You are on page 1of 84
BUSINESS BUSINESS RESEARCH RESEARCH MS108 MS108 Business Business Rreserach- Rreserach- Nature Nature && Scope Scope Prof.
BUSINESS
BUSINESS RESEARCH
RESEARCH
MS108
MS108
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
11
SCHEME OF EVALUATION SR.N EVALUATION MARKS O. CATEGORY ALLOTTED WEIGHTAGE OUT OF 40 1 Written Internal
SCHEME OF EVALUATION
SR.N
EVALUATION
MARKS
O.
CATEGORY
ALLOTTED
WEIGHTAGE OUT
OF 40
1
Written Internal Test
40
15
2
Report ( I to IV)
Via Voice
(15*4)=60
10
40
05
Business Research
Project
100
15
3
Written Assignments/
Class room Presentations
(15*4)=60
Class Room Activities
60
10
TOTAL
200
40
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
22
UNIT UNIT 1-1- SESSION SESSION DETAILS DETAILS Session Session 1&2 1&2 –– LECTURE LECTURE - Nature
UNIT
UNIT 1-1- SESSION
SESSION DETAILS
DETAILS
Session
Session 1&2
1&2 –– LECTURE
LECTURE - Nature & scope of business
- Nature & scope of business
Announcement
Announcement -- BRP-Part
BRP-Part II
Session
Session 3&4
3&4 –– LECTURE
LECTURE –Research process; Problem identification &
–Research process; Problem identification &
definition, Determination of information need
definition, Determination of information need
Session
Session 5&6
5&6 –– LECTURE
LECTURE –– Hypothesis
Hypothesis formulation
formulation
Announcement
Announcement -- ASSIGNMENT
ASSIGNMENT 11 (Business
(Business research
research exe.)
exe.)
Session
Session 77 --
LECTURE
LECTURE – Developing research proposal
– Developing research proposal
Session
Session 88 --
Class Room Presentations by all syndicates on Ass. 1
Class Room Presentations by all syndicates on Ass. 1
Submission
Submission -- Assignment
Assignment 1 (Business research exe. Report)
1 (Business research exe. Report)
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
33
UNIT UNIT 11 SESSION 1 & 2 SESSION 1 & 2 BUSINESS RESEARCH DEFINITION, BUSINESS RESEARCH
UNIT
UNIT 11
SESSION 1 & 2
SESSION 1 & 2
BUSINESS RESEARCH DEFINITION,
BUSINESS RESEARCH DEFINITION,
NATURE AND SCOPE
NATURE AND SCOPE
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
44
Research Research A careful investigation or inquiry A careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for
Research
Research
A careful investigation or inquiry
A careful investigation or inquiry
specially through search for new facts
specially through search for new facts
in any branch of knowledge
in any branch of knowledge
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
55
What What isis Research? Research?  The task of research is to generate accurate The task
What
What isis Research?
Research?
The task of research is to generate accurate
The task of research is to generate accurate
information for use in decision making. The
information for use in decision making. The
emphasis of research is on shifting decision
emphasis of research is on shifting decision
makers from intuitive information gathering to
makers from intuitive information gathering to
systematic and objective investigation.
systematic and objective investigation.
Research is defined as the systematic and
Research is defined as the systematic and
objective process of gathering, recording and
objective process of gathering, recording and
analyzing data for aid in making decisions
analyzing data for aid in making decisions
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
66
Objectives Objectives 1. 1. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to To gain familiarity with
Objectives
Objectives
1.
1. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to
To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to
explore new ideas.
explore new ideas.
2.
2.
To portray accurately the characteristics of a
To portray accurately the characteristics of a
particular individual, situation or a group.
particular individual, situation or a group.
3.
3.
To determine the frequency with which
To determine the frequency with which
something occurs or with which it is associated.
something occurs or with which it is associated.
4.
4.
To establish a cause and
To establish a cause and effect
effect relationship and
relationship and
test the relationship between two variables.
test the relationship between two variables.
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
77
Why is Research Needed / Important / Why is Research Needed / Important / Necessary Necessary
Why is Research Needed / Important /
Why is Research Needed / Important /
Necessary
Necessary ININ Business?
Business?
EFFCETIVE DECISION MAKING
EFFCETIVE DECISION MAKING
UNAVAILABILITY
UNAVAILABILITY OFOF PORTABLE
PORTABLE
SOLUTIONS
SOLUTIONS
FREQUENTLY CHANGING BUSINESS
FREQUENTLY CHANGING BUSINESS
ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENT
TO EXPLORE NEW MARKETS &
TO EXPLORE NEW MARKETS &
OPPORTUNITES OPPORTUNITES
TO IDENTIFY PROBLEM AREAR etc……
TO IDENTIFY PROBLEM AREAR etc……
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
88
Characteristics of Research Characteristics of Research 1. Research begins with a problem 1. Research begins with
Characteristics of Research
Characteristics of Research
1. Research begins with a problem
1. Research begins with a
problem inin the
the form
form ofof aa
question in the mind of the researcher.
question in the mind of the researcher.
2.
2.
Research demands the identification of a problem,
Research demands the identification of a problem,
stated stated inin clear, clear, unambiguous unambiguous terms terms..
3.
3.
Research requires a
Research requires a plan
plan..
4.
4.
Research deals with the main problem through
Research deals with the main problem through
appropriate appropriate sub-problems sub-problems..
5.
5. Research
Research seeks
seeks direction
direction through appropriate
through appropriate
hypotheses
hypotheses and is based upon obvious assumptions.
and is based upon obvious assumptions.
6.
