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Educ-4265-YA

Curriculum and Instruction in I/S Physics

Unit Plan The Characteristics of Electricity


Science, Grade 9, Academic

Jacques Pierre
Monday, November 3, 2014

Introduction
This is a unit plan for Science, Grade 9, Academic, SNC1D, the Physics module
entitled The Characteristics of Electricity. The following information was

extracted from The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, Science, 2008,

revised.

This course enables students to develop their understanding of basic concepts


in biology, chemistry, earth and space science, and physics, and to relate

science to technology, society, and the environment. Throughout the course,


students will develop their skills in the processes of scientific investigation.
Students will acquire an understanding of scientific theories and conduct
investigations related to sustainable ecosystems; atomic and molecular

structures and the properties of elements and compounds; the study of the

universe and its properties and components; and the principles of electricity.

Big Ideas
Physics

Electricity is a form of energy produced from a variety of non-renewable and


renewable sources.

The production and consumption of electrical energy has social, economic,


and environmental implications.

Static and current electricity have distinct properties that determine how they
are used.

Fundamental Concepts Covered in This Unit


FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
Energy

Energy comes in many forms, and can change forms. It is required


to make things happen (to do work). Work is done when a force
causes movement.

Systems and
Interactions

A system is a collection of living and/or non-living things and


processes that interact to perform some function. A system includes
inputs, outputs, and relationships among system components. Natural
and human systems develop in response to, and are limited by, a
variety of environmental factors.

Structure
and Function

This concept focuses on the interrelationship between the function or


use of a natural or human-made object and the form that the object takes.

Grade 9, Academic

E. PHYSICS: THE CHARACTERISTICS


OF ELECTRICITY
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
E1. assess some of the costs and benefits associated with the production of electrical energy from
renewable and non-renewable sources, and analyse how electrical efficiencies and savings can
be achieved, through both the design of technological devices and practices in the home;
E2. investigate, through inquiry, various aspects of electricity, including the properties of static and
current electricity, and the quantitative relationships between potential difference, current, and
resistance in electrical circuits;
E3. demonstrate an understanding of the principles of static and current electricity.

SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
El. Relating Science to Technology,
Society, and the Environment
By the end of this course, students will:
E1.1 analyse the design of a technological device
that improves its electrical efficiency or
protects other devices by using or controlling
static elec- tricity (e.g., paint sprayers,
photocopiers, lightning rods, grounding wires)
[AI, C]

THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10 I


Science

Sample questions: How does eliminating static


electricity help or hinder the performance of a
device? How have static electricity controls
helped in developing new technologies?

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E1.2 assess some of the social, economic, and environmental implications of the production of
electrical energy in Canada from renewable and
non-renewable sources (e.g., wind, solar, hydro,
coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear) [AI, C]
Sample issue: The operation of wind farms
along Lake Huron produces electricity from a
renewable source, reducing dependence on
non-renewable sources of electricity. However,
the wind farms produce noise and visual pollution, affect local animal life, and reduce the
amount of land available for agriculture.
Sample questions: What is the price difference between electricity produced from solar power and
by coal-burning plants? What effects do coal

mining, oil production, wind farms, and hydroelectric dams have on surrounding ecosystems?
What types of hazardous substances are used or
created in the production of solar power and
nuclear power? What types of emissions are produced by coal-burning and hydroelectric power
plants? What are the effects of these emissions on
human health and the environment?
E1.3 produce a plan of action to reduce electrical
energy consumption at home (e.g., using
EnerGuide information when purchasing appliances), and outline the roles and responsibilities
of various groups (e.g., government, business,
family members) in this endeavour [IP, AI, C]
Sample issue: Replacing incandescent light bulbs
with compact fluorescent bulbs can reduce the
energy needed to light a home by 75%. Although
the bulbs are more expensive than incandescent
bulbs, electrical companies sometimes provide
coupons to reduce the price. Also, the Ontario
government is phasing out incandescent bulbs,
which will further reduce energy consumption.
Sample questions: What are EnerGuide and
ENERGY STAR, and how can they be used
when purchasing appliances or electronics?
What is the difference in energy consumption
between a conventional and a front-loading
washing machine? What appliances consume
electrical energy even when they are not in use?

