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A fresh look at the Bohr - Rosenfeld analysis and a proof of a conjecture of Heisenberg

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**A fresh look at the Bohr - Rosenfeld analysis
**

and a proof of a conjecture of Heisenberg

H. Gopalkrishna Gadiyar

AU-KBC Centre for Internet & Telecom Technologies

M.I.T. Campus of Anna University, Chromepet, Chennai 600 044, INDIA

E-mail: gadiyar@au-kbc.org

Abstract

Bohr and Rosenfeld carried out an analysis of the consequences of field

theory commutation relations. In this note the analysis is sharpened. A conjecture of Heisenberg that volume is quantized is shown to be a consequence

of the second quantization of gauge fields. A way to generalize the equations

of physics to include the Planck length is indicated.

1

the form of equations is preserved but p and q become operators with RR [ˆ q . In the full quantum mechanics of Heisenberg. This is done so that the working physicist appreciates the argument. dq dp = n is an additional ad-hoc condition. quantum electrodynamics and quantum gravity. g} = 1 2 I (p dq − q dp) = n . In the case of gauge fields the condition turns out to be the integrality of the Gauss linking number([7]. [10]. pˆ] = iˆ1 . Bohr . In the next few paragraphs we will collect the Heisenberg commutation relations of quantum mechanics. [5]) though the connection to abstract mathematics would be obvious to experts. or equivalently. where ∂f ∂g ∂f ∂g − . [4]. ∂q ∂q ∂p ∂p Hence {q.Rosenfeld analysis of field theory commutators and the Heisenberg commutation relations. p˙ = {p. We reinterpret the loop approach [12] to quantum gravity as merely going from the Heisenberg algebra to the Weyl-Heisenberg group. cohomology. 2 . H} .Sommerfeld quantization. p} = 1. In old quantum theory the Bohr-Sommerfeld condition {f. where ˆ B] ˆ = AˆB ˆ−B ˆ Aˆ . We essentially study the relationship between the Heisenberg commutation relations and Bohr-Sommerfeld integrality condition. The equations obeyed by classical mechanics are q˙ = {q. The key idea is that if there is a Bohr-Sommerfeld type condition one should apply the correspondence principle and replace the condition by a Heisenberg type commutator. At the group level one recovers the Bohr-Sommerfeld old quantum conditions. and cocycles ([3]. [8]). In exact analogy the argument converts this “old quantum condition” into a Heisenberg algebra where a commutation relation is proposed for length and area operators. We quickly summarize the content of quantum physics required for our analysis ([9].In this paper we investigate the relationships between Bohr . The analysis does not use the language of homology. [A. The standard notation of hatted objects for q-numbers and unhatted for c-numbers is followed. H} . [11]). In the case of quantum mechanics nothing new is got.

y. q) = ei(qpˆ−pˆq) . This has the form U(p. dq) U −1 (p + dp. t)] = 0 . Next we replace the Heisenberg algebra of the fields by the Weyl-Heisenberg group. Mathematically 1 U(p. t).For our purposes the commutation relations [Aˆj (x. y. Eˆk (y. 2. Next we do what looks like a step backwards. [Aˆj (x. The objects are ~ ~ ~ ~l mathematically as a differential form typically like ei A dl . ˆ b (y. We construct the unitary operators which go from the origin to the point (p. Historically the BohrSommerfeld quantum condition came first and Heisenberg derived his commutation relations later. = 1. [Eˆ j (x. k = x. z are the analogue of quantum mechanical commutation relations for the electromagnetic field. We rectify this by using the vector potential and the electric field as can be seen from the earlier sections this makes the analogy with quantum mechanics very precise. t)] = 0 . q) then to (p + dp. t)] = iδ j δ 3 (x − y . t)] = iδ j δ b δ 3 (x − y) . t). t). ) k with j. Aˆbk (y. 3 are group indices in the case of the gravitational field. q + dq) = e 2 (p dq − q dp) . b. t). q) U(dp. Aˆk (y. t)] = 0 . Similar to the previous case with an additional complication of an extra symbol denoting a group index we have [Aˆja (x. E b (y. To carry out the program we change two things in the Bohr-Rosenfeld analysis. [Eˆaj (x. t). q + dq) and back. in mathematical terms the central extension at the level of the Heisenberg algebra leads to an integrality condition at the group level ([3]. This would be an infinitesimal triangle which would be related to angular momentum.d and physically (in the spirit of Bohr and Rosenfeld) as a field Ai coupling to 3 . t). This is done by taking Hthe loop space version of electrodynamics. a. That is. [4]. E k j ˆ ˆ [A (x. Instead we construct the Weyl-Heisenberg group. Bohr and Rosenfeld worked with electric and magnetic fields and hence had derivatives of delta functions. k = x. Eˆk (y. z. t)] = 0 . We view A. a k k a with j. [5]). For a full closed path in phase space the Bohr-Sommerfeld relation will follow.