6. Research
Research deals
deals with
with facts and their meaning
facts and their meaning..
7.
7. Research
Research isis circular
circular..
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
99
Types of Business Research Types of Business Research Basic Research 1. Basic Research 1. Applied Applied
Types of Business Research
Types of Business Research
Basic Research
1.
Basic Research
1.
Applied
Applied research
2.
research
2.
1. Descriptive Vs Analytical
1. Descriptive Vs Analytical
2.
2.
Applied (Basic) Vs Fundamental (Applied)
Applied (Basic) Vs Fundamental (Applied)
3.
3.
Quantitative Vs Qualitative
Quantitative Vs Qualitative
4.
4.
Conceptual Conceptual Vs Vs Empirical Empirical
5.
5. Special
Special types
types of
of research
research
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
1010
Other Other Types Types ofof Research Research Based on the purposes for which the researches are
Other
Other Types
Types ofof Research
Research
Based on the purposes for which the researches are
Based on the purposes for which the researches are
conducted, they may be divided into following categories:
conducted, they may be divided into following categories:
1. Baseline/Bench-mark survey/Research.
1. Baseline/Bench-mark survey/Research.
2.
2.
Evaluation
Evaluation Research:
Research:
a)a) Formative Formative Evaluation Evaluation (Mid-term) (Mid-term)
b)b) Terminal
Terminal Evaluation.
Evaluation.
3.
3. Impact
Impact assessment/research
assessment/research
4.
4.
Feasibility
Feasibility studies.
studies.
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
1111
Nature of Research a.BR- As an economic resource b BR- As a system of authority c.
Nature of Research
a.BR- As an economic resource
b BR- As a system of authority
c. BR- As an activity of business management
d. BR- As a Team effort
e. BR- AS an art or science
f. BR- As a profession
g. BR- As an interdisciplinary system
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
1212
Scope & Application in Various Functions of Business Management Business Business Rreserach- Rreserach- Nature Nature &&
Scope & Application in Various
Functions of Business
Management
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
1313
Scope Scope ofof Market Market Research Research Business Business Rreserach- Rreserach- Nature Nature && Scope Scope
Scope
Scope ofof Market
Market Research
Research
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
1414
1.Advertising Research a. Motivation research b. Copy research c. Media research d. Studies of advertisement effectiveness
1.Advertising Research
a.
Motivation research
b.
Copy research
c.
Media research
d.
Studies of advertisement effectiveness
other
e. Business Rreserach-
Business
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
1515
2. Business economic and corporate research a. Short range forecasting b. Long range forecasting c. Studies
2. Business economic and corporate research
a.
Short range forecasting
b.
Long range forecasting
c.
Studies of business trends
d.
Pricing studies
e.
Plant and warehouse location studies
f. product mix studies
g. Acquisition Studies
h.
Export and international studies
i.
Others
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
1616
3. Corporate responsibility research a. Consumers’ “ rights to know” studies b. Ecological impact studies c.
3. Corporate responsibility research
a. Consumers’ “ rights to know” studies
b. Ecological impact studies
c. Studies of legal constraints
d. Social values and policies studies
e. Others
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
1717
4. Product research 5. Packaging research Business Business Rreserach- Rreserach- Nature Nature && Scope Scope Prof.
4.
Product research
5.
Packaging research
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
1818
6. Sales and market research a. Measurement of market potential b. Market share analysis c. Sales
6. Sales and market research
a.
Measurement of market potential
b.
Market share analysis
c.
Sales analysis
d.
Establishment of sales quotas & territories
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
1919
e. Distribution channel studies f. Test markets g. Consumer panel operation h. Sales compensation studies I
e. Distribution channel studies
f. Test markets
g. Consumer panel operation
h. Sales compensation studies
I Promotional studies
j. Others
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
2020
MAJOR ASSIGNMENT MAJOR ASSIGNMENT BUSINESS BUSINESS RESEARCH RESEARCH PROJCET PROJCET SECTION SECTION AA SECTION SECTION BB
MAJOR ASSIGNMENT
MAJOR ASSIGNMENT
BUSINESS
BUSINESS RESEARCH
RESEARCH PROJCET
PROJCET
SECTION
SECTION AA
SECTION
SECTION BB
SUBMISSION – SESSION 9
SUBMISSION – SESSION 9
BRP – PART I PRESENTATION – SESSION 10
BRP – PART I PRESENTATION – SESSION 10
(( By all the syndicates of 5-7 Min. duration)
By all the syndicates of 5-7 Min. duration)
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
2121
Business Business Rreserach- Rreserach- Nature Nature && Scope Scope Prof. Prof. Parul Parul Gupta Gupta 2222
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
2222
UNIT UNIT 11 SESSION 3 & 4 SESSION 3 & 4 PROBLEM PROBLEM IDENTIFIACTION IDENTIFIACTION AND
UNIT
UNIT 11
SESSION 3 & 4
SESSION 3 & 4
PROBLEM
PROBLEM IDENTIFIACTION
IDENTIFIACTION
AND
AND
DEFINITION
DEFINITION
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
2323
What Is A Research Problem? It refers to some difficulty which a researcher experiences in context
What Is A Research Problem?
It refers to some difficulty which a
researcher experiences in context of either
a theoretical or practical situation and
wants to obtain a solution for the same.
