

11$1 C ~l).l

~ \S.ll ~ 0\:j~

~I ty~

~j 1'"'::11 0A ~ y>T WA ~I I~

Jj~1 ,.:,..JI 1.,:..; 1" 'C-'C-'C-'C ) t...,JI ,)A .II ~I.r ~.r' 1" C-C-C-C
.,;JI C

'A, ,;,Ib,.,. - CH, J.,:.l1,)A ,;,I)~ \l

,J.,4A ,""W 2
- CH
\

'

C_ 3 C_ 2 C_'C

tH,

~' ~J=.' ,.:.s...j ,b,'j) 4J.S:l ,o.> , ~ ~I H ';:'1,>


CH,
1

CHJ -CH 2 -CCH 3


1
CH,

,2

' ~j <,,-~I,)A
'Dol!

2,~)

C'J'JJ.S:ll"
")~I""""

CI

CI

j:
y

CI
CH,- CH= CH - CH,- CH,

/~/"

CH,
CH - CH - CH - CH

"

,~.~t,...

>

"

"",

~r-

,3'

CH 3 CH 3

CH,

-~1 -

JH, - CH,

CH,
3~~\

,.)1ll1'<? JI ..,l=1.A yS"l0;> jo-441' ~u:. ,..." o! ~


CH, -CH,-CH ,

o! -

1 -",,,

(1)

l-1-""'jj:l (..,.,)

.'" -2-"'''

289

(-,

'o~!~A,<?j;>J

"",;.JI ~,-".,,-lU; -

2 .1 ~ "I- I - .",-" JI M ~?;;"" ~


,,,:.! ~ M ~?l'
" "'-" ~l-" -

2 (.,,)

."",-"

(1)

cW\

~lio:Jl -,=> ,,~I

.)=,> ,,!..J'il J! (a;.;.l4II ....... ".)JI) .:&-l;.>,,41I.,,-lu; ,,",,':'1


,.)t:>.J1

.,..b;-.JI ,u=! (,,1 -1-.",-,,) ~;lIJ! ("",-" ~ ,-" - 2) li ("",;.JI);;"" ~ ~ -

''''',..J''~,-".,,-lu; - 2,1
: ~ t,.,~ A,j~'w! 1- -.,..I1H~rl'J! B'1 ?".r.l'~Li:I~ ~ LAi .
HHH
1

HHH

H - C=C - C- H+B - B ->H-C - C-C - H


l

,r

Br Br H

4 u,.r'"\
-o'.l,Jl ~IJ..>I aJ..ll:....o ~i !I 1
.""",tbillQ!b.,.:J1 ~

~l.r 2 00g,jlp~ ~j)U1 ,'J&l' ""'" ~ lo ~ 2

.% 20~~~.9W6.! ,?,,,, "..,.....J~1~\~~)'\~.


M(H)~lg.mol -'

M(C)~12g .mol-'

V m = 22,4L.mo/-1 ~ljWJ """,lhlll Q!b..,..:.JI~ .j~I~1

-1>J\

.;

, ....:~I 0,.; ' ,"->' "-'.l~ !J


~w jU: ~l..l

Aj

(<L4Wl b~)'I)02 ~ Jd~:Jl ~ '4~

;).lLo

I$i Cglj..> l u!

.(HP) ,UI )G..j (CO, ",,",", j~) 5!PI ~I

omol

6x

==::::

MIC, Hu )

200
200
= - - = 278mol
(5 x 12)+ (12 x 1) 72
'

x=
", = 8x ~ 8(2,78)

n 1 = 2,78mol .J! ,n 1 x =

=22,22

0 oSJ

'>! .", - 8x =0 U;JJ w.,1

", = 22,2 mol.u.j

V=22,2x22,4 , 1V-n,V. I,>!

n2

V
=V-

~.lj~~02d t....,

001,.

..

,'

Vo x l00
1
20

.\

V0, --

= 5 x 4988,8

V.. x20

---""::-:,--100

, ~~~

V .l t! =2489' 9L=2, 49m 3

0-'

82,76% ,.. -.3 .)AIl

,,~I ~;JI ,..,j\>ll 6.J\..J1 ~ ~')_ ~


'",p:!1

.-.3;u.,.l1........;..JI ~1 l=1

.d=2 ~I~ ~l,a AI "-=';b..,J\ "-.!l.lS:.J1 ~


. If.l! ."......"...,~ 6.J.J~.;s1

.~L...llI ~~...l:..j,I,i..!Q,,,,je--~I;;;~I~~bl:.l

.J

2
3
J.,JI

" ft

12x
y
M
-=-=-C% H% 100%
C%+H%=100%
,H % ''' ~

H% =100% - C% =100%-82,76
H% =17,24%
,yS;-o-III.lfl M ........;..JI...,~I =

M =29x d

1 ., ,,,> ;1.

,M =58glmol
,~ t...;)a;...JI ;I,l.o...Jlil""'j>OJ~

12x
y
, 82,76% = 17,24%

,,,~ .

58
100%

'>!

x= 4 ,
y~ 1 0

-..

