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Functional Behavioral Assessment

Description of Student:
Student Name: Peter

Age: 5

Grade: K

Report Date:

Name of Person Conducting Assessment: Taylor Lederman


Description of the Observational Context/Setting (type of program, grade level, etc.)
Peter is kindergartner in a general education classroom of 30 students. He is being observed
during three different times throughout the day. He is being observed during carpet time, writing
instruction, and math instruction. These are the times he shouts out the most.
Based on the interview with the teacher, please list strengths and weaknesses:
Strengths:
1. Peter does well at math and is above average in his class
2. Peter enjoys reading and is average in his class
3. Social skills: Peter loves to play with his friends and has a lot of them
Weaknesses:
1. Peter has a short temper
2. Peter is impulsive and cannot wait for his turn: to talk, pick a book, etc.
3. Peter is a little immature for his age
4. Peter is always moving around and getting out of his seat
Reason for FBA/BIP:
Peter is a bright and promising student, but he struggles with his impulsivity. The function
of Peters outbursts during instructional learning appears to be a gain in recognition by the
teacher and his peers. Peters behavior appears to be triggered when he has something to say but
has to wait to be called on (when there is substantial wait time between the teacher instruction
and student response). Peters behavior appears to be reinforced and maintained by receiving a
reaction from his teacher and his peers (e.g., teacher asking him to be quiet and raise his hand
while peers laughing at what he says). In summary, when Peter wants to speak he decides to
blurt out instead of raising his hand in order to gain attention from his teacher and peers.

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Sources of Data:
Document Review:

N/A

Interviews:

Teacher interview: 2/28


Student interview: 4/4

Observations:

ABC Recording: 3/21


ABC Recording: 3/28
Scatter Plot: 3/21, 3/28
Narrative Behavior Observation: 3/21

Rating Scales:

Behavior Rating Scale: 3/28

Define and Describe the Target Behavior:


Definition of Target Behavior
Peter shouts out at all times throughout the day. He mostly yells out during structured
learning times such as math instruction and writing instruction. He is also known to shout
out during carpet time and gym class. He will yell out when he has something to say but
does not feel the need to wait to be called on.
Description of the Target Behavior: (Including estimation of the frequency, intensity,
etc.)
Peter is struggling with shouting out during inappropriate times. He is yelling out most
frequently during carpet time, writing instruction, as well as math instruction. By yelling
out things that are both relevant and not relevant he is disrupting the class and interfering
with his learning as well as the classroom as a whole.
Frequency recording was used to better show how often the student is shouting out or being
disruptive during specific chunks of time throughout the day such as writing, carpet, or
math time.

ABC Recording Form


Student Peter

Observer Taylor Lederman

Teacher Mrs. Smith

Subject/Class/Context Math/Carpet

Date March 21, 2014


Event/Stimulus/
Setting

Antecedents

Behavior

Consequences

Math instruction
on the carpet
2:00-2:30

Mrs. Smith was


introducing the
lesson to the class
as a whole

Peter yelled out what kind of


math are we doing?

Mrs. Smith gave him a


look and did not
verbally recognize him

Instead of raising his hand


like his fellow classmates,
Peter blurts out 14

Mrs. Smith tells Peter to


not speak out of turn and
to wait to be called on
and then calls on another
student to provide her
with the answer of 14

Mrs. Smith asked


the class what 10
more than 4 was

Transitioning from
math instruction
from the carpet to
their seats
2:30

Mrs. Smith asks


the students to go
back to their seats
quietly while the
paper passers pass
out the math
packets they are
going to work on

Peter is talking to a friend


while walking back to his
seat

Mrs. Smith has Peter


flip his card from green
(the second best [blue is
the best] to yellow [card
after green])

