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DEFINICINDELADERIVADA.

La derivada de la funcin en un punto equivale a la pendiente de la recta tangente.


Definida de manera informal, la derivada de una funcin en un punto es el valor de
lapendientedelarectatangenteendichopunto.Lapendienteestdadaporlatangente
delnguloqueformalarectatangentealacurva(funcin)conelejedelasabscisas,en
esepunto.Laderivadadeunafuncinmideelcoeficientedevariacindedichafuncin.
Es decir,provee una formulacin matemtica de la nocin del coeficiente de cambio. El
coeficiente de cambio indica lo rpido que crece (o decrece) una funcin en un punto
(razndecambiopromedio)respectodelejedeunplanocartesianodedosdimensiones

Definicin. Sea una funcin definida en un intervalo abierto que contiene a a. La


derivada de en a, denotada por (a), est dada por

f (a) = Lm
h0

f (a + h) f (a)
, si
h

estelmiteexiste.
Si este lmite existe, decimos que es diferenciable en a. Encontrar la derivada se llama
derivacin;lapartedeclculoasociadaconladerivadasellamaclculodiferencial.
Ladiferenciabilidadimplicacontinuidad.Siunacurvatienetangenteenunpunto,lacurva
nopuededarunsaltoenesepunto.Laformulacinprecisadeestehechoesunteorema
importante.
Teorema.Siexiste(a),entoncesescontinuaena.
Unafuncinesderivableenunintervaloabierto(a,b)siloesentodoslosnmeroscde
(a, b). Tambin se considerarn funciones que son derivables en un intervalo infinito
(,a),(a,)obien( , ).
Paraintervaloscerradosusaremoslasiguientedefinicin.

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Definicin. Una funcin es derivable en un intervalo cerrado [a , b], si lo es en el


intervalo(a,b)yloslmites lim+
h 0

f (a + h) f (a )
f (a + h) f (a )
lim
existen.
h0
h
h

Loslmitesporladerechayporlaizquierdaenladefinicinanterior,sellamanderivada
porladerechayderivadaporlaizquierdadeenayb,respectivamente.
Laderivadadeunafuncinenintervalosdelaforma[a,b),[a,),(a,b]obien(,b]se
defineusandoloslmitesporladerechaoporlaizquierdaenunodelospuntosextremos.
Siestdefinidaenunintervaloabiertoquecontieneaa,entonces(a)existesiyslosi
lasderivadasporladerechayporlaizquierdaenaexistenysoniguales.
El inverso del primer teorema. Es falso. Si una funcin es continua en c, no se
siguequetengaderivadaenc.Estoseveconfacilidadexaminandolafuncin(x)=|x|
en el origen. Esta funcin, por cierto, es continua en cero, pero no tiene derivada ah.
(Demostracinacargodellector)
Elargumentorecinpresentadodemuestraqueencualquierpuntoenelquela
grfica de tiene un pico o presenta una esquina aguda, es continua, pero no
diferenciable.
Suponiendo que la funcin es derivable en a, se puede enunciar la siguiente
definicin.
Definicin.Rectatangente:Lapendientedelarectatangentealagrficadeenelpunto
(a,(a))es(a).
Derivadacomounafuncin
Si es derivable para todo x en un intervalo entonces, asociando a cada x el
nmero(x),seobtieneunafuncinllamadaderivadadef.Elvalorde,enxest
dadoporelsiguientelmite. f ( x) = lim

x 0

f(x + x ) f(x)
,(Lmiteunilateral),nteseque
x

elnmeroxesfijo,peroarbitrarioyellmitesetomahaciendotender x acero.Derivar
(x)oencontrarladerivadade(x)significadeterminar(x).
Enlossiguientesejerciciossedeterminarlaprimeraderivadapordefinicin,ola
pendientedelarectatangentealacurvaenunpuntodado.

