MaPnetic fields due to currents When viewed from the bottom:

lons straisht conductins wire

Flat circular coil


Note that direction of B-field is always out of North and into South -exceptwithin a bar magnet solenoid. Within a bar magnet / solenoid, the direction ofthe B-field is from South to North!



Force on a current-carrying conductor

Any current-carrying conductor which is placed in a magnetic field will experience a force as long as the current direction is not parallel to the field dirCclion.


Direction of torce can be determined by Fleminq's Left Hand Rule Magnitude offorce can be determined by equation:

Note: To determine 8"!, you have to resolve the B field into 2 components (tf djrection of B is not already perpendicular to the conductor):

(1) 12)

along the conductor, and

perpendicularto the conductor-this is the 8,we want.


To maintain the equilibrium of the wire frame, the P.inciples of Moments should be applied

to determine the unknown quantity.
Sum ofanticlockwise moments = Som of clockwise moments (about pivot at Xy)



Force adine on a charge movinq in a masnetic


Step 1: Determine the current due to the motion ofthe charge . if charge is positive, current is ln direction of motion;


if charge is negative, current is in direction opposite to that of motion

!!Cp.Z: Using Fleming's Left Hand Rule to determine the direction ofthe force acting on the charge. {Maenitude ofthe force can be found using Fs : 6qu)



Step 3: ll you are asked to sketch the subsequent movement of the charges, note that as long as it remains within the uniform magnetic field, it will move in a circular oath.

Direction of circular path is between directions of
Force between 2 current-carving conductors


and v.

Currents in same direction

Currents in opoosite directions


wires experience


wires experience repulsion

attraction towards each other

from each other

lf the scenario is such that the B-fields or 2 or more current-carrving conductors act on another current-carrying conductor, you willhave to: (1) considerthe resultant B field at the site ofthe conductoryou are interested in; (2) then use Fleming's Left Hand RuleNote: the B-field due to the conductor you're interested in should not be qq!5idered,
B-field due to Z Resultant 8-field at X B-fi€ld due



Resultant force on X


Force by Z on X





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