Math instruction at
individual tables
2:30-3:00

Mrs. Smith was


lecturing about
math

Peter is talking to the other


students at his table

Mrs. Smith tells Peter to


stop talking and focus
on his math

ABC Recording Form


Student Peter

Observer Taylor Lederman

Teacher Mrs. Smith

Subject/Class/Context Writing/Carpet

Date March 28, 2014

Event/Stimulus/
Setting

Antecedents

Behavior

Consequences

Mini lesson before


writers workshop
on the carpet
11:00-11:15

The class was


reading the story
they made together
about magnets

Peter was purposefully


reading a few seconds behind
of the rest of the class

Mrs. Maier told Peter


with a stern voice to
stop or he will have to
flip his card

Writers workshop
at their individual
tables
11:15-11:40

Students are
quietly writing and
minding their own
business

Peter shouts out the word


purple as he points to it on
the wall (all of the colors are
written on the wall as a
reference)

Mrs. Maier asks Peter if


he needs to be sent to
the principals office
Peter then puts his head
down and cries

Summary of ABC Analysis:


The examiner recorded two ABC recordings. One recording was during math instruction that
took place both on the carpet and in their individual desks. The second recording was during
writers workshop that took place both on the carpet and in the desks. In both cases, Peter was on
task for the most part but shouting out at inappropriate times. There were many times throughout
the recording that Mrs. Smith had to regain his focus and attention by either staring at him or
calling him out in front of everyone. These recordings show that something needs to be done
with his behavior because it is affecting his classmates learning and his teachers time.
Summary of Baseline Data:

Dates

Event Recording

Duration
Recording

Interval/Time
Sampling

3-21

Math Instruction

3-21

Show and tell on the


carpet

Latency
Recording

Intensity
Recording

3-28

Math Instruction

3-28

Writing Instruction

Settings and Situations where Behavior is Most/Least a Concern:


Peter enjoys sharing what he has to say no matter if it is an appropriate time or not. He usually
shouts out what he has to say during math and carpet time. These are times when the teacher is
instructing and the students are quiet and paying attention. Instead of raising his hand and
waiting to be called on Peter decides to raise his hand and shout out his answer. Most of the time
when Peter speaks out of turn he is shouting out something relevant to the question at hand. He
rarely shouts out just to say something random, but he does appreciate the recognition he gets
from his teacher and his peers.
Functional Assessment Scatter plot
Student: Peter
Grade: K
School: Steel Academy
Date(s): 3/21 & 3/28
Observer: Taylor Lederman
Behavior of concern: disrupts class with inappropriate comments during learning instruction
Setting:
Rate of Undesired Behavior
Before Intervention
Math 3/21
Show & Tell 3/21
Math 3/28
Writing 3/28

6
3
2
5

After Intervention
Math 4/4
Show & Tell 4/4
Writing 4/4
Math 4/17
Show & Tell
4/17
Writing 4/17

3
1
1
2
0
1

Identify Antecedents:
Who is present . . .
When the behavior tends to occur?
The teacher and Peters classmates are
normally present when the behavior tends to
occur

What is going on . . .
When the behavior tends to occur?
The teacher is teaching a lesson, most likely
math or writing, and the class is usually quiet
and paying attention

When/Where does the behavior . . .


Tend to occur?
The behavior tends to occur mostly during
whole class discussions or quiet time while
individually working at their tables

When the behavior almost never occurs?


The MSU student with the ipad recording his
behavior

When the behavior almost never occurs?


No explicit instruction is going on and they are
having free choice and can be loud

Almost never occur?


Recess

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Identify Consequences Maintaining the Behavior:
When the behavior occurs, what are the reactions or actions . . .
Teacher in
the context?

The first few times the student will shout out during a lesson the teacher will just
ignore him and/or give him a look. As he continues to shout things out she will tell
him to stop because it is not the time or that he is being a rude friend while talking
when the teacher is talking. If he continues to blurt out he will be instructed to flip
his card. If he has already flipped his card and has to flip it to orange (start at green
yellow orange red [if they are on green and doing really well they can
switch to blue, which is even better than green]) he will then be sent to the principals
office.

Peers in the
context?

