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Social Studies Africa

Brickyard Words Dictionary

By: Alexandria Henderson

Sahara Desert
**Definition: The Sahara is the largest subtropical hot desert and third
largest desert after Antarctica and the Arctic. At over 9,400,000 square
kilometers, it covers most of North Africa, making it almost as large as China
or the United States
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Sahel Desert
**Definition: The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of
transition in Africa between the SaharaDesertto the north and the
Sudanian Savanna to the south. Having a semi-arid climate, it stretches
across the southernmost extent of Northern Africa between the
Atlantic Ocean and the Red Sea
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**Definition: A grassy plain in tropical and subtropical regions, with few
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Tropical Rainforest
**Definition: An ecosystem type that occurs roughly within the latitudes
28 degrees north or south of the equator (in the equatorial zone between
the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn). This ecosystem experiences
high average temperatures and a significant amount of rainfall
On a Map

Congo River
**Definition: The Congo River is a river in Africa and the world's deepest
river with measured depths in excess of 220 m. It is the second largest
river in the world by discharge
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Niger River
**Definition: The Niger River is the principal river of western Africa,
extending about 4,180 km. Its drainage basin is 2,117,700 km in area. Its
source is in the Guinea Highlands in southeastern Guinea
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Nile River
**Definition: The Nile is a major north-flowing river in
northeastern Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the
world. It is 6,853 km long
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Lake Tanganyika
**Definition: Lake Tanganyika is an African Great Lake. It is
estimated to be the second largest freshwater lake in the world by
volume, and the second deepest, in both cases, after only Lake Baikal
in Siberia; it is also the world's longest freshwater lake
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Lake Victoria
**Definition: Lake Victoria is one of the African Great Lakes. The lake was
named after Queen Victoria by the explorer John Hanning Speke, who was
the first European to discover it
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Atlas Mountains
**Definition: The Atlas Mountains is a mountain range across the northwestern
stretch of Africa extending about 2,500 km through Algeria, Morocco and

On a Map

Kalahari Desert
** Definition: The Kalahari Desert is a large semi-arid sandy savannah in
southern Africa extending 900,000 square kilometres, covering much of
Botswana and parts of Namibia - previously South West Africa - and South

On a Map

Democratic Republic of the Congo

**Definition: The Democratic Republic of the Congo is a country located in
Central Africa

On a Map

Country Flag

**Definition: Egypt is an Afro-Asiatic transcontinental country spanning the
northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge
formed by the Sinai Peninsula
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**Definition: Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in
On a Map

**Definition: Nigeria, a country in Africa, officially the Federal Republic
of Nigeria, is a federal constitutional republic comprising 36 states and
its Federal Capital Territory, Abuja

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Country Flag

South Africa
**Definition: South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is a
country located in Southern Africa. It has 2,798 kilometers of coastline
that stretches along the South Atlantic and Indian oceans

On a Map

Country Flag

**Definition: Sudan, officially the Republic of the Sudan, is an Arab republic
in the Nile Valley of North Africa


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Water pollution and unequal distribution

of water impacts trade, irrigation,
industry, drinking
Landlocked countries get less water because they are
not near water. It impacts trade because it is not as
easy for landlocked countries to receive items
transported by ships. It impacts irrigation because
landlocked countries don`t have easy access to water so
it would be harder for them to irrigate crops and other
things. It impacts industry because it is harder for
landlocked countries to get water to use in their
factories. It impacts drinking because if there is water
pollution then they cannot receive as much water and it
might be unsafe to drink.

Poor soil and desertification in

Sub-Saharan Africa
In Sub-Saharan Africa desertification
occurs a lot and when it happens it makes
the soil very dry.

Desertification of Africa from Sahel to

the rainforest
Desertification occurs from the Sahel to the rain forest because
it is a semi-arid climate. When desertification occurs it makes the
soil really dry.