E2. Developing Skills of Investigation


and Communication
By the end of this course, students will:
E2.1 use appropriate terminology related to electricity, including, but not limited to: ammeter,
amperes, battery, current, fuse, kilowatt hours, load,
ohms, potential difference, resistance, switch, voltmeter, and volts [C]

E2.3 predict the ability of different materials to


hold or transfer electric charges (i.e., to act as
insulators or conductors), and test their predictions through inquiry [IP, PR]
E2.4 plan and carry out inquiries to determine and
compare the conductivity of various materials
(e.g., metals, plastics, glass, water) [IP, PR, AI, C]
E2.5 design, draw circuit diagrams of, and construct series and parallel circuits (e.g., a circuit
where all light bulbs go out when one light
bulb is removed; a circuit that allows one of
several light bulbs to be switched on and off independently of the others), and measure electric
current I, potential difference V, and resistance R
at various points in the circuits, using appropriate instruments and SI units [IP, PR, AI, C]
E2.6 analyse and interpret the effects of adding
an identical load in series and in parallel in a
simple circuit [AI, C]
E2.7 investigate the quantitative relationships between current, potential difference, and resistance
in a simple series circuit [PR, AI]

E2.9 determine the energy consumption of various appliances, and calculate their operating
costs (e.g., using the kilowatt hour rate from a
utility bill) [AI, C]
E2.10 calculate the effciency of an energy
converter, using the following equation:
percent effciency = (Eout /Ein) x 100% [AI, C]

E3.1 identify electrical quantities (i.e., current, potential difference, resistance, and electrical
energy), and list their symbols and their corresponding SI units (e.g., electric current: I, ampere)
E3.2 explain the characteristics of conductors and
insulators and how materials allow static charge
to build up or be discharged
E3.3 compare and contrast static electricity with
alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC)
(e.g., the charge on a charged electroscope, the
charge in a functioning circuit)
E3.4 identify the components of a simple DC circuit
(e.g., electrical source, load, connecting wires,
switch, fuse), and explain their functions
E3.5 explain the characteristics of electric current,
potential difference, and resistance in simple series and parallel circuits, noting how the quantities
differ in the two circuits
E3.6 describe, qualitatively, the interrelationships
between resistance, potential difference, and
electric current (e.g., the effect on current when
potential difference is changed and resistance
is constant)

SNC1D

E3.7 explain what different meters (e.g., ammeters,


voltmeters, multimeters) measure and how they
are connected within an electrical circuit to
measure electrical quantities
E3.8 explain how various factors (e.g., wire length,
wire material, cross-sectional area of wire) influence the resistance of an electrical circuit

PHYSICS: THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRICITY

E2.8 solve simple problems involving potential


difference V, electric current I, and resistance R,
using the quantitative relationship V = IR [AI, C]

By the end of this course, students will:

Science

E2.2 conduct investigations into the transfer of


static electric charges by friction, contact, and
induction, and produce labelled diagrams to
explain the results [PR, AI, C]

E3. Understanding Basic Concepts

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Unit Overview
Have you ever experienced a power outage? Thats what happens when

electricity stops flowing in the power lines to your community or home. Can you
imagine your world without any electricity? Just think about how many different
electrical devices you use in an average day! How would you cope if they

werent available? At the flick of a switch, electricity instantly lights a lamp,


turns on a CD player, or heats your food. Have you ever wondered how
electricity can do so many things?

This unit, The Characteristics of Electricity, is made up of three sections as


follows:

Section 1: The Basics of Electricity


Lesson 1: Electric Charges
Lesson 2: Electricity Within a Circuit
Lesson 3: Resisting the Movement of Charge
Lesson 4: Review of Section 1 and Quiz
Section 2: Energy Conversions
Lesson 5: The Energy Connection
Lesson 6: Portable Power
Section 3: Electricity Production, Distribution, and Use
Lesson 7: Generators and Motors
Lesson 8: Electricity in the Home
Lesson 9: Electricity Production and the Environment
Lesson 10: Culminating Activity: Unit Exam
This unit has mini labs inserted throughout the lessons and we will need the
following materials and apparatus:
Section 1

