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Geometry and Quantum Mechanics

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gen-ph] 3 Nov 2002

**Geometry and Quantum Mechanics
**

B.G. Sidharth

B.M. Birla Science Centre, Adarshnagar, Hyderabad - 500 063, India

Abstract

Attempts for a geometrical interpretation of Quantum Theory were made, notably the deBroglie-Bohm formulation. This

was further refined by Santamato who invoked Weyl’s geometry.

However these attempts left a number of unanswered questions.

In the present paper we return to these two formulations, in the

context of recent studies invoking fuzzy spacetime and noncommutative geometry. We argue that it is now possible to explain

the earlier shortcomings. At the same time we get an insight

into the geometric origin of the deBroglie wavelength itself as

also the Wilson-Sommerfeld Quantization rule.

1

Introduction

**One of the fruitful approaches to Quantum Mechanics was the so called
**

deBroglie-Bohm hydrodynamical formulation [1], which originated with

Madelung and was developed by Bohm using deBroglie’s pilot wave

ideas. In this formulation, while the initial position coordinates in a

Quantum Mechanical trajectory, are random, the trajectories themselves are determined by classical mechanics. Quantum Mechanics enters through an inexplicable Quantum potential which is again related

to the wave function. This has been a stumbling block in the acceptance of the formulation.

Much later, Santamato further developed the deBroglie-Bohm formulation by relating the mysterious Quantum potential to fundamental

geometric properties, by invoking Weyl’s geometry [2, 3, 4]. The net

result was that the mysterious Quantum effects were shown to be related to the geometric structure of space specifically to the curvature.

Unfortunately, Weyl’s theory itself did not find favour [5]. Apart from

1

once the underlying fuzzyness is recognized. then the above apparent difficulties disappear. 2 The deBroglie-Bohm Formulation and Extensions Let us briefly review the above theory [7]. Let us now briefly review Weyl’s ideas. leads to. it is well known that (3) and (4) lead to the Bohm alternative formulation of Quantum Mechanics. the theory sought to unify electromagnetism with gravitation. but on closer scrutiny. He postulated that in addition to the general coordinate transformations of General Relativity. and argue that infact. two features which do not find favour with physicists. ~v = and h ¯ ~ ∇S m h ¯2 (∇2 R/R) (5) 2m Using the theory of fluid flow. We start with the Schrodinger equation ∂ψ h ¯2 2 ı¯ h =− ∇ ψ+Vψ (1) ∂t 2m In (1).anything else. ∂ρ ~ + ∇ · (ρ~v ) = 0 ∂t (3) 1 ∇2 R 1 ~ 2 V 1 ∂S + (∇S) + 2 − =0 h ¯ ∂t 2m 2m R h ¯ (4) where ρ = R2 . there were also gauge transformations which multiplied all components of the Q≡− 2 . in this geometrical structure the two interactions were actually independent and ad hoc entities as noted by Einstein himself [6]. the substitution ψ = ReıS/¯h (2) where R and S are real functions of ~r and t. In this theory there is a hidden variable namely the definite value of position while the so called Bohm potential Q can be non local. We will now reexamine all this in the light of recent developments in fuzzy spacetime and noncommutative geometry.