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
2424
Components Components ofof aa research research problem problem **There must be an individual or a group
Components
Components ofof aa research
research problem
problem
**There must be an individual or a group or an
There must be an individual or a group or an
organization
organization
*There must be at least two courses of action
*There must be at least two courses of action
*There
*There must
must bebe atat least
least two possible outcomes
two possible outcomes
*The courses of actions available must provide
*The courses of actions available must provide some
some
chance
chance ofof obtaining
obtaining the
the objective
objective
** There
There must
must bebe some
some environment
environment to which the difficulty
to which the difficulty
pertains
pertains
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
2525
Selecting Selecting aa problem problem Following points to be avoided while Following points to be avoided
Selecting
Selecting aa problem
problem
Following points to be avoided while
Following points to be avoided while
selecting a problem,
selecting a problem,
1. Overdone Subject
1. Overdone Subject
2,
2, Controversial
Controversial subject
subject
3.
3. Too narrow and too vague problem
Too narrow and too vague problem
4.
4. Unfeasible
Unfeasible subject
subject
5.
5. Uneconomical and time consuming
Uneconomical and time consuming
problem
problem
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
2626
Steps involved in defining a problem Steps involved in defining a problem ((1) 1) General definition
Steps involved in defining a problem
Steps involved in defining a problem
((1)
1) General definition of the problem
General definition of the problem
(2) Understanding the nature of the problem
(2) Understanding the nature of the problem
(3) (3) Surveying Surveying the the literature literature available available
(4) (4) Developing Developing the the ideas ideas
(5) (5) Rephrasing Rephrasing the the problem problem
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
2727
Research Research question question **Questions in the mind of researcher Questions in the mind of researcher
Research
Research question
question
**Questions in the mind of researcher
Questions in the mind of researcher
*All *All are are able able toto achieve achieve research research
objective/ to solve research problem if
objective/ to solve research problem if
put put together together
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
2828
Three types of Research questions Three types of Research questions A. A. Descriptive questions Descriptive questions
Three types of Research questions
Three types of Research questions
A.
A.
Descriptive questions
Descriptive questions
B.
B.
Comparison Questions
Comparison Questions
C.
C. Relational Questions
Relational Questions
Association Questions (Happening together)
Association Questions (Happening together)
 Causal
Causal Questions
Questions
a.
a. Concomitant Variation (two things vary
Concomitant Variation (two things vary
together)
together)
b. Time sequence of the variable (Occurrence of
b. Time sequence of the variable (Occurrence of
two
two variables)
variables)
c.
c.
Cause variable (Reasons behind
Cause variable (Reasons behind
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
2929
Illustration Illustration 1) What sport matches your personality? 1) What sport matches your personality? RResearch esearch
Illustration
Illustration
1) What sport matches your personality?
1) What sport matches your personality?
RResearch
esearch questions
questions
1.
1. Sociability
Sociability
2.
2. Spontaneity
Spontaneity
3.
3. Discipline
Discipline
4,
4, Aggressiveness
Aggressiveness
5.
5. Competitiveness
Competitiveness
6.
6. Mental
Mental focus
focus
7.
7. Risk
Risk taking
taking
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
3030
1. 1. Sociability Sociability 2. 2. Spontaneity Spontaneity 3. 3. Discipline Discipline 4, 4, Aggressiveness Aggressiveness
1.
1. Sociability
Sociability
2.
2.
Spontaneity
Spontaneity
3.
3.
Discipline
Discipline
4,
4, Aggressiveness
Aggressiveness
5.
5.
Competitiveness
Competitiveness
6. Mental focus
6. Mental focus
7.
7.
Risk
Risk taking
taking
Variables Very High
High
Medium
Low
Very Low
1
*
2
*
3
*
4
*
5
*
6
*
7
*
Business Rreserach- Nature & Scope
Business Rreserach- Nature & Scope
Prof. Parul Gupta
Prof. Parul Gupta
3131
Possible Possible Answers Answers 1. 1. Carom Carom 2. 2. Jogging Jogging Business Business Rreserach- Rreserach-
Possible
Possible Answers
Answers
1.
1. Carom
Carom
2.
2. Jogging
Jogging
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
3232
THE RESEARCH PROCESS THE RESEARCH PROCESS Business Business Rreserach- Rreserach- Nature Nature && Scope Scope Prof.
THE RESEARCH PROCESS
THE RESEARCH PROCESS
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
3333
Define Research Problem & Research Objective [II] [II] Review concepts Review previous and theories research finding
Define Research
Problem &
Research
Objective
[II]
[II]
Review concepts
Review previous
and theories
research finding
[III]
Formulate
Hypothesis
[IV]
Design research
(Including Sample
F
design)
FF
[V]
Collect data
FF
(Execution)
F
[VI] Analyze Data
(Test Hypothesis)
[IX] Report
preparation
F
[VII] Interpretation
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
3434
and Implications
[VIII] Actionable
Proposition
((I) Defining the Research Problem I) Defining the Research Problem “ A problem well defined is
((I) Defining the Research Problem
I) Defining the Research Problem
“ A problem well defined is half solved “
Two steps are involved defining the research problem
a.
Understanding the problem thoroughly and
b.
Rephrasing the same into meaningful terms from
analytical point of view
Techniques for preliminary investigation
a.
Situation Analysis
b.
Informal investigations
Researcher can review two types of literature
a.
The conceptual literature
b.
The empirical literature
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
3535
(II) Review of theories, concepts and previous research finding •Background of the study •Research questions •Formulation
(II) Review of theories, concepts
and previous research finding
•Background of the study
•Research questions
•Formulation of Hypothesis
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
3636
(III) Development of Working Hypothesis (III) Development of Working Hypothesis Working hypothesis is tentative assumption made
(III) Development of Working Hypothesis
(III) Development of Working Hypothesis
Working hypothesis is tentative assumption
made in order to draw out and test its logical
or empirical consequences
Approach
1.Discussion with colleagues and experts
2.