Section 2

Section 3

a 3.7 V bulb
a knife switch
two, 2.5 V bulbs
two battery (cell) holders
two bulb sockets
two fresh D-cells
three, 3.7 V bulbs and three
bulb holders
eight, 15 cm wires with
stripped ends
12 alligator clips
a multimeter
paper towels
tape

two, 3.7 V bulbs and holders


two, 15 cm wires with
stripped ends
three battery (cell) holders
three fresh D-cells
heavy-duty aluminum foil
a multimeter
paper towels
a saturated salt solution
scissors
a steel wool pad
tape
various coins (pennies,
nickels, dimes, and so on)

one disposable cup


a fresh D-cell
a rectangular or round
ceramic magnet (about 1 cm
by 3 cm)
a wide rubber band
two large paper clips
a 5 m insulated 26 gauge
copper wire
60 cm of enamel coated
magnet wire
a broom handle
a bar magnet
a cardboard tube
fine sandpaper or steel wool
a multimeter
tape

Section 1: The Basics of Electricity


Theres nothing like spending time listening to your favourite music.
The current powering your CD player consists of a moving electric charge. But a
moving electric charge can also be a bolt of lightning that knocks down a tree.
One moving charge does what you want; the other is a violent, destructive

phenomenon. What scientific principles tie these two phenomena together?

What technologies have been developed to tame the awesome power of electric
energy?

Both phenomena involve moving an electric charge. In a CD player the electric


charge moves along paths that make up a circuit. The electric charge in a

lightning strike hardly follows a defined pathit takes a zigzag route through

the air from one place to another location. Viewing the role of a moving electric

charge in both a CD player and a lightning strike will show the close connection
between these phenomena.

In this section you will study electricity as a movement of electric charge and
you will discover how and why an electric charge moves. You will see how a

moving electric charge can be harnessed in electric circuits. You will also find
that resistance to an electric current is both a hindrance and a help.
Lesson 1 - Electric Charges
Overall Expectations: E3, E2
Specific Expectations: E3.2, E2.2
This is a teacher led lesson about electric charges, static electricity, unbalanced
charges, the law of charges, insulators, conductors, semiconductors,

superconductors, discharge, and grounding. The students learn about the

potential danger of static electricity of a gasoline truck and how to make it safe

for the truck driver or the person who would be involved in filling and emptying
it. The students perform investigation on charging objects and finding out

whether they attract, repel, or do nothing. They receive handouts from the

teacher about the course material and the experiment that they perform. They
must follow safety directions provided with the experiment information. The
teacher walks through the classroom when the students perform the

experiment so he can help them and assess their learning of the material.
Lesson 2 Electricity Within a Circuit
Overall Expectations: E2, E3
Specific Expectations: E2.1, E2.7, E2.8, E3.1, E3.3, E3.4, E3.5, E3.6, E3.7
This is a teacher led lesson about electricity within an electrical circuit. The

students learn about circuit, battery, switch, resistor, load, ammeter, voltmeter,
amperes (A), milliamperes (mA), voltmeter, voltage, potential difference, and
Volts (V). They assemble a very simple circuit to light up a bulb with 2 D

batteries. They use a voltmeter and an ammeter to measure the voltage and

current in very simple circuits. They receive handouts from the teacher about
the course material and the experiment that they perform. They must follow

safety directions provided with the experiment information. Again, the teacher

walks through the classroom as the students are performing their experiments
so that he may assist them and assess their learning.
Lesson 3 Resisting the Movement of Charge
Overall Expectations: E2, E3
Specific Expectations: E2.1, E2.5, E2.6, E2.7, E2.8, E3.1, E3.4, E3.5, E3.6
This is a teacher led lesson about ohmmeter, ohm (), resistors, variable

resistors, and Ohms law. There are many embedded experiments in this lesson
that will lead the students to think critically and inquire about Ohms law. They
are also introduced to parallel and series electrical circuits and investigate

about their respective properties. They receive handouts from the teacher about
the course material and the experiments that they perform. They must follow

safety directions provided with the experiment information. The teacher walks

through the classroom as the students are performing their experiments so that
he may assist them and assess their learning.
Lesson 4 Review of Section 1 and Quiz
This is a teacher led review of the materials covered in Section 1 followed by a
period of group exercises followed by a 15 minute quiz. The teacher walks

through the classroom as the students are working on exercises so that he may
assist them and assess their learning. The quiz is an assessment of learning for
Section 1.

Section 2: Energy Conversions


Imagine you have a basketball practice to go to. Your dad says he will drive you

to the gym. When your dad turns the key to start the car, no lights come on and
the engine barely turns.