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EjerciciosResueltos:

1) y = 5 x f ( x) = 5 x

f ( x)
f ( x)
f ( x)
f ( x)

5 x + x 5 x
f ( x + x) f ( x)
f ( x) = Lm
x 0
x 0
x
x
5 x + x x 0
IND
= Lm
=
x 0
x
0
5 x + x x x + x + x
= Lm
.
x 0
x
x + x + x

5( x + x x)
5 x
= Lm
=
x 0
x x + x + x
x x + x + x
1
5
= 5 Lm
= f ( x) =
x 0
x + x + x
2 x

f ( x) = Lm

2) f (x) = x2

( x +2xx+(x) ) x lim = ( 2xx+(x) )


x2 0
= ind lim =

x0
x0
x0
x
0
x
x
x( 2x +x)
lim =
= lim( 2x +x) = 2x f (x) = 2x
x0
x0
x
( x+x)
lim =

3) f ( x) = x + 5
x + x + 5 x + 5 0
= ind
x0
x
0
x + x + 5 x + 5 x + x + 5 + x + 5
f ( x) = lim

x0
x

x + x + 5 + x + 5
( x + x + 5) ( x + 5) f ( x) = lim x + x + 5 x 5
f ( x) = lim
x0
x0
x x + x + 5 + x + 5
x x + x + 5 + x + 5

1
1
f ( x) = lim
f ( x) =
x0

2 x+5
x + x + 5 + x + 5

f ( x) = lim

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4) f (x) = x3 4x
(x + x)3 4(x + x) (x3 4x) 0
= ind
x0
x
0
3
2
2
3
x + 3x x + 3x (x) + (x) 4x 4x x3 + 4x

f (x) = Lm

x0
x
3x2x + 3x (x)2 + (x)3 4x
x(3x2 + 3x (x) + (x)2 4)
f (x) = Lm
f (x) = Lm
x0
x0
x
x
f (x) = Lm(3x2 + 3x (x) + (x)2 4) f (x) = 3x2 4
f (x) = Lm

x0

5) f (x) =

2x 3
3x + 4

( 2x + 2x 3) ( 2x 3) = 0 ind
x0 ( 3x + 3x + 4)
( 3x + 4) 0
( 3x + 4) [ 2x + 2x 3] ( 3x + 3x + 4) ( 2x 3)
f (x) = Lm
x0
( 3x + 3x + 4) ( 3x + 4)

f (x) = Lm

6x2 + 6xx 9x + 8x + 8x 12 6x2 + 9x 6xx + 9x 8x + 12


x0
( 3x +3x + 4) ( 3x + 4)

f (x) = Lm

6x2 + 6xx 9x + 8x + 8x 12 6x2 + 9x 6xx + 9x 8x + 12


x0
x ( 3x + 3x + 4) ( 3x + 4)

f (x) = Lm

17 x
17
f (x) = Lm
x0 x ( 3x + 3x + 4) ( 3x + 4)
x0 ( 3x + 3x + 4) ( 3x + 4)

f (x) = Lm
f (x) =

17

( 3x + 4)

6) f ( x) = 3 2 x 2
3 2( x + x) 2 (3 2 x 2 ) 0
=
f ( x) = lim
x 0
x
0
2
2
4 xx 2(x) 2
3 2 x 4 xx 2(x) 3 + 2 x 2
f ( x) = lim
f ( x) = lim
x 0
x 0

x
x
x(4 x 2x)
f ( x) = lim (4 x 2x) f ( x) 4 x
f ( x) = lim
x 0
x 0
x

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7) f ( x ) =

1
3 x

1
1

3 ( x + x) 3 x 0
f ( x ) = lim
=
x 0
x
0
(3 x ) (3 x x )
3 x 3 + x + x
f ( x ) = lim
f ( x ) = lim

x 0 x (3 x x )(3 x )
x 0 x (3 x x )(3 x )

x 0 x (3 x x )(3 x )
1
1
f ( x ) = lim
f ( x ) =
x 0 (3 x x )(3 x )
(3 x ) 2
1
8) f ( x ) =
2x +1
1
1