When he blurts out during lessons his peers will either look at him and ignore him or
join in his shouting out. It is hard in kindergarten because for the most part they are
all impulsive and cannot wait to be called on. When he shouts out he usually has
something to say about the lesson or has a question so the other students will join in
with a yeah or ask another question based off of his. Other times the students at his
table know not to talk back to them because they will also get yelled at by the
teacher.

Student to
other
people?

Peter will get really upset if he has been getting yelled at all day. He will usually put
his hands over his face and cry a little. When he first gets yelled at he acts surprised
and looks to one of the other teachers in the room or the MSU student. Even though
he gets upset in the moment he also enjoys the attention he gets from his peers.

Parents? (if
applicable)

N/A

Factors that may be influencing or maintaining the behavior include . . .


Academic
Factors

The behavior tends to happen more during subjects that Peter somewhat excels at.
Especially during math he shouts out a lot because he knows the answer and is
proud of knowing it and wants to share with everyone.

SocialEmotional
Factors

Peter has a loving and caring family who makes sure he gets his homework done
every week. He has good social skills but is not a good sharer. He has a very short
temper so if he wants a toy someone else is playing with he may grab it and get
very aggressive.

Health/Medical N/A
Factors (if
relevant)

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What interventions have been tried in the past? What did you observe or teacher report?
What happened?
Peters teacher has tried a few different interventions in the past. She has made him flip his card,
which is a pretty big deal in kindergarten, she has verbally spoken to him privately and in front of
the class, and she has sent him to the principals office. During all of these interventions it was
effective in the moment but not in the long run. When he would get in trouble he would tone it down
for around an hour after he got spoken to or had to flip a card but after an hour he was back at
yelling and shouting out at inappropriate times.

Indirect Data
Interview with teacher
1. Why do you think Peter shouts aloud?
a. He is very impulsive and decides not to wait until he is called on
2. Do you think ignoring him works?
a. Yes, because in the moment he wants to say what he wants to say so once he says it
he does not really care of you are listening or not
3. Do you think having him flip a card works?
a. It works if you want to see him pout, put his hands into his face, and cry
4. What is Peters strongest strength?
a. He is a very smart student he just needs some self control and I know he is capable of
it
Interview with student
1. What do you like to do for fun?
a. Basketball and play with friends
2. Do you like school?
a. It is fun but sometimes there is stuff I do not want to do
3. What is your favorite part of the school day?
a. Gym
4. Do you like math? Why or why not?
a. Yes, it is fun but sometimes it gets a little hard
5. Do you like writers workshop? Why or why not?
a. No, I do not like to write
Behavior rating Scale
*Rate the following classes based on how much you like them (1 being not at all and 5
being like a lot)
Date: March 14, 2014
Student: Peter
Grade: Kindergarten
Interviewer: Taylor Lederman
Teacher: Mrs. Smith
Writing
1
2
3
4
5
Reading
1
2
3
4
5
Math
1
2
3
4
5
Science
1
2
3
4
5
Gym
1
2
3
4
5

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Overall, is your schoolwork too hard?
Overall, is your schoolwork too easy?
If you need help, do you know how to ask for
it appropriately?
If you ask for help appropriately, do you get
the assistance that you need?
Do you like to work by yourself?
Do you like to work with others (partner,
small groups)?

NEVER
NEVER
NEVER

SOMETIMES
SOMETIMES
SOMETIMES

ALWAYS
ALWAYS
ALWAYS

NEVER

SOMETIMES

ALWAYS

NEVER
NEVER

SOMETIMES
SOMETIMES

ALWAYS
ALWAYS

Develop a Hypothesis
Student: Peter

Date:3/7

The function of Peters outbursts during instructional learning appears to be a gain in recognition
by the teacher and his peers. Peters behavior appears to be triggered when he has something to
say but has to wait to be called on (when there is substantial wait time between the teacher
instruction and student response). Peters behavior appears to be reinforced and maintained by
receiving a reaction from his teacher and his peers (e.g., teacher asking him to be quiet and raise
his hand while peers laughing at what he says). In summary, when Peter wants to speak he
decides to blurt out instead of raising his hand in order to gain attention from his teacher and
peers.