The battery is dead, your dad moans. He looks up to see a dim glow coming
from the interior light. Who left the inside light on?

A car battery provides the electricity needed to turn the start motorthat is, if
the battery is charged. There are many small electrical power sources that you

rely on. Think of an MP3 player, a smart phone, a flashlight, and so on. All use
power sources that transform stored energy into electrical energy.

In this section you will focus on transformations between electricity and other
forms of energythermal, mechanical, light, and chemical energy. You will

investigate cells and batteries as technological devices that provide electrical


energy through energy transformation.
Lesson 5 - The Energy Connection
Overall Expectation: E1
Specific Expectation: E1.2
This is a teacher led lesson about energy conversion. The students learn how
electricity can be converted into other forms of energy like heat, light, and
motion. They also learn how heat, motion and light can be converted to

electricity. They perform investigations or experiments during the lesson. They


receive handouts from the teacher about the course material and the

experiments that they perform. They must follow safety directions provided

with the experiment information. The teacher walks through the classroom as

the students are performing their experiments so that he may assist them and
assess their learning.

Lesson 6 Portable Power


Overall Expectation: E1
Specific Expectation: E1.2
This is a teacher led lesson about batteries. The students perform different

experiments during the lesson. It is very important that they follow strictly the
safety precautions that are contained in the experiments information. They
receive handouts from the teacher about the course material and the

experiments that they perform. The teacher walks through the classroom as the
students are performing their experiments so that he may assist them and
assess their learning.

Section 3: Electricity Production, Distribution, and Use


In your travels down the highway you may have spotted long power lines over
the landscape. The lines were supported at great heights by colossal towers.

Giants steps could have paced off the distances between the towers. The lines
seem to come from nowhere and go nowhere. Their solitude and silence
contradict their importance.

These lines are vital. They carry immense amounts of energy to satisfy the

needs of communities and industries that lie far beyond the horizon. And from

where do the lines carry power? From power plants. To satisfy modern societys
appetite for electrical energy, plants operate around the clock. These plants are
often far away from the residential and industrial regions they serve.

Large-scale production is needed to serve both residential and industrial

regions. This section is about the production of electricity and its use. You will
explore the relationship between magnetism and electricity that allows

generators to produce electricity. Also, you will explore the distribution of

electricity to both residential and industrial users. You will consider alternative
methods of electricity production and use. From these alternatives you will
identify the methods that are most environmentally friendly.
Lesson 7 Generators and Motors
Overall Expectation: E1
Specific Expectation: E1.2
This is a teacher led lesson about electric generator, electric motor, magnetism,
electricity, electro-magnetism, electromagnet, alternating current (AC), direct

current (DC), dynamo, commutator, rotor, stator. They learn about how to build

a generator. They perform a number of experiments during the lesson. It is very


important to follow all safety precautions. They receive handouts from the

teacher about the course material and the experiments that they perform. The
teacher walks through the classroom as the students are performing their
experiments so that he may assist them and assess their learning.

Lesson 8 - Electricity in the Home


Overall Expectations: E1, E2, E3
Specific Expectations: E1.3, E2.9, E3.8
This teacher led lesson is about transformer, step-up transformer, step-down

transformer, circuit breaker, fuse, branch circuit, neutral wire, hot wire, ground
wire, binary code, transistor, digital electronic technology, power, power

formula, power cost, power rating, electrical device and efficiency, home

electric safety, short circuit, electric safety outdoors. They learn about how

power is transported from the generating station to the home and how to use it
safely at home. They perform exercises and experiments during the lesson. All
safety precautions must be strictly followed. They receive handouts from the

teacher about the course material and the experiments that they perform. The
teacher walks through the classroom as the students are performing their
experiments so that he may assist them and assess their learning.
Lesson 9 - Electricity Production and the Environment
Overall Expectation: E1, E2
Specific Expectation: E1.3, E2.9, E2.10
This teacher led lesson deals with the production of electricity using fossil fuel
and the production of electricity using a renewable source of energy. The

students perform exercises during the lesson. They receive handouts from the
teacher about the course material and the exercises that they perform. The
teacher walks through the classroom as the students are performing their
exercises so that he may assist them and assess their learning.
Lesson 10 Culminating Activity: Unit Exam
The culminating activity is the Unit Exam. The marks for each question is on the
side of each question.