Topicl0

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Electromagnetism

MaPnetic fields due to currents When viewed from the bottom:

lons straisht conductins wire

Flat circular coil

Solenoid

Note that direction of B-field is always out of North and into South -exceptwithin a bar magnet solenoid. Within a bar magnet / solenoid, the direction ofthe B-field is from South to North!

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Force on a current-carrying conductor

Any current-carrying conductor which is placed in a magnetic field will experience a force as long as the current direction is not parallel to the field dirCclion.
Examples:

r&

Direction of torce can be determined by Fleminq's Left Hand Rule Magnitude offorce can be determined by equation:

Note: To determine 8"!, you have to resolve the B field into 2 components (tf djrection of B is not already perpendicular to the conductor):

(1) 12)

along the conductor, and

perpendicularto the conductor-this is the 8,we want.

gcss!!-qab.!!e

To maintain the equilibrium of the wire frame, the P.inciples of Moments should be applied

to determine the unknown quantity.
Sum ofanticlockwise moments = Som of clockwise moments (about pivot at Xy)

F><\=n's:t2

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Force adine on a charge movinq in a masnetic

field

Step 1: Determine the current due to the motion ofthe charge . if charge is positive, current is ln direction of motion;

.

if charge is negative, current is in direction opposite to that of motion

!!Cp.Z: Using Fleming's Left Hand Rule to determine the direction ofthe force acting on the charge. {Maenitude ofthe force can be found using Fs : 6qu)

{

'.4.
.

Step 3: ll you are asked to sketch the subsequent movement of the charges, note that as long as it remains within the uniform magnetic field, it will move in a circular oath.

Direction of circular path is between directions of
Force between 2 current-carving conductors

FB

and v.

Currents in same direction

Currents in opoosite directions

.
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wires experience

.

wires experience repulsion

attraction towards each other

from each other

lf the scenario is such that the B-fields or 2 or more current-carrving conductors act on another current-carrying conductor, you willhave to: (1) considerthe resultant B field at the site ofthe conductoryou are interested in; (2) then use Fleming's Left Hand RuleNote: the B-field due to the conductor you're interested in should not be qq!5idered,
ExamBle
B-field due to Z Resultant 8-field at X B-fi€ld due

toY

,'

Resultant force on X

UJ

Force by Z on X

Y&

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