2 x + 1 (2 x + 2x + 1)
2( x + x ) + 1 2 x + 1 0
= f ( x ) = lim
f ( x ) = lim
x 0
x 0 x (2 x + 2 x + 1)(2 x + 1)
x
0
f ( x ) = lim

2 x
2 x + 1 2 x 2 x 1)
f ( x ) = lim
x 0 x (2 x + 2 x + 1)(2 x + 1)
x 0 x (2 x + 2 x + 1)(2 x + 1)
2
2
f ( x ) = lim
f ( x ) =
x 0 (2 x + 2 x + 1)( 2 x + 1)
(2 x + 1) 2
f ( x ) = lim

9) f (x) = 2x +1
f (x) = lim
x0

f (x) = lim

2(x +x) +1 2x +1 0
= ind
x
0

x0

f (x) = lim
x0

) f (x) = lim

2x + 2x +1 2x 1

x 2x + 2x +1+ 2x +1

2x + 2x +1+ 2x +1

( 2x + 2x +1) ( 2x +1)

2x + 2x +1+ 2x +1

x 2x + 2x +1+ 2x +1

x0

f (x) = lim

)(

2x + 2x +1 2x +1

x0

f (x) = lim

f (x) =

x0

2x

x 2x + 2x +1+ 2x +1
2

2x +1+ 2x +1

f (x) =

1
2x +1

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1
x +1
1
1
1 0

f (x) = lim
= ind
x0 x
x +x +1 x +1 0

10) f (x) =

)(
)(

x +1 x +x +1
x +1 x +x +1
f (x) = lim
x0 x x +x +1 x +1
x0
x x +x +1 x +1

f (x) = lim
f (x) = lim

x0

f (x) = lim

x0

f (x) = lim

x0

f (x) = lim

x0

f (x) = lim

x0

f (x) = lim

x0

x
x
x

(
(
(

( x +1) ( x +x +1)

)(

x +x +1 x +1

)(

)
)

x +1 + x +x +1

)(

x +x +1 x +1

x +1 + x +x +1

)(

x +x +1 x +1

x +1 + x +x +1

)(

x +1 x +1
1

) (

x +1 + x +1

x +1 2

x +1 +

x +1 + x +x +1

x +1 x x 1
x +x +1 x +1

)
x +x +1)

x +1 + x +x +1

x +1

f (x) =

( x +1) 2(

x +1

f (x) =

2 (x +1)3

11) f (x) = 3 x 2
f ( x) = Lm
x0

x + x 2
x

x2

0
= ind
0

3 ( x + x 2) 3 x 2 3 ( x +x 2)2 + 3 ( x +x 2) 3 x 2 + 3 ( x 2)2

f ( x) = Lm
x0
2
2
x 3 ( x +x 2) + 3 ( x +x 2) 3 x 2 + 3 ( x 2)

f ( x) = Lm
x0

(( x + x 2))

( x 2)

2
2
x 3 ( x +x 2) + 3 ( x +x 2) 3 x 2 + 3 ( x 2)

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x + x 2 x + 2

f ( x) = Lm

2
2
x 3 ( x + x 2 ) + 3 ( x + x 2 ) 3 x 2 + 3 ( x 2 )

1
f ( x) = Lm
x 0
2
2
3
x + x 2 ) + 3 ( x + x 2 ) 3 x 2 + 3 ( x 2 )
(

1
1
f ( x) =
f ( x) =
2
3 ( x 2 )2 + 3 ( x 2 ) 3 ( x 2) + 3 ( x 2 )2
3 3 ( x 2)