Examination of data and records
3.
Review of the same
4.
Exploratory personal investigation which
involves original field interviews
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
3737
(IV) Research Designs (including sample design) Research Design is the basic framework which provides guidelines for
(IV) Research Designs (including sample
design)
Research Design is the basic framework which
provides guidelines for the rest of the research
work. It is a map or a blueprint according to
which the research is to be conducted.
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
3838
Research design categories a. Exploratory research designs b. Descriptive research designs c. Causal research designs Business
Research design categories
a.
Exploratory research designs
b.
Descriptive research designs
c.
Causal research designs
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
3939
Following points must be considered while selecting Following points must be considered while selecting any of
Following points must be considered while selecting
Following points must be considered while selecting
any of the research designs available
any of the research designs available
1.
1. The means of obtaining the information
The means of obtaining the information
2.
2.
The availability and skills of the researcher and his
The availability and skills of the researcher and his
staff staff
3.
3.
Time Time available available
4.
4.
Cost Cost factor factor
5.
5. sampling
sampling plan
plan
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
4040
Sample Sample design design AA sample design is a definite plan determined before sample design is
Sample
Sample design
design
AA sample design is a definite plan determined before
sample design is a definite plan determined before
any data is actually collected for obtaining a sample
any data is actually collected for obtaining a sample
from
from aa given
given population
population
It provides answer to the following four questions;
It provides answer to the following four questions;
1.
1.
What sampling unit should be studied ?
What sampling unit should be studied ?
2.
2.
What What should should bebe the the sample sample size? size?
3.
3.
What sample procedure should be used?
What sample procedure should be used?
4.
4. What
What contact
contact method
method should
should bebe used
used
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
4141
(IV) Data collection (IV) Data collection A. Primary Data Collection Tools A. Primary Data Collection Tools
(IV) Data collection
(IV) Data collection
A. Primary Data Collection Tools
A. Primary Data Collection Tools
1.
1. ByBy observation
observation
2.
2.
Through personal interview
Through personal interview
3.
3.
Through telephone interviews
Through telephone interviews
4.
4.
Through Schedules
Through Schedules
5.
5.
ByBy mailing mailing questionnaire questionnaire
B.
B. Secondary
Secondary Data
Data Collection
Collection Tools
Tools
1.
1. Printed
Printed information
information
2.
2.
Already available information in other forms
Already available information in other forms
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
4242
(V) Analysis of data (V) Analysis of data The researcher should classify the raw data into
(V) Analysis of data
(V) Analysis of data
The researcher should classify the raw data into some
The researcher should classify the raw data into some
purposeful and usable categories.
purposeful and usable categories.
Three operations have to de done before the raw data is
Three operations have to de done before the raw data is
brought in a form to be analyzed further.
brought in a form to be analyzed further.
a.
a. Coding
Coding
b.
b. Editing
Editing
c.
c. Tabulation
Tabulation
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
4343
After successful completion of above operations After successful completion of above operations following three steps are
After successful completion of above operations
After successful completion of above operations
following three steps are there to follow to complete
following three steps are there to follow to complete
Data
Data analysis
analysis
1. Hypothesis Testing
1. Hypothesis Testing
a.
a. Chi Square
Chi Square
b.
b.
F-
F- test
test
c.
c. ZZ test
test
2.
2. Generalization
Generalization
3.
3. Interpretation
Interpretation
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
4444
((VII) Interpretation and Implications VII) Interpretation and Implications (VIII) (VIII) Actionable Actionable Implications Implications (IX) (IX)
((VII) Interpretation and Implications
VII) Interpretation and Implications
(VIII) (VIII) Actionable Actionable Implications Implications
(IX) (IX) Report Report Preparation Preparation
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
4545
Business Business Rreserach- Rreserach- Nature Nature && Scope Scope Prof. Prof. Parul Parul Gupta Gupta 4646
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
4646
UNIT UNIT 11 SESSION 5 & 6 SESSION 5 & 6 HYPOTHESIS HYPOTHESIS FORMULATION FORMULATION Business
UNIT
UNIT 11
SESSION 5 & 6
SESSION 5 & 6
HYPOTHESIS
HYPOTHESIS FORMULATION
FORMULATION
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
4747
Hypothesis Hypothesis AA tentative explanation for an tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific observation,
Hypothesis
Hypothesis
AA tentative explanation for an
tentative explanation for an
observation, phenomenon, or scientific
observation, phenomenon, or scientific
problem that can be tested by further
problem that can be tested by further
investigation. A hypothesis describes in
investigation. A hypothesis describes in
concrete terms, in the form of a
concrete terms, in the form of a
statement, what you expect will happen
statement, what you expect will happen
inin your
your study.
study.
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
4848
following aspects should be kept in mind when following aspects should be kept in mind when
following aspects should be kept in mind when
following aspects should be kept in mind when
formulating
formulating aa hypothesis
hypothesis::
Hypotheses can only be formulated after the researcher has gained
Hypotheses can only be formulated after the researcher has gained
enough knowledge regarding the nature, extent and intensity of the
enough knowledge regarding the nature, extent and intensity of the
problem. problem.
Hypotheses should figure throughout the research process in order
Hypotheses should figure throughout the research process in order
to give structure to the research.
to give structure to the research.
Hypotheses are tentative statements/solutions or explanations of the
Hypotheses are tentative statements/solutions or explanations of the
formulated problem. Care should be taken not to over-simplify and
formulated problem. Care should be taken not to over-simplify and
generalize generalize the the formulation formulation ofof hypotheses. hypotheses.
