The Revolution | Philippines | Military

Chapter 11

THE REVOLUTION:
SECOND PHASE
Angeles, Rica (BEEd) Alo a, Alonica (ABMC) Capinpin, Edward (ABMC) Ramos, Joana Elain (BEEd)

Aguinaldo deposited the

P400,000 he received from Primo de Rivera in 2 Hong Kong banks. Pratt persuaded Aguinaldo to cooperate with Commodore George Dewey who was about to sail to Manila to destroy the Spain, and Dewey promptly sank the Spanish warship. Governor General Basilio Augustin made desperate attempts to win over the Filipino Spanish side.

THE RELIEF ON PRIMO RIVERA
The succeeding Liberal Party sent General Basilio Augustin to the Philippines as Primo Rivera s successor. April 8, 1898 Gen. Augustin arrived in Manila and the following day Primo de Rivera turned over the reins of the Philippine Government successor.

AMERICAN DESIGNS ON THE PHILIPPINES
The Cuban revolution had drawn the United States to the side of Cuban rebels, for American economic interests in the island were paramount. Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. One of the influential American, wished that war between Spain and United States should break out in order to expand the navy. February 25, 1898, Roosevelt cabled Dewey, now Commander of the Squadron, to make Hong Kong his base of operations

THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR
In the face of the Philippines and Cuban revolutions, Spain could not antagonize the United States. Depuy de Lome - the Spain s ambassador to the U.S, who wrote a friend in Havana, Cuba in January 1898, stating that President William McKinley was weakling and a low politician. (Letter was stolen) The result of which that the publication was that the American who had been ousted to anger by stories of alleged Spanish brutalities and mistreatment of American citizens in Cuba demanded war against Spain.

Roosevelt, seeing in his accident as excuse to goad his government to war, said: I would give anything if President McKinley would order the fleet to Havana harbor tomorrow. The Maine was sunk by an act of treachery on the part of the Spaniards

THE BATTLE IN MANILA BAY
With the receipt of secretary Long s cable announcing the declaration of war with Spain, Dewey sailed from Mirs Bay, near Hong Kong for the Philippines. The naval battle that followed was one sided; in fact it was a massacre. News of the victory of Dewey in Manila Bay electrified the Americans. With the single event, the United States found herself enmeshed in the coils of the world politics and signalized her entrance into the Days of Empire

AGUINALDO IN SINGAPORE
Aguinaldo and his companion ere following the trend of events on the other side of the Pacific. (Opportunity to oust the Spaniards in the Philippines) Howard Bray Englishman of long residence in the Philippines, contacted Aguinaldo and told him that the American consul, E. Spence Pratt, wanted to have an interview with him. Aguinaldo expressed his eagerness to return to the Philippines to lead once more the Filipinos in the fight against the Spaniards.

AGUINALDO AND CONSUL WILDMAN
Rounselville Wildman - American consul at Hong Kong promptly met him and informed him that Dewey had left instruction to make arrangements for Aguinaldo s return. Wildman suggested that upon his return to the Philippines, Aguinaldo should establish a government similar to the U.S.

AGUINALDO AND THE HONG KONG JUNTA
The Filipino composed the Hong Kong Junta met on May 4 to discuss the steps to be taken in the face of new developments. After of exchange in opinions the Junta unanimously decided that Aguinaldo should return to the Philippines to lead the Filipinos against Spaniards.

AGUINALDO RETURNS
Aguinaldo was convinced of the wisdom of Junta s decision and so he prepared for his return to the Philippines. Dewey launch took him to Olympia where he was given honors due a general. Aguinaldo said that United States need no colonies and that there were no doubts that Unites States will recognize Philippine independence.

RENEWAL OF THE STRUGGLE
A number of Filipino volunteers in the Spanish army defected to the Filipino forces. Aguinaldo ordered them to occupy the Dalahikan, the Cavite shipyard, to prevent the enemy from occupying it. Arms were secured from the captain of the American warship Petrel and distributed among the large number of Filipinos coming in to offer their loyalty and service to Aguinaldo.

SPANISH ATTEMPTS TO WIN OVER FILIPINOS
Demoralizing was the effect of Aguinaldo s return. Governor General Augustin found himself betrayed by a Filipino soldier who volunteered to Spanish army. To Counteract, Some Spaniards with the consent and perhaps inspiration of Governor-General, circulated a handbill entitled Viva la Autonomia (Salvation of the Unity

of its local and central government)

Pedro Paterno Negotiator of Truce of Biyak na Bato was behind the circular. His purpose of calling the Consultative Assembly was to win over to his side the wealthy and influential segment of the Filipinos, (mestizos) and make it appear that they had the welfare of Filipino at heart.

THE SIEGE OF MANILA

Intramuros or Walled City City of Manila Arrabales or Suburbs district outside Manila Dewey invaded or bombarded the city, where thousands of Spaniard had sought refuge. The Filipino forces under Aguinaldo besieged the city in attempt to starve out the enemies within its walls. To make siege effective, Aguinaldo cut off the city s food and water supply which these Spaniards as well as Filipinos and Alien suffered Hunger and thirst. June 6 Aguinaldo offered Gov. Gen. Augustin honourable surrender which stubbornly refused to accept surrender, for in Spanish Code of honor surrender was non-existenent. With this refusal, Aguinaldo continued to siege in belief that hunger and thirst would finally compel the governor to give up the struggle

SPANISH AND AMERICAN AGREEMENT
General Thomas Anderson 1st American Reinforcement General Francis Green 2nd American Reinforcement Dewy thought that the surrender of Manila could be affected with the use of arms. Started negotiating with Augustin, through a Belgian consul, André, regarding the surrender of Manila. But when the Peninsular Governor heard the plan he appoint General Fermin Jaudenes in his stead. Dewey went so far as to promise to hold back the Filipino troops while the mock battle was being enacted.

BEGINNING OF FILIPINO- AMERICAN RIFT
Dewey s policy not provoke an armed conflict with the Spaniards until after the arrival of the reinforcements. General Wesley Merritt decided that the offensive against Manila should be conducted along the bay side. Aguinaldo demanded that he request for the evacuation be made writing. With the verbal promise, Aguinaldo withdrew his troops to give way to the Americans. (Greene didn't honor this words General Artemio Ricarte expressed his doubts as to American intentions and warned Aguinaldo to be careful because it seems that Americans want to fool us

THE MOCK BATTLE IN MANILA
Dewey and Merritt issued a joint ultimatum to Jaudanes telling him to evacuate the non combatants to safe places as the American land and naval forces would start the operations against the defences of Manila The Filipino troops, armed to the teeth position themselves on the right flank of General Arthur MacArthur ready to rush into the fray despite request from General Anderson not to advance his troops when attack commenced.

TERMS OF CAPITULATION
General Greene rushed into Bagumbayan open field when he saw white flags. The terms of Capitulation was agreed upon both sides. The Spanish authorities agreed to surrender the Spanish troops and the Filipino volunteers found inside the walled city. Americans agreed to safeguard the city, its inhabitants, churches and religious workship. Both representative of each party formally signed the terms of surrender.

THE PROTOCOL PEACE
Secretary of State Day submitted to the representative of Spain, Jules Cambon, the French ambassador to Washington, a protocol with provided for the appointment of not more than 5 commissioners on each side to discuss the Treaty of Peace. Spain agreed to sign this terms. Pres. McKinley issued a proclamation directing that military operation against enemy be suspended. Merritt didn t received any proclamation that mock battle of Manila would have been fought and Spanish honor would have been saved had not Dewey cut the cable earlier.

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