12<
58
82,76 100
_ _Y_~ 58

--~-

17,24

1~0::
0 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _----,

C.H lO ..... .,;e-j)-';4l1

~;u.,.ll >";"'.;;.JI ~I""~

"

0'

'~

:::1

yS.,...J\O >!2n+2=10 w..l;>~ , n~4 ~j~J.l..y C"H," ., J5:.'JI C>"~

'~ ~
CH, - CH, - CH, - CH,

CH,
1
CH, -CH - CH,

4j.H ,~. 2

6~

j :

1-,8'

..

, ~ ,o H-" ~G..I\ ~\J4-aJ\ ~

- C- O- , - OH , .....

..:.~~ I ~6.Jw.JI>'O~I. ,

- C- O - H , - COOH , ..... ~"."s:J1 ~I ~ 6.Jw.J1 >.o~ 1 ..,.

- H , - NH 2 ,

_C )1

~O

~ ~\..4A:t\

1) dJl.a4J\

~~ , .~

~ ~~..lJ:t\ Il dJl.a4J' ~~,


-

.l

- C/ ' u'> ..:.w~I il 6.Jw.J1 >.0 ~I


~O -

....

..1J\
- COOH

- OH

, 4l~I l4iIb, o.i> , 4;JllJl~4brll IUPAC ~ ~' ,....1' bd

~
1

CH -CH-C

H
CH -C

H-C

. 1

0 0 0

CfI,

CH, -C-OH
1

CH, -C-OH
1

H-C-OH
1

fH,

CH,

CH, -C-OH
1

CH, - CH-CH, -OH

CH,
/CH,

CH - CH-C
3
1
~
CH
0

/CH,-CH,

CH -CH -CH-C
3

~O

OH

CH,
1

CH-

CHS-CH -COOH

~O

CH,
1

CH, _CH _NH,

CH, -CH, -NH,


CH,
1

CH, -NH,

CH, _CH, -NH -CH

CH, _CH, _N-CH,


CH, -CH
1

CH, - CH -CH, -N-CH,

..hJ\

I-CHO- I j 1

~
.C>
CH,
1

CH -CH-C~

Jl>Yj~~ ' 2

l,a'

(4~ """j)':'~~'-'"
3

-C-OH
1

Jj. 2 Yj~

H
1
CH, -C-OH
1

j:

(\?~~J~)

H-C-OH
1

Jj' ] '~!

Jj']'\4>

(.)j i J~)

(.)ji J~)

,1

CH

21

3 l

Jj l uj~~

,
/CH 3
CH - CH-C
3

CH

j2 "9o'~ 3

CH,
Jj2 Yj~~

I-co- '(;r~
3

'

' CH, -C-OH


1

CH - CH-CH -OH

'CH
3

I -OH- I ,>J~I""~U~ ,2.:.~.,l1

-'

H-C

Jl>~!

-C-OH j l

CH-C~

cr
CH

(.;J~J~)

,>J~I

""---'u
.. .,3..:.1..60
:r<- . ~
==-'"CC'1

'

, / CH, -CH,
6
s
4
CH -CH -CH-C
3

~O

/OH

CH,
1

CH -C

CHS-CH -COOH

""~~y J+'..o- 2 u'=~~ ~~~,

..!l..I_j-''I.l...o
_ <.J"4>
.

,"'\c~~ ~

-NH ,

o~, <?I> C"--'Ij

CH,

~O

..!L_j-''I.l.i'
_. <.J"4>
.