x 0

12) f ( x) =

x
x3

1
1

x + x
x 0
1
x
f ( x) =
f ( x) =
f ( x) = Lm
=
x 0
x
0
x x
x

ind

x x + x
( x x + x ) x + x + x

x 0
x 0
x x + x x x + x + x
1
x x x
f ( x) = Lm
f ( x) = Lm
x 0
x 0 x
x + x + ( x + x) x
x x x + x + ( x + x ) x
1
1
1
f ( x) =
f ( x) =
f ( x) =
3
3
x x+x x
2 x3
x + x
f ( x) = Lm

x x + x
x

f ( x) = Lm

1
+ x
x
1
0
1
f ( x ) = Lm
+ x + x x = ind
x 0
x
x + x
0

13) f ( x ) =

x + ( x + x ) x ( x + x ) x
( x + x )
2

f ( x ) = L m

x 0

(x

+ x )

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f ( x) = Lm

x + ( x 2 + 2 xx + x 2 ) x x x x 3 x 2 x

( x + x ) x

x 0

x + x 3 2 x 2 x + xx 2 x x x 3 x 2 x
f ( x) = Lm
x 0
( x + x ) x
x x 2 + x 1
x x + xx x

f ( x) = Lm
f ( x) = Lm
x 0 x x ( x + x )
x 0 x x ( x + x )

2
x 1
1
f ( x) =
f
x
(
)
1

x2
x2
2

14) f ( x) =

f ( x ) = L m

x 0

f ( x ) = L m

x 0

f ( x ) = L m

x 0

f ( x ) = L m

x 0

2x
x 1

2( x + x)

x + x 1
x

2x
x 1

2( x + x)

x + x 1
x

2x
x 1

0
0

in d

2( x + x)
x + x 1

2x
x 1

2( x + x)
+
x + x 1

2x
x 1

2( x + x)
2x

x + x 1
x 1
2( x + x)
2x
x
+

x 1
x + x 1
2 ( x + x ) ( x 1) 2 x ( x + x 1 )
( x + x 1 ) ( x 1)

2( x + x)
+
x + x 1

2x

x 1

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f ( x) = Lm

2 x 2 2 x + 2 x x 2x 2 x 2 2 x x + 2 x
( x + x 1) ( x 1)

2( x + x)
2x
+
x

x 1
x + x 1
2x
( x + x 1) ( x 1)
f ( x) = Lm
x 0
2( x + x)
2x
+
x

x 1
x + x 1
2/ x/
f ( x) = Lm
x 0
2( x + x)
2x
+
/ x( x + x 1)( x 1)

x 1
x + x 1
2
f ( x) = Lm
x 0
2( x + x)
2x
( x + x 1) ( x 1)
+

x 1
x + x 1
2
2
f ( x) = Lm
f ( x) = Lm
x 0
x 0
2x
2x
2x
2
2
+
2
( x 1)

( x 1)
x 1
x 1
x 1
1
1
f ( x) =
f ( x) =
4
3
2 x ( x 1)
(2 x)( x 1)
x 1
x
15) f (x) =
1 2x
1 x +x
x 0

f (x) = lim
= ind
x0 x 1 2( x +x) 1 2x

0
x 0

x 2x2 +x 2xx) ( x 2x2 2xx)


(
1 ( x +x)(1 2x) (1 2x 2x)( x)
f (x) = lim
= lim
x0 x
x0
x (1 2x 2x)(1 2x)
(1 2x 2x)(1 2x)
x 2x2 +x 2xx x + 2x2 + 2xx

f (x) = lim
x0
x (1 2x 2x) (1 2x)

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x
1
1
f (x) = lim
f (x) =
2
x0 x(1 2x 2x)(1 2x)
x0 (1 2x 2x)(1 2x)
(12x)

f (x) = lim

16) f ( x) = x3 4x

( x + x)

4( x + x) x3 + 4x 0
f ( x) = Lm
=
ind
x0
x
0
x3 + 3x2x + 3x x2 + x3 4x 4x x3 + 4x
f ( x) = Lm
x0
x
/x 3x2 + 3x x + x2 4
3x2x + 3x x2 + x3 4x
f ( x) = Lm
f ( x) = Lm
x0
x0
x
/x/
f ( x) = Lm 3x2 + 3x x + x2 4 f ( x) = 3x2 4
x0