The
The research
research problem does not have to consist of one hypothesis
problem does not have to consist of one
hypothesis
only. The type of problem area investigated, the extent which
only. The type of problem area investigated, the extent which
encircles the research field are the determinating factors on how
encircles the research field are the determinating factors on how
many hypotheses will be included in the research proposal.
many hypotheses will be included in the research proposal.
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
4949
Criteria for the formulation of a hypothesis Criteria for the formulation of a hypothesis following criteria
Criteria for the formulation of a hypothesis
Criteria for the formulation of a hypothesis
following criteria are of importance in formulating
following criteria are of importance in formulating
hypotheses. A
hypotheses. A hypothesis
hypothesis should:
should:
stand
stand aa test;
test;
be expressed in clear language;
be expressed in clear language;
be in accordance with the general theme of other
be in accordance with the general theme of other
hypotheses statements in the same field of study, and
hypotheses statements in the same field of study, and
should should bebe regarded regarded asas valid; valid;
be. coordinated with the theory of science;
be. coordinated with the theory of science;
be a tentative answer to the formulated problem;
be a tentative answer to the formulated problem;
 bebe logical
logical and
and simplistic;
simplistic;
consider available research techniques (to be able to
consider available research techniques (to be able to
analyze and interpret the results);
analyze and interpret the results);
 bebe specific;
specific; and
and
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
5050
 Be relevant to the collection of empirical Be relevant to the collection of empirical phenomenon
Be relevant to the collection of empirical
Be relevant to the collection of empirical
phenomenon and not merely conclude value
phenomenon and not merely conclude value
judgments
judgments
In case of exploratory research generally
In case of exploratory research generally
there there exist exist nono hypothesis hypothesis
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
5151
Steps Steps inin Formulating Formulating aa Hypothesis Hypothesis Business Business Rreserach- Rreserach- Nature Nature && Scope
Steps
Steps inin
Formulating
Formulating
aa Hypothesis
Hypothesis
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
5252
∑ 1.Decide what you want to explain: choose a 1.Decide what you want to explain: choose
1.Decide what you want to explain: choose a
1.Decide what you want to explain: choose a
dependent dependent variable variable
2.
2.
Choose independent variables that also show
Choose independent variables that also show
variation
variation
3.
3.
Think of multiple causes of the dependent
Think of multiple causes of the dependent
variable
variable
4.
4.
Consider alternative measures of both the
Consider alternative measures of both the
dependent and independent variables..
dependent and independent variables
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
5353
VARIABLES VARIABLES AND AND ATTRIBUTES ATTRIBUTES  Variable Variable –– any entity that can take on
VARIABLES
VARIABLES AND
AND ATTRIBUTES
ATTRIBUTES
 Variable Variable ––
any entity that can take on different values. Anything that
any entity that can take on different values. Anything that
can be assigned a value.
can be assigned a value.
Age can change. Nationality can differ.
Age can change. Nationality can differ.
Variables are not always ‘quantitative’ or numerical.
Variables are not always ‘quantitative’ or numerical.
Attribute
Attribute ––
aa specific
specific value
value onon aa variable
variable
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
5454
The The variable variable sex sex or or gender gender has has two two attributes: attributes:
The
The variable
variable sex
sex or
or gender
gender has
has two
two attributes:
attributes: male
male
and
and female
female..
Or, Or,
The
The variable
variable agreement
agreement might be defined as having
might be defined as having
five
five attributes:
attributes:
 1=strongly 1=strongly agree agree
 2=disagree 2=disagree
 3=neutral 3=neutral
 4=agree 4=agree
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
5555
5=strongly
5=strongly agree
agree
TYPES TYPES of of VARIABLES VARIABLES  Independent Independent Variable Variable  Dependent Variable Dependent Variable
TYPES
TYPES of
of VARIABLES
VARIABLES
 Independent Independent Variable Variable
Dependent Variable
Dependent Variable
Example Example
Research question – “How could extended use of the Internet
Research question – “How could extended use of the Internet
negatively affect college students’ academic performance?”
negatively affect college students’ academic performance?”
Extended use of the Internet negatively affects most college
Extended use of the Internet negatively affects most college
students’
students’ academic
academic performance
performance
Independent variable = internet use
Independent variable = internet use
attributes: high, moderate, low, none
attributes: high, moderate, low, none
Dependent
Dependent variable
variable == Performance
Performance
Attributes:
Attributes: Good,
Good, average,
average, Bad
Bad
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
5656
Variable Variable Traits Traits  A. A. Exhaustive Exhaustive  B. B. Mutually Mutually exclusive exclusive
Variable
Variable Traits
Traits
 A.
A. Exhaustive
Exhaustive
 B. B. Mutually
Mutually exclusive
exclusive
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
5757
Different Different forms forms ofof Hypothesis Hypothesis  A. A. Non Directional Hypothesis Non Directional Hypothesis
Different
Different forms
forms ofof Hypothesis
Hypothesis
 A.
A. Non Directional Hypothesis
Non Directional Hypothesis
All examples of associated difference, sometimes called
All examples of associated difference, sometimes called
non
non directional
directional hypotheses
hypotheses
 B.
B. Directional
Directional Hypothesis
Hypothesis
1.
1. With
With magnitude
magnitude
2.
2. Without
Without magnitude
magnitude
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
5858
TYPES TYPES OFOF HYPOTHESIS HYPOTHESIS The prediction is that variables A and B are The prediction
TYPES
TYPES OFOF HYPOTHESIS
HYPOTHESIS
The prediction is that variables A and B are
The prediction is that variables A and B are
related.
related.