..,1<0 ..... j -N - j l -NH - j l


~~~I

H-C

~O

oS

"'l,6o..,ll

",~I> C"--'I '.)jl C"--'I ""':;;JI


.( ........ ~I ........~I)

CH,
,

,1

CH, -CH _NH,


C"--'I ~! J+'..o

CH, _CH, _NH,

-1

("hl C"--'I)

CH, _NH,

~lli:!!

a:-01vl4-o

(.) j l C"--'I )

(.)jl C"--'I)

CH,
1

CH, -CH, -N-CH,


. I \:.., I .... .
'w - N . N
C"--' ..,.... ' "
(<?I> C"--'I )

....-

~--

~--

C"--'I~! J+'..o- N
(", ~I> C"--'I)

CH, -CH

N , ...,.,...,.
" " I. N CH _ CH _ CH -N-CH
l
. oH..,....
,
,
,

( '. 11> . 1) -I L.,

..

CH, -CH, -NH -CH,

'

,~Wl-:JI4=~ ! ..l> 1 1.S~

lt;.i.A ...I.>I,9 J== ,)l..,.>1 ~wl ;u",.)

(A), CH, -CH , -CO-CH , (C), CH, -CHaH -C, H ,


(0), CH, -COH -CH ,
(B), CH, -CH , -CHa

tH,

....,,5=.Jo" JS ~ ~

rU

\';'!j , ( +)

;;)W,l

l.a.Qj

~WJI ~

.(4) .J!

.Q

+
-

\';'1

,~')~! ..........,,1.:1:1, o~ ~ i,?~

(1).r 4ir
2
1

1
2-

!l

,""",~I. (-) .Jw,! u.....j ~L "'..."


.,..,., ~I "" ,

(Cr oi- )~Lojfo~bJjbw

+
+

DNPH J *,",

~J*,",

.-.,.j~iJ==-S~~~

1:
1.a'

chJ\

.......=. .....J 1

.-....:

.( ..,,~ ~j) - (~~)j 2- ~ , (A) ...,,5=.r-J1


.( .,,~.>JI ~j)J\,>j.H ' (B)...,,5=.r-J1

.(,s~I:.Jy6 Jj .(<?I:.Jy6 -Jj

2 -~,

-2- \,>j.HJ.4.0 -2
,..,....,..,.Ll -'\

(Cl...,,5=.r-J1

,( D ) ...,,5=.r-J1
~.....

,s.ill " -jll ~ _.>J~I ~ , I~L.J ((B) ...,,5=.r-JI) _.>J ~I "",,s~

!l

,1 ",*, ~I

.~ J*,", j DNPH ,,;:,lA jfo ",,1:. .r JS C:" ~ """

. DNPH C:" J.o.:A> ~""" ~1 ~ ((A) ...,,5=.r-JI) ~I"",,s~ ,2 ",*, ~I


C:" J.o.:A>~""" <?WIJ~l~ ((Cl ...,,5=~I) ,s~WIJ~I"",,s~

,3 ",*, ~I

. ~lA,fo~b

~I C:"~""" ~ <?WIJ~l~ ((D) ..."5=~I)<?WIJ~I ,,",,s~ .4",*,~1


. ~ J*,", j l ,DNPH ,'-"lAjfo ""I:.'.r

297.

1-

CH3-0H+Na~

3-

CH,-CHO+O,(g)---"'-->

4 - C,H,o,+CuO --+CO,+H,O+Cu
5-

R-CH 2 -OH +Cr20;- + H+ ~3R-CHO+2Cr3+ +7 H 20

6- R-CHO+MnO; +6W --+2M;' +3H,0+5R-COOH


1-

2CH3- 0H + 2Na~H 2+2 (CH3-0-+ Na + )

2- C"H 2rr +H 2 0

HOJ

)C"H 2rr +1 - OH

3- CH, -CHO+O,(g)---"'-->CH, -COOH ~ )


4 - 2C,H,o, +(4x+y-2zJ:uO --+xCO, +~ H, O +Cu
5- 3R-CH,-OH+Cr,G:-+ 8W --+3R-CHO+2Cr"+7H,G
6 - 5R - CHO +2MnO; +6W --+ 2M;' +3H,G +5R -COOH

_ o\"' ~1 ..,.."-.;J1..........1"""" 2, 78g ~"""" ", 4-1<,S,"",,..,6. J-' ..I.6.j"


,CQ,jt.O (>" (H,ol (>" 3,3g ~..";; .,,. )l; CuQ
. uliJ\ o~ ;.rl .1~bA~l .!J

: mo ~ ~\ ~j m H ~jJ..l.,!4l\ ~j

,m e ~, ~ ~I .!J

1
2

,..,6..,.t

, t,. "")G.;JI .....1iS 1Wc ..,6..,.t1 '-41 >J..;.ll """'j;oJl ~I ~I ~

.d = 2,07 , 1

J.,J\

C. H, O. +(4x + y- 2z)::uO -+ xCO, + ~H , O+ (4x + y - 2z)::u

~
.c>

12
12
=-44 m co, =-x
6=1,636
44

mfl = - mH 0 = - x3,3 = O,367


18 '
18

m,

~1,64g

mH

~0,37g 1

~ mo = m.,.s,l -(me +m H )
,Q

'<:j<

mo =2,78 - (1,64+0 ,37)

mo = O,77g
,~
H ~I
,
.. ; -

12x

1:
-1

-- = -

...,.,.._ II "-i..W.J1
. (, ~ I ~ 3

"-W '

16z

=-

= --

,3 '

M = 29d = 29 x 2,07 = 60,03

M~60g/mol l
12x
M
-- = --

x=

mc M
= 1,64 x60 =2 94
12xm""-)J 12x2,78~_'_~
1

x =3

,~ ..u

,x ~l....>

O,37x60

........

2,78

2,94

y=8
162

-=--

z= "'oxM = O,77x60 = 1 03
16 x m ...... . ,., 16 x2,78
'

z =1

, l..l.:t..l.l

,z ...... l->

:~t!lII..A,j)

';>j-

'''.H'l' ''''''''.H'l' ~..,." .,t.. <) i.".i,

~~ ~l.t) \.,ll....>j ~JW~'p'"..u::.

l!)~

rJ -...li.J.;!o.l1t\f.\
. Y->j ~\

.\'

~.)L.; .~9J~~ll \!Qtjl, <1) I~lj o~


. .i!! ~I 4.O.I.JLr9

,~

4l..:!Jt"

j 41 ..,..Il ..,..IL..;

4,j~,

""+ 1.>-4<>

;!

,J...8Jl,gJ1

.1-11

..,..Il ...Ill> "", ...~

.... 1.>'-"-1. ~ ' .... '; S; .b...U .!LI-4. l;I)jl~1 ....., lo. ,LJ,JL4II