We would now like to relate the arbitrary functions Φ of Weyl’s formulation with a noncommutative spacetime geometry. Santamato exploits this latter fact. t) − γ(¯ h2 /m)R = 0. t1 ) = E Z t t0 L (q(t. ∇S. by an arbitrary function of the coordinates. This now leads to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation ∂t S + Hc (q. |gµν | = −1. by invoking an Averaged Least Action Principle I(t0 . ˙ t) = Lc (q. In its modern version. So. He then goes on to obtain the equations of motion like (1). even in a Euclidean space there is a covariant derivative and a non vanishing curvature R. + [V − γ(¯ h2 /m)R]ψ (9) As can be seen from the above. within the context of the deBroglieBohm theory and postulates a Lagrangian given by L(q. the metric tensor is normalized so that its determinant is given by [5]. (7) with respect to the class of all Weyl geometries of space with fixed metric tensor. (8) and thence to the Schrodinger equation (in curvi-linear coordinates) o n √ √ h∂k + Ak ) ψ ı¯ h∂t ψ = (1/2m) [(ı¯ h/ g)∂ı gAı ]g ık (ı¯ ˙ = 0. as was shown 3 . ˙ ω). the line elements would no longer be invariant. q. the Quantum potential Q is now given in terms of the scalar curvature R. (6) where the Γ’s denote the Christofell symbols. while it now transforms as a tensor density of weight minus half. q(t.(2). It must be noted that in Weyl’s geometry. and not as a tensor.metric tensor gµν . etc. This leads to the circumstance that there is now a covariant derivative involving an arbitrary function of coordinates Φµ given by Φσ = Γρρσ . Weyl identified Φµ in (6) with the electromagnetic potential. t). q. ˙ t) + γ(¯ h2 /m)R(q. t)dt ∗ = minimum. ω).

using (5). as a sum of half its anti-symmetric part and half the symmetric part. the circuit integral was over a circle of diameter λ. this formalism gives us the rationale for the deBroglie wave length itself. we will have. λ= 3 Discussion 1. that brings out Weyl’s geometry. At an even more fundamental level. 9]. an otherwise mysterious Quantum Mechanical prescription. This leads us back The line element now becomes (hµν + h ¯ µν now becomes a to the Weyl geometry because the metric tensor h tensor density [8. We would like to stress that Santamato’s treatment via Weyl’s geometry. In other words it is the underlying fuzzyness of space time as expressed by [dxµ . but as a truly geometrical consequence. Let us consider the simplest case of double connectivity.recently. This follows from the noncommutative geometry of space time. ds2 = gµν ddxµ dxν . in the sense that a closed circuit cannot be shrunk to a point within the interval. dxν ] ≈ l2 6= 0 (10) l being a typical length scale ∼ 0(dxµ ). of the deBroglie-Bohm formulation was postulative (Cf. Remembering that Γ in (11) stands for the angular momentum. Because of the noncommutative geometry in (10) space becomes multiply connected. equations 4 . if the interval is of length λ. not as an ad hoc feature. rather than the physical Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Let us write the product dxµ dxν of the line element. ¯ µν )dxµ dxν . Γ≡ Z c ~ · d~r = h mV Z c ~ · d~r = h ∇S I dS = mV πλ = πh (11) whence h (12) mV In (11). and therefore also legitimises Santamato’s postulative approach of extending the deBroglie-Bohm formulation. this is also the origin of the Wilson-Sommerfeld quantization rule. In this case. Equation (12) shows the emergence of the deBroglie wavelength.

now the Compton scale l. It has been shown by the author [12. while the Weyl formulation itself had not found favour for its original motivation. On the other hand. both the position and velocity are not deterministic because of an underlying Brownian process. h ν= m These are the extra features in this stochastic formulation. after many decades. is the bridge between the particle and wave aspects. Perhaps this was the reason why Santamato’s formulation was not taken so seriously. (8). such a Brownian process also eliminates the hidden variable feature of the deBroglie. At the same time it must be pointed out that the supposedly unsatisfactory non local features of the Quantum potential Q become meaningful in the above context at the Compton scale. by considering quantized vortices originating from (11)of the order of the deBroglie. As pointed out by Nottale [14]. Infact at this scale. we have argued from the point of view of the noncommutative geometry (10). so that our space time points are averages over Compton scale intervals (Cf.Bohm formulation. 16] for a dis5 . This immediately brings us back to the fuzzy noncommutative geometry (10).(7). However in this former case. In this formulation the diffusion constant of the theory has to be identified with. It is well known that the so called Nelsonian stochastic process resembles the deBroglie-Bohm formulation. which are removed by the fact that due to the Uncertainty Principle we cannot go down to arbitrarily small space time intervals. which. 11]. is now coming to be recognized in the context of Quantum Superstring theory and Quantum Gravity. It may be pointed out that more recently we have been led back to the background Quantum vaccuum and the underlying Zero Point Field. within which indeed we have exactly such non local effects [13]. rather than the Quantum potential. that both the similar approaches infact can be unified for relativistic velocities. now christened dark energy by the observation of the cosmological constant implied by the accelerated expansion of the universe [7] and it is this ZPF which provides the Brownian process of the stochastic theory. as is implied in the above considerations in the form of a quantized vortex or fuzzy space time. Interestingly it has been argued by Enz [15] that a particle extension. with very similar equations [10. 2. there is zitterbewegung. (9)). which also appears in the equations. reminiscent of deBroglie’s picture of a particle as an oscillator.[7. 7]. Originally Dirac had interpreted the zitterbewegung oscillations as unphysical.