The only other possible outcome is that variables A
The only other possible outcome is that variables A
and
and BB are
are not
not rela
related
ted
 A. A.NULL NULL HYPOTHESIS HYPOTHESIS
 B. B. ALTERNATIVE ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS HYPOTHESIS
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
5959
The The Null Null Hypothesis Hypothesis  InIn statistics statistics,, aa null null hypothesis hypothesis set
The
The Null
Null Hypothesis
Hypothesis
 InIn statistics
statistics,, aa null
null hypothesis
hypothesis set up to be nullified
set up to be nullified
oror refuted
refuted
which states that "there is no phenomenon". It is a
which states that "there is no phenomenon". It is a
hypothesis
hypothesis that is presumed true until statistical
that is presumed true until statistical
evidence
evidence inin the
the form
form ofof aa hypothesis
hypothesis test indicates
test indicates
otherwise otherwise
HH0:μ1 = μ2
0:μ1 = μ2
where: where:
HH00 == the
the null
null hypothesis
hypothesis
μ1μ1 == the
the mean
mean ofof population
population 1,
1, and
and
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
6060
μ2μ2 == the
the mean
mean ofof population
population 2.
2.
The The Alternative Alternative Hypothesis Hypothesis The alternative The alternative hypothesis hypothesis is simply the question
The
The Alternative
Alternative Hypothesis
Hypothesis
The alternative
The alternative hypothesis
hypothesis is simply the question
is simply the question
you are asking
you are asking
Denoted
Denoted byby HAHA or
or H1
H1
Just
Just opposite
opposite toto Null
Null Hypothesis
Hypothesis
H1:
H1: μ1μ1 == μ2μ2
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
6161
TWO TAILED V/s ONE TAILED TEST TWO TAILED V/s ONE TAILED TEST EXAMPLE EXAMPLE you are
TWO TAILED V/s ONE TAILED TEST
TWO TAILED V/s ONE TAILED TEST
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE
you are investigating the effects of a new employee training
you are investigating the effects of a new employee training
program and that you believe one of the outcomes will be that
program and that you believe one of the outcomes will be that
there
there will
will bebe less
less employee absenteeism. Your two hypotheses
employee absenteeism. Your two hypotheses
might be stated something like this:
might be stated something like this:
 The The null null hypothesis hypothesis for for this this study study is: is:
HO:
HO: As a result of the XYZ company employee training
As a result of the XYZ company employee training
program, there will either be no significant difference in
program, there will either be no significant difference in
employee absenteeism or there will be a significant
employee absenteeism or there will be a significant increase
increase..
 which which isis tested tested against against the the alternative alternative hypothesis hypothesis::
HAHA:: As
As aa result
result ofof the
the XYZ
XYZ company
company employee
employee training
training
program, there will be a significant decrease
program, there will be a significant
decrease inin employee
employee
absenteeism. absenteeism.
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
6262
 ONE TAILED TEST ONE TAILED TEST Business Business Rreserach- Rreserach- Nature Nature && Scope Scope
ONE TAILED TEST
ONE TAILED TEST
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
6363
 TWO TWO TAILED TAILED TEST TEST Business Business Rreserach- Rreserach- Nature Nature && Scope Scope
 TWO
TWO TAILED
TAILED TEST
TEST
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
6464
Assignment Assignment 11 BUSINESS BUSINESS ass-1.doc ass-1.docRESEARCH RESEARCH EXERCISE EXERCISE Business Business Rreserach- Rreserach- Nature Nature
Assignment
Assignment 11
BUSINESS
BUSINESS ass-1.doc
ass-1.docRESEARCH
RESEARCH
EXERCISE
EXERCISE
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
6565
Business Business Rreserach- Rreserach- Nature Nature && Scope Scope Prof. Prof. Parul Parul Gupta Gupta 6666
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
6666
UNIT UNIT 11 SESSION 7 & 8 SESSION 7 & 8 How To Write a Research
UNIT
UNIT 11
SESSION 7 & 8
SESSION 7 & 8
How To Write a Research Proposal
How To Write a Research Proposal
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
6767
 The goal of a research The goal of a research proposal proposal (RP) (RP) isis
The goal of a research
The goal of a
research proposal
proposal (RP)
(RP) isis toto
present and justify a
present and justify a research
research idea
idea you
you have
have
and to present the practical ways in which you
and to present the practical ways in which you
think
think this
this research
research should be conducted.
should be conducted.
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
6868
Having decided on the Having decided on the research research topic and defined a clear topic
Having decided on the
Having decided on the research
research topic and defined a clear
topic and defined a clear
research
research question or set of questions, together with appropriate
question or set of questions, together with appropriate
methods of seeking answers, you now need to convey your plan
methods of seeking answers, you now need to convey your plan
ofof research research clearly clearly inin aa research research proposal proposal..
Research
Research proposals serve a number of purposes. Among them:
proposals serve a number of purposes. Among them:
They convince others that your research is worth undertaking.
They convince others that your research is worth undertaking.
They enable you to demonstrate expertise and competency in
They enable you to demonstrate expertise and competency in
your
your particular
particular area
area ofof study.
study.
They may serve as a contract between the researcher and her
They may serve as a contract between the researcher and her
funders.
funders.