Behavioral Intervention Plan


Student Name: Peter

Date: 3/14

Target Behavior:
Peter shouts out at all times throughout the day. He mostly yells out during structured learning
times such as math instruction and writing instruction. He is also known to shout out during
carpet time and gym class. He will yell out when he has something to say but does not feel the
need to wait to be called on. Frequency recording was used to better show how often the student
is shouting out or being disruptive during specific chunks of time throughout the day such as
writing, carpet, or math time.
Identify a Replacement Behavior:
Instead of shouting out when he has something to say he will attempt to raise his hand and
patiently wait to be called on by the teacher. This will help the student from random blurt outs
and will help to not distract the whole classes learning.

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Behavior Intervention Plan:


Intervention Explanation
The replacement behavior will be first taught by identifying that the student is capable of
raising his hand and waiting to be called on in order to speak aloud during a discussion or
lesson. Even though he may raise his hand he will not always be called on so the examiner
needs to work on making sure he stays quiet even if he raised his hand. After discussing that
with Peter, the examiner will move on to explain the tokens and reinforcer menu. Every time
Peter is quiet and actively participating for 4 minutes he will get a star. The examiner will
keep track with a white board so he can look over at the board and see how well he is doing
and keep up the good work or see that he does not have any and should try harder to
participate like his peers. On Peters reinforcer menu there are different items that are worth
different stars. So, at the end of each subject he can choose to cash in his stars for a prize then
or wait until the end of the day to receive a special prize that is a secret to him. Peter and the
examiner will create a list of things that show how a good kindergarten should participate in
activities on the carpet such as show and tell as well as during lessons being taught by the
teacher. To make sure Peter remembers the things a good kindergartner does during lesson
instruction the examiner will remind him during transitions to each subject where he struggles
with focusing and shouting out. At first, Peter may need more reminders so the examiner will
sit with him to continuously remind him about his actions (the good and the bad). When first
implementing this he will need more guidance.
Teaching Plan

Who is
responsible?

How often?

The examiner will start in the morning by talking to


Peter about his morning and asking if he is going to
have a good day. Together they will go over what a
good day entails. The examiner will help to remind
Peter what a good student does during lesson
instruction and carpet time. This includes raising his
hand, sitting quietly and patiently, not playing with
his clothes or shoes, and not turning and talking to
the people near him.
Then, the examiner will explain that every time he
has a successful lesson he is able to earn stars. He is
able to get stars for raising his hand, sitting quietly
and patiently, and staying focused. For every 4
minutes he masters all of these tasks he is able to
gain another star.
Together, the examiner and Peter will create a

The examiner
and Peter

The morning

The examiner

Every 4 minutes

The examiner

At the end of

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reinforcer menu where they will list the things Peter
likes and wants to gain with his stars. They will also
determine how many stars each prize is worth.
It is expected that Peter will participate in all of the
lessons while demonstrating all of the qualities he
said a good kindergartner should have. If he is doing
well and staying on task while not shouting out he
will receive stars. If he continues to shout out the
time will start over and he may not receive stars.

and Peter

the day

Context Alteration

Who is
Responsible?

How
Often/When?

Peter has many problems while sitting on the carpet


surrounded by his peers. By moving him to the front
he can be less distracted and closer to the teacher so
he knows not to mess around up there because she
will see him.
When the class is working at their seats writing
some students are spread out throughout the room to
work at a less crowded and more isolated area. If the
examiner were to relocate Peter during writing he
would not be near his peers to talk to them so that
would reduce the talking during writing time.

Peter

Every time
the class is at
the carpet

Peter

Writing time

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Consequences for Desired Behaviors:


Outcomes

Who is
Responsible?

How Often?