Ethnic Groups
**Definition: A community or population made up of people who share a
common cultural background or descent

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Religious Groups
**Definition: A set of individuals whose identity as such is distinctive in
terms of commonreligiouscreed, beliefs, doctrines, practices, or rituals
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Arab Ethnic Groups

**Definition: Arab spread very quickly and today is the
predominant ethnic group of some parts of Africa.
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Ashanti Ethnic Groups

**Definition: a nation andethnic group native to Ashanti land and the Kingdom of
Ashantiof south Ghana.Ashantiare the largest sub-grouping of the Akan people.
AshantispeakAshantia dialect of the Akan language.
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Bantu Ethnic Groups

**Definition: is used as a general label for the 300600ethnic groupsin
Africa who speakBantu languages. They inhabit a geographical area
stretching east and southward from Central Africa across the African
Great Lakes region down to Southern Africa.
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Swahili Ethnic Groups

**Definition: anethnicand culturalgroup in habiting theAfricanGreat
Lakes region. Members mainly reside on theSwahiliCoast, in an area
encompassing the Zanzibar archipelago, coastal Kenya, the Tanzania
seaboard, and northern Mozambique
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Republican system of government

in Kenya and South Africa
Kenya: apresidentialrepresentative democraticrepublic. The President is
both thehead of stateandhead of government, and of amulti-party
system.Executive poweris exercised by the government.Legislative poweris
vested in both the government and theNational Assemblyand the Senate.
TheJudiciaryis independent of the executive and the legislature.
South Africa: a constitutional democracy with three-tiersystem of
governmentand an independent judiciary, operating in a
parliamentarysystem. Legislative authority is held by the Parliament of
South Africa

Why South Sudan Became Independent

South Sudan was once part of theBritish Empire. It became part
of the Republic of Sudan when independence was achieved in 1956.
After the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan
Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. A
second Sudanese civil war soon developed and ended with the
Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005. Later that year, the
Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed. South
Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011
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Compare various factors, including gender,

affecting access to education in Kenya and
It is very hard to distribute resources to
fight Aids in Africa because the
government is very unorganized and they
have lack of knowledge about the disease
and its prevention.

Impact of government stability on

distributing resources to fight AIDS
In Kenya the literacy rate for males is 90.6%
and for females it is 84.2%. In Kenya there is
not that much of a difference in the two
literacy rates that means that education is
pretty equal for both genders. In Sudan the
literacy for males is 79.6% and for females it
is 60.8%. In Sudan there is a big difference
between the two literacy rates, obviously the
females in Sudan have less rights to education.

South Africas Economy

The country is politically stable and has a well
capitalized banking system, abundant natural resources,
well developed regulatory systems as well as research
and development capabilities, and an established
manufacturing base.

Nigerias Economy
The Nigerian economy is one of the most developed economies in Africa.
Nigeria is a middle-income nation with developed financial,
communication and transport sectors. It has the second largest stock
exchange in the continent. The petroleum industry is central to the
Nigerian economic profile. It is the 12thlargest producer of petroleum
products in the world.

How distribution of diamonds, gold,

uranium, and oil affects Africa's economic
African countries have to heavily depend on oil and natural gas to raise
their economy. People might not want to invest in Nigeria if they dont have
any resources. South Africa is abundant with natural resources. South
Africa has lots of diamonds and gold, which boosts their economic
development a lot. People will want to invest in South Africa, because of
their abundance in natural resources. This unequal distribution of resources
keeps some countries not as economically
developed, while others are very economically developed. If the resources
were equally distributed, then the whole of Africa would be developed and
not just some countries.

How European countries portioning

Africa has led to conflicts
European countries portioning in Africa led to many
conflicts because the countries didnt like other
countries having control over them so this lead to many
fights over the land.

How nationalism led to independence

in South Africa, Kenya, and Nigeria
Nationalism led to independence in South Arica, Kenya,
and Nigeria. The people of Africa had so much pride in
their countries they began to fight for what was
there's. They began boycotting British goods and
protesting and eventually over time they helped earn
independence for their countries.

Apartheid in South Africa

**Definition:a political and social system inSouth Africawhile it was under
white minority rule

Nelson Mandela
**Definition:a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician and
philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999


F. W. de Klerk
**Definition: A South African politician who served as the country's State
President from September 1989 to May 1994. He was the seventh and last
head of state of South Africa under the apartheid era

Pan-African Movement
**Definition: an ideology andmovementthat encourages the solidarity
ofAfricansworldwide. It is based on the belief that unity is vital to
economic, social, and political progress and aims to "unify and uplift" people

**Definition: a state in which supreme power is held by the people and their
elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president
rather than a monarch.
On a Map

Central African Republic Flag

Cute African Elephants