2001. [5] P.ref. 1969. 1965. 27 (2). New Delhi. Santamato. Nova Science Publishers. Math. 1985. [6] A. [2] E. 29 (2). 93-94. Oxford & IBH. Sidharth. 245ff.G. Santamato.[7]). Rae. Bristol. 6 . As we have seen the phase S is directly related to the determinant of |g| infact we have q ~ = ∇(ln ~ |g| ∇S Further in the above formulation (Cf. 3. Finally we observe that a complete geometrification of Quantum Theory is now possible. [3] E. 2615ff. J. Phys. 4. Via equation (2) we have introduced in the wave function the (mass) density ρ and the phase S of the wave function ψ. 216ff. Phys.12 and references therein. Annales de la Foundation Louis de Broglie.I. [7] B.D.G. ”Quantum Mechanics”. Santamato. IOP Publishing. are related to the basic metrical properties of spacetime.Rev. Sidharth. Bergmann. ”Introduction to the Theory of Relativity”. Einstein.D 32 (10). pp. 1984.M.222ff. pp. It is also interesting to note that Santamato’s tying up of the Quantum potential with the curvature R has been interpreted as being the result of cosmic fluctuations [17]. [4] E. ”Meaning of Relativity”. this being a special case of a more general but identical earlier result of the author [18. 1984.Rev.ref. p. 2002.New Delhi.G. Prentice-Hall.[2]) infact we have ~ Φı = ∇(lnρ) Thus the mass and gravitational and electromagnetic forces (as also the strong and electroweak interactions Cf. 2477ff.333ff. References [1] A. [8] B. New York. 19]. 25 (8).cussion). ”Chaotic Universe: From the Planck to the Hubble Scale”. Phys.

J.G. [11] L. World Scientific. No. October 2002. Solitons and Fractals. Foundation of Physics Letters. p.G. 173-178. Chaos. [14] L.4.Mod. Physical Review. John Wiley & Sons.[9] B. Spin and Non-Commutativity”. pp. xxx. [13] S.150. 2000.physics/0210109.619ff.Phys. [18] B.. pp2599ff. Sidharth. ”Extension.Phys. 3.of Mod. New York. 1994.A. Inaba. Paris. Nelson. [15] U. [19] B. 4.2965-73. 1993. ”Cosmology of Fluctuations”. (In Press).131-144.G. Solitons and Fractals. 7 . Enz in ”Deductions in Microphysics”. [10] E. Sidharth. pp. [16] B.A. Int.. Sidharth. Vol. 2001. p. 1993.312. Weinberg. 16(17). ”Gravitation and Cosmology”. ”Fractal Space-Time and Microphysics:Towards a Theory of Scale Relativity”. 361-388.G. to appear in Chaos.10791085. Chaos. Int. Sidharth. Nottale. Solitons & Fractals. Fondation Louis deBroglie. 1993. [17] M.G. 1972. October 1966. p. Singapore.J. [12] B. Sidharth. 12(1). 13(15). Nottale.

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