In other words I Z 3 ~ d~l(x) dS(y)δ (x. [ˆ xj (x). y) = n . at Planck length is straight forward. Hence to write the various equations like Maxwell. y. k with j. xˆ∗k (x′ )] = L3 δkj δ 3 (x − x′ ) . k = x. 2. xˆ∗k (x′ )] = 0 . ˆlk (y)] = 0 . One could take advantage of the Hodge ∗ operation in 3 dimensions and use the fact that ∗ dx = dy ∧ dz and cast the commutation relation in the form [ˆ xj (x). The commutation relations would lead to quantization of volume in analogy with the harmonic oscillator. Sˆk (y)] = 0 . Till now we have used the Hamiltonian formalism and hence singled out time. If we wish to rework in a fully relativistic covariant 4dimensional approach one may have to take into account the commutation relations which may arise from 4 manifold invariants. This should get rid of the problems occurring in defining link invariants by regularizing or thickening. [8]) as it leads to a well known topological invariant namely the Gauss linking number. [ˆlj (x). Heisenberg had conjectured in [6] that volume should be quantized and this approach seems to lead to his conclusion. xˆk (x′ )] = 0 . Sˆk (y)] = L3 δ j δ 3 (x − y) . [ˆ xj∗ (x). 3. xˆ∗j (x′ )]d3 x′ . z. for example. where i. This analysis is carried out by many people ([7]. Somehow 3+1 dimensions turns out to be the natural setting for this approach. j = 1. [Sˆj (x).a particle dxi . Dirac etc. This would mean that in analogy to the passage from Bohr-Sommerfeld rule to Heisenberg commutation relations there should be commutation relations [ˆlj (x). Taking only the Gauss linking number into account would keep time a c-number and replace other operators by objects like ∂ Aˆi (x) = ∂ xˆj (x) Z Z Z [Aˆi (x). We now summarize the situation as follows: the second quantized field in 3+1 dimensions leads to a Bohr-Sommerfeld type “old quantum theory” condition. See [16]. 4 .

Acknowledgements: Most of the ideas used in the paper arose because of 5 . This is in analogy to elece2 tromagnetic theory where it is like J∆J. This is the linear approximation. To the more mathematically minded we are using the philosophy of the Gelfand-Naimark theorem ([14]. The noncommutative nature of the product of the functions leads to noncommutative structure for length and area. We begin with Newton ’s law of gravitation r2 2 2 2 L m1 c m2 c which which can be rewritten using the Planck length L as h ¯c r2 L2 goes over in field theory to T ∆T which is the interaction of the energy h ¯c momentum tensor mediated by spin-2 gravitons. This leads to quantization of volume. We could take the particle view point and deal with elements like dxi . This will be done in a later paper. metric and all such features will have to be generalized and this would lead to the full theory of physics at the Planck length and quantum gravity. The commutation relations proposed are therefore suitable. The recent advances are essentially going over to the (Ai . In this paper we assume fields are fundamental.We are using some simple ideas from mathematics and physics. It can be seen that scaling length by L leads to scaling the field s L . There are two ways of viewing motion in space. The notion of connection. [15]) which says that the properties of a space are encoded in the algebra of functions residing in the space. Recall that in the special theory of relativity the properties of Maxwell ’s equations were used to conclude that the structure of spacetime had to be modified. h ¯c The full theory is got by several methods all of which lead to the Einstein ’s theory [13]. The entire structure of Riemannian geometry will have to be reworked taking into account the fact that the new commutation relations will affect the mathematics and physics. Alternatively one could rework the program in the fashion Einstein did it. This is an additional evidence that quantization should occur as by h ¯c there is a scale for length occurring naturally. To carry out the program of quantum gravity is now possible as there is a natural regulator. Ej ) formalism. We could alternatively take the field view point and study the Ai (x). We can take the approach that quantum field theory is fundamental and the geometrical trappings as incidental [13] or start with the traditional approach of defining metrics and connections taking into account these new commutation relations. A heuristic argument (for 3+1 dimension Gm1 m2 space) is as follows. In this paper we begin with the field theory commutator which encodes the field view point and derive the commutation relations for the particle view point.