4
x3
x2 + 2 x +
3
3
( x + x)3
2
( x + x) + 2 ( x + x) +

f ( x) = Lm
x0
x

17) f ( x) =

4 x3
4
2
+ x 2x
3 3
3

0
= Ind
0

x3
( x3 + 3x2x + 3x (x)2 +x3 )
( x2 + 2xx + (x)2 ) + 2x + 2x + x2 2x
3
3
f ( x) = Lm
x0
x
3
x3 2
x3 2
2 (x)
2
2
+ x x + x(x) +
x 2x x(x) +2x+ 2x + x 2x
3
3
3
f (x) = Lm
x0
x
x2 x + x(x)2 2x x (x)2 + 2x
f (x) = Lm
x0
x

/x/ x2 + x x 2x x + 2
f (x) = Lm
f (x) = x2 2x + 2
x0
x/

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(1+ x)
18) f (x) =

(1+ x)
f (x) = lim
x0

1 0
x( x + 2)
x2 + 2x

= ind f (x) = lim


f (x) = lim
f (x) = lim( x + 2) = 2
x0
x0
x0
0
x
x
x
2

19) f ( x ) = Sen ( x )
0
Sen ( x + x ) Sen x
=
ind
x 0
x
0
( Cos ( x ) Sen ( x ) + Sen ( x ) Cos ( x ) ) Sen x
= Lm
x 0
x
Cos ( x ) Sen ( x ) + Sen ( x )Cos ( x ) Sen x
= Lm
x 0
x
( Cos ( x ) Sen ( x ) ) + Sen x [Cos ( x ) 1]
= Lm
x 0
x
Sen ( x ) [Cos ( x ) 1]
Co s ( x ) Sen ( x )
= Lm
+ Lm
x 0
x 0
x
x
[Cos ( x ) 1]
Sen ( x )
= Cos x Lm
+ Sen x Lm
x 0
x 0
x
x
[1 Cos ( x ) ] = 0
Sen ( x )
conocemos :
Lm
=1
; Lm
x 0
x 0
x
x
[1 Cos ( x ) ] f ( x ) = Cos x
Sen ( x )
= Cos x Lm
Sen x Lm
x 0
x 0
x
x

f ( x ) = Lm
f ( x )
f ( x )
f ( x )
f ( x )
f ( x )
Pero
f ( x )

20) f ( x ) = Cos x
Cos ( x + x ) Cos x
0
=
ind
x 0
x
0
Cos x Cos ( x ) Sen x Sen ( x ) Cos x
f ( x ) = Lm
x 0
x
Cos x Cos ( x ) Cos x Sen x Sen ( x )

f ( x ) = Lm
x 0
x
Cos x [Cos ( x ) 1] Sen x Sen ( x )
f ( x ) = Lm
x 0
x
f ( x ) = Lm

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Cos x [Cos (x) 1]

Sen x Sen (x)


x 0
x0
x
x
[Cos (x) 1] Sen x Lm Sen (x)
f ( x) = Cos x Lm
x 0
x0
x
x
[1 Cos x] Sen x Lm Sen (x)
f ( x) = Cos x Lm
x 0
x0

x
x
[1 Cos x] = 0 ; Lm Sen (x) = 1 f ( x) = Sen x
Conociendo : Lm
x0
x0
x
x
Nota : Lm Sen x = 0
LmCos x = 1
f ( x) = Lm

x 0

Lm

x 0

21) f ( x) = tg x
f ( x) = Lm
x0

tg(x + x) tg ( x) 0
=
ind;
x
0

identidad : tg(a + b) =

tg a + tgb
1 tg a tgb

(tg x + tg (x)) tg x[1 tg x tg( x)]