When Peter uses the replacement behavior he will


not only be improving his learning he will also be
improving the learning of his class. When he does
not shout out and interrupt the class that leaves more
time for learning. Peter will not be getting yelled at
and sent to the principals office because he is acting
appropriately. He will also be receiving rewards for
his good behavior through the stars and reinforcer
menu.

Peter for the


desired
behavior
Examiner for
rewarding
Peter for his
desired
behavior

Stars will be
given after the
lesson but
rewards will be
given at the
end of the day

Teach [response to problem behavior]

Who is
Responsible?

How Often?

When the problem behavior occurs, the examiner will


remind Peter of his actions and how he is not acting
like the good kindergartner they discussed he could be.
Peter will be reminded that if he does not act like a
good kindergartner and participate and raise his hand
and sit quietly and patiently he will not be able to get a
star unless he can control himself for 4 minutes. Stars
will never be taken away from Peter, but if he wanted
to use his stars at the end of the day where he was
misbehaving for the majority he would not be allowed
to. In addition to not gaining a star or a reward he may
also be instructed to flip his card. If he is acting really
poorly he may even be instructed to take a walk to the
principals office.

Examiner and
Peter

Any time the


behavior is
present

Consequences for Undesired Behaviors:

Specify Behavioral Objectives:


Peter will be able to sit through both math and writing with only shouting out once during each
lesson (math, writing, show and tell), so a total of 3 times per day. By the end of the intervention,
Peter should be able to sit through a lesson while actively participating and raising his hand. He
should wait to be called on in order to speak and he will not distract his peers.

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Analysis of the Behavioral Intervention Plan


Data Collection Plan
Student Name: Peter

Date: 4/4

Timeline for the next meeting to review and evaluate effectiveness of the intervention: 4/17
Data Collection Plan: What data will be collected to evaluate the program? by whom?
Indicate what data is needed to evaluate success (e.g., frequency, duration, latency). Provide brief
instructions to family and/or staff on how to collect this information, and when to collect this
information. Specify who is responsible for which type of data collection.
Data Collection Plan: (What behavior should be recorded and what type of recording
system)
As the intervention continues Peters behavior should be recorded at longer lengths of time. Instead
of rewarding every 4 minutes change it to every time he completes a lesson without shouting out
he is rewarded. Then, after he masters one lesson move towards each day and so on. The goal is to
have him behave and be less disruptive for longer amounts of time.
Who:
Peters behavior is being collected by the
examiner

When:
Transition from each lesson to each day.

Frequency of Review of Progress (select one)


Bi-Weekly

Weekly

Monthly

Data Collection Method (select one):


Event
Recording

Duration
Recording

Interval
Recording

Time Sampling

Latency
Recording

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Data Representation:

Maintenance and Generalization Plan:


In order to ensure the intervention is maintained my mentor teacher needs to 100% commit to
continue with the intervention plan. She must remember to talk to him every day about it if she
wants his good behavior to continue. I think when he sees that his good behavior and lack of
disruptiveness gets him prizes he actually enjoys he will act better. As he continues to act better
my mentor teacher will be happier and will not have to yell at him as much. This intervention
can be used in all contexts. The only thing you would need to alter is what behavior is being
rewarded and after how much time. When the behavior begins to be good start rewarding for
excellent behavior. Excellent behavior would be participating in a whole lesson without shouting
out. Once he masters that move onto a whole day without shouting out.

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Conclusion:
The intervention was somewhat successful. It was hard to implement because I was only in the
classroom once a week for four to five hours. The teacher expressed to me how she didnt use
the intervention plan everyday due to certain circumstances. When I was in the classroom after I
explained to him the whole behavior plan and reward system he was a lot better but I feel as
though he just did it because he did not want to get in trouble and he wanted to get his prizes. By
looking at the baseline points after the intervention was implemented it shows a decrease in the
behavior, which was great to see because that was the goal. Some continued recommendations I
would suggest is to actually implement this every single day with him in order to have him not
shouting out and disrupting everyone throughout the day.