They serve as a planning tool for the researcher
They serve as a planning tool for the researcher
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
6969
 Regardless Regardless of of your your research research area area and and the the methodology
 Regardless
Regardless of
of your
your research
research area
area and
and the
the
methodology you choose, all
methodology you choose, all research
research
proposals must address the following
proposals must address the following
questions: questions:
 What
What you
you plan
plan toto accomplish,
accomplish,
why you want to do it and
why you want to do it and
how you are going to do it.
how you are going to do it.
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
7070
Title: Title:  It should be concise and descriptive It should be concise and descriptive 
Title:
Title:
It should be concise and descriptive
It should be concise and descriptive
Often titles are stated in terms of a functional
Often titles are stated in terms of a functional
relationship, because such titles clearly indicate the
relationship, because such titles clearly indicate the
independent and dependent variables.
independent and dependent variables.
However, if possible, think of an informative but
However, if possible, think of an informative but
catchy title. An effective title not only pricks the
catchy title. An effective title not only pricks the
reader's interest, but also predisposes him/her
reader's interest, but also predisposes him/her
favorably favorably towards towards the the proposal proposal..
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
7171
 Abstract: Abstract:  It is a brief summary of approximately 300 It is a brief
 Abstract:
Abstract:
It is a brief summary of approximately 300
It is a brief summary of approximately 300
words. It should include the
words. It should include the research
research
question, the rationale for the study, the
question, the rationale for the study, the
hypothesis (if any), the method and the main
hypothesis (if any), the method and the main
findings. findings.
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
7272
Introduction: Introduction:  The main purpose of the introduction is to provide the necessary background The
Introduction:
Introduction:
The main purpose of the introduction is to provide the necessary background
The main purpose of the introduction is to provide the necessary background
or context for your
or context for your research
research problem
problem
try to place your
try to place your research
research question in the context of either a current "hot"
question in the context of either a current "hot"
area, or an older area that remains viable.
area, or an older area that remains viable.
Secondly, you need to provide a brief but appropriate historical backdrop.
Secondly, you need to provide a brief but appropriate historical backdrop.
Thirdly, provide the contemporary context in which your proposed
Thirdly, provide the contemporary context in which your proposed research
research
question
question occupies
occupies the
the central
central stage.
stage.
Finally, identify "key players" and refer to the most relevant and
Finally, identify "key players" and refer to the most relevant and
representative
representative publications.
publications.
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
7373
The introduction generally covers the following elements: The introduction generally covers the following elements:  State
The introduction generally covers the following elements:
The introduction generally covers the following elements:
State the
State the research
research problem, which is often referred to as the
problem, which is often referred to as the
purpose of the study.
purpose of the study.
Provide the context and set the stage for your
Provide the context and set the stage for your research
research
question
question inin such a way as to show its necessity and
such a way as to show its necessity and
importance. importance.
Present the rationale of your proposed study and clearly
Present the rationale of your proposed study and clearly
indicate indicate why why itit isis worth worth doing doing..
Briefly
Briefly describe
describe the
the major issues and sub-problems
major issues and sub-problems toto bebe
addressed
addressed byby your
your research
research..
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
7474
 Identify the key independent and dependent variables Identify the key independent and dependent variables ofof
Identify the key independent and dependent variables
Identify the key independent and dependent variables ofof your
your experiment.
experiment.
Alternatively, specify the phenomenon you want to study.
Alternatively, specify the phenomenon you want to study.
State
State your
your hypothesis
hypothesis oror theory
theory, if any. For exploratory or
, if any. For exploratory or
phenomenological
phenomenological research
research, you may not have any hypotheses. (Please do
, you may not have any hypotheses. (Please do
not confuse the hypothesis with the statistical null hypothesis.)
not confuse the hypothesis with the statistical null hypothesis.)
Set
Set the
the delimitation
delimitation oror boundaries
boundaries ofof your
your proposed
proposed research
research inin order
order toto
provide
provide aa clear
clear focus.
focus.
Provide
Provide definitions
definitions ofof key
key concepts.
concepts. (This is optional.)
(This is optional.)
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
7575
Literature Literature Review Review  Ensures that you are not "reinventing the wheel". Ensures that you
Literature
Literature Review
Review
Ensures that you are not "reinventing the wheel".
Ensures that you are not "reinventing the wheel".
Gives credits to those who have laid the groundwork for your
Gives credits to those who have laid the groundwork for your research
research..
Demonstrates
Demonstrates your
your knowledge
knowledge of
of the
the research
research problem.
problem.
Demonstrates your understanding of the theoretical and
Demonstrates your understanding of the theoretical and research
research issues
issues
related to your
related to your research
research question.
question.
Shows
Shows your ability to critically evaluate relevant literature information.
your ability to critically evaluate relevant literature information.
Indicates your ability to integrate and synthesize the existing literature.
Indicates your ability to integrate and synthesize the existing literature.
Provides new theoretical insights or develops a new model as the
Provides new theoretical insights or develops a new model as the
conceptual
conceptual framework
framework for
for your
your research
research..
Convinces your reader that your proposed research
Convinces your reader that your proposed
research will
will make
make aa
significant and substantial contribution to the literature (i.e., resolving an
significant and substantial contribution to the literature (i.e., resolving an
important theoretical issue or filling a major gap in the literature).
important theoretical issue or filling a major gap in the literature).