Isham and G. Volume II.B. Rajasekaran asked me to relook at the Bohr-Rosenfeld relations in a course on gravity and also has always emphasized the field theory view point of gravity.C. Weyl-Heisenberg groups and physics:[3] Lie groups. Claredon Press. Batalin.D. I hope this analysis a decade later satisfies him. Haridass gave useful courses on Lie groups and differential geometry respectively. W. Third Edition.M.J. Vol 7. Jackiew in Quantum field theory and Quantum statistics. N. teacher extraordinary. de Azcarraga and Jose M.course work given when I was doing my Ph. Adam Hilger. Foundations of Quantum Physics II (1993-58). The influence of Professor E. 1998. [4] Chern-Simmons terms and cocycles in physics and mathematics . R. Chandrasekhar and Professor C. Sudarshan permeates this paper: he has repeatedly emphasized the importance of Lie groups as the language of physics and always pointed out the formal analogies between classical and quantum equations. Izquierdo.A. Editor Jorgen Kalckar. [2] Quantum theory of Radiation. Jose A. Heitler. India.G. Sharatchandra.N. Woodhouse. Vilkovisky Editors. Chennai. Professor R.J. [5] Geometric quantization. Second Edition. For the Bohr-Rosenfeld analysis:[1] Niels Bohr Collected Works.D. 1994. Professor G.S. For Heisenberg’s conjecture:- 6 . I have benefitted from frequent discussions with Professor H. Oxford. K. I take this opportunity to place on record my gratitude to my teachers there. Claredon Press. A. For cocycles. Elsivier. Simon and Professor N. Lie algebras. Krishnan who have supported me in every possible way. at the Institute of Mathematical Sciences. This paper is a belated offering to Bhagawan Sri Sathya Sai Baba on the occasion of his 75th birthday: Manasa bhajare Guru charanam Dushtara bhavasagara tharanam References These references are indicative and not exhaustive. 1960. Oxford. I would like to thank Mr. C. 349-378. Cambridge University Press. Cohomology and some applications in physics.

Schiff. P. 7 . R. Editor B. 36 (6).M. Feynman Lectures on Gravitation. Phys. A. F.I. [8] Gauss linking number and electromagnetic uncertainty principle. James. A. Editor I.B. For various approaches to get the Einstein theory starting from field theory:[13] See the Foreword (Derivation of the Einstein field equation). D. Cambridge University Press. For (A. E) formalism and loop quantum gravity:[9] A new Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity. Arthur I.S.E.[6] The self-energy of the electron.and 4. [11] 3+1 dimensional Yang-Mills theory as a local theory of evolution of metrics on 3 manifolds. Mc Graw-Hill Kogakusha. Ashtekar and A. Wagner. For Gauss linking number:[7] Topology and physics. W. I. Phys. B. Broda. Rev. hep-th/9701136. 65: 4-13 (1930) Reprinted in Early Quantum Electrodynamics: A source book. Majumdar and H.H. Zeitschrift fur Physik. Sharatchandra. Connes. 1963. Mc Graw-Hill. Let.F.a historical essay. Miller.G. Hatfield. Moringo. 1987. Heisenberg. For possible generalization to 4 dimensions:[16] A gauge field approach to 3. Corichi. q-alg/9511010. [10] Quantum Mechanics.manifold invariants. B. C. For Gelfand-Naimark theorem:[14] Introduction to topology and modern analysis. [12] Loop Quantum Gravity. Third Edition. 1999. 1587-1603./M/93/54. 1995. [15] Noncommutative geometry. Perseus Books. G. Feynman. 491 (2000) 199-202. hep-th/0008077. Rovelli in LIVING REVIEWS (Electronic Journal) gr-qc/9710008. W.S. Simmons. L. Elsivier. Charles Nash in History of Topology.

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