tg x + tg x
tg(x)
(1 tg x tg (x))
1 tg xtg x
f ( x) = Lm
f ( x) = Lm
x0
x0
x
x
2
tg (x) 1 tg x
2
tg
/ x + tg (x) tg
/ x + tg x tg (x)

f (x) = Lm
f ( x) = Lm
x0
x0 x [1 tg x tg (x)]
x[1 tg x tg (x)]

tg (x)

f ( x) = 1 tg 2 ( x) Lm
x 0 x [1 tg ( x) tg ( x ) ]
tg (x)
1
Lm
x 0
x x0 1 tg ( x) tg (x)
Sen (x)
Sen (x)
Cos (x)
f ( x) = 1 tg 2 ( x) Lm
f ( x) = 1 tg 2 ( x) Lm
x 0
x 0 x Cos ( x)
x
Sen (x)
1
Lm
f ( x) = 1 tg 2 ( x)
f ( x) = 1 tg 2 ( x) Lm
0
x 0

x
Cos x
f ( x) = 1 tg 2 ( x) Lm

Sec 2 x = 1 tg 2 ( x)

f ( x) = Sec 2 x

12
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UNIVERSIDAD POLITCTICA
TERRITORIAL
JOS ANTONIO ANZOTEGUI
MATEMTICAS PARA INGENIEROS

22) f ( x) = 2x

( 2)
f ( x) = lim

( 2)
0
= ind
x
0

x +x

x 0

( 2) ( 2) ( 2)
f ( x) = lim
x

f ( x) = ( 2)

x
x
x
f ( x) = ( 2) (1) f ( x) = ( 2)
x 0

( 2)
lim

x 0

( 2)
pero : lim

x0

=1

23) f ( x) = e x
f ( x) = Lm

x x
x
ex
0
e e e
ind f ( x) = Lm
=
x 0
x
0
x

x + x

x 0

f ( x) = e Lm
x 0
x

1
x

Pero :

Lm
x 0

1
= 1 f ( x) = e x
x

24) f ( x) = Log a ( x)
f ( x ) = L m

x 0

f ( x) = Lm
x0

1
x

Log a ( x + x) Log a x
0
=
x
0

in d

1
( x +x)
Log a 1+ ; x > 0
Log a x f ( x) = Lm
x0 x

x
1

x x
x
f ( x) = Log a Lm 1 + Cambio :t = x = tx; si x = 0 t = 0
x0
x
x
1
tx

f ( x) = Log a Lm [1 + t ] f ( x) = Log a Lm
t 0
t 0

((1 + t ) )
1
t

1
x

1
1
1
1
f ( x) = Log a Lm (1 + t )t f ( x) = Log a Lm(1 + t )t
t 0
t 0 x
x
1
1
Pero : Lm(1 + t ) t = e f ( x) = Loga (e)
t 0
x

13
http://www.damasorojas.com.veDr.DMASOROJAS

UNIVERSIDAD POLITCTICA
TERRITORIAL
JOS ANTONIO ANZOTEGUI
MATEMTICAS PARA INGENIEROS

25) f (x) = Ln (ax)


Lna(x +x) Ln (ax) 0
f (x) = Lm
=
x0
x
0
a(x + x)
(x + x)
x
Ln
Ln
Ln
x
1 + x
ax

f (x) = Lm
f (x) = Lm
f (x) = Lm
x0
x0
x0
x
x
x
1

1
x
x x

f (x) = Lm Ln (1 + ) f (x) = Lm Ln 1 +
x0 x
x0
x

x
Cambio t =
x = tx x 0 t 0
x
1
1
1
1
1
tx
t
f (x) = LmLn 1 + t f (x) = Lm Ln 1 + t f (x) = LnLm 1 + t t
t 0
t 0 x
x t0
1
1
1
Pero Lm 1 + t t = e f (x) = Ln(e) f (x) =
t 0
x
x

( )

DMASOROJAS
AGOSTO2013

14
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