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
7676
literature reviews suffer from the following problems:: literature reviews suffer from the following problems  Lacking
literature reviews suffer from the following problems::
literature reviews suffer from the following problems
Lacking organization and structure
Lacking organization and structure
Lacking focus, unity and coherence
Lacking focus, unity and coherence
Being repetitive and verbose
Being repetitive and verbose
 Failing Failing toto cite cite influential influential papers papers
Failing to keep up with recent developments
Failing to keep up with recent developments
Failing to critically evaluate cited papers
Failing to critically evaluate cited papers
Citing irrelevant or trivial references
Citing irrelevant or trivial references
Depending too much on secondary sources
Depending too much on secondary sources
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
7777
Methods Methods (Methodology): (Methodology):  The Method section is very important because it tells your The
Methods
Methods (Methodology):
(Methodology):
The Method section is very important because it tells your
The Method section is very important because it tells your
Research
Research Committee how you plan to tackle your
Committee how you plan to tackle your
research
research problem
problem
In short, what actions are you going to take in order to
In short, what actions are you going to take in order to
answer
answer the
the question? When will you know whether the
question? When will you know whether the
hypothesis has been proven wrong, or has survived
hypothesis has been proven wrong, or has survived
enough tests to be considered, for now, valid? Those tests
enough tests to be considered, for now, valid? Those tests
and the way you are supposed to handle them to give
and the way you are supposed to handle them to give
rigor rigor toto your your research research isis what what isis understood understood under under
methods. methods.
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
7878
Methods divide in qualitative (interviews, questionnaires) and quantitative (statistics, Methods divide in qualitative (interviews, questionnaires) and
Methods divide in qualitative (interviews, questionnaires) and quantitative (statistics,
Methods divide in qualitative (interviews, questionnaires) and quantitative (statistics,
stuff that deals intensively with numbers)
stuff that deals intensively with numbers)
For For quantitative quantitative studies, studies
, the method section typically consists of the following
the method section typically consists of the following
sections: sections:
Design
Design -Is it a questionnaire study or a laboratory experiment? What kind of
-Is it a questionnaire study or a laboratory experiment? What kind of
design do you choose?
design do you choose?
Subjects
Subjects oror participants
participants - Who will take part in your study ? What kind of
- Who will take part in your study ? What kind of
sampling
sampling procedure
procedure dodo you
you use?
use?
Instruments
Instruments -- What kind of measuring instruments or questionnaires do you use?
What kind of measuring instruments or questionnaires do you use?
Why do you choose them? Are they valid and reliable?
Why do you choose them? Are they valid and reliable?
Procedure
Procedure -- How
How dodo you plan to carry out your study? What activities are
you plan to carry out your study? What activities are
involved?
involved? How
How long
long does
does itit take?
take?
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
7979
 Results: Results:  Discussion: Discussion: you also need to mention the you also need to
 Results:
Results:
 Discussion:
Discussion: you also need to mention the
you also need to mention the
limitations and weaknesses of the proposed
limitations and weaknesses of the proposed
research
research, which may be justified by time and
, which may be justified by time and
financial constraints as well as by the early
financial constraints as well as by the early
developmental stage of your
developmental stage of your research
research area.
area.
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
8080
Common Mistakes in Proposal Writing Common Mistakes in Proposal Writing  Failure to provide the proper
Common Mistakes in Proposal Writing
Common Mistakes in Proposal Writing
Failure to provide the proper context to frame the
Failure to provide the proper context to frame the research
research question.
question.
Failure to delimit the boundary conditions for your
Failure to delimit the boundary conditions for your research
research..
Failure to cite landmark studies.
Failure to cite landmark studies.
Failure to accurately present the theoretical and empirical contributions by other
Failure to accurately present the theoretical and empirical contributions by other
researchers. researchers.
Failure
Failure toto stay
stay focused
focused onon the
the research
research question.
question.
Failure to develop a coherent and persuasive argument for the proposed
Failure to develop a coherent and persuasive argument for the proposed research
research..
Too much detail on minor issues, but not enough detail on major issues.
Too much detail on minor issues, but not enough detail on major issues.
Too much rambling -- going "all over the map" without a clear sense of direction.
Too much rambling -- going "all over the map" without a clear sense of direction.
(The best proposals move forward with ease and grace like a seamless river.)
(The best proposals move forward with ease and grace like a seamless river.)
Too many citation lapses and incorrect references
Too many citation lapses and incorrect references
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
8181
SYNOPSIS SYNOPSIS  1. 1. Statement of Problem Statement of Problem  A. A. Introduction to
SYNOPSIS
SYNOPSIS
1.
1. Statement of Problem
Statement of Problem
A.
A.
Introduction to subject
Introduction to subject
B.
B.
Specific problem formulation
Specific problem formulation
2.
2.
Objective of study
Objective of study
3.
3.
Scope of study
Scope of study
4.
4.
Research methodology
Research methodology
a.
a. Hypothesis
Hypothesis Formulation
Formulation
C.
C. Data
Data collection
collection
 D.
D. Analysis
Analysis and
and presentation
presentation of
of data
data
E.
E. Limitation
Limitation of
of study
study
5.
5. Presentation
Presentation ofof Study
Study
6.
6. Bibliography
Bibliography
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
8282
 SUBMISSION OF ASSIGNMENT 1 SUBMISSION OF ASSIGNMENT 1  CLASS CLASS ROOM ROOM PRESENTATIONS PRESENTATIONS
SUBMISSION OF ASSIGNMENT 1
SUBMISSION OF ASSIGNMENT 1
 CLASS CLASS ROOM ROOM PRESENTATIONS PRESENTATIONS
 DISCUSSION DISCUSSION
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
8383
Business Business Rreserach- Rreserach- Nature Nature && Scope Scope Prof. Prof. Parul Parul Gupta Gupta 8484
Business
Business Rreserach-
Rreserach- Nature
Nature && Scope
Scope
Prof.
Prof. Parul
Parul Gupta
Gupta
8484